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Gas and Liquid

Separation
(Condensate stabilization by
flushing lighter components to gas)

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 4


Gas Handling Facility
Sweetening Dehydration

Cooling
Processing Sales
Gas Product

High Pressure
Heating
Separation
Gas
Condensate
Wells Oil

Stabilization Water
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 5
Natural Gas Cycle
Gas Inert Gas Gas Compression
Separation/ Sweetening Removal Dehydration
Filtration Plant Plant Plant

H2S & CO2


Rich Gas
Sulfur
Recovery

Gas/Oil
Separation
NG From Plant
Upstream
Oil to NGL
Crude Line Recovery
Products For Sales: Plant
Water/Oil - Fuel Gas (Methane)
Separation - Ethane
Plant - LPG
- Others

Water Injection

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 6


Need for Gas/Liquid
Separation
ƒ Separation is the first step in gas
processing

ƒ Objective is to remove the bulk


liquids from the gas stream prior to
transporting, processing, and
distributing the gas

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 7


Need for Gas/Liquid
Separation
ƒ What to separate ?
The feed stream is separated into the
following phases:
• Gas
• Heavy Hydrocarbon “Condensate”
• Water

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 8


Separation Location
Sales
Gas Gas
Separation Processing Distribution

Well
Stream

Water & Acid gas,


Condensate NGL, ..etc
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 9
Separation
Process
ƒ Multi-stage Separation

ƒ Gas/Liquid Separation

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 10


Multistage
Separation

Well
Stream

Storage
High Intermediate Low
Tank at
Pressure Pressure Pressure
Atmospheric
Separation Separation Separation
Pressure
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 11
Well Stream Gas/
Liquid Separation
Primary Functions:
ƒ Perform the primary separation of
gas from liquid hydrocarbons
ƒ Remove the entrained liquid from the
gas stream
ƒ Remove the entrained gas from the
liquid stream
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 12
Gas Liquid
Separation
Primary Components:
ƒ Inlet diverter to create centrifugal
effect and enhance the gravity
settling effect.
ƒ Enough space to provide sufficient
residence time for the separation of
liquid and gas.
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 13
Gas Liquid
Separation
Primary Components…

ƒ Mist eliminator to remove entrained


liquid form the gas
ƒ Control system to maintain the
designed operating conditions

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 14


Separators types
Vertical Separator
Gas

Deflector

Feed

Vortex Breaker

Liquid HC
Water
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 15
Horizontal
Separator
Inlet Gas

Liquid (H/C & Water)


Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 16
Separator with
Liquid-accumulator
Inlet Gas
Mist
Extractor

Liquid H/C
Water
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 17
Spherical Separator
Feed
Mist
Eliminator
Liquid
Gas/Liquid Out
Interface Gas Out

Source: Rojey-figure 7.6


Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 18
Separation Process
V = Mole of vapor Vapor
L = Mole of liquid
Yi = Mole fraction of
F, Zi V, Yi
component i vapor
Xi = Mole fraction of Feed L, Xi
component i liquid
i = Component Liquid
n = Total number of
components
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 19
Separation Process
(McCain Jr., 1990)
Total Balance: L +V = 1

Component i Balance: LX i + VY i = Z i
Yi
Equilibrium Constant: K i =
Xi
Compatibility Equations:
n n n

∑X
i =1
i = ∑Y = ∑ Z
i =1
i
i =1
i = 1 .0
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 20
Bubble-Point
Relation
Given: Zi, Required: Tbp=? (L=1, V=0)
n n
∑Y
i =1
i = 1 .0 ∑Z K i i =1
i =1
X i = Zi n
f (Tdp ) = ∑ Z i K i − 1
Yi = X i K i i =1
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 21
Dew Point Relation
Given: Zi
Required: Tdp=? (L=0, V=1)
n
n
Zi
∑X
i =1
i = 1 .0 ∑
i =1 K i
=1

Yi = Z i n
Zi
f (Tdp ) = ∑ −1
Yi i =1 K i
Xi =
Ki
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 22
In-Between the two
cases (two phase)
Given: Zi & T, Required: Xi & Yi
L +V =1
Z i = X i L + Y iV
Yi
K i = , Yi = X i K i
Xi
∑ X i = ∑ Yi = ∑ Z i = 1 .0
n
Zi

i =1
X i = ∑ (K i − 1) V + 1
= 1 .0 ⇒ ( A )
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 23
In-Between the two
cases (two phase)
Continue the previous equations.
From Equation (A), solve for V and
then find L=1-V
n

∑Y = ∑ K X
i =1
i i i

n
Z i Ki
=∑ = 1.0 ( B)
i =1 ( Ki − 1)V + 1
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 24
In-Between the two
cases (two phase)
Subtracting (A) from (B)

f (V ) = ∑(Yi − X i ) =
n
(Ki −1)Zi

i =1 ( Ki − 1)V + 1
= 0 (C)
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 25
Separator
Calculations Gas ngT
(McCain Jr., 1990)
n2V2
n1V1

Well Stream Liquid Stock-Tank


Separator
76oF n1L1 60oF
n1=1 Psep=? 14.7 psia
lbmole
Oil
nst=n2L2
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 26
Separator
Calculations
Solution Procedures:

Step 1: Assume a separator pressure,


Psep, in the range of 0 – 300 psig.

Step 2: Calculate the composition and


quantities of separator gas and liquid.

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 27


Separator
Calculations
a. Solve the following equation for the
vapor fraction, V 1
n n
( K i − 1) Z i
f (V1 ) = ∑ (Yi − X i ) = ∑ =0
i =1 i =1 ( K i − 1)V1 + 1

b. Calculate the liquid and gas


composition using:
Zi
Xi = , i = 1, 2 ,...., n
( K i − 1)V1 + 1
Yi = X i K i , i = 1, 2 ,...., n
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 28
Separator
Calculations
Step 3: Calculate the composition and
quantities of stock-tank gas and liquid.

a. As before solve the following


equation for the vapor fraction, V2
n
( K i − 1) Z i
n
f (V2 ) = ∑ (Yi − X i ) = ∑ =0
i =1 i =1 ( K i − 1)V2 + 1
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 29
Separator
Calculations
Step 3…

b. Composition for the liquid and gas


Zi
Xi = , i = 1,2,....,n
(Ki −1)V2 + 1
Yi = X i Ki , i = 1,2,....,n
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 30
Separator
Calculations
Step 4:
Calculate the density and molecular
weight of the stock-tank oil.

a. Molecular weight
n
M W ST Oil = ∑X
i =1
i MWi
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 31
Separator Calculations n

∑ X iM Wi
Step 4… ρ C 3+ = i=3
n X iM
b. Density ∑
Wi

i=3 ρi
 
 X 2M W 
w t % ( C 2 in C 2 + ) =  n 2
 X 100
 
 ∑i=2
X i M Wi 

 
 X 1M W 
w t % ( C 1 in C 1 + ) =  n 1
 X 100
 
 ∑ i =1
X i M Wi 

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 32
Separator Calculations
Interpolation on the Standing-Katz
density chart )’
C2 C2
)
t% t%
( w (w
C2)”
%
(wt

(Any Pc3+ t%
C1)’
)
( w C1
proper (w
t%
C 1)” P ’st
%
scaling) (wt P st=?

P”st

L’ L L”
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 33
Separator
Calculations
Refer to the previous chart
L − L" L '− L "
= ⇒ L=?
( wt % C 2 ) − ( wt % C 2 )" ( wt % C 2 )' − ( wt % C 2 )"
L ' , and L" calculated from :
ρ C 3 + = a + b × L , for
( wt % C 2 )' , and ( wt % C 2 )" , respective ly
ρ st − ρ st " ρ st '− ρ st "
oil
= ⇒ ρ st Oil = ?
( wt % C1 ) − ( wt % C1 )" ( wt % C1 )' − ( wt % C1 )"
ρ st = c + d × L Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 34
Separator
Calculations
c. Stack-tank oil gravity

ρ st 141.5
γ st = Oil
⇒ API = −131.5
Oil
ρH O
2
γ st Oil

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 35


Separator
Calculations
Step 5: Calculate gas-to-oil ratio

ngT × ∀m
RT =
nstOil × MWstOil
ρst Oil

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 36


Separator
Calculations
Step 6:
Calculate the density and molecular
weight of the reservoir liquid at
reservoir conditions.
Same as the procedure given in step 4
(a) and (b), however part (c) is
calculated differently.
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 37
Separator
Calculations
c. Density corrections
∆ρ ' ζ ' = TorP

∆ρ −∆ρ" ∆ρ'−∆ρ" ∆ρ ζ

= ⇒∆ρ = ? ∆ρ " ζ"

ζ −ζ" ζ '−ζ"
ρP,Ts
=ρ Ps ,Ts
+(ρ P,Ts
−ρ ) = ρ
P,T Ps ,Ts
+ ∆ρ ρ

ρP,T = ρP,T +(ρP,T − ρP,T ) = ρP,T + ∆ρ


s s s

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 38


Separator
Calculations
Step 7: Calculate formation volume
factor n1M W R
ρ
Bo = R
n st M W st
ρ st

Note: Steps 2&3 calculations have to


be done using a Newton-Raphson or
any other appropriate method. The
remaining calculations can be done
by hand. Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 39
Newton-Raphson Solution
Start

Initial Guess: 0<Vo<1, E=Tolerance

Ki = ( 1 )10 ( a + cF )
, i = 1, N
P sep

n
( K i − 1) Z i
f (V 0 ) = ∑
i =1 ( K i − 1)V 0 + 1
V0 = V n
( K i − 1) 2 Z i
f (V 0 ) = − ∑
'

i =1 [( K i − 1)V 0 + 1]2
1 f (V 0 )
eR = '
⇒ V = V 0 (1 − e R )
V 0 f (V 0 )

Print V Stop
eR ≤ E
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 40
Sample Problem 1
A gas mixture containing 3 mole of
propane per one mole of ethane is at
200 oF.

Calculate:
a. Dew-point pressure
b. Composition of the first liquid to be
formed.

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 41


Problem 1 (Solution)
Part (a)
Z C 2 = 0 . 25 , Z C 3 = 0 . 75 , T dP = 200 o F
n
Yi
∑X
i =1
i = ∑
i =1 Ki
=1

Guess , P = 600 psia


K C 2 = 2 .2 , K C 3 = 1 .0
(At bubble point pressure for pure
propane)
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 42
Problem 1
(Solution)
n
Yi 0.25 0.75
f ( P) = ∑ − 1, f (600) = + − 1 = −0.14
i =1 K i 2.2 1.0
Guess , P = 800 psia
0.25 0.75
f (800) = + − 1 = 0.02 , ∴ P = 800 psia
1.8 0.85

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 43


Problem 1 (Solution)
Part (b)
Yi
Xi =
Ki
0.25
XC = = 0.14
1 .8
2

0.75
XC = = 0.88
0.85
3

∑X
i =1
i = 0.14 + 0.88 = 1.02
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 44
Sample Problem 2
Effect of changing pressure and
temperature on the composition
and vapor to liquid ratio.

A mixture of propane and normal


butane confined in a piston-cylinder
system is at its bubble-point
conditions of 300oF and 1,000 psia.

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 45


Sample Problem 2
Calculate the vapor to liquid molar
ratio and the molar compositions of
the liquid and the vapor phases for the
composite that will be formed when
the pressure and temperature reduced
to 400 psig and 200oF, respectively.

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 46


Problem 2
(Solution)
n n n

∑Y = ∑ K
i =1
i
i =1
i X i = 1, ∑X
i =1
i =1

K C 3 X C 3 + K nC 4 X nC 4 = 1 , X C 3 + X nC 4 = 1
1 − K nC 4 1 − 0 . 65
X C3 = = = 0 . 636
K C 3 − K nC 4 1 . 2 − 0 . 65

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 47


Problem 2
(Solution)
X nC 4 = 1 − X C 3 = 1 − 0.636 = 0.364
n n
Zi
∑ (Y − X ) = ∑
i i
1
=0
i =1 i =1
V+
Ki −1

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 48


Problem 2
(Solution)
 ZC3 ZnC4   0.636 0.364
V = − +  ⇒V = − +  = 0.27
 KnC4 −1 KC3 −1  0.57−1 1.3 −1
V V 0.27
= = = 0.37
L 1−V 1− 0.27
Zi 0.636
Xi = ; X C3 = = 0.59, X nC4 = 1− 0.59 = 0.41
(Ki −1)V +1 (1.3 −1)0.27+1
Yi = Ki Xi ; YC3 = 1.3(0.59) = 0.77,YnC4 = 1− 0.77 = 0.23

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 49


Exercise
A mixture of four moles of propane
and one mole of normal-butane is fed
into a single separator operating at
150 oF temperature. What should be
the pressure in the separator for the
produced gas to liquid ratio to attain
the value of 3.0 mole gas/mole
liquid?
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 50
Condensate
Stabilizer Design
(Arnold & Steward, 1999, p.137)
V, yi
Basis: F = 1 mole
Feed zi = given
F, zi Pstabilizer = 200 psia
Tstabilizer = ? oF

L, xi
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 51
Condensate Stabilizer
V,yi Cooler

Gas Gas
Gas
Well
Condensate Reflux
Stream Reflux Tank
F,zi
3-Phase
Separator
Stabilization
Heat
Column
Exchanger
Water

Vent
Liquid Reboiler
Stock tank
for stabilized
condensate L,xi
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 52
Condensate Stabilizer
n
Pv = ∑ x P o Li Fiα n − C4
i vi xi = Li =
i =1 L Rvi
Split Ratio Moles assumed for
αn −C4 =
the liquid product
Moles in the
feed stream
Adjust split ratio to get the desired
Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP)
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 53
Condensate Stabilizer
Reference component: n-C4
Vapor Pressure
Relative for component i
Volatility = Vapor Pressure
for component n-C4
o Thus, Rvn−C4 = 1.0
P vi
Rvi = o 5, 000 psia
P
vn−C4 RvC1 = = 97
51.6 psia
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 54
Exercise
Required:
Determine the stabilizer temperature
such that the liquid product (oil)
would have a Reid Vapor Pressure
(RVP) of 150 psia at 100oF

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 55


Reid Vapor Pressure
n e
p a
r o n e
P ta
True o -Bu
Vapor i n e
Pressure o Buta P
o RV
P vi o

Figure 6-6 100 oF


Temperature, oF
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 56
Reid Vapor
Pressure
Crude and condensate are specified
with a maximum Reid Vapor Pressure
(RVP).

True vapor pressure of a HC mixture:


PVT = ∑ xi PVi
o

i
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 57
Objective
Determine the vapor pressure of a HC
liquid mixture to meet a specific
maximum RVP (Reid Vapor Pressure
at 100oF)
n

∑ (y
i =1
i − xi ) = 0

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 58


Constraint
A certain factor (split) of the
component in the feed stream will
appear in the liquid product

α = split factor
L xi Li
α= =
V yi Vi
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 59
Required
Calculate the Reid vapor pressure of
a stabilized hydrocarbon mixture
with the following composition:
Components Mole fraction Povi at 100oF
C2 0.01 800
C3 0.32 190
i-C4 0.17 73
n-C4 0.11 51.6
i-C5 0.13 21
n-C5 0.05 16
C6 0.10 5
C7+ Remainder 0.1
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 60
Solution
PVT = ∑ xi PVi
o

PVT = 90.7 psia


Relative Volatility
= 90.7 / 51.6 = 1.8
of Oil Mixture

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 61


Exercises
1. Why is condensate stabilization
necessary?
2. What is the Reid Vapor Pressure of a
condensate with a composition of 10%
propane, 60% n-butane, and 30%
hexane? The pure component vapor
pressure at 100oF are:
190. psia for propane
51.6 psia for normal-butane
5.0 psia for hexane

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 62


References
ƒ K. Arnold and M. Stewart, Surface
Production Operations- Design of
Gas-handling Systems and Facilities,
Second Ed., Volume 2, Gulf
Publishing Company, 1999.
ƒ A. Rojey & C. Jaffret, Natural Gas
Production Processing Transport,
1997, Editions Technip, Paris.

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 63


References
ƒ McCain Jr., W. D., The Properties of
Petroleum Fluids, 2nd Edition,
PennWell Publishing Co., Tulsa, OK,
548p, 1990.

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 64