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USER’S MANUAL

August 2000

HIFREQ USER’S MANUAL

Prepared by:

Safe Engineering Services & technologies ltd.


1544 Viel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3M 1G4
Tel.: (514) 336-2511 Fax: (514) 336-6144
Email: support@sestech.com
The information in this document is subject to change without notice and should not be construed as a commitment by Safe
Engineering Services & technologies ltd. Safe Engineering Services & technologies ltd assumes no responsibility for any
errors that may appear in this document.

The software described in this document is furnished under a license and may be used or copied only in accordance with the
terms of such license.

 Safe Engineering Services & technologies ltd. 1990-2000


All Rights Reserved
REVISION RECORD
DATE VERSION/REVISION
July 1990 Version 1 at Revision Level 0
July 1991 Version 2 at Revision Level 1
July 1992 Version 3 at Revision Level 1
September 1993 Version 3 at Revision Level 2
September 1995 Version 4 at Revision Level 1
November 1997 Version 5 at Revision Level 1
December 1998 Version 7 at Revision Level 0
January 2000 Version 8 at Revision Level 0
August 2000 Version 9 at Revision Level 0

VSS:/Helpdev/Manuals/Hifreq/Hifreq.doc

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Safe Engineering Services & technologies ltd.


1544 Viel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3M 1G4
Tel.: (514) 336-2511 Fax: (514) 336-6144
Email: support@sestech.com
Foreword

FOREWORD
The HIFREQ program computes current distribution for networks of buried and overhead conductors.
From computed (or user-defined) current distributions, HIFREQ calculates electric fields, magnetic
fields and potentials at in-air and in-soil field observation points. HIFREQ also calculates the potentials
of the conductors. Network conductors may be energized by specifying potential rises on them or the
current flows along them. They can also be energized with voltage generators or an externally applied
electric field. After a HIFREQ run, three output processors (GrServer, CDEGS Output Toolbox and the
command-line oriented CSIRPS) are available to produce graphs of current distributions and plots of
electromagnetic quantities.

The HIFREQ program is driven by a command language compatible with the SES input preprocessor
SICL. The program SICL can be run interactively to create an input file or to check the syntax of an
existing one. The Windows Toolbox can also be used to enter data. It provides a very user-friendly
environment for data entry. The SESCAD utility can also be used for a graphical approach to data entry.

Several sample input files accompany this release to demonstrate HIFREQ's capabilities.

HIFREQ Page iii


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 1-1


1.1 INPUT FILE PREPARATION .....................................................................................................................1-1
1.2 VIEWING, PRINTING AND PLOTTING COMPUTATION RESULTS.......................................................1-2
1.3 ORGANIZATION OF THE MANUAL .........................................................................................................1-2
1.4 FOR A QUICK READING ..........................................................................................................................1-3
1.5 CONVENTIONS .........................................................................................................................................1-3
1.6 CLOSING COMMENTS .............................................................................................................................1-3
2 THEORY ............................................................................................................................ 2-1
2.1 TIME DEPENDENCE .................................................................................................................................2-1
2.2 COORDINATES .........................................................................................................................................2-1
2.3 ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS COMPUTATIONS ...................................................................................2-2
2.4 CURRENT DETERMINATION ...................................................................................................................2-2
3 WHAT CAN BE MODELED WITH HIFREQ....................................................................... 3-1
3.1 APPLICATIONS .........................................................................................................................................3-1
3.2 LIMITATIONS.............................................................................................................................................3-2
3.2.1 MEMORY USE AND RUN-TIME...................................................................................................3-2
4 HOW TO USE HIFREQ TO MODEL PHYSICAL PROBLEMS.......................................... 4-1
4.1 SUMMARY OF THE INFORMATION REQUIRED ....................................................................................4-1
4.2 THE DATA REQUIRED AND A GUIDE TO MODELING ..........................................................................4-1
4.2.1 OPTION MODULE ........................................................................................................................4-3
4.2.2 SOIL-TYPE MODULE ...................................................................................................................4-3
4.2.3 SYSTEM MODULE .......................................................................................................................4-3
4.2.3.1 OVERVIEW ....................................................................................................................4-3
4.2.3.2 CONDUCTOR GEOMETRY AND SEGMENTATION ....................................................4-5
4.2.3.3 ENERGIZATION.............................................................................................................4-5
4.2.3.4 CONDUCTOR-TYPE......................................................................................................4-9
4.2.3.5 COATING-TYPE.............................................................................................................4-9
4.2.3.6 APPLIED-FIELD .............................................................................................................4-9
4.2.3.7 CURRENT ......................................................................................................................4-9
4.2.4 COMPUTATIONS MODULE .......................................................................................................4-10
4.2.5 METHODOLOGY MODULE........................................................................................................4-10
4.3 RESTART INSTRUCTIONS.....................................................................................................................4-12
4.4 DIFFERENCES WITH MALZ ...................................................................................................................4-12
5 USAGE NOTES ................................................................................................................. 5-1

HIFREQ Page v
TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT’D)

Page

5.1 TROUBLE-SHOOTING..............................................................................................................................5-1
5.1.1 MOST COMMON PROBLEMS .....................................................................................................5-1
5.1.2 MOST COMMON ERROR AND WARNING MESSAGES. ...........................................................5-1
6 SAMPLE INPUTS ...............................................................................................................6-1
6.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................6-1
6.2 EXAMPLE 1: BURIED GRID .....................................................................................................................6-1
6.2.1 THE PHYSICAL SITUATION ........................................................................................................6-1
6.2.2 THE HIFREQ INPUT FILE ............................................................................................................6-3
6.2.3 OUTPUT FOR EXAMPLE 1 ..........................................................................................................6-6
6.3 EXAMPLE 2: PARALLEL BUS BARS.......................................................................................................6-6
6.3.1 THE PHYSICAL SITUATION ........................................................................................................6-6
6.3.2 THE HIFREQ INPUT FILE ..........................................................................................................6-11
6.3.3 OUTPUT FOR EXAMPLE 2 ........................................................................................................6-14
APPENDIX A FILE USAGE AND FILE NAME CONVENTIONS ......................................... A-1
A.1 THE INPUT FILE....................................................................................................................................... A-1
A.2 THE DATABASE FILE .............................................................................................................................. A-1
A.3 THE REPORT FILE................................................................................................................................... A-1
A.4 THE OUTPUT FILE................................................................................................................................... A-2
A.5 THE PLOT DATA FILE ............................................................................................................................. A-3
A.6 THE CURRENTS RECOVERY FILE ........................................................................................................ A-3
APPENDIX B STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION OF COMMANDS ................................. B-1
B.1 FOREWORD ............................................................................................................................................. B-1
B.2 COMMAND FORMAT ............................................................................................................................... B-1
B.3 SHORTHAND FORMS.............................................................................................................................. B-2
B.4 HIERARCHY OF COMMANDS................................................................................................................. B-2
B.5 STANDARD COMMANDS ........................................................................................................................ B-2
B.6 SPECIFICATION COMMANDS ................................................................................................................ B-3
APPENDIX C THE HI_EX*.INP INPUT FILES....................................................................... C-1
APPENDIX D EQUIVALENT CYLINDRICAL CONDUCTORS............................................. D-1
APPENDIX E TYPICAL RESISTIVITIES AND PERMEABILITIES........................................ E-1
E.1 TYPICAL RESISTIVITIES ......................................................................................................................... E-1
E.2 TYPICAL RELATIVE (TO FREE SPACE) PERMEABILITIES ................................................................. E-1

HIFREQ Page vi
TABLE OF FIGURES

Page

Figure 2-1 Coordinate System Used in HIFREQ..................................................................................................................... 2-1


Figure 4.1 HIFREQ Input File Template ................................................................................................................................ 4-2
Figure 4.2 Conductor Types and Conductor Coating ............................................................................................................. 4-4
Figure 4.3 Energization in HIFREQ ....................................................................................................................................... 4-6
Figure 6.1 Configuration for Example 1 ................................................................................................................................. 6-1
Printout 6.1 Input File for Example 1 ............................................................................................................................. 6-2
Figure 6.2 Ground Level Potential Above a Ground Loop ..................................................................................................... 6-6
Figure 6.3 Configuration of Bus Bars and Cage and Representation of the Bus Bars as Groups of Cylindrical
Conductors............................................................................................................................................................. 6-7
Printout 6.2 HIFREQ Input File for Example 2 ............................................................................................................ 6-10
Figure 6.4 Magnetic Field Between Parallel Bus Bars ......................................................................................................... 6-15
Figure 6.5 Induced Currents in a Metallic Cage Located Between Parallel Bus Bars ......................................................... 6-16
Table A.1 HIFREQ File Name Conventions........................................................................................................................... A-1
Table A.2 Quick Searches in the Output File ......................................................................................................................... A-2
Table A.3 Data Stored in Plot Data File ................................................................................................................................ A-3
Figure D.1Equivalent Cylindrical Conductors........................................................................................................................D-2

HIFREQ Page vii


Chapter 1 Introduction

1 INTRODUCTION
The program HIFREQ computes the current distribution in networks of buried and overhead conductors
and the electric, magnetic and scalar potential fields generated by this current distribution. The
computation frequency can vary from 0 Hz to several tens of MHz. HIFREQ can perform these
calculations for conductors in an infinite medium, in a uniform soil or in a two-layer soil.

The conductors are restricted to rectilinear, that is straight, segments which can be horizontal, vertical or
slanted. They can be insulated or not. The program can model voltage and current sources, as well as
externally applied fields. The presence of lumped impedances (resistors, capacitors and inductances) can
be taken into account. The theory underlying the computations allows for the soil (and air) to have
arbitrary conductivities, permittivities and permeabilities. A working potential can be applied to every
conductor, for cathodic protection studies.

After the currents in a network have been computed by HIFREQ (or defined by the user), the following
electromagnetic quantities can be obtained.

1. the electric field (three complex quantities: Ex, Ey, Ez).


2. the magnetic field (three complex quantities: Hx, Hy, Hz).
3. a scalar potential (one complex quantity: P).
4. a vector potential (three complex quantities: Ax, Ay, Az).
5. midpoint potential at the surface of each conductor.
6. the voltage drop along user-defined paths.

At low frequencies, the electric field is essentially the gradient of the scalar potential, more precisely its
negative. At higher frequencies, this is no longer true. The difference between the electric field and the
scalar potential gradient is given by the vector potential.

1.1 INPUT FILE PREPARATION


For best results, enter your HIFREQ data using one of the following interactive input data processors:
SICL for a command mode input session, the Input Toolbox for Windows menus or SESCAD for a
graphical, drawing environment. Each of these programs provides you with a user-friendly environment,
including preliminary error-checking, in which you can specify the engineering data required by
HIFREQ. They also offer detailed on-line help and can plot selected data and results on your video
screen to help you verify your data. Note that, if you prefer to prepare your data outside of these
interactive environments, you can always use a word processor (in ASCII mode) to create or edit a SICL
input file before invoking the SICL input processor, and then use the OPEN-FILE and READ commands
within SICL to process the file you have prepared. SICL and Toolbox create a complete, syntactically
correct HIFREQ input file at the end of the interactive session.

HIFREQ Page 1-1


Chapter 1 Introduction

The Getting Started manual presents examples (in Chapter 6) showing how to prepare input data using
the SICL input data processor. The “How To ...”Engineering Booklets present some examples of the use
of the Toolbox.

For information on file-naming conventions, consult the Getting Started section of your Getting Started
manual, or Appendix A of this manual.

1.2 VIEWING, PRINTING AND PLOTTING COMPUTATION


RESULTS

When you run HIFREQ, computation results are stored in a user-readable printout file and in a machine-
readable database file. When HIFREQ has finished running, you can view your results in the following
ways:

1. By employing GrServer, the Output Toolbox, or the SIRPS report and plot generator to extract
information from the machine-readable database file. These output processors can extract a
summary of the most important results and display it promptly on your screen or save it in a
report file for subsequent printing. They can also prepare reports and plots, for immediate
display on your video screen or subsequent hardcopy printing. See the Getting Started manual
and the SIRPS User's Manual for details on how to use SIRPS. See the various How To…
manuals for details on how to use Output Toolbox.
2. By editing or printing the user-readable printout file containing complete computation results.
Note that this file can be quite long, so verify its length before printing it!
Note that no results are automatically displayed on your screen or on your printer when a HIFREQ run
ends.

The program creates three additional output files. The first, which can be reused subsequently as an input
file, contains the computed current distribution and conductor segment coordinates (see Section 4.3 for
details). The second stores in high precision format the current distribution computed during the run. It
can be used to avoid the current distribution computation in subsequent runs. The third is a plot data file
which may be used by user-supplied or customized plotting and report-generating programs.

Consult Appendix A for more information on those files and on file-naming conventions.

1.3 ORGANIZATION OF THE MANUAL


This manual describes the capabilities of the engineering software HIFREQ. It describes what can be
modeled with HIFREQ and the physical data that is needed to carry out this modeling. Some guidelines
and hints to efficient modeling are also provided. Two examples are included. They illustrate how to
organize the data in the form of an input file that the program can recognize and process.

HIFREQ Page 1-2


Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 contains a brief description of the theory underlying the computations carried out by
HIFREQ.

Chapter 3 offers a partial list of the many problems that can be successfully modeled with the
software.

Chapter 4 describes in detail the data that is needed to operate the program and gives some helpful
hints.

Chapter 5 contains a list of the most commonly encountered difficulties and error messages. It also
says how to circumvent these problems.

Chapter 6 presents two examples of the use of HIFREQ.

1.4 FOR A QUICK READING


Readers who want to get going quickly may want to focus their attention on Chapters 3 and 4, which
describe what can be modeled with HIFREQ and how to model it, and on Chapter 6, which presents
some examples.

1.5 CONVENTIONS
The file names used in this manual assume that the reader is using the Windows version of CDEGS. The
corresponding file names for other operating systems are listed in Appendix A.

1.6 CLOSING COMMENTS


SES researchers are working to implement new features that should make HIFREQ an even more
versatile tool. Forthcoming developments may include the following:

1. allowance for curved conductors, conducting surfaces and nonlinear currents.


2. computations for multi-layer soil structures with more than 2 layers.
3. major and minor axes computations for the electric and magnetic fields.
4. various computation accelerations.
5. models for transformers, surge arresters, etc.

HIFREQ Page 1-3


Chapter 2 Theory

2 THEORY
The program HIFREQ computes the current distribution in networks of buried and overhead conductors
and the electromagnetic fields produced by this current distribution. The computations can be carried out
for conductors in an infinite medium, in a uniform soil or in a two-layer soil. The conductors in the
network are assumed to be cylinders of circular cross-section, which can be oriented arbitrarily in space.
The properties (resistivity ρ, relative permittivity ε and relative permeability µ) of the air and earth layers
and of the conductors can also be chosen arbitrarily.

2.1 TIME DEPENDENCE


The time dependence of the fields is assumed to be a simple harmonic of the form e + jωt where the
frequency ω = 2πf can be chosen arbitrarily. Fields with a more complicated time dependence can be
expressed as a superposition of such simple harmonics.

2.2 COORDINATES
The HIFREQ program employs a left-handed Cartesian coordinate system with three coordinates (x, y,
z) (see Figure 2-1). The numbers x and y give the horizontal coordinates, and z provides the vertical
coordinate. The positive z direction is downward. The demarcation between the air and earth layers
occurs at z = 0. A positive value of z indicates the depth of a point in the ground, while a negative value
together with its magnitude indicates the height of a point in the air.

Figure 2-1 Coordinate System Used in HIFREQ

HIFREQ Page 2-1


Chapter 2 Theory

2.3 ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS COMPUTATIONS


Each electromagnetic field at an observation point is the sum of the contributions from all conductors in
the network. For the purpose of the computation, each conductor is regarded as the union of small
segments. Each such segment is represented by an electric dipole located at its center. The total
contribution of the conductor is obtained by summing the contributions of the dipoles to the
electromagnetic quantities.

The field of a dipole is expressed as the sum of a source term, an image term and a Sommerfeld integral.
The Sommerfeld integral can be computed in three different ways:

1. Double Integration. The Sommerfeld integrals are evaluated numerically, without any
approximation.
2. Low Frequency Approximation. An analytic, quasi-static approximation is used for the
Sommerfeld integrals. .
3. In-Soil Approximation. Another analytic formulation, which is valid when the complex
conductivity of the earth is significantly greater than that of the air (which is the case at
sufficiently low frequencies). This approximation applies only when both the dipole and the
observation point are in the soil layer and when the permeabilities of both layers are the same.
The Low-Frequency approximation is the fastest algorithm, followed by the In-Soil approximation and
the Double-Integration method. The computation algorithm is usually selected by the program but can be
specified by the user, if so desired.

When the calculations are made in an infinite medium, only the source term is computed; when they are
made in a multi-layer soil, the Sommerfeld integral is always computed using the Double Integration
method.

The validity of the calculations rests upon the thin-wire approximation: the length of the conductors
should be longer (by a factor of about 5) than their radius. This condition is usually not very difficult to
meet.

Note: For the purpose of electromagnetic fields computation, observation points located at z=0 are
assumed to be in the soil layer.

2.4 CURRENT DETERMINATION


The current is assumed to vary linearly along every conductor segment (see Section 4.2.3.2). With
sufficiently small segments, currents varying in an arbitrary way in the network can be represented. A
two-potential (scalar and vector) moment method is used to impose the boundary conditions (continuity
of E and H) at the surface of the conductors.

HIFREQ Page 2-2


Chapter 2 Theory

Constraints are imposed on the current to enforce current conservation at nodes (Kirchhoff’s Law) and
energization conditions. The currents circulating in closed loops are also constrained to obey Faraday’s
Law.

This generates a set of linear equations that are then solved for the unknown currents.

HIFREQ Page 2-3


Chapter 3 What Can Be Modeled with HIFREQ

3 WHAT CAN BE MODELED WITH HIFREQ

3.1 APPLICATIONS
HIFREQ is a very flexible program that can be used to model a wide variety of electromagnetic
problems. Examples of HIFREQ computations include:

• The grounding performance of metallic grids attached to overhead structures.


• The electric and magnetic fields around transmission lines and substations.
• The induced currents and voltages in pipes and other buried objects caused by the presence of
overhead conductors (transmission line, etc.)
• Eddy currents in the soil caused by overhead structures or buried, energized conductors. (The
Eddy currents are proportional to the electric field.)
• Fault current distribution on a portion of a transmission line, and the electromagnetic fields at
the fault site.

HIFREQ’s computational engine is based on field theory (see Chapter 2). As such, it takes induction
effects fully into account. This allows the computation of the self-inductance of arbitrary circuits and of
the mutual inductances between any two such circuits. Capacitances can likewise be computed. In
particular, this means that the following problems can be studied with HIFREQ:

• Currents and voltages induced on a secondary circuit caused by the presence of a large current
on a primary circuit.
• Induced currents in an arbitrary, three-dimensional wire-frame structure (such as a metallic
building frame) caused by the presence of nearby electromagnetic field sources.
It is also possible to specify that lumped impedances (resistors, capacitors and inductances) be attached
to the conductors. This means that it is possible to perform ordinary circuit analysis with HIFREQ. Also,
a working potential can be specified on every conductor, making it possible to use HIFREQ to carry out
cathodic protection studies.

HIFREQ’s computations are valid up to several tens of MHz. In fact, HIFREQ can be used to do wire
antenna calculations! This high-frequency capability, coupled with Fourier analysis (such as that
performed by SES’ own, powerful FFTSES program), means that HIFREQ can be used to study time
dependent phenomena, such as:

• Lightning performance of towers and grids.


• Behavior of transients caused by lightning or switching.

HIFREQ Page 3-1


Chapter 3 What Can Be Modeled with HIFREQ

• Effects of higher harmonics on the electromagnetic fields (non-sinusoidal currents and voltages,
pulse trains, etc.)

3.2 LIMITATIONS
Basically, HIFREQ can successfully model all problems where the soil structure can be reasonably well
approximated by a uniform half-space or a two-layer horizontal soil and the conductors can be modeled
by combinations of thin cylindrical conductors.

The last of these conditions is not as restrictive as it might seem at first. Most common shapes of
conductors can be represented by cylindrical conductors with a suitable radius. (See the Table of
Equivalent Radius in Appendix D). Also, if needed, non-cylindrical conductors can be modeled by
stacking cylindrical conductors. (See Example 2, Chapter 6).

3.2.1 Memory Use and Run-Time


The main limitation to the use of the software is the upper limit on the total number of conductor
segments N seg that the program can process. N seg is also the most important determining factor for the
run-time and memory use of the program.

A rough estimate of the actual amount of run-time memory needed for the execution of the program is
given by the following formula

F N IJ
≈ 24G
seg
2

MEMORY (in Megabytes)


H 1000 K +5

Note that for N seg = 2500 (the maximum value currently accepted by the program), this is approximately
155 MB.

The run time for HIFREQ has three components which depend on N seg . The first component comes from
building the matrix during thecurrent distribution calculation. Here, the run time is asymptotically
d i 2
proportional to N seg . Hence, doubling N seg will asymptotically multiply by 4 this portion of the
computation cost. The second component comes from the matrix inversion. This is asymptotically
proportional to c N h . This component is normally negligible but it can be substantial for large number
3
seg

of segments due to the very fast growth of this portion of the computation cost. The last component
comes from the computation of electromagnetic fields. The run time here is proportional to N seg so
doubling the number of segments will simply double this portion of the computation time. The
computation time in this second component is proportional to the number of electromagnetic quantities
computed and the number of observation points.

HIFREQ Page 3-2


Chapter 4 How to Use HIFREQ to Model Physical Problems

4 HOW TO USE HIFREQ TO MODEL


PHYSICAL PROBLEMS
4.1 SUMMARY OF THE INFORMATION REQUIRED
The following information is usually sufficient in order to run HIFREQ.

1. To help distinguish runs, a run-identification of up to 20 characters.


2. The soil resistivity of each soil layer in Ω-m. The default is 100 Ω-m.
3. The conductor data. Here you will need to identify the coordinates of the origin and end-points
of all conductors, the radius of each, the number of segments into which it should be subdivided
and the electromagnetic properties of the metal and its coating.
4. The location and strength of the network energizations (currents, GPR or voltages).
5. The frequency or frequencies of interest.
6. The location of the observation points where the electromagnetic fields are to be computed.

The following section discusses HIFREQ’s features in some detail, and shows how they relate to the
above mentioned information.

4.2 THE DATA REQUIRED AND A GUIDE TO MODELING


In this section, the data required to run HIFREQ is described in detail. It is shown how to select
appropriate values for the input data and how to avoid certain common problems. The way to turn this
raw data into HIFREQ-readable input files is not described, however. For this, the user is referred to the
Getting Started & Input/Output Processing binder, especially the Help Reference section. Also, the
annotated examples of Chapter 6 and of the “How To ...” Engineering Guides should be very helpful.

HIFREQ’s input files are written in the SES Input Command Language. This language is hierarchically
structured to facilitate the grouping of logically related data. The data is grouped into MODULES, as
shown in Figure 4.1 (which can serve as a template for building input files for HIFREQ). The various
input processors (either command-based or menu-driven) of SES also follow this architecture. The
organization of this Section reflects this hierarchy.

HIFREQ Page 4-1


Chapter 4 How to Use HIFREQ to Model Physical Problems

Figure 4.1 HIFREQ Input File Template

HIFREQ Page 4-2


Chapter 4 How to Use HIFREQ to Model Physical Problems

4.2.1 Option Module

A RUN-IDentification of up to 20 characters can be used to help distinguish runs. This RUN-ID appears
at the top of each page in the output and on each plot. It is also in this module that the system of UNITS
is chosen. By default, HIFREQ uses metric units so if the British system of units is desired, it must be
explicitly specified.

4.2.2 Soil-Type Module

As its name indicates, this module is used to specify the soil type. Three soil types are currently available
in HIFREQ: the infinite soil, the uniform soil and the two-layer soil. The INFINITE soil is an infinite
medium of constant resistivity, relative permittivity and relative permeability. The uniform soil consists
of an air layer and a soil layer, separated at z = 0. The two-layer soil is similar to the uniform soil except
that the soil layer is divided in two by a horizontal plane. The electromagnetic properties of the air and
the soil layers can all be specified. The thickness of the top layer in the two-layer soil model can be as
large or small as desired. By default, HIFREQ runs in uniform soil-type with a soil of resistivity 100 Ω-
m, a relative permittivity of 1 and a relative permeability of 1.

The most important of the above-mentioned properties are the resistivity and permittivity of the soil, as
well as the thickness of the top soil layer. These values can be measured directly (by collecting soil
samples) or indirectly, by potential measurements (the SES program RESAP can be used to deduce the
resistivity and thickness values from the measurement data).

Computations are usually carried out with a uniform or a two-layer soil type. However, an infinite soil
can sometimes be used profitably when the effects of the presence of an air-soil interface are judged to
be unimportant. This is usually the case when the observation points are close to the energized
conductors for a network whose size is small compared to its distance to the air-soil interface. With an
infinite soil, the computations are much faster.

4.2.3 System Module

4.2.3.1 Overview

In this module, the conductor network to be modeled is defined. This means that the location and
properties of all conductors of interest must be given. Those properties include the resistivity and
permeability of the metal, its inner radius, the dielectric properties of the coating (if any) and its
thickness, and the resistance, capacitance and inductance of a lumped impedance connected to it (if any).
This is summed up in Figure 4.2. Also, the number of segments into which the conductor should be
subdivided and the energization of the conductor (if any) must be specified.

HIFREQ Page 4-3


Chapter 4 How to Use HIFREQ to Model Physical Problems

Figure 4.2 Conductor Types and Conductor Coating

Clearly, there is a lot of data for every conductor in the network. As the number of conductors can be
quite large, the specification of this data can be rather time consuming.

To simplify data entry, CONDUCTOR-TYpes, COATING-TYPEs and ENERGIZATIONs are defined


first. Then, the conductor is defined by giving its CONDUCTOR-TYpe connection code (an integer that
refers to a CONDUCTOR-TYpe), its COATING-TYPE connection code, its ENERGIZATION
connection code, and the geometry of the conductor.

This is detailed below.

HIFREQ Page 4-4


Chapter 4 How to Use HIFREQ to Model Physical Problems

4.2.3.2 Conductor Geometry and Segmentation

A conductor is specified by giving the cartesian coordinates of its origin (Xo, Yo, Zo) and those of its
end (Xe, Ye, Ze) (Figure 4.2). Note that positive Z is down in HIFREQ. The origin and the end of a
conductor play a dissimilar role when a conductor is energized (see Section 4.2.3.3), therefore, these
must be determined carefully. The outer radius of the metal (Ro) and the desired number of segments for
the conductor must also be specified.

This last quantity is very important. It must be chosen so that the length of the segments satisfies two
conditions:

1. The thin wire condition: the segment length must be at least about 5 times longer than its radius.
2. The segment length must be such that the current distribution over the segment can reasonably
be approximated by a straight line.

The second condition means that shorter segments should be used wherever the current is expected to
vary rapidly in space, such as close to energization points. In particular, at higher frequencies the current
tends to vary sinusoidally along the conductors, with a wavelength λ (in meters) roughly equal to:

λ = 3 × 108 f in the air


λ = 3160 ρ f in the soil

where f is the frequency in Hz and ρ the resistivity of the soil in Ω-m. For reliable results, the maximum
length of a segment should be about λ/6.

The first condition can be relaxed by setting the Thin-Wire ratio to the desired number. Usually, the
presence of a few shorter conductors will not decrease the accuracy of the computations appreciably.

Note: HIFREQ automatically segments conductors that cross any layer interface so that all segments are
located entirely in a single layer. Also, conductors are automatically segmented at the contact points with
other conductors.

4.2.3.3 ENERGIZATION

There are three main ENERGIZATION types in HIFREQ: LEAD, VOLTAGE and GPR. In order to
explain their functions, some definitions will be needed.

Pseudo-node and Proper-node

A node in HIFREQ is defined as one of a conductor segment endpoints (origin or end). As illustrated in
Figure 4.3(a), a Pseudo-node is a conductor segment endpoint which is not in contact with another
conductor segment, i.e., a point which terminates in the surrounding medium, while a Proper-node is a

HIFREQ Page 4-5


Chapter 4 How to Use HIFREQ to Model Physical Problems

conductor endpoint which is in contact with another conductor segment. In other words, a Pseudo-node
is an isolated node at which there is only one conductor, while a Proper-node is a common node shared
by two or more conductors.

Figure 4.3 Energization in HIFREQ

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Chapter 4 How to Use HIFREQ to Model Physical Problems

External and Internal Energizations

It is sometimes impossible to model the entire electrical network under consideration, because of its size.
However, complete modeling is rarely necessary: the local electromagnetic fields do not depend
critically on the details of the remote parts of the network. It is usually sufficient to represent the remote
network as a source of currents and voltages for the local network. In this manual, this is referred to as
“External Energization”. External Energization can be achieved by specifying the currents flowing into
(or out of) the local network (with LEAD energizations at pseudo-nodes) and the potentials at which the
various parts of the network are kept (with GPR energizations). It can also be achieved by specifying the
Thevenin equivalent of the remote system (a combination of VOLTAGE energization and an
impedance).

It is also possible to have “Internal Energizations” in the local network. These are current sources
(LEAD energization at proper-nodes) and voltage generators (VOLTAGE energization). They behave in
exactly the same way as in circuit analysis.

Which approach is used for external energization depends on the problem under consideration. In many
cases, this is only a matter of taste as different methods of energization can be used equivalently.
However, in some cases, one method can be greatly superior to the others. As an example, a lightning
stroke is much more easily represented as a current source than in any other way.

1. LEAD ENERGIZATION

The LEAD energization is used to specify the current to be injected into the network. It can be
applied to both pseudo-nodes and proper-nodes. With the LEAD energization (Figure 4.3(b)), a
current of ReI + j ImI is forced to flow into the origin of the energized conductor towards its end.
If the origin of the energized conductor is a proper-node, the LEAD energization acts as a current
source, familiar from circuit theory. The proper-node energization can be used, for instance, to
model a loop with a specified circulating current. If the origin of the energized segment is a
pseudo-node, the current is assumed to be drawn from an adjacent network which is not
modeled.

2. GPR ENERGIZATION

The GPR energization forces the scalar potential to be ReV + j ImV on the energized conductor.
At the same time, as shown in Figure 4.3(c), an unknown current Ix determined by HIFREQ is
allowed to flow into the origin of the energized conductor so that the right value of the scalar
potential ReV + j ImV is produced. As in the case of the LEAD energization, Ix is assumed to be
drawn from an adjacent network. It is important to note that presently the GPR energization can
only be applied to a pseudo-node. This restriction will be lifted in the future. The GPR
energization can be used to model a voltage generator with one lead connected to remote ground.
It works well at relatively low frequencies (< 1 MHz).

3. VOLTAGE ENERGIZATION

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Chapter 4 How to Use HIFREQ to Model Physical Problems

As illustrated in Figure 4.3(d), the VOLTAGE energization inserts a zero-gap voltage generator
in the middle of the energized conductor to establish a voltage difference of ReV + j ImV across
that point. Note that the program automatically segments the energized conductor in the middle.
Note also that no further segmentation of that conductor is allowed, i.e., a conductor subject to a
VOLTAGE energization must not cross the air-soil interface or any other conductors. Also, the
specified number of segments for this conductor must be 1.

The voltage difference is imposed so that the voltage close to the end of the conductor minus the
voltage close to its origin is given by the specified ReV + j ImV.

The VOLTAGE energization behaves precisely as a voltage generator in circuit theory.

To energize a conductor, its Lead-Type connection code must be set to 0 and its Energization-Type
connection code must be set to the value corresponding to the desired ENERGIZATION. Setting the
Lead-Type connection code to -1 informs the program that the corresponding conductor is not directly
energized. Refer to the examples of Chapter 6 for the details.

Note that the electromagnetic fields close to energization sites can be somewhat inaccurate due to the
idealized modeling of the energizations. This is usually not a big concern for internal energizations but it
can have a substantial effect for external energizations. A rule of thumb is that whenever the distance
between the observation point and the closest conductor is about 10 times smaller (or less) than the
distance between the observation point and the closest external energization, the fields should be very
accurate. Also, the electric field and scalar potential are much less sensitive to this effect than the
magnetic field.

In case of doubt, it is always possible to model a little bit more of the remote network (thereby pushing
the external energizations further away) to ascertain the extent of the effects of the external energizations
on the fields.

Important Note:

The currents at all pseudo-nodes are physically forced to be zero, except when the pseudo-nodes are
subjected to LEAD or GPR ENERGIZATION. This leads to a very common mistake when in-air
conductors are energized. For example if one end of a long conductor is energized with a 100 Amps
LEAD and its other end is a pseudo-node, the entire 100 Amps will be forced to leak into the air,
creating huge, unphysical, electric fields and potential.

Unless a current of zero is specifically desired, all in-air pseudo-nodes should be subject to either a
LEAD or a GPR energization. Since these energizations can only be applied at the origin of the
segments, one must make sure that in-air pseudo-nodes are located at the origin of the segments, by
orienting the segments appropriately. Whether a LEAD or a GPR energization should be used depends
on the problem being modeled, as does the magnitude of the energization. See the examples of
Chapter 6.

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Chapter 4 How to Use HIFREQ to Model Physical Problems

4.2.3.4 CONDUCTOR-TYPE

This is used to define the relative resistivity (with respect to annealed copper) and relative permeability
of the conductors and also the values of the resistor, capacitor and inductance attached to it. For hollow
conductors, the value of the inner radius must also be given. A working potential between the surface of
the conductor and its coating (or the surrounding medium if no coating is present) can also be specified
for cathodic protection studies. See Appendix E for typical values for the resistivity and permeability of
metals.

To specify that a given conductor is of a certain conductor type, its Conductor-Type connection code
must be set to the value corresponding to the desired conductor type. A value of 0 for this connection
code informs the program to use the default conductor type, which is solid copper.

Conductors whose CONDUCTOR-TYPE has a non zero value for the resistance, capacitance or
inductance behave in the same way as those subject to a VOLTAGE energization in the sense that these
conductors are segmented into two and the impedance is inserted in the middle. This is subject to the
same restrictions as in the VOLTAGE case, namely the conductors carrying an impedance must not be
segmented. Those impedances can be used in precisely the same way as in circuit theory. Conductor-
Type 0 carries no lumped impedances. Refer to the Help Reference Session of the Getting Started &
Input/Output Processing binder or Example 2 of Chapter 6 for the details.

4.2.3.5 COATING-TYPE

This specifies the resistivity, relative permeability, relative permittivity and thickness of a coating
material. Conductors can be coated by setting their Coating-Type connection code to the value
corresponding to the desired coating type. A connection code of -1 indicates “perfect insulation”: a very
large resistivity and a thickness of half the conductor radius. A connection code of zero indicates a bare
conductor. Positive values of the connection code refer to the user-defined coating types. Refer to the
Help Reference Session of the Getting Started & Input/Output Processing binder or Example 2 of
Chapter 6 for the details.

4.2.3.6 APPLIED-FIELD

An external electric field can be specified by giving the real and imaginary parts of its X, Y and Z
components as measured in the air. This external field will be taken into account during the computation
of the current distribution in the network. This can be used to simulate the effects of distant lightning
strikes or geomagnetic disturbances. The scattered fields caused by this circulation of current can be
obtained. This APPLIED-FIELD can be used at the same time as, or instead of, any type of
ENERGIZATION.

4.2.3.7 CURRENT

User-defined currents can be specified. Here, the real and imaginary parts of the currents entering each
end of a conductor must be given. The current along each conductor is taken to vary linearly.

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Chapter 4 How to Use HIFREQ to Model Physical Problems

Whenever user-defined currents are used, conductors in the network must not cross the air-soil interface
(z=0). When entering the data, the conductors must be split manually at points where they cross the
interface or other conductors. This rule is automatically satisfied with previously computed HIFREQ or
MALZ currents.

4.2.4 Computations Module

HIFREQ is informed of the computations you request in the COMPUTATIONS module.


a - You may wish to turn on or bypass the computation of the magnetic field, the scalar potential,
the electric field, the vector potential or the scalar potential gradient. By not requesting the
computations of quantities you do not need, you will speed up the computations. The GPR
(midpoint potential at the surface of each conductor segment and their coating) can likewise be
requested or bypassed. Note that when both the electric field and the vector potential are
requested, the program will also automatically compute the voltage drop along all specified
profiles.
b - The observation points at which the requested electromagnetic fields will be computed are
specified with POINT, PROFILE, and SURFACE. Note that PROFILE generates a sequence of
points along a straight line by translating an initial point a given number of times in a given
direction. Similarly, SURFACE generates a set of points in a rectangular or parallelogram-
shaped region by translating a given number of times, the collection of observation points
defined in the last PROFILE. Note that positive Z coordinates are downwards in HIFREQ. Note
further that observation points located at Z=0 are considered to be in the soil for the purpose of
electromagnetic field computations. If the fields in the air and close to the ground are desired,
the observation points should have a small, negative, Z-coordinate.
c - One or several computation frequencies can be specified with FREQUENCY. The frequencies
are specified INDIVIDUALly or in a group, AUTOMATICally. The entire computations will be
repeated for each specified frequency.

4.2.5 Methodology Module


This module is devoted to the selection of computation algorithms and of accuracy control parameters.
Normally, the only algorithm that should be selected by the user is the algorithm for electromagnetic
field computations.

Three algorithms are available for the computation of electromagnetic fields. They are the LOW-
FREQUENCY approximation, the IN-SOIL approximation and the DOUBLE-INTEGRATION
approach.

The DOUBLE-INTEGRATION approach is the most comprehensive algorithm. It can be used to treat
all cases.

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Chapter 4 How to Use HIFREQ to Model Physical Problems

The LOW-FREQUENCY approximation can be used at low-frequencies. The meaning of “low” depends
on the size of the system: the largest linear dimension of the entire system should be 5 times (or more)
smaller than one wavelength. (Note that the wavelength in the soil is usually much shorter than that in
the air.)

The IN-SOIL approximation can be used at “intermediate frequencies” (system a few wavelengths in
size). However, its use is restricted to observation points in the soil layer and source conductors in the
soil layer as well. Also, the relative permeability of the soil must be 1.

There is also the AUTOMATIC algorithm (which is the default) that uses the LOW-FREQUENCY
approximation between 0 and 100 kHz, the IN-SOIL approximation (if applicable) between 100 kHz and
500 kHz, and the DOUBLE-INTEGRATION approach for all other cases. A much more powerful
version of this AUTOMATIC algorithm is currently under development. The future version will take the
size of the system into account when selecting the computation method.

The main advantage of the DOUBLE-INTEGRATION approach is that it is worry-free: this approach is
valid for all system sizes and frequencies. However, it is considerably slower than either approximations.
The computation time ratios are approximately:

LOW-FREQ : IN-SOIL : DOUBLE


1 : 2 - 3 : 5 - 10

The actual numbers can vary considerably depending on the nature of the system being modelled.

As a rule of thumb, the AUTOMATIC approach is recommended for computations at power frequencies
for systems of essentially arbitrary sizes. For the study of transients, it is safer to use the DOUBLE-
INTEGRATION approach. This can be done with the following commands:

METHODOLOGY
INTEGRATION
SOMMERFELD,AUTOMATIC,,0.005,32,15
SOURCE-LOCA, AIR
OBSERVER-LOCA, AIR
ALGORITHM,DOUBLE-INTEG
OBSERVER-LOCA, SOIL
ALGORITHM,DOUBLE-INTEG
SOURCE-LOCA, SOIL
OBSERVER-LOCA, AIR
ALGORITHM,DOUBLE-INTEG
OBSERVER-LOCA, SOIL
ALGORITHM,DOUBLE-INTEG
ENDMODULE

Alternately, one can use the ACCURACY,AUTO command to allow the program to determine the best
accuracy settings for the given problem.

The other commands and features in this module should normally be used only under SES guidance.

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Chapter 4 How to Use HIFREQ to Model Physical Problems

4.3 RESTART INSTRUCTIONS


The conductor data and the current distribution in a network of conductors for each excitation frequency
are written to the currents recovery file (called HI_jobid.F33).

For the OpenVMS and UNIX versions, the name of this file is FHIFREQ_jobid.RCV.

You have the option of computing the current distribution once, and then reusing it to compute the
associated electromagnetic fields at locations which appear to be of interest. To take advantage of this
feature, add the command CURRENT,RECOVERED under COMPUTATIONS. Leave all other
commands untouched. The currents recovery file must have the same JobID as the input file (rename the
currents recovery file, if necessary).

HIFREQ will check that the input is consistent with the excitation conditions in the original input. An
inconsistency here suggests that the original input file may have changed since the information in the
currents recovery file was created.

4.4 DIFFERENCES WITH MALZ


Users who are already familiar with the SES program MALZ will have noticed that HIFREQ is very
similar to MALZ. There are, however, several differences between the two programs.

First, HIFREQ can compute electric fields and vector potentials (which MALZ cannot). Also, HIFREQ
can carry out field computations in the air. Conductors can likewise be located in the air. Finally, the
computation frequency in HIFREQ can be much larger than in MALZ. On the down side, HIFREQ does
not yet support all the soil types offered in MALZ.

The main difference between the MALZ conventions and the HIFREQ conventions is that when more
than one conductors are energized with the same ENERGIZATION (they have the same Energization-
Type connection code), MALZ will divide the ENERGIZATION current between the associated
conductors, while HIFREQ uses the current to specify the flow into or along each conductor. The effect
in HIFREQ is equivalent to specifying a separate ENERGIZATION for each conductor in question, all
with the same current strength.

Note also that HIFREQ does not support LEAD-TYPEs: they are not needed in HIFREQ since the
above-ground conductors can be modeled. The Lead-Type connection code in HIFREQ is simply a flag
to indicate whether the conductor is directly energized or not.

HIFREQ Page 4-12


Chapter 5 Usage Notes

5 USAGE NOTES

5.1 TROUBLE-SHOOTING
The various warning and error messages generated by the program are written to the output file. (This
file is named “HI_JobID.F09”.)

The user should always verify the output file for the presence of error and warning messages (by
searching for the strings “WARNING” and “ERROR”).

The most commonly encountered problems and error messages are given below.

5.1.1 Most Common Problems


Unacceptably Large Currents

In HIFREQ as in the real world, very large currents are usually the result of a short-circuit. This may be
caused, for instance, by a VOLTAGE energization inserted in a closed metallic loop. Another possibility
is that two different GPR energizations are imposed at different points on the same metallic structures.
This is often caused by an extra, unwanted conductor that closes the loop or brings two distinct metallic
structures, energized at different GPRs, into contact.

Unacceptably Large Voltages

This is invariably caused by the presence of a pseudo-node in the air that is not attached to either a
LEAD or a GPR energization. Read Section 4.2.3.3 (ENERGIZATION) for a guide on how to avoid this
situation.

5.1.2 Most Common Error and Warning Messages.


* ERROR * After subdivision, X segments were found to be shorter than 5.00 times their
radius. Please revise your conductor coordinates or set the second parameter of TOLERANCE (in
the SYSTEM module) to a value smaller than 1.00 . Data regarding the short conductors follow.

Here, X depends on the case being run. This means that some conductors were found to violate the thin-
wire approximation condition. By consulting the “Data regarding the short conductors”, you can quickly
detect which conductors (if any) are very short. These are usually the result of input errors. If you desire
to run the case without modifications of the conductor coordinates, you have to follow the instructions in
the message, namely set the second parameter of the TOLERANCE command to a small value. (In the
Toolbox, this can be found as “Thin-Wire Approximation Ratio Threshold” in the
SYSTEM/ADVANCED menu.)

HIFREQ Page 5-1


Chapter 5 Usage Notes

* ERROR * Segment i and segment j have overlapping zones (or are too close) this may create
an ill-conditioned situation during computations.

This usually happens as a result of input error: the segments i and j occupy (in part) the same region in
space. This often happens when the “Thin-Wire Approximation Ratio Threshold” has been reduced
below its normal value (see previous message). The only way to circumvent this problem is by changing
the coordinates of conductor segments i and j. If this condition is not the result of an input error (i.e., the
conductor segments really are very close together), a possible way out is to replace the two conductor
segments by a single conductor in the region where they overlap.

* ERROR * Conductors carrying a lumped impedance or a voltage source must not be


subdivided. Please check the subdivision number for conductor i .

Conductors carrying a lumped impedance or a VOLTAGE source can never be subdivided. Conductor i
should be checked to make sure that it does not cross the air-soil interface or any other conductors. Also,
its subdivision number (the number of segments desired after conductor subdivision) should be 1.

* ERROR * Conductors that are subject to a GPR energization must have a pseudo-node at their
origin.

This is explained in Section 4.2.3.3

* ERROR * Conductor No. i is connected to a non existing buss ( j ). Number of busses is k.

The numbers i, j and k depend on the case being run. This happens when the Energization-Type
connection code ( j ) for conductor i is larger than the total number of ENERGIZATIONs specified ( k ).
The input must be revised accordingly.

* WARNING * The OPTION option is inactive. It will be ignored.

Here, OPTION is one of several minor features that were recently disabled. If this message appears, you
are probably running an old HIFREQ input file. Usually, ignoring these OPTIONs is inconsequential.

* WARNING * Conductor type ( i ) exceeds specified number ( j ). Default type is assumed.

This message states that a conductor in your input has a Conductor-Type connection code ( i ) greater
than the total number of CONDUCTOR-TYPEs defined ( j ). The input should be revised.

* WARNING * Coating type ( i ) exceeds number defined ( j ). Default type is assumed.

This message states that a conductor in your input has a Coating-Type connection code ( i ) greater than
the total number of COATING-TYPEs defined ( j ). The input should be revised.
*****************************************************
******************** WARNING **********************
*****************************************************
* The Hermitian matrix has a very large condition *

HIFREQ Page 5-2


Chapter 5 Usage Notes

* number. Check computed current distribution *


* carefully. *
*****************************************************
*****************************************************
*****************************************************
*****************************************************

Despite its fearsome looking appearance, this warning is actually quite mild. Its presence signals a
possible loss of accuracy in the current distribution due to some difficulties in a matrix inversion. In
practice, this message will appear when very large lumped impedances are present in the network (large
resistances, large inductances at high frequencies, small capacitances at low frequencies). It may also
appear in conjunction with large current or voltages, usually as a result of inappropriate energization (see
Unacceptably Large Currents and Unacceptably Large Voltages above). Extensive testing has shown
that the matrix inversion is usually sufficiently accurate even with very large condition numbers.
Nevertheless, one should exercise caution.

HIFREQ Page 5-3


Chapter 6 Sample Inputs

6 SAMPLE INPUTS

6.1 INTRODUCTION
We present here two sample input files to help you test your installation and to assist you in the
preparation of HIFREQ inputs. They should first be processed by the command based input processor
SICL before being submitted to HIFREQ. More examples can be found in the “How To ...” Engineering
Booklets, which give step-by-step instructions for data entry in both the command mode and the
Toolbox approach.

These two input files are available as part as your HIFREQ package. They can be found in your CDEGS
CD-ROM in the folder Examples\Official\Manuals\Hifreq under the names HI_EXAM1.INP and
HI_EXAM2.INP. Several other HIFREQ input files are also included in this folder. They can be found
in the files HI_EX*.INP. These files are briefly described in Appendix C.

Both examples include explanations of several HIFREQ commands. Consult the Help Reference section
of your Getting Started & Input/Output Processing binder for further information on any specific
command.

6.2 EXAMPLE 1: BURIED GRID

6.2.1 The Physical Situation


Figure 6.1 illustrates a grounding system consisting of a square loop, two slanted conductors located at
opposite corners of the loop and one ground rod at a third corner. A long feed wire is used to energize
the grid at one corner. The one-mesh grid is buried at a depth of 0.5 m. The soil is uniform, with a
resistivity of 100 ohm-meters. The relative permittivity and permeability of both air and soil are assumed
to be 1.

Figure 6.1 Configuration for Example 1

HIFREQ Page 6-1


Chapter 6 Sample Inputs

A current of 1000 Amps is injected in the feed wire, at its extremity. The electromagnetic fields and
scalar potential at ground level around the grid as well as in the vicinity of the energization point are
desired. The HIFREQ input file for this case is shown in Printout 6.1. A detailed description of the
commands appearing in this file follows.
HIFREQ

TEXT,A 20 by 20 m square mesh is energized with 1000 A via a


TEXT,long lead located at 5 cm above the ground
OPTIONS
UNITS,METRIC
RUN-IDENTIFICATION,square
SYSTEM
TOLERANCE,0.001,0.1,0.005,0.00005,0.001,0
ENERGIZATION,Lead,1000,0
NETWORK
MAIN-GROUND
!
! Grid
!
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,0,0,0.5,20,0,0.5,0.007,20
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,20,0,0.5,20,20,0.5,0.007,20
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,20,20,0.5,0,20,0.5,0.007,20
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,0,20,0.5,0,0,0.5,.007,20
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,0,0,0.5,0,0,3.5,.007,3
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,20,0,0.5,25,-5,2.5,0.007,6
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,0,20,0.5,-5,25,2.5,0.007,6
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,20,20,-0.05,20,20,0.5,0.007,1
!
! Feed wire
!
CONDUCTOR,0,0,0,1,161,161,-0.05,20,20,-0.05,0.007,40
COMPUTATIONS
OBSERVATION-
PROFILES,11,-5,25,0,3,0,0
PROFILES,11,-5,15,0,3,0,0
PROFILES,11,-5,5,0,3,0,0
PROFILES,11,-5,-5,0,3,0,0
PROFILES,10,150,161,0,2.5,0,0
PROFILES,10,150,170,0,2.5,0,0
!
! SURFACE, 5, 5.0, 0, 0
!
DETERMINE
MAGNETIC,YES
ELECTRIC,YES
POTENTIAL-SC,YES

Printout 6.1 Input File for Example 1

HIFREQ Page 6-2


Chapter 6 Sample Inputs

6.2.2 The HIFREQ input file


(A): General

Every input line beginning with an exclamation mark (!) is a comment line that is ignored by the
program. These comments can be used (as is done in this example) to describe the system being
modeled.

The HIFREQ command beginning the file starts the program HIFREQ.

The TEXT commands can be used to enter some information about the case under study. This
information is echoed in the output file and can be used to identify different cases.

(B): OPTIONS

In the OPTIONS module, the METRIC system of units is chosen and a RUN-IDENTIFIcation “square”
is selected. This RUN-IDENTIFIcation appears at the top of each page in HIFREQ’s output and on all
the plots produced from HIFREQ’s results by the SIRPS software.

(C): SOIL-TYPE

In the SOIL-TYPE module, a uniform soil model with a resistivity of 100 Ω-m for the earth and default
values for the air is selected. Note that this command could have been omitted since this is the default
soil model for the program.

(D): SYSTEM

In the SYSTEM module, the second parameter of the TOLERANCE command is set to 0.1. This
parameter sets the minimum ratio of a conductor segment’s length to its radius that will be accepted by
the program. By default, this is 5. In this example, a very short segment will be created by HIFREQ
(verify in the output file!). Therefore, this number had to be chosen to be very small.

A LEAD ENERGIZATION of 1000 + j 0 Amps is defined. This will later be used to energize a network
conductor.

The NETWORK and MAIN commands are syntactically needed to introduce the CONDUCTOR
commands.

The CONDUCTOR commands are used to define the network conductors. The first CONDUCTOR
command issued in the example is reproduced below.

CONDUCTOR, -1, 0, 0, 0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.5, 20.0, 0.0, 0.5, 0.007, 20

The first four numbers are connection codes. The first is the Lead-Type connection code, which must be
-1 when the conductor is not directly energized and any number greater than -1 when the conductor is
directly energized. In the latter case, the fourth number gives the Energization-Type to which the

HIFREQ Page 6-3


Chapter 6 Sample Inputs

conductor is subjected. A value of k ( > 0 ) for this connection code indicates that the energization for
this conductor is as specified in the kth ENERGIZATION command.

The second and third numbers in the CONDUCTOR command are the Conductor-Type and the
Coating-Type connection codes respectively. These behave in much the same way as the Energization-
Type connection code in that a value of k ( > 0 ) indicates that the conductor properties (coating
properties) are as specified in the kth CONDUCTOR-TYpe (COATING-TYPE) command.

In this example, all CONDUCTORS but the last have the same connection codes, namely -1,0,0,0. These
conductors are not directly energized and are not coated. They have the default conductor properties
(those of annealed copper). The last CONDUCTOR has the connection codes 0,0,0,1. This means that
this conductor is bare and made of copper and that it is directly energized by a LEAD ENERGIZATION
of 1000 + j 0 Amps (as specified in the first ENERGIZATION command).

After the connection codes, there are two triplets of numbers that denote the X, Y and Z coordinates of
the extremities of the conductor. The first triplet represents the origin of the conductor and the second
triplet its end. (See Section 4.2.3.3 for an explanation of the distinction between a conductor’s origin and
end when the conductor is energized.)

The last two numbers in the CONDUCTOR command are its radius and the number of segments into
which the conductor should be subdivided.

With this information, it is relatively easy to describe the network geometry of the example. The first
four CONDUCTOR commands model a square loop with a side length of 20m. The loop is buried at
0.5m and occupies the region 0 ≤ X ≤ 20m , 0 ≤ Y ≤ 20m. The following three CONDUCTOR
commands model three slanted grounding rods connected to three of the loop’s corners. The next
CONDUCTOR command models a vertical conductor connected to the remaining corner of the loop and
that rises up to 5 cm above the ground. (Reminder: in HIFREQ, a negative Z coordinate means above the
ground.) Finally, the last CONDUCTOR command models a long horizontal conductor, located at 5 cm
above the ground and energized at the far way end with a LEAD of 1000 Amps.

All conductors have a radius of 7 mm. The number of segments used in the example is quite large and
could be substantially reduced without affecting the accuracy of the calculation. (Try it!)

(E): COMPUTATIONS

In the COMPUTATIONS module, the location of the observation points at which the electromagnetic
fields are to be computed is defined with the PROFILES commands. The PROFILE command is used to
specify several observation points equally spaced along a straight line. For example, the first PROFILE
command in the input file reads:

PROFILE, 11, -5.0, 25.0, 0.0, 3, 0.0, 0.0

The first number in the command is the number of observation points desired in the PROFILE. Then,
there are two triplets of numbers. The first triplet denotes the X, Y and Z coordinates of the first point in
the PROFILE and the second triplet the X, Y and Z coordinates of the increment between two points.
Therefore, this PROFILE command will specify 11 observation points, starting at (-5.0, 25.0, 0.0) and

HIFREQ Page 6-4


Chapter 6 Sample Inputs

spaced 3 meters apart along the X axis. Hence, all points will have the same Y and Z coordinates ( Y =
25 m, Z = 0 m) and their X coordinates will follow the sequence (-5, -2, 1, ... , 19, 22, 25). (Reminder: an
observation point at Z = 0 is considered to be in the soil for the purpose of electromagnetic field
computations.)

The first four PROFILE commands are seen to cover the region -5 ≤ X ≤ 25 m , -5 ≤ Y ≤ 25 m, located
above the grid. The last two PROFILEs are in the area of the energization point.

It is also possible to specify observation points by a combination of PROFILE and SURFACE


commands. The SURFACE command is used to specify several PROFILES, whose starting points are
equally spaced along a straight line. It does so by translating the starting point of the last PROFILE
command issued in the input file.

There is a SURFACE command in this example, although it is commented out.

PROFILE, 10, 150.0, 170.0, 0.0, 2.5, 0.0, 0.0


!
! SURFACE, 5, 5.0, 0.0, 0.0
!

This SURFACE command, together with the preceding PROFILE, would be equivalent to the following
PROFILES (if the SURFACE command was not commented):

PROFILE, 10, 150.0, 170.0, 0.0, 2.5, 0.0, 0.0


PROFILE, 10, 155.0, 170.0, 0.0, 2.5, 0.0, 0.0
PROFILE, 10, 160.0, 170.0, 0.0, 2.5, 0.0, 0.0
PROFILE, 10, 165.0, 170.0, 0.0, 2.5, 0.0, 0.0
PROFILE, 10, 170.0, 170.0, 0.0, 2.5, 0.0, 0.0

The computation of the magnetic field, the electric field and the potential is then requested. The GPR
(Mid-Point Scalar Potential) of the conductor segments and of their coating is always computed, except
when the explicit command

GPR, NO

is issued.

Finally, the computation frequency is declared to be 60 Hz. This command could have been omitted
since 60 Hz is HIFREQ’s default computation frequency.

(G): Program Termination

The statement ENDPROGRAM terminates HIFREQ’s execution. The command EXIT is ignored by
HIFREQ but can be used when the file is processed by the SICL input processor. In this case, the
statement EXIT terminates SICL’s execution. Note that if SICL is used, several of the above commands
may be omitted (basically, all commands that contain no data, apart from the HIFREQ and
ENDPROGRAM commands). SICL will automatically supply those commands.

HIFREQ Page 6-5


Chapter 6 Sample Inputs

6.2.3 Output for Example 1


The printout generated by HIFREQ for the first example run is included in the file EX1OUT.PUT, which
is shipped with the HIFREQ program. Figure 6.2 shows the scalar potential around the grid (i.e., along
PROFILEs 1 to 4, as identified in the input file). This plot was obtained with the SIRPS plotting
software.

Figure 6.2 Ground Level Potential Above a Ground Loop

6.3 EXAMPLE 2: PARALLEL BUS BARS


This example shows how to use several cylindrical conductors to model non-cylindrical ones, namely
rectangular bus bars.

6.3.1 The Physical Situation


Figure 6.3(a) illustrates two parallel rectangular bus bars of cross-section 10 cm × 1 cm. They are 10 m
long, 40 cm apart and are made of copper. A small steel cage (20 cm × 10 cm × 10 cm) (see Figure

HIFREQ Page 6-6


Chapter 6 Sample Inputs

6.3(b)) is located halfway between the bars. The radius of the wire of the cage is 1 mm and it is coated
with 1/2 mm of a material of resistivity 1 MΩ-m. We are interested in:

• the magnetic field between the bars


• the currents induced in the cage

Figure 6.3 Configuration of Bus Bars and Cage and Representation of the Bus Bars as
Groups of Cylindrical Conductors.

A current of 1000 Amps flows into one of the bars and returns through the other. The bars are at +100
kV and -100 kV respectively.

The main difficulty here is to model the rectangular bus bar with cylindrical conductors. Several
approaches could be used. The one retained here consists in stacking 9 conductors of radius 5 mm on top
of one another. Small gaps are left between the conductors. These are necessary for the program to work:
HIFREQ will issue an error message if two conductors are found to be in contact (overlap) for a distance
larger than the sum of their radii. The size of the gap (1.25 mm) was chosen so as to distribute the
conductors as evenly as possible in the cross-section of the bus bars.

HIFREQ Page 6-7


Chapter 6 Sample Inputs

To energize the bus bars, the 9 conductors are connected to an energization point by very thin conductors
(of radius 1/2 mm). These conductors must be thin to avoid the overlap problem mentioned above. The
resulting configuration is as shown in 6.3(c). As will be seen later, a 1000 Amps current is injected at
one end of the bus bar by a LEAD energization and collected at the other end by a GPR energization.
The GPR energization also maintains the bars at ± 100 kV. In this case, however, the potential of the
bars does not play a very important role, as we are mainly interested in magnetic fields and induced
currents.

The HIFREQ input file for this case is shown in Printout 6.2. A detailed description of the commands
appearing in this file follows.
HIFREQ
!
TEXT,Example 2 for HIFREQ User's manual
TEXT,Magnetic Field between two parallel bus bars
TEXT,Induced currents in a metallic cage
!
OPTIONS
UNITS,METRIC
RUN-IDENTIFICATION,bus bars
ENDMODULE
!
SOIL-TYPE,LIMITED-LAYER
UNIFORM,INFINITE,1.0e18,1.0,1.0
ENDMODULE
!
SYSTEM
!
ENERGIZATION,Lead,1000,0
ENERGIZATION,GPR-Pot,100000,0
ENERGIZATION,GPR-Pot,-100000,0
!
CHARACTERIST
CONDUCTOR,,17,200,0,,,,
COATING,,1.0e6,.0005,1.0,1.0
!
NETWORK
MAIN-GROUND
!
! (A) First bus bar: modelled as 9 conductors stacked on top of one another
!
! Main conductors
!
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5,-0.2,-1.045,5,-0.2,-1.045,0.005,4
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5,-0.2,-1.0338,5,-0.2,-1.0338,0.005,4
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5,-0.2,-1.0225,5,-0.2,-1.0225,0.005,4
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5,-0.2,-1.0113,5,-0.2,-1.0113,0.005,4
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5,-0.2,-1,5,-0.2,-1,0.005,4
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5,-0.2,-0.98875,5,-0.2,-0.98875,0.005,4
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5,-0.2,-0.9775,5,-0.2,-0.9775,0.005,4
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5,-0.2,-0.96625,5,-0.2,-0.96625,0.005,4
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5,-0.2,-0.955,5,-0.2,-0.955,0.005,4
!
! Segments that connect the main conductors to the Lead energization segment
!

HIFREQ Page 6-8


Chapter 6 Sample Inputs

CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5.5,-0.2,-1,-5,-0.2,-1.045,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5.5,-0.2,-1,-5,-0.2,-1.0338,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5.5,-0.2,-1,-5,-0.2,-1.0225,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5.5,-0.2,-1,-5,-0.2,-1.0113,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5.5,-0.2,-1,-5,-0.2,-1,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5.5,-0.2,-1,-5,-0.2,-0.98875,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5.5,-0.2,-1,-5,-0.2,-0.9775,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5.5,-0.2,-1,-5,-0.2,-0.96625,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5.5,-0.2,-1,-5,-0.2,-0.955,0.0005,1
!
! Segment energized with a LEAD
!
CONDUCTOR,0,0,0,1,-5.7,-0.2,-1,-5.5,-0.2,-1,0.0005,1
!
! Segments that connect the main conductors to the GPR energization segment
!
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,5.5,-0.2,-1,5,-0.2,-1.045,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,5.5,-0.2,-1,5,-0.2,-1.0338,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,5.5,-0.2,-1,5,-0.2,-1.0225,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,5.5,-0.2,-1,5,-0.2,-1.0113,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,5.5,-0.2,-1,5,-0.2,-1,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,5.5,-0.2,-1,5,-0.2,-0.98875,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,5.5,-0.2,-1,5,-0.2,-0.9775,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,5.5,-0.2,-1,5,-0.2,-0.96625,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,5.5,-0.2,-1,5,-0.2,-0.955,0.0005,1
!
! Segment energized with a GPR
!
CONDUCTOR,0,0,0,2,5.7,-0.2,-1,5.5,-0.2,-1,0.0005,1
!
! (B) Second bus bar
!
! Main conductors
!
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5,0.2,-1.045,5,0.2,-1.045,0.005,4
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5,0.2,-1.0338,5,0.2,-1.0338,0.005,4
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5,0.2,-1.0225,5,0.2,-1.0225,0.005,4
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5,0.2,-1.0113,5,0.2,-1.0113,0.005,4
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5,0.2,-1,5,0.2,-1,0.005,4
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5,0.2,-0.98875,5,0.2,-0.98875,0.005,4
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5,0.2,-0.9775,5,0.2,-0.9775,0.005,4
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5,0.2,-0.96625,5,0.2,-0.96625,0.005,4
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5,0.2,-0.955,5,0.2,-0.955,0.005,4
!
! Segments that connect the main conductors to the GPR energization segment
!
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5.5,0.2,-1,-5,0.2,-1.045,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5.5,0.2,-1,-5,0.2,-1.0338,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5.5,0.2,-1,-5,0.2,-1.0225,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5.5,0.2,-1,-5,0.2,-1.0113,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5.5,0.2,-1,-5,0.2,-1,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5.5,0.2,-1,-5,0.2,-0.98875,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5.5,0.2,-1,-5,0.2,-0.9775,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5.5,0.2,-1,-5,0.2,-0.96625,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,-5.5,0.2,-1,-5,0.2,-0.955,0.0005,1
!
! Segment energized with a GPR
!

HIFREQ Page 6-9


Chapter 6 Sample Inputs

CONDUCTOR,0,0,0,3,-5.7,0.2,-1,-5.5,0.2,-1,0.0005,1
!
! Segments that connect the main conductors to the Lead energization segment
!
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,5.5,0.2,-1,5,0.2,-1.045,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,5.5,0.2,-1,5,0.2,-1.0338,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,5.5,0.2,-1,5,0.2,-1.0225,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,5.5,0.2,-1,5,0.2,-1.0113,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,5.5,0.2,-1,5,0.2,-1,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,5.5,0.2,-1,5,0.2,-0.98875,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,5.5,0.2,-1,5,0.2,-0.9775,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,5.5,0.2,-1,5,0.2,-0.96625,0.0005,1
CONDUCTOR,-1,0,0,0,5.5,0.2,-1,5,0.2,-0.955,0.0005,1
!
! Segment energized with a LEAD
!
CONDUCTOR,0,0,0,1,5.7,0.2,-1,5.5,0.2,-1,0.0005,1
!
! (C) Insulated steel cage
!
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,1,0,-0.05,-0.1,-0.95,0.05,-0.1,-0.95,0.001,2
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,1,0,-0.05,0,-0.95,0.05,0,-0.95,0.001,2
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,1,0,-0.05,0.1,-0.95,0.05,0.1,-0.95,0.001,2
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,1,0,0.05,-0.1,-0.95,0.05,0.1,-0.95,0.001,2
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,1,0,-0.05,-0.1,-0.95,-0.05,0.1,-0.95,0.001,2
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,1,0,-0.05,-0.1,-0.95,-0.05,-0.1,-1.05,0.001,2
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,1,0,0.05,-0.1,-0.95,0.05,-0.1,-1.05,0.001,2
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,1,0,-0.05,0,-0.95,-0.05,0,-1.05,0.001,2
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,1,0,0.05,0,-0.95,0.05,0,-1.05,0.001,2
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,1,0,-0.05,0.1,-0.95,-0.05,0.1,-1.05,0.001,2
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,1,0,0.05,0.1,-0.95,0.05,0.1,-1.05,0.001,2
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,1,0,-0.05,-0.1,-1.05,0.05,-0.1,-1.05,0.001,2
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,1,0,-0.05,0,-1.05,0.05,0,-1.05,0.001,2
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,1,0,-0.05,0.1,-1.05,0.05,0.1,-1.05,0.001,2
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,1,0,0.05,-0.1,-1.05,0.05,0.1,-1.05,0.001,2
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,1,0,-0.05,-0.1,-1.05,-0.05,0.1,-1.05,0.001,2
ENDMODULE
!
COMPUTATIONS
OBSERVATION-
!
PROFILES,11,1,-0.1,-0.95,0,0.02,0
SURFACE,11,0,0,-0.01
!
DETERMINE
MAGNETIC,YES
FREQUENCY
INDIVIDUAL, 60
ENDMODULE
!
ENDPROGRAM

Printout 6.2 HIFREQ Input File for Example 2

HIFREQ Page 6-10


Chapter 6 Sample Inputs

6.3.2 The HIFREQ input file


(A): General

Every input line beginning with an exclamation mark (!) is a comment line that is ignored by the
program. These comments can be used (as is done in this example) to describe the system being
modeled.

The HIFREQ command beginning the file starts the program HIFREQ.

The TEXT commands can be used to enter some information about the case under study. This
information is echoed in the output file and can be used to identify different cases.

(B): OPTIONS

In the OPTIONS module, the METRIC system of units is chosen and a RUN-IDENTIFIcation “bus
bars” is selected. This RUN-IDENTIFIcation appears at the top of each page in HIFREQ’s output and on
all the plots produced from HIFREQ’s results by the SIRPS software.

(C):SOIL-TYPE

In the SOIL-TYPE module, an infinite soil model with a resistivity of 1018 Ω-m (infinite air) is selected.
The effects of the earth are therefore neglected. This is justifiable in this case since we are only
interested in magnetic fields close to the conductors. It would be very easy to verify that the effects of
the earth are indeed negligible by replacing the line

UNIFORM, INFINITE, 1.0E18, 1, 1

by

UNIFORM, EARTH, 100, 1, 1

for a uniform soil with a resistivity of 100 Ω-m. The advantage of using an infinite soil is that the
computations are considerably faster.

(D): SYSTEM

In the SYSTEM module, a LEAD ENERGIZATION of 1000 + j 0 Amps and two GPR
ENERGIZATIONs (of 100 kV and -100 kV) are defined. These will later be used to energize the
network conductors.

The CHARACTERISTics command is syntactically needed to introduce the CONDUCTOR-TYpe and


COATING-TYPE commands.

The command

CONDUCTOR-TY, 17, 200, 0

HIFREQ Page 6-11


Chapter 6 Sample Inputs

defines the conductor properties of steel, namely a relative resistivity of 17 (with respect to annealed
copper) and a relative permeability of 200 (with respect to vacuum). This will later be used to specify
that the conductors of the cage are made of steel. The third parameter (here 0), defines the inner radius of
the conductors.

Three more parameters could be used in this command to specify the values of the resistance, the
inductance and the capacitance of an impedance located in the middle of the conductors.

The COATING-TYPE command specifies the electromagnetic properties of a dielectric material


(resistivity 106 Ω-m, relative permeability 1, relative permittivity 1) as well as its thickness (0.0005 m).
This material will be used later to insulate the conductors of the cage.

The NETWORK and MAIN commands are syntactically needed to introduce the CONDUCTOR
commands.

The CONDUCTOR commands are used to define the network conductors. The first CONDUCTOR
command issued in the example is reproduced below.

CONDUCTOR, -1, 0, 0, 0, -5, -0.2, -1.045, 5, -0.2, -1.045, 0.005, 4

The first four numbers are connection codes. The first is the Lead-Type connection code, which must be
-1 when the conductor is not directly energized and any number greater than -1 when the conductor is
directly energized. In the latter case, the fourth number gives the Energization-Type to which the
conductor is subjected. A value of k ( > 0 ) for this connection code indicates that the energization for
this conductor is as specified in the kth ENERGIZATION command.

The second and third numbers in the CONDUCTOR command are the Conductor-Type and the
Coating-Type connection codes respectively. These behave in much the same way as the Energization-
Type connection code in that a value of k ( > 0 ) indicates that the conductor properties (coating
properties) are as specified in the kth CONDUCTOR-TYpe (COATING-TYPE) command.

In this example, most CONDUCTORs have the same connection codes, namely -1,0,0,0. These
conductors are not directly energized and are not coated. They have the default conductor properties
(those of annealed copper). There are 4 CONDUCTORs which are directly energized, two of them with
a LEAD of 1000 Amps (first ENERGIZATION command) and one each with a GPR of 100 kV (second
ENERGIZATION command) and -100 kV (third ENERGIZATION command).

The last 16 CONDUCTORs model a metallic cage. Their connection codes are -1,1,1,0. This means that
these conductors have electromagnetic properties as defined in the first CONDUCTOR-TYpe command
(steel of relative resistivity 17 and relative permeability 200) and are coated with a material whose
properties are defined in the first COATING-TYPE command (a thickness of 0.5 mm, a resistivity of 106
Ω-m and a relative permeability and relative permittivity of 1).

After the connection codes, there are two triplets of numbers that denote the X, Y and Z coordinates of
the extremities of the conductor. The first triplet represents the origin of the conductor and the second
triplet its end. (See Section 4.2.3.3 for an explanation of the distinction between a conductor’s origin and
end when the conductor is energized.)

HIFREQ Page 6-12


Chapter 6 Sample Inputs

The last two numbers in the CONDUCTOR command are its radius and the number of segments into
which the conductor should be subdivided.

The geometry of the network is therefore as follows. The first 9 conductors (the main conductors of the
first bus bar) are parallel to the X axis. They are 10 m long, going from X = -5m to X = 5m. They are
located at Y = -0.2 m and their height varies between .955m and 1.045m. The -5m end of these
conductors is connected to a common point located at X = -5.5m, Z = -1m by the following 9
conductors. The next conductor injects 1000 A at this common point. At the other end, the main
conductors are also connected to a common point (at X = +5.5m, Z = -1m). The current is collected at
that point by a GPR energization that also maintains the first bus to 100 kV.

The second bus bar is identical to the first but for the following distinctions:

• it is located at Y = +0.2m
• the 1000 A current is injected at +5.7 m, so that the current circulates in the opposite direction
• the GPR energization is at -5.7m, and its value is -100 kV
Finally, the metallic cage is a simple rectangular shaped box.

(E): COMPUTATIONS

In the COMPUTATIONS module, the location of the observation points at which the electromagnetic
fields are to be computed is defined with the PROFILE and SURFACE commands. The PROFILE
command is used to specify several observation points equally spaced along a straight line. For example,
the only PROFILE command in the input file reads:

PROFILE, 11, 1, -0.1, -0.95, 0, 0.02, 0

The first number in the command is the number of observation points desired in the PROFILE. Then,
there are two triplets of numbers. The first triplet denotes the X, Y and Z coordinates of the first point in
the PROFILE and the second triplet the X, Y and Z coordinates of the increment between two points.
Therefore, this PROFILE command will specify 11 observation points, starting at (1, -0.1, -0.95) and
spaced 2 centimeters apart along the Y axis. Hence, all points will have the same X and Z coordinates (
X = 1 m, Z = -0.95 m) and their Y coordinates will follow the sequence (-0.1, -0.08, -0.06, ... , 0.06,
0.08, 0.1).

The SURFACE command is used to specify several PROFILES, whose starting points are equally
spaced along a straight line. It does so by translating the starting point of the last PROFILE command
issued in the input file.

SURFACE, 11, 0, 0, -0.01

This SURFACE command, together with the preceding PROFILE, is equivalent to the following
PROFILES:

HIFREQ Page 6-13


Chapter 6 Sample Inputs

PROFILE, 11, 1, -0.1, -0.95, 0, 0.02, 0


PROFILE, 11, 1, -0.1, -0.96, 0, 0.02, 0
PROFILE, 11, 1, -0.1, -0.97, 0, 0.02, 0
PROFILE, 11, 1, -0.1, -0.98, 0, 0.02, 0
PROFILE, 11, 1, -0.1, -0.99, 0, 0.02, 0
PROFILE, 11, 1, -0.1, -1.00, 0, 0.02, 0
PROFILE, 11, 1, -0.1, -1.01, 0, 0.02, 0
PROFILE, 11, 1, -0.1, -1.02, 0, 0.02, 0
PROFILE, 11, 1, -0.1, -1.03, 0, 0.02, 0
PROFILE, 11, 1, -0.1, -1.04, 0, 0.02, 0
PROFILE, 11, 1, -0.1, -1.05, 0, 0.02, 0

(Note that all observation points in this example are located at X = 1m. This is to avoid the distorting
effects on the magnetic field of the cage, which is located around X = 0.)

The computation of the magnetic field is then requested. The GPR (Mid-Point Scalar Potential) of the
conductor segments and of their coating is always computed, except when the explicit command

GPR, NO

is issued.

Finally, the computation frequency is declared to be 60 Hz. This command could have been omitted
since 60 Hz is HIFREQ’s default computation frequency.

(G): Program Termination

The statement ENDPROGRAM terminates HIFREQ’s execution. The command EXIT is ignored by
HIFREQ but can be used when the file is processed by the SICL input processor. In this case, the
statement EXIT terminates SICL’s execution. Note that if SICL is used, several of the above commands
may be omitted (basically, all commands that contain no data, apart from the HIFREQ and
ENDPROGRAM commands). SICL will automatically supply those commands.

6.3.3 Output for Example 2


The printout generated by HIFREQ for the first example run is included in the file HIFR2OUT.PUT,
which is shipped with the HIFREQ program. Figure 6.4 shows the magnetic field between the bus bars
(i.e. along the SURFACE defined in the input file). Figure 6.5 shows the current distribution in the cage.
Both those plots were obtained with the SIRPS plotting software.

HIFREQ Page 6-14


Chapter 6 Sample Inputs

Figure 6.4 Magnetic Field Between Parallel Bus Bars

HIFREQ Page 6-15


Chapter 6 Sample Inputs

Figure 6.5 Induced Currents in a Metallic Cage Located Between Parallel Bus Bars

HIFREQ Page 6-16


Appendix A File Usage and File Name Conventions

APPENDIX A

FILE USAGE AND FILE NAME CONVENTIONS


The program HIFREQ executes commands that are read from an input file. Its computation results are
stored in 5 files: a database file, an output file, a report file, a plot data file, and a currents recovery file.
The filename conventions for these files are shown in Table A.1.

File File name for the PC version File name for the OpenVMS and UNIX versions
Input File HI_JOBID.F05 FHIFREQ_JOBID.DAT
Database File HI_JOBID.F21 HIF021_JOBID.
Output File HI_JOBID.F09 FHIFREQ_JOBID.OUT
Report File HI_JOBID.F17 FHIFREQ_JOBID.REP
Plot Data File HIFREPLO.F22 FIL22_JOBID.
Currents
Recovery File HI_JOBID.F33 FHIFREQ_JOBID.RCV

Table A.1 HIFREQ File Name Conventions

The “JOBID” that appears in those names is the character string that is entered at the beginning of any
session with SES’ software.

A.1 THE INPUT FILE


The input file can be constructed with the help of one of SES’ input processors (SICL or the Windows
Toolbox) or with a text editor. Refer to the User’s Manuals of these processors for the details. See also
Chapter 6 of this manual for examples of HIFREQ input files.

A.2 THE DATABASE FILE


The database file is a binary file that contains all of HIFREQ’s computation results. It can be read by any
of SES’ output processors (CSIRPS and SWOMS (Toolbox mode)) to produce graph or reports. Refer to
the User’s Manuals of these processors for the details. See also the “How To ...” Engineering Booklets
for examples of the use of these output processors.

A.3 THE REPORT FILE


The report file contains a summary of the conductor information and of the currents in the conductor
network. These are written in such a way that they can be inserted into a HIFREQ input file directly.
This makes it possible to restart the program quickly with a current distribution that has already been

HIFREQ Page A-1


Appendix A File Usage and File Name Conventions

computed (see Section 4.3). Also, it is often easier to find the conductor currents in the report file than in
the output file.

A.4 THE OUTPUT FILE


The output file contains all of the information regarding a HIFREQ run. It is written in human readable
form. This file contains, in order of appearance:

• The user-specified data along with HIFREQ’s default values for the data that was not specified.
• The conductor segmentation and node information.
• The current flowing into every conductor segment and the potentials at the surface of those
segments and of their coating. If necessary, this is repeated for every computation frequency.
• The electromagnetic fields for all observation points. The fields appear in the following order:
scalar potential, electric field, magnetic field and vector potential. Note that the gradient of the
scalar potential is not printed in the output file. It can be obtained from the database file.
In addition, all error and warning messages are printed to that file. It is therefore quite important to scan
that file for the strings ERROR and WARNING at the end of each run.

Navigating quickly in the Output File

When examining the content of the Output File with an editor with string searches capabilities (such as
the Text Viewer available under the “File View/Print/Plot” icon in the Windows version), it is possible
to go quickly to certain interesting parts of the file. The following table lists some items of interest and
the string that must be searched for in order to reach them quickly.

Item of interest String that should be searched


Conductor segments currents “Leaking”
Potential of conductor segments and of their coating “(GPR)”
Scalar Potential at observation points* “Scalar”
Electric Field at observation points “|Ez|”
Magnetic Field at observation points “|Hz|”
Vector Potential at observation points “|Tz|”
Error Messages “ERROR”
Warning Messages “WARNING”
Table A.2 Quick Searches in the Output File

*Note: For the Scalar Potential, the search should be carried out backwards, from the end of the file.

If several computation frequencies were requested, then searching repeatedly for the string “Frequency”
after the first occurrence of the item of interest was found will go quickly to the computation results for
those frequencies.

HIFREQ Page A-2


Appendix A File Usage and File Name Conventions

A.5 THE PLOT DATA FILE


The plot data file lists the field computation results in tabular form. This may be used by user-supplied
or customized plotting and report-generating programs. The column usage is as indicated in the
following table. Column titles are included at the base of the columns.

Column(s) Usage and Bottom of Column Title


1 Observation point number J
2 Distance from origin of current profile DISXYZ
3 Scalar Potential: POTMOD
4 Modulus and argument POTANG
5 X-component of electric field: ELXMOD
6 Modulus and argument ELXANG
7 Y-component of electric field: ELYMOD
8 Modulus and argument ELYANG
9 Z-component of electric field: ELZMOD
10 Modulus and argument ELZANG
11 X-component of magnetic field: AMXMOD
12 Modulus and argument AMXANG
13 Y-component of magnetic field: AMYMOD
14 Modulus and argument AMYANG
15 Z-component of magnetic field: AMZMOD
16 Modulus and argument AMZANG
17 X-component of vector potential: HZXMOD
18 Modulus and argument HZXAND
19 Y-component of vector potential: HZYMOD
20 Modulus and argument HZYANG
21 Z-component of vector potential: HZZMOD
22 Modulus and argument HZZANG
23 X-component of profile point XX(J)
24 Y-component of profile point YY(J)
25 Z-component of profile point ZZ(J)

Table A.3 Data Stored in Plot Data File

A.6 THE CURRENTS RECOVERY FILE


This file contains the network conductor information as well as the currents flowing in all conductor
segments. The data is stored in a high precision machine-readable format. This file can be used to bypass
the current computation step in a subsequent run, if the network and its energizations have not changed
(i.e., only the observation points and profiles have changed).

HIFREQ Page A-3


Appendix A File Usage and File Name Conventions

HIFREQ Page A-4


Appendix B Structure and Organization of Commands

APPENDIX B

STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION OF COMMANDS

B.1 FOREWORD
The command mode allows easier data entry for the user. Each command name is chosen adequately to
identify HIFREQ data.

The command mode has two principal command types, i.e., Standard (or utility) commands, and
Specification (or engineering specification) commands. The Standard commands along with the
Specification commands constitute the HIFREQ Command Language, which is used to communicate
with the HIFREQ program. The Specification commands are occasionally referred to as "nonstandard
commands" or simply, "commands", when no confusion is possible.

Each option is invoked using commands (English words, verbs and composites) consisting of a string of
ASCII characters. It is important that the syntactic rules and conventions governing the HIFREQ
command language be well understood.

B.2 COMMAND FORMAT


Each data line expected by HIFREQ has the following format:

Command, qualifier_1, ..., qualifier_n, variable_1, ..., variable_m

"Command" and "qualifier" are strings of characters, while "variable_i" can be a string of characters, an
integer or a real value. There may be zero, one or several qualifiers and/or variables associated with the
command.

A blank data line is recognized as a "null" command. The following typical data lines are equivalent to a
"null" command:

,b,,bbb,,,bbb (b is a blank)
,,,,b,bb

The comma "," is the data line delimiter. Leading blanks are ignored. Note that blanks embedded
between two strings of non blank characters are significant. However, such blanks are interchangeable
with the dash "-" and underline "_" characters. For example, the command "RUN-IDENTIFIcation" may
also be entered as "RUN IDENTIFIcation" or "RUN_IDENTIFIcation" because HIFREQ considers the
underline and dash characters inside of a command to be equivalent to the blank character.

HIFREQ Page B-1


Appendix B Structure and Organization of Commands

Command qualifiers and variables are optional in the sense that if no qualifier or value is given then
default qualifiers and values will automatically be selected.

B.3 SHORTHAND FORMS


In the HIFREQ command language, you may use the full names, or short-forms of them. Accepted or
admissible short-forms use the first four or more characters in the corresponding HIFREQ. Any short-
form from 4 to 12 characters must match the first of leading portion of a command. Characters in the
13th position onward, if any, in a command name, or a short-form are cosmetic. They are ignored.
Finally, short-forms for commands must be a substring of the command name.

B.4 HIERARCHY OF COMMANDS


HIFREQ recognizes Standard and Specification commands. Specification commands are structured in a
hierarchy of five layers. The top or first layer of commands consists of the program name.

The five layers (or levels) of Specification commands are as follows:

Highest I-Program command (Main Command)


Hierarchy

(highest II-Module commands (Access commands)


layer
or level) III-Option commands (Key commands)
|
| IV-Group commands (Block commands)
|
LowestV-Data commands Hierarchy

Appendix C shows the commands and their structure as supported by the HIFREQ software package.
Two commands at adjacent layers are said to be connected (or linked) if one must be given or specified
before the other. Specification of lower level command requires the specification of a command in the
command level immediately above it. Command levels cannot be skipped. Commands on different
branches of the hierarchy can share the same names while their function and syntax as a rule will differ.

B.5 STANDARD COMMANDS


Standard commands are used by HIFREQ to carry out standard actions which are usually common to all
CDEGS modules.

Standard commands are those which govern the general operation of HIFREQ. They may be issued at
any time during the input session. The syntax of a Standard command is:

HIFREQ Page B-2


Appendix B Structure and Organization of Commands

Keyword, Qualifier_1, Qualifier_2,..., Qualifier_n, Value_1, Value_2,...

where the keyword is the actual name of the command, and the qualifiers (of which there may be none,
one, or many) describe which of the command's options are desired. Both the keyword and the qualifiers
must be entered in uppercase if the lowercase option is disabled. Commas are used to separate qualifiers
from the keyword and from each other. If a command which has qualifiers is entered without a qualifier,
then HIFREQ makes a default choice of its own; i.e., the specification of qualifiers is optional. In some
cases, numerical values may be required to fully specify a standard command.

Standard commands and their synonyms may be abbreviated, just as Specification commands may.

B.6 SPECIFICATION COMMANDS


Specification commands are structured in a hierarchy of five layers. The top or first layer of commands
consists of a module name. As soon as one of these is specified, all subsequent lower-level
(Specification) commands issued are assumed to belong to that module.

The user may specify some commands as many times as necessary. Depending on the command,
repetitions will have a "cumulative" or a "substitutive" effect. Cumulative means that new data
associated with that command is added to the existing set.

An index of all HIFREQ commands and detailed information on each command and related topics can
be found in the Help Reference. The online help facility of SICL and SMILS also provides this
information.

HIFREQ Page B-3


Appendix C The HI-EXTRA.INP Files

APPENDIX C

THE HI_EX*.INP FILES


Several extra HIFREQ input files are available on your CD-ROM. They are located in the folder
examples\official\manuals\hifreq and their filenames are as given below. A brief description of the
examples treated in these input files follows.

HI_EX1.INP:

Electromagnetic field computation for a 15 m long single conductor which is buried 1 m deep in the
ground. Two types of energization can be applied to this conductor.

1. A 1 Amp current is injected at left end of the conductor


2. The conductor is forced to have 1 V GPR at left end of the conductor.
Ref.: IEEE/PES 1992 Summer Meeting. Paper # 92 SM 456-PWRD.

HI_EX2.INP:

Computes the current distribution for a four mesh 20 by 20 m grounding grid buried 1 m deep in the
ground. A current of 1500 Amps is injected at a corner of the grid.

Ref.: Figure 4 in IEEE/PES 1993 Summer Meeting. Paper # 93 “Determination of Current Distribution
in Energized Conductors for the Computation of Electromagnetic Fields”, SM 427-5 PWRD.

HIFREQ Page C-1


Appendix C The HI-EXTRA.INP Files

HI_EX3.INP:

A simple example for lightning study. A four mesh 9 by 15 m grid is located 1 m beneath the ground
surface. This grid is connected with four slanted conductors to form a pyramid structure. A current of
733.3 Amps is injected at the top of the pyramid tower.

HI_EX4.INP:

A simple example for lightning study. A four mesh 9 by 15 m grid is located 1 m beneath the ground
surface. This grid is connected with four slanted conductors to form a pyramid structure. A GPR of 2841
V is applied at the top of the pyramid tower.

HIFREQ Page C-2


Appendix C The HI-EXTRA.INP Files

HI_EX5.INP:

Electromagnetic fields computation for a 60 by 60 m grid buried 0.5 m in the ground. A current of 1000
Amps is injected at a corner of the grid.

Ref.: Scenario 1 in 1994 IEEE I&CPS Technical Conference paper.

HI_EX6.INP:

A more realistic example for lightning study. Lightning strikes a substation which consists in an above-
ground structure bonded to a 60 by 60 m grounding grid. The structure, which has a 10 by 10 m base and
is 20 m high, is located at a corner of the grounding grid. A current of 1000 Amps is injected at the top
of the structure.

Ref.: Scenario 2 in 1994 IEEE I&CPS Technical Conference paper, “Transient Performance of
Substation Structures and Associated Grounding Systems.

HIFREQ Page C-3


Appendix C The HI-EXTRA.INP Files

HI_EX7.INP:

Computes longitudinal current flow for a lightning strike which injects a current of 10000 Amps at the
frequencies of 2 Hz and 0.5 MHz into 20 spans of a distribution power line.

Ref.: Figure 7 in IEEE/PES 1993 Summer Meeting. Paper # 93 SM 427-5 PWRD

HIFREQ Page C-4


Appendix C The HI-EXTRA.INP Files

HI_EX8.INP:

Computation of the magnetic field distribution in an electric power substation for Florida Power & Light
Co. The purpose of this run is to compare the computed magnetic fields with experimental data
measured at this substation by Florida Power & Light Co.

HI_EX9.INP:

Antenna monopole at 30 and 150 MHz. Simple center-fed 1 m linear antenna in infinite air is subjected
to 1 Volt energization.

Ref.: Figure 1 and Figure 2 in IEEE/PES 1993 Summer Meeting. Paper # 93 SM 427-5 PWRD.

HI_EX10.INP:

Quarter wave monopole with a ground stake of length .3 × wavelength. The antenna in half space is
energized by current injection.

HIFREQ Page C-5


Appendix C The HI-EXTRA.INP Files

Ref.: Figures 3 in IEEE/PES 1993 Summer Meeting. Paper # 93 SM 427-5 PWRD.

HI_EX11.INP:

Computes the input impedance of a 1 by 1 m square loop antenna which is energized by a 1 V voltage
source at a corner of the loop. The computations are carried out at various frequencies.

HI_EX12.INP:

Computes induced currents between two coaxial hexagons. There are seven pairs of hexagons which are
separated by 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 cm, respectively. All of them are located in infinite

HIFREQ Page C-6


Appendix C The HI-EXTRA.INP Files

air. A current of 1 A is injected in one of the coils (called the source coil) and the induced current in the
target coil is computed.

Ref.: An induction example in IEEE/PES 1993 Summer Meeting. Paper # 93 SM 427-5 PWRD.

HIFREQ Page C-7


Appendix D Equivalent Cylindrical Conductors

APPENDIX D

EQUIVALENT CYLINDRICAL CONDUCTORS


Program HIFREQ assumes that the ground network being analyzed consists of cylindrical conductors.

Theoretical considerations and model tests show that non-cylindrical conductors can be represented with
a very good approximation by equivalent cylindrical conductors.

It is possible to determine the equivalent cylindrical conductor of a non-cylindrical conductor quite


rigorously. However, in practice, one can use the concept of "equivalent contact area with soil" in order
to obtain an approximate equivalent cylindrical conductor which will give satisfactory agreement.
Briefly stated, the equivalent cylindrical conductor has the same surface area in contact with the soil as
the original conductor. Note however that in some cases (L, U or T shaped busses for example), this
surface must be derated because the external surface of the ground conductor is not in contact with soil
in an "efficient" manner.

The above comments are illustrated in Figure D.1.

HIFREQ Page D-1


Appendix D Equivalent Cylindrical Conductors

Figure D.1 Equivalent Cylindrical Conductors

HIFREQ Page D-2


Appendix E Typical Resistivities and Permeabilities

APPENDIX E

TYPICAL RESISTIVITIES AND PERMEABILITIES


The following values are provided for your convenience.

E.1 TYPICAL RESISTIVITIES


Pure Silver: 1.6289 x 10-8 Ω-m (= 0.94 ρcu)
Annealed Copper: 1.7241 x 10-8 Ω-m (= ρcu)
Aluminum: 2.83 x 10-8 Ω-m (= 1.64 ρcu)
Brass: 6.7 x 10-8 Ω-m (= 3.9 ρcu)
Pure Iron: 9.78 x 10-8 Ω-m (= 5.7 ρcu)
Tin: 11.6 x 10-8 Ω-m (= 6.7 ρcu)
Commercial Galvanized Steel
Siemens-Martin: 16.3 x 10-8 Ω-m (= 9.4 ρcu)
HS: 20.1 x 10-8 Ω-m (= 11.7 ρcu)
EHS: 20.9 x 10-8 Ω-m (= 12.1 ρcu)
Steel Rails: 16.6 - 22.4 x 10-8 Ω-m (= 9.6 - 13 ρcu)

E.2 TYPICAL RELATIVE (TO FREE SPACE) PERMEABILITIES


Silver: 1 p.u.
Copper: 1 p.u.
Aluminum: 1 p.u.
Brass: 1 p.u.
Tin: 1 p.u.
Cast Iron: 60 p.u.
Steel Pipes
Low Current : 10 - 100 p.u.
High Current: 100 - 1000 p.u.

Permeability of Free Space: 1.2566 x 10-6 henries/meter

HIFREQ Page E-1


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HIFREQ Page U-1