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Separation

(Condensate stabilization by

flushing lighter components to gas)

Gas Handling Facility

Sweetening Dehydration

Cooling

Processing Sales

Gas Product

High Pressure

Heating

Separation

Gas

Condensate

Wells Oil

Stabilization Water

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 5

Natural Gas Cycle

Gas Inert Gas Gas Compression

Separation/ Sweetening Removal Dehydration

Filtration Plant Plant Plant

Rich Gas

Sulfur

Recovery

Gas/Oil

Separation

NG From Plant

Upstream

Oil to NGL

Crude Line Recovery

Products For Sales: Plant

Water/Oil - Fuel Gas (Methane)

Separation - Ethane

Plant - LPG

- Others

Water Injection

Need for Gas/Liquid

Separation

Separation is the first step in gas

processing

liquids from the gas stream prior to

transporting, processing, and

distributing the gas

Need for Gas/Liquid

Separation

What to separate ?

The feed stream is separated into the

following phases:

• Gas

• Heavy Hydrocarbon “Condensate”

• Water

Separation Location

Sales

Gas Gas

Separation Processing Distribution

Well

Stream

Condensate NGL, ..etc

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 9

Separation

Process

Multi-stage Separation

Gas/Liquid Separation

Multistage

Separation

Well

Stream

Storage

High Intermediate Low

Tank at

Pressure Pressure Pressure

Atmospheric

Separation Separation Separation

Pressure

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 11

Well Stream Gas/

Liquid Separation

Primary Functions:

Perform the primary separation of

gas from liquid hydrocarbons

Remove the entrained liquid from the

gas stream

Remove the entrained gas from the

liquid stream

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 12

Gas Liquid

Separation

Primary Components:

Inlet diverter to create centrifugal

effect and enhance the gravity

settling effect.

Enough space to provide sufficient

residence time for the separation of

liquid and gas.

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 13

Gas Liquid

Separation

Primary Components…

liquid form the gas

Control system to maintain the

designed operating conditions

Separators types

Vertical Separator

Gas

Deflector

Feed

Vortex Breaker

Liquid HC

Water

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 15

Horizontal

Separator

Inlet Gas

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 16

Separator with

Liquid-accumulator

Inlet Gas

Mist

Extractor

Liquid H/C

Water

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 17

Spherical Separator

Feed

Mist

Eliminator

Liquid

Gas/Liquid Out

Interface Gas Out

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 18

Separation Process

V = Mole of vapor Vapor

L = Mole of liquid

Yi = Mole fraction of

F, Zi V, Yi

component i vapor

Xi = Mole fraction of Feed L, Xi

component i liquid

i = Component Liquid

n = Total number of

components

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 19

Separation Process

(McCain Jr., 1990)

Total Balance: L +V = 1

Component i Balance: LX i + VY i = Z i

Yi

Equilibrium Constant: K i =

Xi

Compatibility Equations:

n n n

∑X

i =1

i = ∑Y = ∑ Z

i =1

i

i =1

i = 1 .0

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 20

Bubble-Point

Relation

Given: Zi, Required: Tbp=? (L=1, V=0)

n n

∑Y

i =1

i = 1 .0 ∑Z K i i =1

i =1

X i = Zi n

f (Tdp ) = ∑ Z i K i − 1

Yi = X i K i i =1

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 21

Dew Point Relation

Given: Zi

Required: Tdp=? (L=0, V=1)

n

n

Zi

∑X

i =1

i = 1 .0 ∑

i =1 K i

=1

Yi = Z i n

Zi

f (Tdp ) = ∑ −1

Yi i =1 K i

Xi =

Ki

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 22

In-Between the two

cases (two phase)

Given: Zi & T, Required: Xi & Yi

L +V =1

Z i = X i L + Y iV

Yi

K i = , Yi = X i K i

Xi

∑ X i = ∑ Yi = ∑ Z i = 1 .0

n

Zi

∑

i =1

X i = ∑ (K i − 1) V + 1

= 1 .0 ⇒ ( A )

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 23

In-Between the two

cases (two phase)

Continue the previous equations.

From Equation (A), solve for V and

then find L=1-V

n

∑Y = ∑ K X

i =1

i i i

n

Z i Ki

=∑ = 1.0 ( B)

i =1 ( Ki − 1)V + 1

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 24

In-Between the two

cases (two phase)

Subtracting (A) from (B)

f (V ) = ∑(Yi − X i ) =

n

(Ki −1)Zi

∑

i =1 ( Ki − 1)V + 1

= 0 (C)

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 25

Separator

Calculations Gas ngT

(McCain Jr., 1990)

n2V2

n1V1

Separator

76oF n1L1 60oF

n1=1 Psep=? 14.7 psia

lbmole

Oil

nst=n2L2

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 26

Separator

Calculations

Solution Procedures:

Psep, in the range of 0 – 300 psig.

quantities of separator gas and liquid.

Separator

Calculations

a. Solve the following equation for the

vapor fraction, V 1

n n

( K i − 1) Z i

f (V1 ) = ∑ (Yi − X i ) = ∑ =0

i =1 i =1 ( K i − 1)V1 + 1

composition using:

Zi

Xi = , i = 1, 2 ,...., n

( K i − 1)V1 + 1

Yi = X i K i , i = 1, 2 ,...., n

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 28

Separator

Calculations

Step 3: Calculate the composition and

quantities of stock-tank gas and liquid.

equation for the vapor fraction, V2

n

( K i − 1) Z i

n

f (V2 ) = ∑ (Yi − X i ) = ∑ =0

i =1 i =1 ( K i − 1)V2 + 1

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 29

Separator

Calculations

Step 3…

Zi

Xi = , i = 1,2,....,n

(Ki −1)V2 + 1

Yi = X i Ki , i = 1,2,....,n

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 30

Separator

Calculations

Step 4:

Calculate the density and molecular

weight of the stock-tank oil.

a. Molecular weight

n

M W ST Oil = ∑X

i =1

i MWi

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 31

Separator Calculations n

∑ X iM Wi

Step 4… ρ C 3+ = i=3

n X iM

b. Density ∑

Wi

i=3 ρi

X 2M W

w t % ( C 2 in C 2 + ) = n 2

X 100

∑i=2

X i M Wi

X 1M W

w t % ( C 1 in C 1 + ) = n 1

X 100

∑ i =1

X i M Wi

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 32

Separator Calculations

Interpolation on the Standing-Katz

density chart )’

C2 C2

)

t% t%

( w (w

C2)”

%

(wt

(Any Pc3+ t%

C1)’

)

( w C1

proper (w

t%

C 1)” P ’st

%

scaling) (wt P st=?

P”st

L’ L L”

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 33

Separator

Calculations

Refer to the previous chart

L − L" L '− L "

= ⇒ L=?

( wt % C 2 ) − ( wt % C 2 )" ( wt % C 2 )' − ( wt % C 2 )"

L ' , and L" calculated from :

ρ C 3 + = a + b × L , for

( wt % C 2 )' , and ( wt % C 2 )" , respective ly

ρ st − ρ st " ρ st '− ρ st "

oil

= ⇒ ρ st Oil = ?

( wt % C1 ) − ( wt % C1 )" ( wt % C1 )' − ( wt % C1 )"

ρ st = c + d × L Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 34

Separator

Calculations

c. Stack-tank oil gravity

ρ st 141.5

γ st = Oil

⇒ API = −131.5

Oil

ρH O

2

γ st Oil

Separator

Calculations

Step 5: Calculate gas-to-oil ratio

ngT × ∀m

RT =

nstOil × MWstOil

ρst Oil

Separator

Calculations

Step 6:

Calculate the density and molecular

weight of the reservoir liquid at

reservoir conditions.

Same as the procedure given in step 4

(a) and (b), however part (c) is

calculated differently.

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 37

Separator

Calculations

c. Density corrections

∆ρ ' ζ ' = TorP

∆ρ −∆ρ" ∆ρ'−∆ρ" ∆ρ ζ

ζ −ζ" ζ '−ζ"

ρP,Ts

=ρ Ps ,Ts

+(ρ P,Ts

−ρ ) = ρ

P,T Ps ,Ts

+ ∆ρ ρ

s s s

Separator

Calculations

Step 7: Calculate formation volume

factor n1M W R

ρ

Bo = R

n st M W st

ρ st

be done using a Newton-Raphson or

any other appropriate method. The

remaining calculations can be done

by hand. Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 39

Newton-Raphson Solution

Start

Ki = ( 1 )10 ( a + cF )

, i = 1, N

P sep

n

( K i − 1) Z i

f (V 0 ) = ∑

i =1 ( K i − 1)V 0 + 1

V0 = V n

( K i − 1) 2 Z i

f (V 0 ) = − ∑

'

i =1 [( K i − 1)V 0 + 1]2

1 f (V 0 )

eR = '

⇒ V = V 0 (1 − e R )

V 0 f (V 0 )

Print V Stop

eR ≤ E

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 40

Sample Problem 1

A gas mixture containing 3 mole of

propane per one mole of ethane is at

200 oF.

Calculate:

a. Dew-point pressure

b. Composition of the first liquid to be

formed.

Problem 1 (Solution)

Part (a)

Z C 2 = 0 . 25 , Z C 3 = 0 . 75 , T dP = 200 o F

n

Yi

∑X

i =1

i = ∑

i =1 Ki

=1

K C 2 = 2 .2 , K C 3 = 1 .0

(At bubble point pressure for pure

propane)

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 42

Problem 1

(Solution)

n

Yi 0.25 0.75

f ( P) = ∑ − 1, f (600) = + − 1 = −0.14

i =1 K i 2.2 1.0

Guess , P = 800 psia

0.25 0.75

f (800) = + − 1 = 0.02 , ∴ P = 800 psia

1.8 0.85

Problem 1 (Solution)

Part (b)

Yi

Xi =

Ki

0.25

XC = = 0.14

1 .8

2

0.75

XC = = 0.88

0.85

3

∑X

i =1

i = 0.14 + 0.88 = 1.02

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 44

Sample Problem 2

Effect of changing pressure and

temperature on the composition

and vapor to liquid ratio.

butane confined in a piston-cylinder

system is at its bubble-point

conditions of 300oF and 1,000 psia.

Sample Problem 2

Calculate the vapor to liquid molar

ratio and the molar compositions of

the liquid and the vapor phases for the

composite that will be formed when

the pressure and temperature reduced

to 400 psig and 200oF, respectively.

Problem 2

(Solution)

n n n

∑Y = ∑ K

i =1

i

i =1

i X i = 1, ∑X

i =1

i =1

K C 3 X C 3 + K nC 4 X nC 4 = 1 , X C 3 + X nC 4 = 1

1 − K nC 4 1 − 0 . 65

X C3 = = = 0 . 636

K C 3 − K nC 4 1 . 2 − 0 . 65

Problem 2

(Solution)

X nC 4 = 1 − X C 3 = 1 − 0.636 = 0.364

n n

Zi

∑ (Y − X ) = ∑

i i

1

=0

i =1 i =1

V+

Ki −1

Problem 2

(Solution)

ZC3 ZnC4 0.636 0.364

V = − + ⇒V = − + = 0.27

KnC4 −1 KC3 −1 0.57−1 1.3 −1

V V 0.27

= = = 0.37

L 1−V 1− 0.27

Zi 0.636

Xi = ; X C3 = = 0.59, X nC4 = 1− 0.59 = 0.41

(Ki −1)V +1 (1.3 −1)0.27+1

Yi = Ki Xi ; YC3 = 1.3(0.59) = 0.77,YnC4 = 1− 0.77 = 0.23

Exercise

A mixture of four moles of propane

and one mole of normal-butane is fed

into a single separator operating at

150 oF temperature. What should be

the pressure in the separator for the

produced gas to liquid ratio to attain

the value of 3.0 mole gas/mole

liquid?

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 50

Condensate

Stabilizer Design

(Arnold & Steward, 1999, p.137)

V, yi

Basis: F = 1 mole

Feed zi = given

F, zi Pstabilizer = 200 psia

Tstabilizer = ? oF

L, xi

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 51

Condensate Stabilizer

V,yi Cooler

Gas Gas

Gas

Well

Condensate Reflux

Stream Reflux Tank

F,zi

3-Phase

Separator

Stabilization

Heat

Column

Exchanger

Water

Vent

Liquid Reboiler

Stock tank

for stabilized

condensate L,xi

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 52

Condensate Stabilizer

n

Pv = ∑ x P o Li Fiα n − C4

i vi xi = Li =

i =1 L Rvi

Split Ratio Moles assumed for

αn −C4 =

the liquid product

Moles in the

feed stream

Adjust split ratio to get the desired

Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP)

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 53

Condensate Stabilizer

Reference component: n-C4

Vapor Pressure

Relative for component i

Volatility = Vapor Pressure

for component n-C4

o Thus, Rvn−C4 = 1.0

P vi

Rvi = o 5, 000 psia

P

vn−C4 RvC1 = = 97

51.6 psia

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 54

Exercise

Required:

Determine the stabilizer temperature

such that the liquid product (oil)

would have a Reid Vapor Pressure

(RVP) of 150 psia at 100oF

Reid Vapor Pressure

n e

p a

r o n e

P ta

True o -Bu

Vapor i n e

Pressure o Buta P

o RV

P vi o

Temperature, oF

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 56

Reid Vapor

Pressure

Crude and condensate are specified

with a maximum Reid Vapor Pressure

(RVP).

PVT = ∑ xi PVi

o

i

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 57

Objective

Determine the vapor pressure of a HC

liquid mixture to meet a specific

maximum RVP (Reid Vapor Pressure

at 100oF)

n

∑ (y

i =1

i − xi ) = 0

Constraint

A certain factor (split) of the

component in the feed stream will

appear in the liquid product

α = split factor

L xi Li

α= =

V yi Vi

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 59

Required

Calculate the Reid vapor pressure of

a stabilized hydrocarbon mixture

with the following composition:

Components Mole fraction Povi at 100oF

C2 0.01 800

C3 0.32 190

i-C4 0.17 73

n-C4 0.11 51.6

i-C5 0.13 21

n-C5 0.05 16

C6 0.10 5

C7+ Remainder 0.1

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 60

Solution

PVT = ∑ xi PVi

o

Relative Volatility

= 90.7 / 51.6 = 1.8

of Oil Mixture

Exercises

1. Why is condensate stabilization

necessary?

2. What is the Reid Vapor Pressure of a

condensate with a composition of 10%

propane, 60% n-butane, and 30%

hexane? The pure component vapor

pressure at 100oF are:

190. psia for propane

51.6 psia for normal-butane

5.0 psia for hexane

References

K. Arnold and M. Stewart, Surface

Production Operations- Design of

Gas-handling Systems and Facilities,

Second Ed., Volume 2, Gulf

Publishing Company, 1999.

A. Rojey & C. Jaffret, Natural Gas

Production Processing Transport,

1997, Editions Technip, Paris.

References

McCain Jr., W. D., The Properties of

Petroleum Fluids, 2nd Edition,

PennWell Publishing Co., Tulsa, OK,

548p, 1990.

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