15 views

Uploaded by Edward Amoyen Abella

Power Transfer

- Centum Cs3000 Io Module
- Unit-1 Dc Circuits
- harvesting
- Transducer Catalog
- AD5933 datasheet
- 715 M1-PH-PH
- Eddy Current Tubing Denting
- 1. Bus Bar Protection
- 5constant Current
- 715 M1-PH-E
- Agilent U1731C LCR Meter
- Moog New Tb117
- AN-847-RS-485
- SGM Presentation
- Headphone Stereo V31b
- becciolini
- 06523297-Effect on 3rd Harmonic
- Disposable Metal Boxes
- Operational Mode
- AIR Handout

You are on page 1of 67

As a general rule, the maximum power transfer from an active device like a power supply or battery

to an external device occurs when the impedance of the external device matches that of the source.

That optimum power is 50% of the total power when the impedance of the active device is matched

to that of the load. Improper impedance matching can lead to excessive power use and possible

component damage. This situation will be modeled here for strictly resistive impedances.

the open circuit output voltage would be equal to Vsource, but when it is connected to the load, the

output voltage will drop to

Vout = V.

For this circuit, the total power supplied by the power supply is

Ptotal = watts

Pout = watts.

This is an important practical situation in DC circuits, enabling you to model the output of batteries

with internal resistance and other situations where the power supply has internal resistance. Note

that the power output from the voltage source, which is assumed to be ideal, is maximum when the

load resistor RL is equal to the internal resistance Ri, delivering 50% of the source power to the

load. You can get a higher percentage of the power to the load by increasing the load resistor, and

that is the desirable situation with a battery with low internal resistance. Any power used up in the

internal resistor is lost to heat. But the absolute power to the load will be diminished.

Note: To avoid dealing with so many short circuits, divider resistors with value zero will default to

1 when the voltage is changed. They can be changed back to a zero value if you wish to explore the

effects of short circuits. Ohms are indicated as the resistance unit, but kilohms are more common

(giving powers in milliwatts) and of course the numerical calculation is the same.

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/powtran.html

Chapter 10 - DC Network Analysis

The Maximum Power Transfer Theorem is not so much a means of analysis as it is an aid to

system design. Simply stated, the maximum amount of power will be dissipated by a load

resistance when that load resistance is equal to the Thevenin/Norton resistance of the network

supplying the power. If the load resistance is lower or higher than the Thevenin/Norton resistance

of the source network, its dissipated power will be less than maximum.

This is essentially what is aimed for in radio transmitter design , where the antenna or transmission

line “impedance” is matched to final power amplifier “impedance” for maximum radio frequency

power output. Impedance, the overall opposition to AC and DC current, is very similar to resistance,

and must be equal between source and load for the greatest amount of power to be transferred to

the load. A load impedance that is too high will result in low power output. A load impedance that is

too low will not only result in low power output, but possibly overheating of the amplifier due to the

power dissipated in its internal (Thevenin or Norton) impedance.

Taking our Thevenin equivalent example circuit, the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem tells us

that the load resistance resulting in greatest power dissipation is equal in value to the Thevenin

resistance (in this case, 0.8 Ω):

With this value of load resistance, the dissipated power will be 39.2 watts:

If we were to try a lower value for the load resistance (0.5 Ω instead of 0.8 Ω, for example), our

power dissipated by the load resistance would decrease:

Power dissipation increased for both the Thevenin resistance and the total circuit, but it decreased

for the load resistor. Likewise, if we increase the load resistance (1.1 Ω instead of 0.8 Ω, for

example), power dissipation will also be less than it was at 0.8 Ω exactly:

If you were designing a circuit for maximum power dissipation at the load resistance, this theorem

would be very useful. Having reduced a network down to a Thevenin voltage and resistance (or

Norton current and resistance), you simply set the load resistance equal to that Thevenin or Norton

equivalent (or vice versa) to ensure maximum power dissipation at the load. Practical applications

of this might include radio transmitter final amplifier stage design (seeking to maximize power

delivered to the antenna or transmission line), a grid tied inverter loading a solar array, or electric

vehicle design (seeking to maximize power delivered to drive motor).

The Maximum Power Transfer Theorem is not: Maximum power transfer does not coincide with

maximum efficiency. Application of The Maximum Power Transfer theorem to AC power distribution

will not result in maximum or even high efficiency. The goal of high efficiency is more important for

AC power distribution, which dictates a relatively low generator impedance compared to load

impedance.

Similar to AC power distribution, high fidelity audio amplifiers are designed for a relatively low

output impedance and a relatively high speaker load impedance. As a ratio, “output impdance” :

“load impedance” is known as damping factor, typically in the range of 100 to 1000. [rar] [dfd]

Maximum power transfer does not coincide with the goal of lowest noise. For example, the low-

level radio frequency amplifier between the antenna and a radio receiver is often designed for

lowest possible noise. This often requires a mismatch of the amplifier input impedance to the

antenna as compared with that dictated by the maximum power transfer theorem.

REVIEW:

The Maximum Power Transfer Theorem states that the maximum amount of power will be dissipated by

a load resistance if it is equal to the Thevenin or Norton resistance of the network supplying power.

The Maximum Power Transfer Theorem does not satisfy the goal of maximum efficiency.

https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/textbook/direct-current/chpt-10/maximum-power-transfer-theorem/

Maximum Power Transfer occurs when the resistive value of the load is equal in value to that of the voltage

sources internal resistance allowing maximum power to be supplied

involved is of a fixed value in Ohm´s.

However, when we connect a load resistance, RL across the output terminals of the power

source, the impedance of the load will vary from an open-circuit state to a short-circuit

state resulting in the power being absorbed by the load becoming dependent on the

impedance of the actual power source. Then for the load resistance to absorb the

maximum power possible it has to be “Matched” to the impedance of the power source

and this forms the basis of Maximum Power Transfer.

The Maximum Power Transfer Theorem is another useful circuit analysis method to

ensure that the maximum amount of power will be dissipated in the load resistance when

the value of the load resistance is exactly equal to the resistance of the power source. The

relationship between the load impedance and the internal impedance of the energy source

will give the power in the load. Consider the circuit below.

In our Thevenin equivalent circuit above, the maximum power transfer theorem states that

“the maximum amount of power will be dissipated in the load resistance if it is equal in

value to the Thevenin or Norton source resistance of the network supplying the power“.

In other words, the load resistance resulting in greatest power dissipation must be equal in

value to the equivalent Thevenin source resistance, then RL = RS but if the load resistance

is lower or higher in value than the Thevenin source resistance of the network, its

dissipated power will be less than maximum.

For example, find the value of the load resistance, RL that will give the maximum power

transfer in the following circuit.

Maximum Power Transfer Example No1.

Where:

RS = 25Ω

RL is variable between 0 – 100Ω

VS = 100v

We can now complete the following table to determine the current and power in the circuit

for different values of load resistance.

5 3.3 55 30 1.8 97

10 2.8 78 40 1.5 94

15 2.5 93 60 1.2 83

Using the data from the table above, we can plot a graph of load resistance, RL against

power, P for different values of load resistance. Also notice that power is zero for an open-

circuit (zero current condition) and also for a short-circuit (zero voltage condition).

From the above table and graph we can see that the Maximum Power Transfer occurs in

the load when the load resistance, RL is equal in value to the source resistance, RS that

is: RS = RL = 25Ω. This is called a “matched condition” and as a general rule, maximum

power is transferred from an active device such as a power supply or battery to an

external device when the impedance of the external device exactly matches the

impedance of the source.

One good example of impedance matching is between an audio amplifier and a

loudspeaker. The output impedance, ZOUT of the amplifier may be given as

between 4Ωand 8Ω, while the nominal input impedance, ZIN of the loudspeaker may be

given as 8Ωonly.

Then if the 8Ω speaker is attached to the amplifiers output, the amplifier will see the

speaker as an 8Ω load. Connecting two 8Ω speakers in parallel is equivalent to the

amplifier driving one 4Ω speaker and both configurations are within the output

specifications of the amplifier.

Improper impedance matching can lead to excessive power loss and heat dissipation. But

how could you impedance match an amplifier and loudspeaker which have very different

impedances. Well, there are loudspeaker impedance matching transformers available that

can change impedances from 4Ω to 8Ω, or to 16Ω’s to allow impedance matching of many

loudspeakers connected together in various combinations such as in PA (public address)

systems.

One very useful application of impedance matching in order to provide maximum power

transfer between the source and the load is in the output stages of amplifier circuits.

Signal transformers are used to match the loudspeakers higher or lower impedance value

to the amplifiers output impedance to obtain maximum sound power output. These audio

signal transformers are called “matching transformers” and couple the load to the

amplifiers output as shown below.

The maximum power transfer can be obtained even if the output impedance is not the

same as the load impedance. This can be done using a suitable “turns ratio” on the

transformer with the corresponding ratio of load impedance, ZLOAD to output

impedance, ZOUT matches that of the ratio of the transformers primary turns to secondary

turns as a resistance on one side of the transformer becomes a different value on the

other.

If the load impedance, ZLOAD is purely resistive and the source impedance is purely

resistive, ZOUT then the equation for finding the maximum power transfer is given as:

Where: NP is the number of primary turns and NS the number of secondary turns on the

transformer. Then by varying the value of the transformers turns ratio the output

impedance can be “matched” to the source impedance to achieve maximum power

transfer. For example,

If an 8Ω loudspeaker is to be connected to an amplifier with an output impedance

of 1000Ω, calculate the turns ratio of the matching transformer required to provide

maximum power transfer of the audio signal. Assume the amplifier source impedance

is Z1, the load impedance is Z2 with the turns ratio given as N.

Generally, small transformers used in low power audio amplifiers are usually regarded as

ideal so any losses can be ignored.

In the next tutorial about DC circuit theory, we will look at Star Delta Transformation which

allows us to convert balanced star connected circuits into equivalent delta and vice versa.

https://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/dccircuits/dcp_9.html

Sometimes in engineering we are asked to design a circuit that will transfer the maximum power to a

load from a given source. According to the maximum power transfer theorem, a load will receive

maximum power from a source when its resistance (RL) is equal to the internal resistance (RI) of the

source. If the source circuit is already in the form of a Thevenin or Norton equivalent circuit (a voltage

or current source with an internal resistance), then the solution is simple. If the circuit is not in the

form of a Thevenin or Norton equivalent circuit, we must first use Thevenin’s or Norton’s theorem to

obtain the equivalent circuit.

1. Find the internal resistance, RI. This is the resistance one finds by looking back into the two load

terminals of the source with no load connected. As we have shown in the Thevenin’s

Theorem and Norton’s Theorem chapters, the easiest method is to replace voltage sources by short

circuits and current sources by open circuits, then find the total resistance between the two load

terminals.

2. Find the open circuit voltage (UT) or the short circuit current (IN) of the source between the two load

terminals, with no load connected.

(RLopt = RI). Finally, the maximum power can be found

In addition to the maximum power, we might want to know another important quantity: the efficiency.

Efficiency is defined by the ratio of the power received by the load to the total power supplied by the

source. For the Thevenin equivalent:

Using TINA’s Interpreter, it is easy to draw P, P/Pmax, and as a function of RL. The next graph

shows P/Pmax, the power on RL divided by the maximum power, Pmax, as a function of RL (for a

circuit with internal resistance RI=50).

Now let’s see the efficiency as a function of RL.

The circuit and the TINA Interpreter program to draw the diagrams above are shown below. Note that

we we also used the editing tools of TINA’s Diagram window to add some text and the dotted line.

Now let’s explore the efficiency () for the case of maximum power transfer, where RL = RTh.

which when given as a percentage is only 50%. This is acceptable for some applications in

electronics and telecommunication, such as amplifiers, radio receivers or transmitters However, 50%

efficiency is not acceptable for batteries, power supplies, and certainly not for power plants.

Another undesirable consequence of arranging a load to achieve maximum power transfer is the 50%

voltage drop on the internal resistance. A 50% drop in source voltage can be a real problem. What is

needed, in fact, is a nearly constant load voltage. This calls for systems where the internal resistance

of the source is much lower than the load resistance. Imagine a 10 GW power plant operating at or

close to maximum power transfer. This would mean that half of the energy generated by the plant

would be dissipated in the transmission lines and in the generators (which would probably burn out).

It would also result in load voltages that would randomly fluctuate between 100% and 200% of the

nominal value as consumer power usage varied.

To illustrate the application of the maximum power transfer theorem, let’s find the optimum value of

the resistor RL to receive maximum power in the circuit below.

Click/tap the circuit above to analyze on-line or click this link to Save under Windows

We get the maximum power if RL= R1, so RL = 1 kohm. The maximum power:

Click/tap the circuit above to analyze on-line or click this link to Save under Windows

The following problem is more complex, so first we must reduce it to a simpler circuit.

Find RI to achieve maximum power transfer, and calculate this maximum power.

Click/tap the circuit above to analyze on-line or click this link to Save under Windows

Click/tap the circuit above to analyze on-line or click this link to Save under Windows

{Solution by TINA's Interpreter}

O1:=Replus(R4,(R1+Replus(R2,R3)))/(R+Replus(R4,(R1+Replus(R2,R3))));

IN:=Vs*O1*Replus(R2,R3)/(R1+Replus(R2,R3))/R3;

RN:=R3+Replus(R2,(R1+Replus(R,R4)));

Pmax:=sqr(IN)/4*RN;

IN=[250u]

RN=[80k]

Pmax=[1.25m]

We can also solve this problem using one of TINA’s most interesting features,

the Optimization analysis mode.

To set up for an Optimization, use the Analysis menu or the icons at the top right of the screen and

select Optimization Target. Click on the Power meter to open its dialog box and select Maximum.

Next, select Control Object, click on RI, and set the limits within which the optimum value should be

searched.

To carry out the optimization in TINA v6 and above, simply use the Analysis/Optimization/DC

Optimization command from the Analysis menu.

In older versions of TINA, you can set this mode from the menu, Analysis/Mode/Optimization, and

then execute a DC Analysis.

After running Optimization for the problem above, the following screen appears:

After Optimization, the value of RI is automatically updated to the value found. If we next run an

interactive DC analysis by pressing the DC button, the maximum power is displayed as shown in the

following figure.

https://www.tina.com/course/11maxim/maxim

Suppose we have a voltage source or battery that's internal resistance is Ri and a load

resistance RL is connected across this battery. Maximum power transfer theorem

determines the value of resistance RL for which, the maximum power will be transferred

from source to it. Actually the maximum power, drawn from the source, depends upon the

value of the load resistance. There may be some confusion let us clear it.

power, differentiate the above expression with respect to resistance RL and equate it to

the maximum power will be transferred to the load when load resistance is just equal to

internal resistance of the battery.

Maximum power transfer theorem can be applicable in complex network as follows- A

resistive load in a resistive network will abstract maximum power when the load resistance

is equal to the resistance viewed by the load as it looks back to the network. Actually this

is nothing but the resistance presented to the output terminals of the network. This is

actually Thevenin equivalent resistance as we explained in Thevenin's theorem if we

consider the whole network as a voltage source. Similarly, if we consider the network as

current source, this resistance will be Norton equivalent resistance as we explained in

Norton theorem.

https://www.electrical4u.com/maximum-power-transfer-theorem/

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem can be stated as – A resistive load, being connected to a DC network,

receives maximum power when the load resistance is equal to the internal resistance known as (Thevenin’s

equivalent resistance) of the source network as seen from the load terminals.The Maximum Power Transfer

theorem is used to find the load resistance for which there would be the maximum amount of power transfer

from the source to the load.

The maximum power transfer theorem is applied to both the DC and AC circuit. The only difference is that in

AC circuit the resistance is substituted by the impedance.The maximum power transfer theorem finds their

applications in communication systems which receive low strength signal. It is also used in speaker for

transferring the maximum power from an amplifier to the speaker.

Content

Explanation of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Steps for Solving Network Using Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Explanation of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

A variable resistance RL is connected to a DC source network as shown in the circuit diagram in figure A below

and the figure B represents the Thevenin’s voltage VTH and Thevenin’s resistance RTH of the source network. The

aim of the Maximum Power Transfer theorem is to determine the value of load resistance RL, such that it

receives maximum power from the DC source.

current will be calculated by the equation shown below

While the power delivered to the resistive load is given by the equation

Putting the value of I from the equation (1) in the equation (2) we will get

PL can be maximized by varying RL and hence, maximum power can be delivered when (dPL/dRL) = 0

However,

Therefore,

Which gives

Hence, it is proved that power transfer from a DC source network to a resistive network is maximum when the

internal resistance of the DC source network is equal to the load resistance.

Again, with RTH = RL, the system being perfectly matched to the load and the source, thus, the power transfer

becomes maximum, and this amount of power Pmax can be obtained by the equation shown below

Equation (3) gives the power which is consumed by the load. The power transfer by the source will also be

same as the power consumed by the load, i.e. equation (3), as the load power and the source power being the

same.

During Maximum Power Transfer the efficiency ƞ becomes

The concept of Maximum Power Transfer theorem is that by making the source resistance equal to the load

resistance, which has wide application in communication circuits where the magnitude of power transfer is

sufficiently small. To achieve maximum power transfer, the source and the load resistance are matched and with

this, efficiency becomes 50% with the flow of maximum power from the source to the load.

In Electrical Power Transmission system, the load resistance being sufficiently greater than the source

resistance, it is difficult to achieve the condition of maximum power transfer.

In power system emphasis is given to keep the voltage drops and the line losses to a minimum value and hence

the operation of the power system, operating with bulk power transmission capability, becomes uneconomical if

it is operating with only 50% efficiency just for achieving maximum power transfer. Hence, in the electrical

power transmission system, the criterion of maximum power transfer is very rarely used.

Following steps are used to solve the problem by Maximum Power Transfer theorem

Step 2 – Find the Thevenin’s resistance (RTH) of the source network looking through the open circuited load

terminals.

Step 3 – As per the maximum power transfer theorem, this RTH is the load resistance of the network, i.e., RL =

RTH that allows maximum power transfer.

https://circuitglobe.com/what-is-maximum-power-transfer-theorem.html

APRIL 21, 2015 BY ADMINISTRATOR LEAVE A COMMENT

Table of Contents

Introduction

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem Statement

Proof of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Power Transfer Efficiency

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC Circuits

Applying Maximum Power Transfer Example to DC circuit

Applying Maximum Power Transfer to AC circuit

Practical Application of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Introduction

In any electric circuit, the electrical energy from the supply is delivered to the load where it is

converted into a useful work. Practically, the entire supplied power will not present at load due to the

heating effect and other constraints in the network. Therefore, there exist a certain difference

between drawing and delivering powers.

The load size always affects the amount of power transferred from the supply source, i.e., any

change in the load resistance results to change in power transfer to the load. Thus, the maximum

power transfer theorem ensures the condition to transfer the maximum power to the load. Let us see

‘how’.

Back to top

The maximum power transfer theorem states that in a linear , bilateral DC network , maximum power

is delivered to the load when the load resistance is equal to the internal resistance of a source.

If it is an independent voltage source, then its series resistance (internal resistance Rs) or if it is

independent current source, then its parallel resistance (internal resistance Rs) must equal to the load

resistance RL to deliver maximum power to the load.

Back to top

Proof of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

The maximum power transfer theorem ensures the value of the load resistance , at which the

maximum power is transferred to the load.

Consider the below DC two terminal network (left side circuit) , to which the condition for maximum

power is determined , by obtaining the expression of power absorbed by load with use of mesh or

nodal current methods and then derivating the resulting expression with respect to load resistance

RL.

But this is quite a complex procedure. But in previous articles we have seen that the complex part of

the network can be replaced with a Thevenin’s equivalent as shown below.

The original two terminal circuit is replaced with a Thevenin’s equivalent circuit across the variable

load resistance. The current through the load for any value of load resistance is

Form the above expression the power delivered depends on the values of R TH and RL. However the

Thevenin’s equivalent is constant, the power delivered from this equivalent source to the load entirely

depends on the load resistance RL. To find the exact value of RL, we apply differentiation to P L with

respect to RL and equating it to zero as

Therefore, this is the condition of matching the load where the maximum power transfer occurs when

the load resistance is equal to the Thevenin’s resistance of the circuit. By substituting the Rth = RL in

equation 1 we get

= 2 IL2 RL …………….(2)

Hence , the maximum power transfer theorem expresses the state at which maximum power is

delivered to the load , that is , when the load resistance is equal to the Thevenin’s equivalent

resistance of the circuit. Below figure shows a curve of power delivered to the load with respect to the

load resistance.

Note that the power delivered is zero when the load resistance is zero as there is no voltage drop

across the load during this condition. Also, the power will be maximum, when the load resistance is

equal to the internal resistance of the circuit (or Thevenin’s equivalent resistance). Again, the power is

zero as the load resistance reaches to infinity as there is no current flow through the load.

Back to top

We must remember that this theorem results maximum power transfer but not a maximum efficiency.

If the load resistance is smaller than source resistance, power dissipated at the load is reduced while

most of the power is dissipated at the source then the efficiency becomes lower.

Consider the total power delivered from source equation (equation 2), in which the power is

dissipated in the equivalent Thevenin’s resistance RTH by the voltage source VTH.

= 50 %

Hence, at the condition of maximum power transfer, the efficiency is 50%, that means a half

percentage of generated power is delivered to the load and at other conditions small percentage of

power is delivered to the load , as indicated in efficiency verses maximum power transfer the curves

below.

For some applications, it is desirable to transfer maximum power to the load than achieving high

efficiency such as in amplifiers and communication circuits.

On the other hand, it is desirable to achieve higher efficiency than maximised power transfer in case

of power transmission systems where a large load resistance (much larger value than internal source

resistance) is placed across the load. Even though the efficiency is high the power delivered will be

less in those cases.

Back to top

It can be stated as in an active network, the maximum power is transferred to the load when the load

impedance is equal to the complex conjugate of an equivalent impedance of a given network as

viewed from the load terminals.

Consider the above Thevenin’s equivalent circuit across the load terminals in which the current

flowing through the circuit is given as

I = VTH / ZTH + ZL

Where ZL = RL + jXL

ZTH = RTH + jXTH

PL = I2 RL

For maximum power the derivative of the above equation must be zero, after simplification we get

XL + XTH = 0

XL = – XTH

Again for maximum power transfer, derivation of above equation must be equal to zero, after

simplification we get

RL+ RTH = 2 RL

RL = RTH

Hence, the maximum power will transferred to the load from source, if RL = RTH and XL = – XTH in

an AC circuit. This means that the load impedance should be equal to the complex conjugate of

equivalent impedance of the circuit,

ZL = ZTH

Where ZTH is the complex conjugate of the equivalent impedance of the circuit.

Back to top

Applying Maximum Power Transfer Example to DC circuit

Consider the below circuit to which we determine the value of the load resistance that receives the

maximum power from the supply source and the maximum power under the maximum power transfer

condition.

1.Disconnect the load resistance from the load terminals a and b. To represent the given circuit as

Thevenin’s equivalent, we are to determine the Thevenin’s voltage VTH and Thevenin’s equivalent

resistance RTH.

Va = V × R2 / (R1 + R2)

= 30 × 20 /×(20 + 15)

= 17.14 V

= 30 × 5 /(10 + 5)

= 10 V

Vab = 17.14 – 10

= 7.14 V

2.Calculate the Thevenin’s equivalent resistance RTH by replacing sources with their internal

resistances (here assume that voltage source has zero internal resistance so it becomes a short

circuited).

= 8.57 + 3.33

3. The Thevenin’s equivalent circuit with above calculated values by reconnecting the load resistance

is shown below.

From the maximum power transfer theorem, RL value must equal to the RTH to deliver the maximum

power to the load.

= (7.14)2 / (4 × 11.90)

= 50.97 / 47.6

= 1.07 Watts

Back to top

The below AC network consists of load impedance ZL of which both reactive and resistive parts can

be varied. Hence, we have to determine the load impedance value at which the maximum power

delivered from the source and the value of maximum power.

To find the value of load impedance, first, we find the Thevenin’s equivalent circuit across the load

terminals. For finding Thevenin’s voltage, disconnect the load impedance as shown in below figure.

By voltage divider rule, VTH = 20∠0 × [j6 / (4 + j6)]

= 20∠0 × 0.825∠33.7

VTH = 16.5∠33.7 V

By shorting the voltage source, we calculate the Thevenin’s equivalent impedance of the circuit as

shown in figure.

= (4 × 6∠90) / (7.21∠56.3)

Hence, the Thevenin’s equivalent circuit across the load terminals is shown in below.

Therefore to transfer the maximum power to the load, the value of the load impedance should be

ZL = Z×TH

= 2.77 – j1.85 ohms

= V2TH / 4 RTH

= (16.5)2/4(2.77)

= 272.25 / 11.08

= 24.5 W

Back to top

Consider the practical example of a speaker with an impedance of 8 ohms is driven by audio amplifier

with its internal impedance of 500 ohms. The Thevenin’s equivalent circuit is also shown in figure.

According to the maximum power transfer theorem, the power is maximized at the load if the load

impedance is 500 ohms (same as internal impedance). Or else internal resistance has to be changed

to 8 ohms to achieve the condition however it is not possible. So it is an impedance mismatch

condition and it can be overcome by using an impedance matching transformer with its impedance

transformation ratio of 500:8.

https://www.electronicshub.org/maximum-power-transfer-theorem/

Advertisements

Previous Page

Next Page

electronic applications. In DC circuits, we can represent the load with a resistor having

resistance of RL ohms. Similarly, in AC circuits, we can represent it with a complex load

having an impedance of ZL ohms.

Maximum power transfer theorem states that the DC voltage source will deliver

maximum power to the variable load resistor only when the load resistance is equal to

the source resistance.

Similarly, Maximum power transfer theorem states that the AC voltage source will

deliver maximum power to the variable complex load only when the load impedance is

equal to the complex conjugate of source impedance.

In this chapter, let us discuss about the maximum power transfer theorem for DC

circuits.

Replace any two terminal linear network or circuit to the left side of variable load

resistor having resistance of RL ohms with a Thevenin’s equivalent circuit. We know that

Thevenin’s equivalent circuit resembles a practical voltage source.

The amount of power dissipated across the load resistor is

PL=I2RLPL=I2RL

PL=⟮ VTh(RTh+RL)⟯2RLPL=⟮ VTh(RTh+RL)⟯2RL

⇒PL=VTh2{RL(RTh+RL)2}⇒PL=VTh2{RL(RTh+RL)2} Equation 1

Condition for Maximum Power Transfer

For maximum or minimum, first derivative will be zero. So, differentiate Equation 1 with

respect to RL and make it equal to zero.

dPLdRL=VTh2{(RTh+RL)2×1−RL×2(RTh+RL)(RTh+RL)4}=0dPLdRL=VTh2{(RTh+RL)2×1−RL×2(RTh+RL)(RT

h+RL)4}=0

⇒(RTh+RL)2−2RL(RTh+RL)=0⇒(RTh+RL)2−2RL(RTh+RL)=0

⇒(RTh+RL)(RTh+RL−2RL)=0⇒(RTh+RL)(RTh+RL−2RL)=0

⇒(RTh−RL)=0⇒(RTh−RL)=0

⇒RTh=RLorRL=RTh⇒RTh=RLorRL=RTh

Therefore, the condition for maximum power dissipation across the load

is RL=RThRL=RTh. That means, if the value of load resistance is equal to the value of

source resistance i.e., Thevenin’s resistance, then the power dissipated across the load

will be of maximum value.

The value of Maximum Power Transfer

Substitute RL=RTh&PL=PL,MaxRL=RTh&PL=PL,Max in Equation 1.

PL,Max=VTh2{RTh(RTh+RTh)2}PL,Max=VTh2{RTh(RTh+RTh)2}

PL,Max=VTh2{RTh4RTh2}PL,Max=VTh2{RTh4RTh2}

⇒PL,Max=VTh24RTh⇒PL,Max=VTh24RTh

⇒PL,Max=VTh24RL,sinceRL=RTh⇒PL,Max=VTh24RL,sinceRL=RTh

PL,Max=VTh24RL=VTh24RThPL,Max=VTh24RL=VTh24RTh

We can calculate the efficiency of maximum power transfer, ηMaxηMax using following

formula.

ηMax=PL,MaxPSηMax=PL,MaxPS Equation 2

Where,

PSPS is the amount of power generated by the source.

The amount of power generated by the source is

PS=2I2RTh+I2RLPS=2I2RTh+I2RL

⇒PS=2I2RTh,sinceRL=RTh⇒PS=2I2RTh,sinceRL=RTh

PS=2⟮ VTh2RTh⟯2RThPS=2⟮ VTh2RTh⟯2RTh

⇒PS=VTh22RTh⇒PS=VTh22RTh

ηMax=⟮ VTh24RTh⟯⟮ VTh22RTh⟯ηMax=⟮ VTh24RTh⟯⟮ VTh22RTh⟯

⇒ηMax=12⇒ηMax=12

follows −

%ηMax=ηMax×100%%ηMax=ηMax×100%

⇒%ηMax=⟮ 12⟯×100%⇒%ηMax=⟮ 12⟯×100%

⇒%ηMax=50%⇒%ηMax=50%

Example

Find the maximum power that can be delivered to the load resistor R L of the circuit

shown in the following figure.

circuit to the left side of terminals A & B. We can use this circuit now. It is shown in the

following figure.

resistance RTh=403ΩRTh=403Ω

Step 2 − Replace the part of the circuit, which is left side of terminals A & B of the

given circuit with the above Thevenin’s equivalent circuit. The resultant circuit diagram

is shown in the following figure.

Step 3 − We can find the maximum power that will be delivered to the load resistor,

RL by using the following formula.

PL,Max=VTh24RThPL,Max=VTh24RTh

PL,Max=⟮ 2003⟯24⟮ 403⟯PL,Max=⟮ 2003⟯24⟮ 403⟯

PL,Max=2503WPL,Max=2503W

Therefore, the maximum power that will be delivered to the load resistor RL of the

given circuit is 25032503 W

https://www.tutorialspoint.com/network_theory/network_theory_maximum_power_transfer_theorem.htm

Statement of maximum power transfer theorem :

The maximum power transfer theorem states that the maximum amount of power will be delivered to the load

resistance when the load resistance is equal to the Thevenin /Norton resistance of the network supplying the

power. If the load resistance is lower or higher than the Thevenin /Norton resistance of the source network, then

the power delivered to load is less than maximum.

That means the condition for maximum power transfer according to maximum power transfer theorem is, RL =

RTH

General statement :

In an active network, maximum power will be transferred from source to load if the load impedance is the

complex conjugate of the internal impedance of the circuit as seen from terminals of the load.

In an electric circuit, the load receives electric energy via the supply sources and converts that energy into a

useful form. The maximum allowable power receives by the load is always limited either by the heating effect

(in case of resistive load) or by the other power conversion taking place in the load. The Thevenin and Norton

models imply that the internal circuits within the source will necessarily dissipate some of power generated by

the source. A logical question will arise in mind, how much power can be transferred to the load from the

source under the most practical conditions? In other words, what is the value of load resistance that will absorbs

the maximum power from the source? This is an important issue in many practical problems and it is discussed

with a suitable example.

Let us consider an electric network as shown in above figure, the problem is to find the choice of the resistance

RL so that the network delivers maximum power to the load or in other words what value of load resistance RL

will absorb the maximum amount of power from the network. This problem can be solved using nodal or mesh

current analysis to obtain an expression for the power absorbed by RL, then the derivative of this expression

with respect to RL will establish the condition under what circumstances the maximum power transfer occurs.

The effort required for such an approach can be quite tedious and complex. Fortunately, the network shown in

figure can be represented by an equivalent Thevenin’s voltage source as shown in below figure.

In above figure a variable load resistance RL is connected to an equivalent Thevenin circuit of original circuit.

The current for any value of load resistance is,

MaximumPowerTransferTheorem

The load power depends on both; however, is constant for the equivalent Thevenin network. So power

delivered by the equivalent Thevenin network to the load resistor RL is entirely depends on the value of RL. To

find the value of RL that absorbs a maximum power from the Thevenin circuit, we differentiate PL with respect

to RL

For maximum power dissipation in the load, the condition given below must be satisfied

This result is known as “Matching the load” or maximum power transfer occurs when the load resistance RL

matches the Thevenin’s resistance RTH of a given systems. Also, notice that under the condition of maximum

power transfer, the load voltage is, by voltage division, one-half of the Thevenin voltage.

The expression for maximum power dissipated to the load resistance is given by,

The total power delivered by the source is

This means that the Thevenin voltage source itself dissipates as much power in its internal resistance RTH as

the power absorbed by the load RL.

http://www.electronics-tutorial.net/dccircuits/maximum-power-transfer-theorem/index.html

Ahmad Faizan Basic Electrical

Facebook

Twitter

Google +

LinkedIn

Pinterest

Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.

Maximum power transfer theorem states that maximum power output is obtained when the load

resistance RL is equal to Thevenin resistance Rth as seen from load Terminals.

Fig.1: Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Any circuit or network may be represented by a Thevenin equivalent circuit. The Thevenin

resistance Rth is comparable to a source internal resistance (RS) which absorbs some of the

power available from the ideal voltage source. In above figure, a variable load resistance RL is

connected to a Thevenin circuit. The current for any value of load resistance RL is connected to a

Thevenin circuit. The current for any value of load resistance is;

IL=VSRS+RLIL=VSRS+RL

Then by using I2R , the power delivered to the load is,

PL=(VSRS+RL)2RL ⋯ (1)PL=(VSRS+RL)2RL ⋯ (1)

The load power depends on both Rth (RS) and RL; however, Rth (RS) is considered constant for any

particular network. Then one might get an idea of how PL varies with a change in RL by assuming

values for Thevenin circuit of above figure and, in turn, calculating PL for different values of RL.

You May Also Read:Thevenin’s Theorem Explained

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem Derivation

As we know power delivered to load is,

PL=(VSRS+RL)2RLPL=(VSRS+RL)2RL

Taking a derivative on both sides;

dPLdRL=V2S(RS+RL)2−2RL(RS+RL)(RS+RL)4dPLdRL=VS2(RS+RL)2−2RL(RS+RL)(RS+RL)4

For PL to be maximum;

dPLdRL=0dPLdRL=0

So,

V2S(RS−RL)(RS+RL)3=0VS2(RS−RL)(RS+RL)3=0

Finally,

RS=RLRS=RL

So maximum power transferred is;

Pmax=V2S4RSPmax=VS24RS

We got above expression by substituting RS=RL into equation (1).

Maximum Power Transfer and Efficiency of Transmission

We observe that power transfer from a real source always produces ohmic heating in the source

resistance. Calculations of such internal effects require information about the internal structure and

cannot, in general, be based upon Thevenin or Nortonequivalent networks. However, the entire load

current iL usually passes through the internal resistance of a real source, so we represent the internal

conditions by lumped parameters as shown in figure 1. The resulting internal power dissipated by

RTH or RSis then

PS=RSI2L=RS(RS+RL)2∗V2SPS=RSIL2=RS(RS+RL)2∗VS2

The dashed curve in figure 2 shows that PS steadily decreases as RL increases and that PS=PL when

RL/RS=1.

Since the total power generated by the source is PL+PS, the wasted internal power PSshould be small

compared to PL for efficient operation. Formally, we define the power-transfer efficiency as

Efficiency=PLPL+PSEfficiency=PLPL+PS

Which is often expressed as a percentage. If the load has been matched for maximum power

transfer, then PS=PL, and so efficiency,

Efficiency=PL2PL=50 %Efficiency=PL2PL=50 %

Moreover, with RL=RS, the terminal voltage drops to V=VTH/2. Clearly, electrical utilities would not,

and should not, strive for maximum power transfer. Instead, they seek higher power-transfer

efficiency by making PS as small as possible.

Maximum Power Transfer Solved Example

Find RL

Solution

Let’s find Vth first across 150 Ω resistance

Vth=VS=360∗150150+30Vth=VS=360∗150150+30

Vth=VS=300 VVth=VS=300 V

To find Rth or RS, short circuit the voltage source

Rth=RS=150 || 30=25ΩRth=RS=150 || 30=25Ω

So, for maximum power transfer, we know that

RL=Rth=25 ΩRL=Rth=25 Ω

Now, Find Maximum power transfer to the load

Pmax=V2S4RS=900 WPmax=VS24RS=900 W

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem using Matlab Code

Here is the MATLAB code to implement maximum power transfer theorem in Matlab.

3

V_TH = 300; % Thevenin's Voltage

4

R_TH = 25; % Thevenin's Equivalent Resistance

5

R_L = 0:0.5:80; % Load Resistance

6

%%

7

%% Load Current & Power Calculation

8 IL = V_TH./(R_TH + R_L); % Load Current

10 %%

12

plot(R_L,P_L,'b')

13

hold on

14

title('Maximum Power Transfer using Matlab');

15

xlabel('Load Resistance R_L');

16

ylabel('Power to the Load P_L');

17 gtext('R_TH = R_L = 25 Ohm')

18 legend('P_L')

19 grid on

20

21

Result

Here is a graph which clearly shows that maximum power transfer occurs when Rth=RL.

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem using Matlab Simulink

http://electricalacademia.com/basic-electrical/maximum-power-transfer-theorem/

Transfer

Thevenin’s theorem states that any circuit can be simplified down to a load connected to a voltage source and

resistor in series. This is especially useful when you are dealing with a load that may be changed.

As seen in the example circuit above, two values must be solved for: VTH and RTH. To solve for VTH, open circuit the

load and measure the open circuit voltage (VOC). VTH is equal to $VOC.

To solve for RTH, there are three different methods for varying types of circuits:

Method 1

To solve for RTH using the first method, solve for both the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current across the

load, and then use the equation:

RTH=|VOCISC|(1)(1)RTH=|VOCISC|

This method does not work if the circuit only contains dependent sources.

Method 2

To solve for RTH using the second method, remove the load, turn off all independent sources, and calculate the

equivalent resistance across the load terminals. Reff = RTH.

This method does not work if the circuit contains any dependent sources.

Method 3

To solve for RTH using the third method, turn off all independent sources, replace the load with a known test voltage

(i.e. 1V), and calculate the current delivered by the test source. Then use the following equation:

RTH=VtestItest(2)(2)RTH=VtestItest

This method is always applicable. It must be used if the circuit contains only dependent sources.

In order to extract as much power as possible from a given network, the load must be chosen carefully. First, the

Thevenin’s equivalent circuit must be solved for, then the load must be chosen such that RL = RTH. The power that

can then be extracted from this network is calculated using the following formula:

Pmax=VTH24RTH(3)

http://www.ece.ualberta.ca/~terheide/ECE202-lab/thevenin_maxpowertransfer.html

The importance of matching a load to a source for maximum power transfer is extremely important in microwaves,

as well as all manner of lower frequency stuff such as stereo sound systems, electrical generating plants, solar cells

and hybrid electric cars. It is very simple to prove using Ohm's Law, and that's what we'll do here.

The first engineer to understand the importance of source and load matching was American Joseph Henry. Check

out his portrait in our Microwave Hall of Fame!

The maximum power transfer theorem is sometimes called the conjugate match thoerem. Neophytes frequently

misapply the thoerem to situations where it is not appropriate. iI is useful only for designing loads, not generators.

A circuit diagram of a source and load is shown below. Feel free to think of everything as direct current because that

is the simplest case (RF follows ohm's law, so the theory is valid at any frequency). The source has a series

resistance (often called the Norton or Thevenin equivalent resistance) built into it. In microwave engineering, the

generator's resistance is the same as the characteristic impedance of the transmission media, usually 50 ohms, and

it is usually called "Z0" (sometimes ZC for "characteristic impedance". The load resistance is called ZL.

Notice that the generator voltage is "2V" in the schematic. Some people are wondering, "if I buy a 1.5 volt D-cell

battery, does that mean that it actually can put out 3 volts?" No way, Jose! What we are trying to show here is that

under maximum power transfer conditions, only half of the generator voltage makes its way to the load... so in the

case of a D-cell, only 0.75 volts would be available at maximum power transfer. Then you ask, "why doesn't

maximum power transfer happen when I put a short circuit on the output, I know that the battery will discharge

quickly under that condition?" The problem here is that total dissipation will be maximum with a short circuit load, but

no power will be transferred out of the battery. All of the power dissipation is internal to the battery, which is why it is

getting too hot to hold....

Using Ohm's law we can solve for the transferred power. First note that Z0 and ZL form a voltage divider. Then recall

that power is equal to voltage squared divided by resistance:

Now let's look at output voltage, current and as a function of load resistance. For convenience we will normalize the

load resistance to the characteristic impedance and let them both equal 1; for ZL=twice Z0, the normalized load

resistance is 2.0 for example. We further normalize the generator voltage 2V to 2 volts.

The equation for power, plotted in purple, has a funny shape with a clear-cut maximum. For homework you can use

calculus to find the maximum, but trust us (and the plot), it occurs at exactly (ZL/ZC)=1!

We can see from the plot, the maximum output current occurs into a normalized impedance of zero (a short circuit).

Here we get a DC current of 2, which is because the generator has a voltage of 2. Looking at an open circuit (off to

the right of the plot) we can see that the load voltage asymptotically approached 2 volts. By multiplying the current

and voltage, power is obtained.

Under open-circuit conditions (ZL=infinity) the output voltage is "2V". Under short-circuit conditions, a current of

2V/Z0 would result.

Going back to our D-battery analogy, how can you find the source impedance of a battery? You could put a variable

load on it, and when the load voltage hits 0.75 volts, it would have the same value as the generator impedance. A

faster way is to measure the short circuit current (quickly!), then divide the open circuit voltage (1.5 volts) by the

short circuit current (perhaps three amps) and you will arrive at the generator impedance of maybe 0.5 ohms.

Efficiency versus load impedance

Now lets look at efficiency versus load impedance. This time we'll plot a wide range of load impedances using a log

scale. The log scale chart is interesting from the point of view of the symmetries involved. In addition to the

maximum power point at RL/RG=1 providing 50% efficiency, the point at which RL/RG=3 provides exactly 75%

efficiency. One lesson you could take away from this is that for highest efficiency, the load impedance must be much

greater than the generator impedance even though maximum power transfer will not take place under this

condition. In the two extreme condictions, a short circuit is 0% efficient, and open circuit is 100% efficient, even

though in both cases, no power is transferred to the load.

By analogy, for a current source the efficiency increases with GL/GG. In this case a diminishing load resistance

leads to higher efficiency. The two types of sources have opposite behaviors as far as efficiency relative to load

resistance is concerned.

https://www.microwaves101.com/encyclopedias/maximum-power-transfer-theorem

Electrical Technology August 24th, 2015 AC Fundamentals, Analyzing Electric Circuits, DC Circuits4 Comments 86,133 Views

Table of Contents [Hide]

1 Introduction to Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

2 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for DC circuits

3 Explanation of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

4 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC circuits

5 Explanation & Proof of the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

6 Applications of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

7 Summary of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Introduction to Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Very often we come across various real time circuits that works based on maximum power transfer

theorem. For effective way of connecting source to load, an impedance matching transformer is used.

In case of transmission lines, the distortion and reflections are avoided by making source and load

impedances to be matched to the characteristic impedance of the line.

In case of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is achieved with

incremental conductance method (ICM) in which the load resistancemust be equal to the output

resistance of the PV panel and Solar Cell

So there are several cases or applications that use maximum power transfer theorem for effectively

connecting the source to a load. This theorem can be applied for both DC and AC circuits. Let us

discuss this theorem for DC as well AC circuits with examples.

This theorem describes the condition for maximum power transfer from an active network to an

external load resistance. It states that in a linear, active, bilateral DC network, the maximum

power will be transferred from source to the load when the external load resistance equals to

the internal resistance of the source.

This theorem can be developed with reference to practical current or voltage source.

If the source is a practical or independent voltage source, its internal series resistance must match

with load resistance to deliver maximum power. In case of practical or independent current source,

parallel internal resistance should match with load resistance.

In the above circuit internal source series resistance alters the power delivered to the load and hence

the maximum current delivered from the source to the load is limited.

Let us consider the electrical system with load as shown below, to which we are going to determine

the value of load resistance so as to deliver the maximum power to the load.

Basically, the condition at which maximum power transfer can be obtained by deriving an expression

of power absorbed by the load using mesh or nodal current techniques and then finding its derivative

with respect to the load resistance.

In below figure, electrical system may be a complex circuit consisting of several elements and

sources. In such case finding of maximum power transfer condition can be tedious.

Alternatively we can find the maximum power transfer with the use of Thevenin’s equivalent circuit

(Read Here the step by step Thevenin’s Theorem with solved examples). Now we will replace the

electrical system which we are considered as complex part with its Thevenin’s equivalent circuit as

shown in below.

From the above circuit, the current flowing through the load, ‘I’ is given as

In the above equation RL is a variable, therefore the condition for maximum power delivered to the

load is determined by differentiating load power with respect to the load resistance and equating it to

zero.

This is the condition for maximum power transfer, which states that power delivered to the load is

maximum, when the load resistance RL matches with Thevenin’s resistance RTH of the network.

Under this condition, power transfer to the load is

The above equation shows that the efficiency is 50% under maximum power transfer condition. Due

to this 50 percent efficiency, maximum power transfer is not always desirable. For a given values the

Thevenin’s voltage and Thevenin’s resistance, the variation of power delivered to the load with

Solved Example on Maximum Power Transfer Theorem in DC Circuits

Consider the below circuit for which we are going to determine the value of load resistance, R L for

which maximum power will transfer from source to load.

Now, the given circuit can be further simplified by converting the current source into equivalent

Thevenin’s equivalent voltage Vth and Thevenin’s equivalent resistance Rth across the load terminals

in order to get the condition for maximum power transfer. By disconnecting the load resistance, the

open-circuit voltage across the load terminals can be calculated as;

12 – 6I – 2I – 16 = 0

– 8I = 4

I = –0.5 A

= 15 V

Thevenin’s equivalent resistance across the terminals A and B is obtained by short-circuiting the

Req = (6 × 2) / (6 + 2)

= 1.5 Ω

So the maximum power will transferred to the load when RL = 1.5 ohm.

Current through the circuit, I = 15 / (1.5 + 1.5)

=5A

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC circuits

This theorem gives the impedance conditions in AC circuit for maximum power transfer to a load. It

states that in an active AC network consisting of source with internal impedance ZS which is

connected to a load ZL, the maximum power transfer occurs from source to load when the load

impedance is equal to the complex conjugate of source impedance ZS.

Explanation & Proof of the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Consider the below circuit consisting of Thevenin’s voltage source with series Thevenin’s equivalent

resistance (which are actually replacing the complex part of the circuit) connected across the complex

RTH + jXTH then the current through the circuit is given as,

For power to be maximized, the above equation

must be differentiated with respect to XL and equates it to zero. Then we get

Again taking derivative of the above equation and equating it to zero, we get

RL+ RTH = 2 RL

RL = RTH

Therefore, in AC circuits, if XL = – XTH and RL = RTH, maximum power transfer takes place from

source to load. This implies that maximum power transfer occurs when the impedance of the load is

Solved Example on Maximum Power Transfer Theorem in AC Circuits

Consider the below AC network to which we are going to determine the condition for maximum power

For finding out the maximum power transfer, first we have to determine Thevenin’s voltage and

equivalent resistance. By disconnecting the load impedance and making the voltage source short-

Then, ZAB = ((4 × 4j)/ (4 + 4j)) – 2j

= (4j – 2j (1+ j)) / (1+ j)

=2Ω

The Thevenin’s voltage of the circuit can be determined by applying the voltage divider rule to the

below circuit.

VTH = VAB = (40 / 4 (1+j)) × 4

= 28.29∠-450

Then maximum power, Pmax = VTH2/ 4RTH

= 800/ 4 = 100 W

1. In electronic circuits, especially in communication system the signal present at the receiving antenna is of

low strength. In order to receive the maximum signal from the antenna, impedance of (TV) receiver and (TV)

2. In an audio amplifier with audio speaker arrangement in public addressing systems, speaker resistance must

be equal to the amplifier resistance in order to transfer maximum power from amplifier to the speaker.

3. In case of a car engine starting system, starter motor resistance must be matched with internal resistance of

the battery. If the battery if full and these resistances are matched, maximum power will be transferred to the

motor to turn ON the engine.

Good to Know:

Summary of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Maximum power transfer theorem can be applied to both DC and AC circuits, but the only difference is that

the resistance is replaced with impedance in AC circuit.

In an AC electrical network the maximum power will be transferred from source section to the load section

when the impedance of the load is complex conjugate of the source impedance.

It is important to note that in AC circuit, source also possesses an internal reactance. Therefore in order to

have maximum power transfer the load must possess same value of reactance but it should be of opposite

type. This means that the load must have an equivalent capacitive reactance, if source has inductive

reactance, and vice versa.

The efficiency is 50 percent only at maximum power transfer condition. So in power system network, this

condition causes a large voltage drop in the lines. But the goal of the power system network is to increase

the efficiency rather than maximum power. Therefore, power system never operated under maximum

power transfer.

https://www.electricaltechnology.org/2015/08/maximum-power-transfer-theorem-for-ac-dc-circuits.html

The concept of maximum power transfer theorem was proposed by “Moritz Von Jacobi” in the mid

19th century. The other name given to this theorem is Jacobi’s law. The main scenario is to transfer

the maximum power and not maximum efficiency. Maximum power transfer theorem states that “the

power transferred from a source or circuit to a load is maximum when the resistance of the load is

made equal or matched to the internal resistance of the source or circuit providing the power to the

load”. It can be used in the applications of both AC and DC circuits.

In the basic circuit diagram it consists of DC voltage source, a series resistance and a load

resistance.

In this theorem, the load resistance ‘RL’ will be equal to the internal resistance of the circuit or the

addition of R1 and R2 (R1+R2). This theorem is applicable for

Thevenins Theorem

Active circuits

AC and DC Circuits

Considering the DC circuits then the load resistance should be equal to the internal resistance of the

source by making both the resistance equal.

For AC circuits the load impedance is equal to the internal impedance of source by making the load

impedance the complex conjugate of the source.

The internal impedance of the source ids R1 + jX

In a maximum power transfer theorem when the circuit is very complex then to solve it will take much

time. So, to overcome it, we basically follow to the Thevenin’s theorem, i.e., we replace the complex

system into the Thevenin’s equivalent circuit as shown in the below fig.

I=VTH/(RL+RTH) VTH/(RL+RTH)

PL = I2RL=(Vth/(RL+RTH))2.RL

V2/(R2/RL +2RI+RL)

Now RL will be varied by using the theorem of differential calculus. To calculate the PL then it has to

be differentiated

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for DC Circuits

Let’s solve a numerical problem by which its function can be easily understood

RL = 240Ω

RT = RTH + RL = 480Ω

VL = 6V

Maximum Power

VL = ETH/2

TL = IN/2

VL = IL * RL = 25mA * 240

= 6V

IL = 33.3 mA

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC Circuits

The maximum power transfer theorem gives an impedance in AC circuit load. The active AC network

will have a source of internal impedance ZS which is will be connected to a load ZL. In this theorem,

maximum power will transfer from source to load only when the load impedance is equal to the

complex conjugate of source impedance ZS.

I=VTH/(ZTH+ZL)

I=VTH/(RTH+jXTH+RL+jXL)

PL=I2RL

Power delivered to load is to be differentiated with respect to XL and equals to Zero to get maximized

power.

XL+XTH=0

XL=- XTH

PL =( V2THxRL)/(RTH+ RL)2

RL + RTH= 2RL

RL = RTH

If XL = – XTH RL = RTH then from source to load maximum power transfer takes place. From this we

can also conclude that the impedance of the load is complex conjugate of the source impedance that

is ZL = Z*TH

Example Problem

ZAB =( (2j)/(2+2j))-1j

= ((4j)/2+2j))-1j

= (4j-2j+2)/2+2j

= 2+2j/2+2j

= 1Ω

ZL=Zth=2Ω

VTH = VAB = 20/2(1+j) X 2

= 14.15∟45

=196/4

= 49W

Impedance matching of reflection less in the radio, transmission lines, some of the electronic there

will be the necessity of matching the source impedance just like transmitter to the load impedance to

avoid reflection in the transmission line.

In the reactive circuits this maximum power transfer theorem applies to the source or load are not

totally resistive. In any reactive components of source and load should be of equal magnitude but

opposite phase. This implies that impedance of both load and source should be complex conjugates

of each other

For resistive circuits these two concepts are similar. If in case of source is totally inductive and load to

be total capacitive, if resistive losses are absent, then it will receive 100% of the energy from the

source but send it back after a quarter cycle.

Basically, in the maximum power transfer theorem results in maximum power, but not maximum

efficiency. If the source resistance is greater than load resistance, power dissipated in the load is

decreased while most of the power is dissipated at the source. Then the efficiency gets reduced, in

fact becomes lower.

= I2LRL/(2I2LRL)*100

= 50 %

Hence it can be concluded that the efficiency of the maximum power transfer system is 50%.

Power Transfer Efficiency

Applications of Power Transfer Theorem

In the real time application let’s say in Loud Speaker, we use maximum power transfer theorem. The

design of the circuit is made in such a way that amplifies the loudspeaker to get maximum power to

the speaker and thus produce the maximum sound. This will really useful in the public meeting.

In many of the Transformers coupling this maximum power transfer theorem is applied to sending the

maximum power to the load when the matching of the load and the source impedance is not possible.

Generally in electronics equipments like Radio and Television receivers will be Antenna which

amplifies the signal of TV and Radio receiver.

We know it usually in a car engine, the power delivered to the start button of the car will generally

depend upon the resistance of the motor and the internal resistance of the battery. Now it will check

the condition that if two resistances are equal, maximum power will be transferred to the motor to turn

on the engine

Thus, this is all about maximum power transfer theorem. We believe that you have got a better

understanding of this concept. Furthermore, any queries regarding this concept or electrical and

electronics projects, please give your feedback by commenting in the comment section below. Here is

a question for you, what is the main principle of the maximum power transfer theorem?

https://www.efxkits.us/maximum-power-transfer-theorem/

- Centum Cs3000 Io ModuleUploaded byFachrizal Muhammad
- Unit-1 Dc CircuitsUploaded byChannabasappa Kudarihal
- harvestingUploaded byonepointer
- Transducer CatalogUploaded byEric Kerr
- AD5933 datasheetUploaded byOpan Naamin
- 715 M1-PH-PHUploaded byveeraboss
- Eddy Current Tubing DentingUploaded byaldeanucu
- 1. Bus Bar ProtectionUploaded byZillur Rahman
- 5constant CurrentUploaded byarihant122
- 715 M1-PH-EUploaded byveeraboss
- Agilent U1731C LCR MeterUploaded bywergy
- Moog New Tb117Uploaded byHammad Ali Zaman
- AN-847-RS-485Uploaded byTomislav Studak
- SGM PresentationUploaded bynrasool
- Headphone Stereo V31bUploaded byFrank Puchi
- beccioliniUploaded byThanhha Nguyen
- 06523297-Effect on 3rd HarmonicUploaded byMeer Farhan Ibn Bashar
- Disposable Metal BoxesUploaded byyamaha640
- Operational ModeUploaded bygalati12345
- AIR HandoutUploaded byAbhishek Kuppili
- 18.pdfUploaded byfakhri ghrairi
- GalUploaded byfntft
- Temporizador de selladoUploaded byFerBotello
- Chapter 24Uploaded bySyed Mairaj Ul Haq
- EXP4.Uploaded byPatrick Famini
- So No 1Uploaded bysn1pe
- Transistor Radio Dx 7500 Bfg235Uploaded byhurantia
- amplif de 10+10w tda2009Uploaded byRene Alfredo Flores
- Op Amp CircuitUploaded byapi-3836247
- Dual Zone ThermometerUploaded byJeran Cloete

- Signals Basic TypesUploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- cover1Uploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- lm35Uploaded byAhmad Dany Fathin N
- LayadCircuits_Saleng_GSM_v1_1.pdfUploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- LayadCircuits_Saleng_Uno_UG_v1_1.pdfUploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- LayadCircuits_Kimat_3_LED_Module_UG_v1.pdfUploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- MAX30102.pdfUploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- LayadCircuits Installation of Zipped Libraries v1Uploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- Entrepre Nuer ShipUploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- DC MOTORUploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- Research on Z-TransformsUploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- Phase Difference and Phase ShiftUploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- Sample Chapter 4Uploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- Research on Z-TransformsUploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- SoM ProbSetUploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- APA Referencing Guide.pdfUploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- LANDMARK Mosfet AmplifierUploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- Capacitor TagsUploaded byPaulo Rori
- Common Emitter RC Coupled AmplifierUploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- Signals ClassificationUploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- Signals Basic OperationsUploaded byvibhamanoj
- Signals and Systems_Mrs_Nalini Karchi.pdfUploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- EXPT1Uploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- Ch 17.pdfUploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- Ch 8.pdfUploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- lectureUploaded byAnonymous AyCl4L
- Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Chapter 2 10th Edition by BoylestadUploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella
- Ch 1.pdfUploaded byEdward Amoyen Abella

- Forces on Offshore StructuresUploaded bynikif
- Atoms In Electromagnetic Fields 2ndUploaded byDewald Murray
- Chapter 13Uploaded bydrew
- Electronic and Pneumatic Force-Balance Pressure TransmittersUploaded byAnonymous QxjMB29
- Modul X-ray.docxUploaded bySaiful Nizam
- DFIG in StandaloneUploaded byaman_tanvir
- cds gk paperUploaded byMahendra Verma
- Microsoft Word - Concept Question Work 1Uploaded bydheerajpradeep
- TX's TestingUploaded byjengandxb
- 13A01408 Mechanics of FluidsUploaded byarun
- Shape Memory FacadeUploaded byDimitris Sampatakos
- Physics Experiment 8 Formal ReportUploaded byAshley Tañamor
- Circuit Breaker in Power plantUploaded byHari Prasad
- Basci Cons TransformerUploaded byven_avv3382
- 9A21702 Vibrations and Structural DynamicsUploaded bysivabharathamurthy
- Unit 5 Balancing of Reciprocating MassesUploaded byNAVEEN
- 23642647-N-Tesla-HOW-COSMIC-FORCES-SHAPE-OUR-DESTINIES.pdfUploaded bykiki
- Application Guide for High Impedance ProtectionUploaded byjavedsmg1
- Synchronous Generator as a Wind Power GeneratorUploaded byLucas Phablo
- 9702_m16_qp_22Uploaded byshijun
- Printed Motor Works Overview 090806Uploaded byjimvidi
- 0 FeaturesUploaded by2498591041
- AD 2marks 2nd UnitsUploaded bysasiaero
- mUploaded byNayan Manna
- Visscher 1Uploaded bypepitoman212
- sm_pdf_chapter5.pdfUploaded bysuryapmohanty
- voltage rectifierUploaded byTeja
- Sample Smart Ground ReportUploaded byamer_arauf
- Flyback Transformer SPW 054Uploaded bynadeem hameed
- NUMERICAL MODELLING OF SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR OF EARTH-RETAINING WALLS.pdfUploaded byMuhanad Salem