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In the age of modern living mastery of printed word is essential. Documents furnish keys to understanding one’s self and they provide opportunity for improving the reader’s range of enjoyment. In fact reading expands the personal horizon. Reading implies not merely the ability to recognize and say aloud the words printed on a page, but also the ability to comprehend them and say what they mean. Reading has been the key subject in the curriculum for students for centuries, and the subject for considerable research activity and controversy Reading habit of students: Research suggests that many (but not all) students learn more from reading than from listening to lectures. When reading, they can go back over difficult material or, if one book does not communicate effectively, they can choose another. Unfortunately, however, some college students today do not read well or have not developed the habit of reading to gain information. Many, especially at the beginning of their college work, are not capable of reading critically, that is, of identifying faulty assumptions, comparing disparate viewpoints, analyzing a reading to determine the validity of its
argument. Accounting faculty should be aware of resources (reading labs, tutors) available on campus to help students improve reading skills. Faculty can also guide students' reading by pointing out key ideas, providing study questions, or critiquing a reading with the class. Faculty who want to emphasize learning to learn will need to go beyond the standard textbook in their reading assignments. Reference books, legal documents, business reports, professional accounting and business publications are possible sources for supplementary readings. Most textbooks will provide the basic information needed on the main topics of the course. To go beyond basic information, faculty may choose readings that raise questions, present problems, serve as examples, or engage students' curiosity or enthusiasm about the topic. Carefully chosen readings can help students develop the attributes of intentional learning. For example, to help students practice asking questions about what they are reading, faculty could provide a set of questions to be applied to the reading of business editorials (What is the thesis? What are the assumptions behind the thesis? Support for the thesis? What questions are left unanswered?) Students could practice organizing the information in their course reading by making outlines, diagrams, or concept maps and then
comparing their work with classmates. The teacher's role in selecting a variety of readings is to provide examples that help students make connections between new information and previous knowledge and experience. A number of strategies can help engage students with their reading and promote intentional learning. Study questions can help students read carefully and with understanding. To be most effective, these questions should deal with issues and principles rather than focus on facts, figures, and terminology; written responses should be collected, discussed in class and any confusion cleared up. Students may be asked to keep a reading log in which they react to, reflect on, raise questions about, and organize details from their reading. Students may also be encouraged to work in study group to review and discuss their reading and share questions and comments. Most students expect to do a significant amount of reading for most college courses. Using the strategies suggested here, reading can help students learn the attributes of intentional learning as well as the facts and theories of the course Habit of reading instruction is based on four main components. The four component parts include the Harcourt anthology,
shared reading, sustained silent reading, and guided reading. Using the Harcourt anthology and selected books for guided reading, the user will receive direct instruction for reading skills. Many of the writing projects developed throughout the year will come from these reading experiences. Each afternoon the student listen to a "read aloud" reference books. This shared read aloud time exposes the student to various authors and genres. Often the chapter books selected for these read aloud sessions are books above the students independent level. Finally during the independent sustained silent reading, the user are actively reading a book of their choice. There are so many ways to enjoy reading!
According to Sterl Artley real reading means plucking out all the subtle threads of meaning from sentences, paragraphs and pages and weaving them into your own personality. Reading is a complex process by which a reader reconstructs, to some degree, a message encoded by a writer in graphic language. David.H. Russel and Henry Fea defined reading as the act of identifying the symbol. Though according to William S Grey reading is single operation, we can distinguish four different steps in the reading process word perception, comprehension, relation and integration.
In the words of Ruth strang reading is regarded as manifold process that involves associating words with meaning and letter sounds with the
printed symbols, thinking, feeling, acting and becoming. Creative and thoughtful reading begins when the reader has learned how to find out what the author actually said. Nature of Reading In developed countries most students appear to read quite extensively both during work and leisure hours. In the United states it has been reported that the average students reads for 13/4 hours in a day reading newspapers and magazines. British studies have shown that there issue general agreement that students experience the reading craze towards the end of school. As they get older there is a pronounced decrease in leisure reading. Students from working class backgrounds tend not to read much. Readers of fiction, the fewest consistent readers are among those who
prefer material on health, hobbies, sports etc. Some author books are most popular among students.
Significance of Reading
The history of reading shows that the reading has served two radically different ends. On the other hand it has been a great unifying force tending to unite social groups by providing common experience and by cultivating common attitudes, ideas, interests and aspirations. On the one had it has served as a disintegrating force tending to intensify differences between social groups by stimulating divergent opinions. Similarly reading has served both constructive and destructive ends. One of the basic problems we are facing today is to determine ways in which reading may best promote individuals’ welfare and group progress. It is appropriate to quote Gamaliel Bradford here that reading is a solitary pleasure, and shuts one up, and hedges one off, and has not the sweet unending charm of human companionship which is what really gives all games and sports their enduring, hold on men. Studies on Reading There are a number of studies conducted in the Western countries in the field of reading. Research in the field of reading had originated in the laboratories of Europe as a result of the curiosity of psychologists concerning the nature of reading process. As early as the first half of the 19th century, psychologists became interested in the perceptual process of reading. The first who conducted such studies were Valatie’s and Cattle. Bradmann and Dodge
were other pioneers in the field. Between 1921 and 1940 notable progress was made in the researches done on reading. This period marked the dawn of a wider interest in the study of reading applying objective methods rather than classroom methods such as promoting reading, pointing out the relative advantages of silent and oral reading and the common reading errors etc. During 1950-1970s a number of studies were carried out in the western countries on the different facets of reading. Reading interest is one of the important aspects of research on reading. A number of studies have been published on reading interest of children-pre-school children, adolescent girls and boys and college students. Notwithstanding the attractiveness of recreational interests and means of communication in these modern times, reading apparently continues to hold, a fairly important place in children’s’ leisure time activities. Mauck and Swenson reported in a study that reading ranked fourth among the recreational interests. Fiction seemed to have the greatest appeal to children at all the grade levels. In a study of 100 most popular children’ fiction books Scalan found that nearly half of those books were written by just 9 authors and that 28 of these 100 were animal stories. In fact both topic and author appeal to children.
HYPERLINK "http://www.answers.com/topic/geographic-coordinate-system" \t "_top" µCoordinates§: HYPERLINK "http://tools.wikimedia.de/~magnus/geo/geohack.php?params=8.97_N_77.3_E_region: IN_type:city" \t "wpext" µ8°′N 77°′E / 8.97, 77.3 Tenkasi Reading interests are correlated with the degree of maturity of an individual; In a study of the age factor in children’s interest in free reading. Mary Amatora and Mary Edith found an increase in free reading from age 7 to 10 and from age 12 to 13, but a noticeable decline in the amount of free reading as pupils approached high school students. Anderson has noted that more girls than boys had reported that they enjoyed reading. As regards the combined group, comic books, fiction, animal stories and biography were the kinds of reading materials that were widely read. Evelym Marr investigated the reading interests of boys and girls in English. It was found that boys and girls devoted considerable amount of their time to reading, girls read more than boys and fiction was read more than any other type of reading materials. The majority of boys and about 50% of the girls read news papers regularly and the rest and them occasionally. HYPERLINK "http://www.answers.com/main/Record2?a=NR&url=http%3A%2F%2Fcommons.wiki media.org%2Fwiki%2FImage%3ATamil%2520Nadu%2520locator%2520map.svg" \t "GuruWnd" µ INCLUDEPICTURE "http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/encommons/thumb/8/84/235px-Tamil_Nadu_locator_map.svg.png" \* MERGEFORMATINET µ §§ HYPERLINK "http://www.answers.com/main/Record2?a=NR&url=http%3A%2F%2Fcommons.wiki media.org%2Fwiki%2FImage%3AIndia%2520Tamil%2520Nadu%2520locator%2520 map.svg" \t "GuruWnd" µ INCLUDEPICTURE "http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-commons/thumb/0/09/55pxIndia_Tamil_Nadu_locator_map.svg.png" \* MERGEFORMATINET µ §§ HYPERLINK "http://www.answers.com/topic/locator-dot-svg" \t "_top" µ INCLUDEPICTURE "http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/4/44/8pxLocator_Dot.svg.png" \* MERGEFORMATINET µ §§ HYPERLINK "http://maps.google.com/maps?ll=8.97,77.3&spn=0.1,0.1&t=h" \t "wpext" µTenkasi§
Jasbir Kaur studied the reading interest of high school students in Aligarh and it was found that 9th class students read more books than 10th class students. A few studies have been conducted in India especially at the university level on the different facts of reading such as reading habits, reading interests and diagnostic tests and reading etc. In India, Ministry of Education and Social Welfare sponsored a sample survey on the reading habits of primary school children.
READING HABIT Reading Habit is important for every body in order to cope with new knowledge in the changing world of the technological age. The importance and necessity will hopefully continue to increase in the years to come. However, the number of those who know how to read but do not read enough is also increasing. There are still some people, young and old, who cannot get access to reading activities and reading programs at all and some people who are able to read do not get access to such activities and programs, but in a dissatisfactory degree of relationship. They neither have much initial interest nor lasting interest in books and reading. The reading habit has to be built up and promoted from an early age. In many developing countries have been launching extensive literacy campaigns, in the sense of teaching people to write and to read. But knowledge of characters and reading technique alone are not sufficient to develop real reading societies. People should be motivated to read and informed how to utilize reading materials to improve their own personality and their social environment. In this context roles of non government organizations, government sectors, libraries, school and family are very important for mutual cooperation to promote reading habits to readers, especially, the role of libraries is very important as libraries are very important institutions as information centers and life long educational agencies. The Asean nations have by no doubt a challenge experiences in the field of promotion of reading habits. Therefore the paper has been emphasized on factors limiting reading habits in ASEAN, roles of organizations in reading promotion and effective methods and successful programs in reading habit promotion. "Reading habit promotion" it means behavior which express the likeness of reading of individual, which occur regular of leisure reading approach, types of reading, tastes of reading, uses of library services viewing on what they have read fixing on objectives of reading.
Giving someone literacy skills is rather like teaching a person to drive and then giving them only a few drops of petrol to practice with - the machine is perfect and the driving skill has been acquired but it is not yet an automatic skill because there has not been enough practice. Once the fuel runs out the driving skill becomes useless and begins to deteriorate. Giving someone the reading habit, on the other hand, involves providing a continuous supply of easily processed fuel so that the new driver can go places, can get to enjoy driving and can eventually realizes the limitless possibilities it opens up. Reading habit has been a subject of investigation in librarianship, journalism, psychology, literature and history. Specifically reading habit refers to the settled
tendency or practice of people to voluntarily seek reading material and devote time to reading. In addition to self motivation, friends, teachers, librarians and society at large. Because of the diversity of the concept it is not surprising that many approaches or methods have been used to measure reading habit of particular user group. This includes questionnaire historical records, detailed diaries of leisure activates, library circulation date, static’s of book sales etc. The need for information is a primary motivator of users, this need can be not only be satisfied by printed materials but also by instructions. People read materials which might help them learn more about their occupations or about their hobbies. Together with television, and radio, reading tends to be the primary source of information on foreign issues, urban problems and cultural values. Reading can satisfy intellectual and political demands. Students use reading to acquire knowledge which is related to scholastic success; indeed young people view this as the primary motive for reading. Reading also provides a source of pleasure. I. Factor limiting reading habits of college students 1.1 We are not reading society but chatting society the background of learning through culture. The cultural habit of their people prefer to listening and chatting more than reading. Traditionally scholars are the same time animated and narrated written words from books to illiterate through reading aloud, animated reading dramatization or even demonstration. They are well-known and appreciated because books are not so available in those countries. It was necessary because of the difficulty in learning alphabets and in acquiring reading skill where written or printed materials were scarce and treated as valuable objects. Traditional reading animators were elder members of the family, members of religious institutions, professionals or amateurs. The inherited cultural habit has been transmitted and obstacles to reading habit from generation to another. In short, at the present; their societies still depend their own information rather than written one. 1.2 The lure of electronic media. TV's potential effect on user’s reading performance has become an issue of growing concern among education and often cited as a cause for the decline in reading if
user’s spent amount of their viewing time only programs which entertain rather than educate. 2. Roles of libraries, librarians, library programs. Libraries are a means to stimulate and develop the reading interest the following is some strategies which libraries and libraries play important roles in promotion on reading. The librarian should help develop among the reader's pleasant and positive attitude towards reading. The pleasant and positive attitude of the reader should be developed first before someone is able to automatically form the habit of reading and the lode for books The principal function of the librarian is to serve to course of education formally or informally. When we think of the librarian's role on education, we think first of books and of what she does with books. Librarians have a
responsibility and an opportunity to go out and tell the public what they have in their libraries and find out what they want to read, improve and keep improving the set-up of the library to encourage readers to stay and browse. In any effective college library program, the librarian should have definite responsibilities in certain areas of the curriculum and should have an active teaching role. But this role must always be coordinated with what is taking place in the classroom. With his wide knowledge of materials and techniques for using them, the librarian can make a strong partner in the planning and implementing of the educational enterprise. Making the library attractive to public and colleges. 2.1 Roles of Mass media Radio, TV, newspapers and magazines can help advertise reading projects, seminars-training workshops, interviews of reading authorities / writers / teachers and organizations involved in the reading activities to promote reading, hence the help of these media personnel will be sought. 2.2 Roles of private and government sectors in helping Libraries conducting reading society. The professional sectors or agencies play a great deal to elevate the standard of library and services through activities which aim to develop or to encourage activities of reading and writing those are : The National Language and Literature Agency National Book Development Council Committee, Reading Association, Library Association, Writer's Association, Parent Teacher Association and Women's Association, Etc. 3. Effective Methods and some successful programs for Reading Habit of college students Programs of activities are broadly categorized into 3 main groups: Those are Book-based programming, Bringing books to public and New format to promote reading: computer machine. 3.1.1 Make book available: book lists The information contained in the list should be sufficient to allow for the books to be found in the library and a mere listing of authors and title will always need to be extended either by a brief descriptive note on each book to indicate its particular value or the arrangement of the list under headings which will give such an indication. Inclusion in the list should be selective, 3.1.2 Reading programs. Reading programs provide on incentive to some students to read books which they might otherwise not try. The following are successful programs
undertaken by college Libraries: a. Reading Camp. The program aimed at exposing the student to the various skill vis speed reading, information handing skill. Various activities with local writers and film show, slides show were carried out. Some times the Reading Camps were scheduled to coincide with the National Book. b. Reading Contest It is aimed to accelerate reading habit among young generation by the use of libraries is considered as potential one in the nation building. The contest material is a number of books on literature: prose and poetry, selected by the National Committees. The contest participant is required to develop and deliver some book abstracts. c. Book Talk A low cost-effective strategy with ability to reach a wide audience a possible is book talk. The schools held book talk and the book reporting sessions by librarian’s cooperation. The talk has been done through talkcum-slide by librarians for new coming books or orientation in the library; book talk contest, or book abstract contest after book talk sessions. 3.1.3 Competition: quiz The quiz is aimed at encouraging students to read beyond their textbooks in colleges, promotion books as a source of information and promoting books themselves. Therefore it is necessary to decide precisely what the purpose of the quiz is in each competition. Book quiz can be done just for fun. They may be set at various levels for under eights to elevens and over. 3.2. Bringing Books to Public Here are some suggestions: Prepare exhibit about book authors characteristics in novels or concepts retrieved from literature and or display maps of book shops libraries in the community. Promote the production and distribution easy-to-read pamphlet and lowprice printed materials. These material informing what the public interest eg ; health or rural issues agriculture or animal breeding and encourage subscribing. Collect oral and unprinted literature. Set up book reader's group in villages of community. Do reading activities. Use books as a fundamental documents when news in newspaper, radio and TV. Has been reported. Encourage public to know books and book sources both reading and non reading group. 3.3. New format to promote reading of college students: computer
machine. As amount of information grows and as it become more easily and quickly available, there will be a need to teach individual strategies for both dealing with information and accessing the information available. More and more organizations, institutes and companies are putting their budget to computers, In the long run, the printed word will be converted to electronic from this is high technology and opening the new arena of reading promotion. Those are collecting center for Audio-Visual and Computer-the based materials: Compact Disc Interaction (CDI) Compact Disc Read only memory (CDROM) audio.
Chapter II Area profile
Tirunelveli the penultimate southern most district of Tamil Nadu, is described as a microcosm of the State, owing to its mosaic and diverse geographical and physical features such as lofty mountains and low plains, dry Teri structures, rivers and cascades, seacoast and thick inland forest, sandy soils and fertile alluvium, a variety of flora, fauna, and protected wild life. Thenpandiyanadu of the early Pandyas, Mudikonda Cholamandalam of the Imperial Cholas, Tirunelveli Seemai of the Nayaks, Tinnevelly district of the East India Company and the British administration and Tirunelveli district of Independent India was bifurcated on 20th October 1986. The divided districts are called as Nellai-Kattabomman district and Chidambaranar (Tuticorin) district. Subsequently the district name was christened as Tirunelveli-Kattabomman district. As per the decision of the Government of Tamil Nadu to call all the districts by the name of the headquarter town, Tirunelveli-Kattabomman district is now Tirunelveli district. Chidambaranar district is now called as Thoothukudi district.
The Tirunelveli Sthalapurana prescribes a tradition for the origin of the name Tirunelveli. The puranic version goes that one Vedasarma, a staunch devotee of Shiva, on his pilgrimage from the North to the South was invited by Lord Shiva in his dream to his abode on the banks of the sacred river Tamiraparani. The delighted devotee came to 'Sindupoondhurai on the banks of the river and stayed there with his family. Once there was a famine which forced Vedasarma to collect paddy by way of begging and continuing his daily prayers. One day he spread out the paddy to dry under the Sun before the Lord, and went for his ablutions in Tamiraparani. He prayed to the Lord for rain which he thought could be a remedy for the famine. His prayer was answered and when he was bathing, a thunder storm broke-out and it rained heavily. Vedasarma rushed to the place where he had spread the paddy. He witnessed a miracle. Despite rain around the area, the paddy that he had spread did not get even a single drop of rain and did not get soaked. Since then according to the purana the Town is called as “Tirunel-veli” (Sacred hedged paddy).
Origin of the District
On acquisition from the Nawab of Arcot in1801, the British named it as Tinnevelly district though their headquarters was first located in Palayamkottai the adjacent town, where they had their military headquarters during their operations against the Palayakars. Two reasons may be attributed for naming it after Tirunelveli. One is because, it was and is the chief town of the district and the other is that it was already called as Tirunelveli Seemai under the Nayaks and Nawabs. Both Tirunelveli and Palayamkottai grew as the twin towns of the district.
The Tirunelveli District is located in the world map, between 08o 8’ and 09o 23’ latitude and 77o 09’ and 77o 54’ longitude. The total geographical area of the district is 6,823 sq. km.
The district is surrounded by the State of Kerala, Gulf of Mannar and the districts of Virudhunagar, Thoothukudi and Kanniyakumari.
Land Category Area in Hectares
Dry 3,58,151 Assessed Waste 39,274 Unassessed Waste Dry 57,696 Poramboke 25,456 Forest lands 1,22,055 Total 6,82,300
Temperature In the day time the coastal regions are cooler than the interior parts by about a degree in summer and southwest monsoon seasons and warmer by one to two degrees during the rest of the year. From about the middle of February, temperature increases steadily. In May which is usually the hottest month in the interior, the mean daily maximum temperature is 37.1 degree Celsius. The weather is quite hot in May and June and the maximum temperature some times reaches 45 degree Celsius. With the onset of the southwest monsoon by the end of May or beginning of June, there is some drop in temperature. By about the middle of October, both day and night temperatures decrease appreciably. The period from November to January is the coolest part of the year with the mean daily maximum temperature of about 30 to 31 degree Celsius in the interior parts. The mean daily minimum in these months is about 22 to 23 degree Celsius in the district in general.
Humidity The relative humidity in general, during the year, is between 55 and 65 percent in the interior parts of the district, except during the northeast monsoon season, when it is over 65 per cent. The coastal parts are comparatively more humid.
Cloudiness During the months of April and May, the skies become heavily clouded and threatening in the afternoons on many days when thunderstorms follow. In the southwest and northeast monsoon seasons, the sky is heavily clouded or overcast.
Winds Generally light to moderate in strength. Between May and September winds are mainly north westerly or westerly From October to February winds are mainly north easterly or northerly Rainfall Main rainy season is from October to the middle of January. During these southwest monsoon season the rainfall is more in the western parts of the district. November is generally the rainiest month. The heaviest rainfall in 24 hours recorded in the district was 371.5 mm at Sivagiri on 29/10/1929. The average rain fall in the district is 814.8 mm per annum. Comparative Statement of Rainfall of this district in mm for the past 5 years are given below:
Month Normal 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 January 50.2 22.30 2.39 2.67 6.67 37.47 February 30.2 35.34 0.00 3.00 66.68 143.97 March 41.3 6.40 14.56 0.00 0.80
24.04 April 59.8 98.12 68.98 11.13 26.93 20.65 May 38.0 23.36 72.53 103.35 35.34 16.96 June 29.6 35.00 4.90 23.62 39.69 55.23 July 26.4 31.44 7.51 53.38 8.11 9.39 August 23.3 23.63 10.88 45.07 3.39 95.86 September 30.2 35.11 25.20
4.62 41.71 74.09 October 166.0 230.34 290.67 67.75 193.93 24.78 November 208.2 71.00 436.83 188.26 188.17 186.00 December 111.6 116.97 156.71 290.21 42.30 137.72 Total Rainfall 814.8 729.01 1091.96 793.06 653.72 826.16 Month Normal 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 January
50.2 80.16 6.40 0.58 36.57 4.92 February 30.2 26.54 75.83 104.25 16.62 27.50 March 41.3 9.53 29.30 100.72 5.82 68.17 April 59.8 118.79 91.00 0.78 91.15 180.49 May 38.0 26.73 82.91 29.55 135.02 25.46 June 29.6 24.43 4.12 20.18 59.16 20.28
July 26.4 29.58 5.14 19.19 9.53 80.50 August 23.3 10.80 35.68 15.48 26.12 19.91 September 30.2 22.03 13.66 10.34 101.48 32.77 October 166.0 141.32 213.12 185.84 220.09 84.68 November 208.2 195.97 241.82 256.57 260.55 248.45 December 111.6 79.52 17.85 56.89
32.37 178.36 Total Rainfall 814.8 765.40 816.83 900.37 994.48 971.49 Month Normal 2006
January 50.2 54.49
February 30.2 1.80
March 41.3 124.23
May 38.0 35.95
June 29.6 28.60
July 26.4 26.80
August 23.3 25.38
September 30.2 63.04
October 166.0 361.28
November 208.2 287.23
December 111.6 19.31
Total Rainfall 814.8 1179.66
Population (2001 Census) Male 13,72,082 Female 14,29,112 Total 28,01,194 Literates Male 10,41,964 (75.94%) Female 8,75,274 (61.12%) Total 19,17,238 (68.44%)
Mineral Resources Limestone It is available at several places in the district. The major part comes from the crystalline limestone deposit occurring near Ramayanpatti, Talaiyuthu and Padmaneri. A total reserve of 4.06 million tonnes limestone up to a depth of 15.2 meter in Ramayanpatti band and 5.08 million tonnes up to a depth of 15.25 meter in Talaiyuthu band has been estimated. The limestone available here contain Calcium Oxide (Ca O) from 34.97 to 55.49 percent, Magnesium Oxide (Mg O) from 0.31 to 7.24 per cent. The Padmaneri band consists of six limestone lenses with an aggregate strike length of about 800 meter. The average width is 4.75 meter 0.199 million tonnes of cement grade limestone is estimated from this band. The Singikulam band extends over a strike length of 17 km. It contains seven limestone lenses with an aggregate strike length of about 6.4 km. and average width of 13 meter. About 3.160 million tonnes of cement grade limestone is estimated from this band. Six bands of good quality limestone occur near Pandapuli and 4,34,000 tonnes of limestone suitable for the manufacture of cement and chemical industries have been estimated . Sulphides Light traces of sulphides occur in and around Pattankadu and Munradaippu. This mineral is of no economic importance. Ilmenite - Garnet Sands Occurrence of red garnet sands in the beds of the river Nambiar and Uvari has been recorded. The proportion of garnet is 75 per cent in the rich deposits and 45 per cent in the surface sands. Local concentration of limenite sands are noticed near Vijayapatti and Kuttankuli.
Forest and Flora Forests The total area of the forest of the district is 1,22,055 ha. of which 81700 ha. is set apart for Tiger reserve of Mundanthurai and Kalakadu. The entire forest of the district stretches along the Western ghats.
Various types of forests from luxuriant tropical wet evergreen forests to southern thorn scrub forests occur in the district. Owing to its diverse geographical factors. The forests in the district are technically classified as Southern hill top tropical evergreen forests, West Coast tropical evergreen forests, Southern moist mixed deciduous forests, Ochlandra reed forests, Carnatic umbrella thorn forests Southern Euphorsia scrub and Southern thorn scrub. Rivers in Tirunelveli District Tamiraparani Pachaiyar Korayar Chittar Aluthakanniar Aintharuviar Jambunathi Ramanathi Gadananathi Hanumannathi Karuppanathi Gundar Mottaiyar Manimuthar Nambiyar Karunaiyar Vedamaliyaru Kottamalaiyaru Kothaiyaru Rajasingiyaru Mundhal Odai
Time zone Area • Elevation District(s) Population
• m ( ft) Tirunelveli
Coordinates: 8°′N 77°′E / 8.97, 77.3 Tenkasi is a town and a municipality in Tirunelveli district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located in the foothills of the Western Ghats near the Courtallam Waterfalls. Tenkasi (South Kasi) is famous for its Ulagamman Temple and its Shiva Temple. The Ulagamman temple was built by Parakrama Pandian, but was shattered by lightning. In the 1990s, the temple was reinstated with the help of Sivanthi Adithan and others, and it was painted again in 2006 by the same group for a new look. However, the first few feet from the ground is not painted as that part is supposed to have survived the lightning strike. The gopuram or the entering gateway is supposed to be one of the highest in the southern state of Tamil Nadu. The main deity at this temple is Kasi Viswanathar (Shiva). This temple has the uniqueness of having three Sannidhis, Sivan Sannidhi, Amman Sannidhi and Murugan Sannidhi. This temple has beautiful sculptures and also has musical stone pillars, that emit metallic sounds of different pitch when tapped with fingers. The entrance is so gigantic with heavy steps. One could view the majestic Temple Gopuram View when we enter Tenkasi. The entrance Gopuram of the temple will welcome the pilgrims with the pleasant cool breeze which waves through from Thirikooda Malai.
Tenkasi also boasts of another magnificent temple, Kulasekaranathar Temple, which has been in closed state for a few hundred years. It also has a temple pond in middle of the town, adjoining the Kannimaramman Temple. Tenkasi is also famous for saral (drizzling). During May-August every year, people enjoy saral in Tenkasi. The main tourist attraction of Tenkasi is Courtallam, with its exotic waterfalls and healing spas. Tenkasi is at the footsteps of Thirikooda Malai (Thiri koodal means the joining of three - it is the convergence of three mountains) - a picturesque place. The famed Thirikooda Rasappa Kavirayar hailed from this area. Some other well known personalities from this area include Rasigamani T.K.C (T.K.Chidambaranatha Mudhaliyar) Geography Tenkasi is located at 8.97° N 77.3° E. It has an average elevation of 143 metres (469 feet).
Demographics As of 2001 India censusIndia, Tenkasi had a population of 62,828. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Tenkasi has an average literacy rate of 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 81%, and female literacy is 67%. In Tenkasi, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age. Business Tenkasi is a place were most of the people are involved in agriculture,so the industries here are related to agriculture like coconut fibre factories and many saw mills. It's a main shopping hub for the villages around tenkasi. Shopping and Entertainment Tenkasi is the main shopping & entertainment hub for the villages around tenkasi and for the tourists coming for coutrallam falls in season.the main shopping items available here are textiles,building materials,jewels ,groceries,vegetables.etc.there are cinema halls for
Municipal" redirects here. For other uses of the term, see Municipal (disambiguation) A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. A municipality is typically governed by a mayor and a city council or municipal council. Municipalities are not necessarily the same as townships. A municipality is a general-purpose district, as opposed to a special-purpose district. In most countries, a municipality is the smallest administrative subdivision to have its own democratically elected representative leadership. In some countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes" (for example, French commune, Italian comune or Norwegian kommune). The term derives from the medieval commune. Note that the word has absolutely no implication of communism; rather, the word "communism" derives from the word "commune" because of its striving towards a commune-like society. The largest municipalities can be found in Canada and Greenland. Most likely the largest municipality is Avernasuaq in Greenland, which is larger than the whole United Kingdom Review of literature 1. Winston Tellis, Case Study, The Qualitative Report, Volume 3, Number 2, July, 1997
This paper is the first of a series of three articles relating to a case study conducted at Fairfield University to assess aspects of the rapid introduction of Information Technology at the institution. This article deals with the nature of the problem faced by Fairfield University, the characteristics of the case methodology, and lays the foundation for the selection of this research technique for the current study. The paper begins with an Introduction section to familiarize the reader with the case organization. The following section on Case Methodology explores the history, and some of the applications of the technique. The section ends with specific research protocols for researchers. 2. 65th IFLA Council and General Conference, Thailand, August 20 - August 28, 1999 “Reading habit promotion in ASEAN libraries” Abstract This paper describes the different activities that ASEAN Libraries have undertaken to promote reading by increasing awareness among thier people. Firstly, factors limiting reading habit in ASEAN Libraries have been approached. Secondly roles of local institutes or organizations in helping
libraries conducting reading habit promotion have been acknowledged. Finally some suggestions on effective methods and successful programs of reading habit promotion by ASEAN Libraries have been collected.
3. On Reading
We all began to learn how to read as young children, and we are still learning. Formal instruction in reading as a skill in its own right usually ends by the fifth grade, but the presumption is that reading ability continues to improve as a result of continued reading for other purposes. However, there is no better evidence that only perfect practice makes perfect. If you acquired poor reading habits as a child, as most of us did, you have probably practiced those ways of reading so much that they are very well learned.
Improving reading skills is important for success in college, and it is also important for everyday life. It is true that you can hear the news on the radio and see it on television, and it is also true that some books are now available on audio cassette, but you are short-changing yourself as far as understanding the news and enjoying
most good literature if you cannot read well. Regardless of how good a reader you are now, it would be advisable to buy a paperback book on some topic of interest to you, and use it to improve your reading skills.
The purpose of this appendix is to help you determine how well your present reading skills match up with what most educators believe is appropriate for college students. I have also included a few exercises that should show you some of the ways you can practice skills that are required for efficient reading. The college bookstore has a number of excellent books devoted entirely to reading skills, and you can decide for yourself whether you need remedial work.
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