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# According to Newton's Law of Cooling heat transfer rate is related to the

##  in a heat transfer process the temperature difference vary with position

and time
Mean Temperature Difference
The mean temperature difference in a heat transfer process depends on the
direction of fluid flows involved in the process. The primary and secondary
fluid in an heat exchanger process may

##  flow in the same direction - parallel flow or co-current flow

 in the opposite direction - counter-current flow
 or perpendicular to each other - cross flow

With saturation steam as the primary fluid the primary temperature can be
taken as a constant since the heat is transferred as a result of a change of
phase only. The temperature profile in the primary fluid is not dependent on
the direction of flow.

## Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference - LMTD

The rise in secondary temperature is non-linear and can best be represented
by a logarithmic calculation. A logarithmic mean temperature difference is
termed

##  LMTD (or DTLM) - Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference

LMTD can be expressed as

where

## For parallel flow:

dti = tpi - tsi = inlet primary and secondary fluid temperature difference (oF, oC)

dto = tpo - tso = outlet primary and secondary fluid temperature difference
(oF, oC)

## For counter flow:

dti = tpi - tso = inlet primary and outlet secondary fluid temperature difference
(oF, oC)

dto = tpo - tsi = outlet primary and inlet secondary fluid temperature difference
(oF, oC)

## The Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference is always less than the

Arithmetic Mean Temperature Difference.

## Arithmetic Mean Temperature Difference - AMTD

An easier but less accurate way to calculate the mean temperature difference
is the

## AMTD (or DTAM) - Arithmetic Mean Temperature Difference

AMTD can be expressed as:

where

## tpo = primary outlet temperature (oF, oC)

tsi = secondary inlet temperature (oF, oC)

## A linear increase in the secondary fluid temperature makes it more easy to do

manual calculations. AMTD will in general give a satisfactory approximation for
the mean temperature difference when the smallest of the inlet or outlet
temperature differences is more than half the greatest of the inlet or outlet
temperature differences.

## When heat is transferred as a result of a change of phase like condensation or

evaporation the temperature of the primary or secondary fluid remains
constant. The equations can then be simplified by setting

tp1 = tp2

or

ts1 = ts2