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According to Newton's Law of Cooling heat transfer rate is related to the

instantaneous temperature difference between hot and cold media

 in a heat transfer process the temperature difference vary with position


and time
Mean Temperature Difference
The mean temperature difference in a heat transfer process depends on the
direction of fluid flows involved in the process. The primary and secondary
fluid in an heat exchanger process may

 flow in the same direction - parallel flow or co-current flow


 in the opposite direction - counter-current flow
 or perpendicular to each other - cross flow

With saturation steam as the primary fluid the primary temperature can be
taken as a constant since the heat is transferred as a result of a change of
phase only. The temperature profile in the primary fluid is not dependent on
the direction of flow.

Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference - LMTD


The rise in secondary temperature is non-linear and can best be represented
by a logarithmic calculation. A logarithmic mean temperature difference is
termed

 LMTD (or DTLM) - Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference


LMTD can be expressed as

LMTD = (dto - dti) / ln(dto / dti) (1)

where

LMTD = Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (oF, oC)

For parallel flow:

dti = tpi - tsi = inlet primary and secondary fluid temperature difference (oF, oC)

dto = tpo - tso = outlet primary and secondary fluid temperature difference
(oF, oC)

For counter flow:

dti = tpi - tso = inlet primary and outlet secondary fluid temperature difference
(oF, oC)

dto = tpo - tsi = outlet primary and inlet secondary fluid temperature difference
(oF, oC)

The Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference is always less than the


Arithmetic Mean Temperature Difference.

Arithmetic Mean Temperature Difference - AMTD


An easier but less accurate way to calculate the mean temperature difference
is the

AMTD (or DTAM) - Arithmetic Mean Temperature Difference


AMTD can be expressed as:

AMTD = (tpi + tpo) / 2 - (tsi + tso) / 2 (2)

where

AMTD = Arithmetic Mean Temperature Difference (oF, oC)

tpi = primary inlet temperature (oF, oC)

tpo = primary outlet temperature (oF, oC)


tsi = secondary inlet temperature (oF, oC)

tso = secondary outlet temperature (oF, oC)

A linear increase in the secondary fluid temperature makes it more easy to do


manual calculations. AMTD will in general give a satisfactory approximation for
the mean temperature difference when the smallest of the inlet or outlet
temperature differences is more than half the greatest of the inlet or outlet
temperature differences.

When heat is transferred as a result of a change of phase like condensation or


evaporation the temperature of the primary or secondary fluid remains
constant. The equations can then be simplified by setting

tp1 = tp2

or

ts1 = ts2