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# Power Transfer to a Resistive Load

As a general rule, the maximum power transfer from an active device like a power supply or battery
to an external device occurs when the impedance of the external device matches that of the source.
That optimum power is 50% of the total power when the impedance of the active device is matched
to that of the load. Improper impedance matching can lead to excessive power use and possible
component damage. This situation will be modeled here for strictly resistive impedances.

## For Ri = Ω, RL = Ω, and Vsource = V,

the open circuit output voltage would be equal to Vsource, but when it is connected to the load, the
output voltage will drop to

Vout = V.

For this circuit, the total power supplied by the power supply is
Ptotal = watts

Pout = watts.

## The load then receives % of the total power.

This is an important practical situation in DC circuits, enabling you to model the output of batteries
with internal resistance and other situations where the power supply has internal resistance. Note
that the power output from the voltage source, which is assumed to be ideal, is maximum when the
load resistor RL is equal to the internal resistance Ri, delivering 50% of the source power to the
load. You can get a higher percentage of the power to the load by increasing the load resistor, and
that is the desirable situation with a battery with low internal resistance. Any power used up in the
internal resistor is lost to heat. But the absolute power to the load will be diminished.

Note: To avoid dealing with so many short circuits, divider resistors with value zero will default to
1 when the voltage is changed. They can be changed back to a zero value if you wish to explore the
effects of short circuits. Ohms are indicated as the resistance unit, but kilohms are more common
(giving powers in milliwatts) and of course the numerical calculation is the same.

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/powtran.html

## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Chapter 10 - DC Network Analysis

The Maximum Power Transfer Theorem is not so much a means of analysis as it is an aid to
system design. Simply stated, the maximum amount of power will be dissipated by a load
resistance when that load resistance is equal to the Thevenin/Norton resistance of the network
supplying the power. If the load resistance is lower or higher than the Thevenin/Norton resistance
of the source network, its dissipated power will be less than maximum.
This is essentially what is aimed for in radio transmitter design , where the antenna or transmission
line “impedance” is matched to final power amplifier “impedance” for maximum radio frequency
power output. Impedance, the overall opposition to AC and DC current, is very similar to resistance,
and must be equal between source and load for the greatest amount of power to be transferred to
the load. A load impedance that is too high will result in low power output. A load impedance that is
too low will not only result in low power output, but possibly overheating of the amplifier due to the
power dissipated in its internal (Thevenin or Norton) impedance.
Taking our Thevenin equivalent example circuit, the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem tells us
that the load resistance resulting in greatest power dissipation is equal in value to the Thevenin
resistance (in this case, 0.8 Ω):
With this value of load resistance, the dissipated power will be 39.2 watts:

If we were to try a lower value for the load resistance (0.5 Ω instead of 0.8 Ω, for example), our
power dissipated by the load resistance would decrease:

Power dissipation increased for both the Thevenin resistance and the total circuit, but it decreased
for the load resistor. Likewise, if we increase the load resistance (1.1 Ω instead of 0.8 Ω, for
example), power dissipation will also be less than it was at 0.8 Ω exactly:
If you were designing a circuit for maximum power dissipation at the load resistance, this theorem
would be very useful. Having reduced a network down to a Thevenin voltage and resistance (or
Norton current and resistance), you simply set the load resistance equal to that Thevenin or Norton
equivalent (or vice versa) to ensure maximum power dissipation at the load. Practical applications
of this might include radio transmitter final amplifier stage design (seeking to maximize power
delivered to the antenna or transmission line), a grid tied inverter loading a solar array, or electric
vehicle design (seeking to maximize power delivered to drive motor).
The Maximum Power Transfer Theorem is not: Maximum power transfer does not coincide with
maximum efficiency. Application of The Maximum Power Transfer theorem to AC power distribution
will not result in maximum or even high efficiency. The goal of high efficiency is more important for
AC power distribution, which dictates a relatively low generator impedance compared to load
impedance.
Similar to AC power distribution, high fidelity audio amplifiers are designed for a relatively low
output impedance and a relatively high speaker load impedance. As a ratio, “output impdance” :
“load impedance” is known as damping factor, typically in the range of 100 to 1000. [rar] [dfd]
Maximum power transfer does not coincide with the goal of lowest noise. For example, the low-
level radio frequency amplifier between the antenna and a radio receiver is often designed for
lowest possible noise. This often requires a mismatch of the amplifier input impedance to the
antenna as compared with that dictated by the maximum power transfer theorem.

 REVIEW:
 The Maximum Power Transfer Theorem states that the maximum amount of power will be dissipated by
a load resistance if it is equal to the Thevenin or Norton resistance of the network supplying power.
 The Maximum Power Transfer Theorem does not satisfy the goal of maximum efficiency.

https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/textbook/direct-current/chpt-10/maximum-power-transfer-theorem/

## Maximum Power Transfer

Maximum Power Transfer occurs when the resistive value of the load is equal in value to that of the voltage
sources internal resistance allowing maximum power to be supplied

## Generally, this source resistance or even impedance if inductors or capacitors are

involved is of a fixed value in Ohm´s.
However, when we connect a load resistance, RL across the output terminals of the power
source, the impedance of the load will vary from an open-circuit state to a short-circuit
state resulting in the power being absorbed by the load becoming dependent on the
impedance of the actual power source. Then for the load resistance to absorb the
maximum power possible it has to be “Matched” to the impedance of the power source
and this forms the basis of Maximum Power Transfer.
The Maximum Power Transfer Theorem is another useful circuit analysis method to
ensure that the maximum amount of power will be dissipated in the load resistance when
the value of the load resistance is exactly equal to the resistance of the power source. The
relationship between the load impedance and the internal impedance of the energy source
will give the power in the load. Consider the circuit below.

## Thevenins Equivalent Circuit.

In our Thevenin equivalent circuit above, the maximum power transfer theorem states that
“the maximum amount of power will be dissipated in the load resistance if it is equal in
value to the Thevenin or Norton source resistance of the network supplying the power“.
In other words, the load resistance resulting in greatest power dissipation must be equal in
value to the equivalent Thevenin source resistance, then RL = RS but if the load resistance
is lower or higher in value than the Thevenin source resistance of the network, its
dissipated power will be less than maximum.
For example, find the value of the load resistance, RL that will give the maximum power
transfer in the following circuit.
Maximum Power Transfer Example No1.

Where:
RS = 25Ω
RL is variable between 0 – 100Ω
VS = 100v

## Then by using the following Ohm’s Law equations:

We can now complete the following table to determine the current and power in the circuit
for different values of load resistance.

## 0 4.0 0 25 2.0 100

5 3.3 55 30 1.8 97

10 2.8 78 40 1.5 94
15 2.5 93 60 1.2 83

## 20 2.2 97 100 0.8 64

Using the data from the table above, we can plot a graph of load resistance, RL against
power, P for different values of load resistance. Also notice that power is zero for an open-
circuit (zero current condition) and also for a short-circuit (zero voltage condition).

## Graph of Power against Load Resistance

From the above table and graph we can see that the Maximum Power Transfer occurs in
the load when the load resistance, RL is equal in value to the source resistance, RS that
is: RS = RL = 25Ω. This is called a “matched condition” and as a general rule, maximum
power is transferred from an active device such as a power supply or battery to an
external device when the impedance of the external device exactly matches the
impedance of the source.
One good example of impedance matching is between an audio amplifier and a
loudspeaker. The output impedance, ZOUT of the amplifier may be given as
between 4Ωand 8Ω, while the nominal input impedance, ZIN of the loudspeaker may be
given as 8Ωonly.
Then if the 8Ω speaker is attached to the amplifiers output, the amplifier will see the
speaker as an 8Ω load. Connecting two 8Ω speakers in parallel is equivalent to the
amplifier driving one 4Ω speaker and both configurations are within the output
specifications of the amplifier.
Improper impedance matching can lead to excessive power loss and heat dissipation. But
how could you impedance match an amplifier and loudspeaker which have very different
impedances. Well, there are loudspeaker impedance matching transformers available that
can change impedances from 4Ω to 8Ω, or to 16Ω’s to allow impedance matching of many
loudspeakers connected together in various combinations such as in PA (public address)
systems.

## Transformer Impedance Matching

One very useful application of impedance matching in order to provide maximum power
transfer between the source and the load is in the output stages of amplifier circuits.
Signal transformers are used to match the loudspeakers higher or lower impedance value
to the amplifiers output impedance to obtain maximum sound power output. These audio
signal transformers are called “matching transformers” and couple the load to the
amplifiers output as shown below.

## Transformer Impedance Matching

The maximum power transfer can be obtained even if the output impedance is not the
same as the load impedance. This can be done using a suitable “turns ratio” on the
transformer with the corresponding ratio of load impedance, ZLOAD to output
impedance, ZOUT matches that of the ratio of the transformers primary turns to secondary
turns as a resistance on one side of the transformer becomes a different value on the
other.
If the load impedance, ZLOAD is purely resistive and the source impedance is purely
resistive, ZOUT then the equation for finding the maximum power transfer is given as:

Where: NP is the number of primary turns and NS the number of secondary turns on the
transformer. Then by varying the value of the transformers turns ratio the output
impedance can be “matched” to the source impedance to achieve maximum power
transfer. For example,

## Maximum Power Transfer Example No2.

If an 8Ω loudspeaker is to be connected to an amplifier with an output impedance
of 1000Ω, calculate the turns ratio of the matching transformer required to provide
maximum power transfer of the audio signal. Assume the amplifier source impedance
is Z1, the load impedance is Z2 with the turns ratio given as N.

Generally, small transformers used in low power audio amplifiers are usually regarded as
ideal so any losses can be ignored.
In the next tutorial about DC circuit theory, we will look at Star Delta Transformation which
allows us to convert balanced star connected circuits into equivalent delta and vice versa.
https://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/dccircuits/dcp_9.html

Sometimes in engineering we are asked to design a circuit that will transfer the maximum power to a
load from a given source. According to the maximum power transfer theorem, a load will receive
maximum power from a source when its resistance (RL) is equal to the internal resistance (RI) of the
source. If the source circuit is already in the form of a Thevenin or Norton equivalent circuit (a voltage
or current source with an internal resistance), then the solution is simple. If the circuit is not in the
form of a Thevenin or Norton equivalent circuit, we must first use Thevenin’s or Norton’s theorem to
obtain the equivalent circuit.

## Here’s how to arrange for the maximum power transfer.

1. Find the internal resistance, RI. This is the resistance one finds by looking back into the two load
terminals of the source with no load connected. As we have shown in the Thevenin’s
Theorem and Norton’s Theorem chapters, the easiest method is to replace voltage sources by short
circuits and current sources by open circuits, then find the total resistance between the two load
terminals.

2. Find the open circuit voltage (UT) or the short circuit current (IN) of the source between the two load
terminals, with no load connected.

## Once we have found RI, we know the optimal load resistance

(RLopt = RI). Finally, the maximum power can be found

In addition to the maximum power, we might want to know another important quantity: the efficiency.
Efficiency is defined by the ratio of the power received by the load to the total power supplied by the
source. For the Thevenin equivalent:

## and for the Norton equivalent:

Using TINA’s Interpreter, it is easy to draw P, P/Pmax, and  as a function of RL. The next graph
shows P/Pmax, the power on RL divided by the maximum power, Pmax, as a function of RL (for a
circuit with internal resistance RI=50).
Now let’s see the efficiency  as a function of RL.

The circuit and the TINA Interpreter program to draw the diagrams above are shown below. Note that
we we also used the editing tools of TINA’s Diagram window to add some text and the dotted line.
Now let’s explore the efficiency () for the case of maximum power transfer, where RL = RTh.

## The efficiency is:

which when given as a percentage is only 50%. This is acceptable for some applications in
electronics and telecommunication, such as amplifiers, radio receivers or transmitters However, 50%
efficiency is not acceptable for batteries, power supplies, and certainly not for power plants.

Another undesirable consequence of arranging a load to achieve maximum power transfer is the 50%
voltage drop on the internal resistance. A 50% drop in source voltage can be a real problem. What is
needed, in fact, is a nearly constant load voltage. This calls for systems where the internal resistance
of the source is much lower than the load resistance. Imagine a 10 GW power plant operating at or
close to maximum power transfer. This would mean that half of the energy generated by the plant
would be dissipated in the transmission lines and in the generators (which would probably burn out).
It would also result in load voltages that would randomly fluctuate between 100% and 200% of the
nominal value as consumer power usage varied.

To illustrate the application of the maximum power transfer theorem, let’s find the optimum value of
the resistor RL to receive maximum power in the circuit below.
Click/tap the circuit above to analyze on-line or click this link to Save under Windows

We get the maximum power if RL= R1, so RL = 1 kohm. The maximum power:

## A similar problem, but with a current source:

Click/tap the circuit above to analyze on-line or click this link to Save under Windows

## We get the maximum power if RL = R1 = 8 ohm. The maximum power:

The following problem is more complex, so first we must reduce it to a simpler circuit.

Find RI to achieve maximum power transfer, and calculate this maximum power.

Click/tap the circuit above to analyze on-line or click this link to Save under Windows

## First find the Norton equivalent using TINA.

Click/tap the circuit above to analyze on-line or click this link to Save under Windows

## Finally the maximum power:

{Solution by TINA's Interpreter}
O1:=Replus(R4,(R1+Replus(R2,R3)))/(R+Replus(R4,(R1+Replus(R2,R3))));
IN:=Vs*O1*Replus(R2,R3)/(R1+Replus(R2,R3))/R3;
RN:=R3+Replus(R2,(R1+Replus(R,R4)));
Pmax:=sqr(IN)/4*RN;
IN=[250u]
RN=[80k]
Pmax=[1.25m]

We can also solve this problem using one of TINA’s most interesting features,
the Optimization analysis mode.

To set up for an Optimization, use the Analysis menu or the icons at the top right of the screen and
select Optimization Target. Click on the Power meter to open its dialog box and select Maximum.
Next, select Control Object, click on RI, and set the limits within which the optimum value should be
searched.

To carry out the optimization in TINA v6 and above, simply use the Analysis/Optimization/DC
Optimization command from the Analysis menu.

In older versions of TINA, you can set this mode from the menu, Analysis/Mode/Optimization, and
then execute a DC Analysis.

After running Optimization for the problem above, the following screen appears:
After Optimization, the value of RI is automatically updated to the value found. If we next run an
interactive DC analysis by pressing the DC button, the maximum power is displayed as shown in the
following figure.

https://www.tina.com/course/11maxim/maxim

## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Suppose we have a voltage source or battery that's internal resistance is Ri and a load
resistance RL is connected across this battery. Maximum power transfer theorem
determines the value of resistance RL for which, the maximum power will be transferred
from source to it. Actually the maximum power, drawn from the source, depends upon the
value of the load resistance. There may be some confusion let us clear it.

## Power delivered to the load resistance, To find the maximum

power, differentiate the above expression with respect to resistance RL and equate it to

## zero. Thus, Thus in this case,

the maximum power will be transferred to the load when load resistance is just equal to
internal resistance of the battery.
Maximum power transfer theorem can be applicable in complex network as follows- A
resistive load in a resistive network will abstract maximum power when the load resistance
is equal to the resistance viewed by the load as it looks back to the network. Actually this
is nothing but the resistance presented to the output terminals of the network. This is
actually Thevenin equivalent resistance as we explained in Thevenin's theorem if we
consider the whole network as a voltage source. Similarly, if we consider the network as
current source, this resistance will be Norton equivalent resistance as we explained in
Norton theorem.
https://www.electrical4u.com/maximum-power-transfer-theorem/

## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem can be stated as – A resistive load, being connected to a DC network,
receives maximum power when the load resistance is equal to the internal resistance known as (Thevenin’s
equivalent resistance) of the source network as seen from the load terminals.The Maximum Power Transfer
theorem is used to find the load resistance for which there would be the maximum amount of power transfer
from the source to the load.

The maximum power transfer theorem is applied to both the DC and AC circuit. The only difference is that in
AC circuit the resistance is substituted by the impedance.The maximum power transfer theorem finds their
applications in communication systems which receive low strength signal. It is also used in speaker for
transferring the maximum power from an amplifier to the speaker.

Content
 Explanation of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
 Steps for Solving Network Using Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
Explanation of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
A variable resistance RL is connected to a DC source network as shown in the circuit diagram in figure A below
and the figure B represents the Thevenin’s voltage VTH and Thevenin’s resistance RTH of the source network. The
aim of the Maximum Power Transfer theorem is to determine the value of load resistance RL, such that it
receives maximum power from the DC source.

## Considering figure B the value of

current will be calculated by the equation shown below

While the power delivered to the resistive load is given by the equation

Putting the value of I from the equation (1) in the equation (2) we will get

PL can be maximized by varying RL and hence, maximum power can be delivered when (dPL/dRL) = 0
However,

## But as we know, (dPL/dRL) = 0

Therefore,

Which gives

Hence, it is proved that power transfer from a DC source network to a resistive network is maximum when the
internal resistance of the DC source network is equal to the load resistance.

Again, with RTH = RL, the system being perfectly matched to the load and the source, thus, the power transfer
becomes maximum, and this amount of power Pmax can be obtained by the equation shown below

Equation (3) gives the power which is consumed by the load. The power transfer by the source will also be
same as the power consumed by the load, i.e. equation (3), as the load power and the source power being the
same.

## Thus, the total power supplied is given by the equation

During Maximum Power Transfer the efficiency ƞ becomes

The concept of Maximum Power Transfer theorem is that by making the source resistance equal to the load
resistance, which has wide application in communication circuits where the magnitude of power transfer is
sufficiently small. To achieve maximum power transfer, the source and the load resistance are matched and with
this, efficiency becomes 50% with the flow of maximum power from the source to the load.

In Electrical Power Transmission system, the load resistance being sufficiently greater than the source
resistance, it is difficult to achieve the condition of maximum power transfer.

In power system emphasis is given to keep the voltage drops and the line losses to a minimum value and hence
the operation of the power system, operating with bulk power transmission capability, becomes uneconomical if
it is operating with only 50% efficiency just for achieving maximum power transfer. Hence, in the electrical
power transmission system, the criterion of maximum power transfer is very rarely used.

## Steps for Solving Network Using Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Following steps are used to solve the problem by Maximum Power Transfer theorem

## Step 1 – Remove the load resistance of the circuit.

Step 2 – Find the Thevenin’s resistance (RTH) of the source network looking through the open circuited load
terminals.

Step 3 – As per the maximum power transfer theorem, this RTH is the load resistance of the network, i.e., RL =
RTH that allows maximum power transfer.

## Step 4 – Maximum Power Transfer is calculated by the equation shown below

https://circuitglobe.com/what-is-maximum-power-transfer-theorem.html

## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

APRIL 21, 2015 BY ADMINISTRATOR LEAVE A COMMENT

Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem Statement
 Proof of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
 Power Transfer Efficiency
 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC Circuits
 Applying Maximum Power Transfer Example to DC circuit
 Applying Maximum Power Transfer to AC circuit
 Practical Application of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
Introduction
In any electric circuit, the electrical energy from the supply is delivered to the load where it is
converted into a useful work. Practically, the entire supplied power will not present at load due to the
heating effect and other constraints in the network. Therefore, there exist a certain difference
between drawing and delivering powers.

The load size always affects the amount of power transferred from the supply source, i.e., any
change in the load resistance results to change in power transfer to the load. Thus, the maximum
power transfer theorem ensures the condition to transfer the maximum power to the load. Let us see
‘how’.

Back to top

## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem Statement

The maximum power transfer theorem states that in a linear , bilateral DC network , maximum power
is delivered to the load when the load resistance is equal to the internal resistance of a source.

If it is an independent voltage source, then its series resistance (internal resistance Rs) or if it is
independent current source, then its parallel resistance (internal resistance Rs) must equal to the load
resistance RL to deliver maximum power to the load.

Back to top
Proof of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
The maximum power transfer theorem ensures the value of the load resistance , at which the
maximum power is transferred to the load.

Consider the below DC two terminal network (left side circuit) , to which the condition for maximum
power is determined , by obtaining the expression of power absorbed by load with use of mesh or
nodal current methods and then derivating the resulting expression with respect to load resistance
RL.

But this is quite a complex procedure. But in previous articles we have seen that the complex part of
the network can be replaced with a Thevenin’s equivalent as shown below.

The original two terminal circuit is replaced with a Thevenin’s equivalent circuit across the variable
load resistance. The current through the load for any value of load resistance is

Form the above expression the power delivered depends on the values of R TH and RL. However the
Thevenin’s equivalent is constant, the power delivered from this equivalent source to the load entirely
depends on the load resistance RL. To find the exact value of RL, we apply differentiation to P L with
respect to RL and equating it to zero as
Therefore, this is the condition of matching the load where the maximum power transfer occurs when
the load resistance is equal to the Thevenin’s resistance of the circuit. By substituting the Rth = RL in
equation 1 we get

## PT = IL2 (RTH + RL)

= 2 IL2 RL …………….(2)

Hence , the maximum power transfer theorem expresses the state at which maximum power is
delivered to the load , that is , when the load resistance is equal to the Thevenin’s equivalent
resistance of the circuit. Below figure shows a curve of power delivered to the load with respect to the
load resistance.

Note that the power delivered is zero when the load resistance is zero as there is no voltage drop
across the load during this condition. Also, the power will be maximum, when the load resistance is
equal to the internal resistance of the circuit (or Thevenin’s equivalent resistance). Again, the power is
zero as the load resistance reaches to infinity as there is no current flow through the load.
Back to top

## Power Transfer Efficiency

We must remember that this theorem results maximum power transfer but not a maximum efficiency.
If the load resistance is smaller than source resistance, power dissipated at the load is reduced while
most of the power is dissipated at the source then the efficiency becomes lower.

Consider the total power delivered from source equation (equation 2), in which the power is
dissipated in the equivalent Thevenin’s resistance RTH by the voltage source VTH.

## = IL2 RL / 2 IL2 RL × 100

= 50 %

Hence, at the condition of maximum power transfer, the efficiency is 50%, that means a half
percentage of generated power is delivered to the load and at other conditions small percentage of
power is delivered to the load , as indicated in efficiency verses maximum power transfer the curves
below.
For some applications, it is desirable to transfer maximum power to the load than achieving high
efficiency such as in amplifiers and communication circuits.

On the other hand, it is desirable to achieve higher efficiency than maximised power transfer in case
of power transmission systems where a large load resistance (much larger value than internal source
resistance) is placed across the load. Even though the efficiency is high the power delivered will be
less in those cases.

Back to top

## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC Circuits

It can be stated as in an active network, the maximum power is transferred to the load when the load
impedance is equal to the complex conjugate of an equivalent impedance of a given network as
viewed from the load terminals.

Consider the above Thevenin’s equivalent circuit across the load terminals in which the current
flowing through the circuit is given as

I = VTH / ZTH + ZL

Where ZL = RL + jXL
ZTH = RTH + jXTH

PL = I2 RL

## PL = V2TH × RL / ((RL+ RTH)2 + (XL + XTH )2) ……(1)

For maximum power the derivative of the above equation must be zero, after simplification we get

XL + XTH = 0

XL = – XTH

## PL = V2TH × RL / ((RL+ RTH )2

Again for maximum power transfer, derivation of above equation must be equal to zero, after
simplification we get

RL+ RTH = 2 RL

RL = RTH

Hence, the maximum power will transferred to the load from source, if RL = RTH and XL = – XTH in
an AC circuit. This means that the load impedance should be equal to the complex conjugate of
equivalent impedance of the circuit,

ZL = ZTH

Where ZTH is the complex conjugate of the equivalent impedance of the circuit.

## This maximum power transferred, Pmax = V2TH / 4 RTH or V2TH/ 4 RL

Back to top
Applying Maximum Power Transfer Example to DC circuit
Consider the below circuit to which we determine the value of the load resistance that receives the
maximum power from the supply source and the maximum power under the maximum power transfer
condition.

1.Disconnect the load resistance from the load terminals a and b. To represent the given circuit as
Thevenin’s equivalent, we are to determine the Thevenin’s voltage VTH and Thevenin’s equivalent
resistance RTH.

## The Thevenin’s voltage or voltage across the terminals ab is V ab = Va – Vb

Va = V × R2 / (R1 + R2)

= 30 × 20 /×(20 + 15)
= 17.14 V

## Vb = V × R4/ (R3 + R4)

= 30 × 5 /(10 + 5)

= 10 V

Vab = 17.14 – 10

= 7.14 V

## VTH = Vab = 7.14 Volts

2.Calculate the Thevenin’s equivalent resistance RTH by replacing sources with their internal
resistances (here assume that voltage source has zero internal resistance so it becomes a short
circuited).

= 8.57 + 3.33

## RTH = 11.90 Ohms

3. The Thevenin’s equivalent circuit with above calculated values by reconnecting the load resistance
is shown below.
From the maximum power transfer theorem, RL value must equal to the RTH to deliver the maximum
power to the load.

## Pmax = V2TH / 4 RTH

= (7.14)2 / (4 × 11.90)

= 50.97 / 47.6

= 1.07 Watts

Back to top

## Applying Maximum Power Transfer to AC circuit

The below AC network consists of load impedance ZL of which both reactive and resistive parts can
be varied. Hence, we have to determine the load impedance value at which the maximum power
delivered from the source and the value of maximum power.
To find the value of load impedance, first, we find the Thevenin’s equivalent circuit across the load
terminals. For finding Thevenin’s voltage, disconnect the load impedance as shown in below figure.
By voltage divider rule, VTH = 20∠0 × [j6 / (4 + j6)]

## = 20∠0 ×[6∠90 / 7.21∠56.3]

= 20∠0 × 0.825∠33.7

VTH = 16.5∠33.7 V

By shorting the voltage source, we calculate the Thevenin’s equivalent impedance of the circuit as
shown in figure.

## Therefore, ZTH = (4 × j6) / (4 + j6)

= (4 × 6∠90) / (7.21∠56.3)

## = 3.33∠33.7 0r 2.77 + j1.85 Ohms

Hence, the Thevenin’s equivalent circuit across the load terminals is shown in below.

Therefore to transfer the maximum power to the load, the value of the load impedance should be

ZL = Z×TH
= 2.77 – j1.85 ohms

## The maximum power delivered, Pmax

= V2TH / 4 RTH

= (16.5)2/4(2.77)

= 272.25 / 11.08

= 24.5 W

Back to top

## Practical Application of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Consider the practical example of a speaker with an impedance of 8 ohms is driven by audio amplifier
with its internal impedance of 500 ohms. The Thevenin’s equivalent circuit is also shown in figure.

According to the maximum power transfer theorem, the power is maximized at the load if the load
impedance is 500 ohms (same as internal impedance). Or else internal resistance has to be changed
to 8 ohms to achieve the condition however it is not possible. So it is an impedance mismatch
condition and it can be overcome by using an impedance matching transformer with its impedance
transformation ratio of 500:8.

https://www.electronicshub.org/maximum-power-transfer-theorem/

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## The amount of power received by a load is an important parameter in electrical and

electronic applications. In DC circuits, we can represent the load with a resistor having
resistance of RL ohms. Similarly, in AC circuits, we can represent it with a complex load
having an impedance of ZL ohms.

Maximum power transfer theorem states that the DC voltage source will deliver
maximum power to the variable load resistor only when the load resistance is equal to
the source resistance.

Similarly, Maximum power transfer theorem states that the AC voltage source will
deliver maximum power to the variable complex load only when the load impedance is
equal to the complex conjugate of source impedance.

In this chapter, let us discuss about the maximum power transfer theorem for DC
circuits.

## Proof of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Replace any two terminal linear network or circuit to the left side of variable load
resistor having resistance of RL ohms with a Thevenin’s equivalent circuit. We know that
Thevenin’s equivalent circuit resembles a practical voltage source.

## This concept is illustrated in following figures.

The amount of power dissipated across the load resistor is
PL=I2RLPL=I2RL

## Substitute I=VThRTh+RLI=VThRTh+RL in the above equation.

PL=⟮ VTh(RTh+RL)⟯2RLPL=⟮ VTh(RTh+RL)⟯2RL

⇒PL=VTh2{RL(RTh+RL)2}⇒PL=VTh2{RL(RTh+RL)2} Equation 1
Condition for Maximum Power Transfer
For maximum or minimum, first derivative will be zero. So, differentiate Equation 1 with
respect to RL and make it equal to zero.
dPLdRL=VTh2{(RTh+RL)2×1−RL×2(RTh+RL)(RTh+RL)4}=0dPLdRL=VTh2{(RTh+RL)2×1−RL×2(RTh+RL)(RT
h+RL)4}=0

⇒(RTh+RL)2−2RL(RTh+RL)=0⇒(RTh+RL)2−2RL(RTh+RL)=0

⇒(RTh+RL)(RTh+RL−2RL)=0⇒(RTh+RL)(RTh+RL−2RL)=0

⇒(RTh−RL)=0⇒(RTh−RL)=0

⇒RTh=RLorRL=RTh⇒RTh=RLorRL=RTh

Therefore, the condition for maximum power dissipation across the load
is RL=RThRL=RTh. That means, if the value of load resistance is equal to the value of
source resistance i.e., Thevenin’s resistance, then the power dissipated across the load
will be of maximum value.
The value of Maximum Power Transfer
Substitute RL=RTh&PL=PL,MaxRL=RTh&PL=PL,Max in Equation 1.
PL,Max=VTh2{RTh(RTh+RTh)2}PL,Max=VTh2{RTh(RTh+RTh)2}

PL,Max=VTh2{RTh4RTh2}PL,Max=VTh2{RTh4RTh2}

⇒PL,Max=VTh24RTh⇒PL,Max=VTh24RTh

⇒PL,Max=VTh24RL,sinceRL=RTh⇒PL,Max=VTh24RL,sinceRL=RTh

## Therefore, the maximum amount of power transferred to the load is

PL,Max=VTh24RL=VTh24RThPL,Max=VTh24RL=VTh24RTh

## Efficiency of Maximum Power Transfer

We can calculate the efficiency of maximum power transfer, ηMaxηMax using following
formula.
ηMax=PL,MaxPSηMax=PL,MaxPS Equation 2
Where,

##  PL,MaxPL,Max is the maximum amount of power transferred to the load.

 PSPS is the amount of power generated by the source.
The amount of power generated by the source is
PS=2I2RTh+I2RLPS=2I2RTh+I2RL

⇒PS=2I2RTh,sinceRL=RTh⇒PS=2I2RTh,sinceRL=RTh

##  Substitute I=VTh2RThI=VTh2RTh in the above equation.

PS=2⟮ VTh2RTh⟯2RThPS=2⟮ VTh2RTh⟯2RTh

## ⇒PS=2⟮ VTh24RTh2⟯RTh⇒PS=2⟮ VTh24RTh2⟯RTh

⇒PS=VTh22RTh⇒PS=VTh22RTh

##  Substitute the values ofPL,MaxPL,Max and PSPS in Equation 2.

ηMax=⟮ VTh24RTh⟯⟮ VTh22RTh⟯ηMax=⟮ VTh24RTh⟯⟮ VTh22RTh⟯

⇒ηMax=12⇒ηMax=12

## We can represent the efficiency of maximum power transfer in terms of percentage as

follows −
%ηMax=ηMax×100%%ηMax=ηMax×100%
⇒%ηMax=⟮ 12⟯×100%⇒%ηMax=⟮ 12⟯×100%

⇒%ηMax=50%⇒%ηMax=50%

## Therefore, the efficiency of maximum power transfer is 50 %.

Example
Find the maximum power that can be delivered to the load resistor R L of the circuit
shown in the following figure.

## Step 1 − In Thevenin’s Theorem chapter, we calculated the Thevenin’s equivalent

circuit to the left side of terminals A & B. We can use this circuit now. It is shown in the
following figure.

## Here, Thevenin’s voltage VTh=2003VVTh=2003V and Thevenin’s

resistance RTh=403ΩRTh=403Ω
Step 2 − Replace the part of the circuit, which is left side of terminals A & B of the
given circuit with the above Thevenin’s equivalent circuit. The resultant circuit diagram
is shown in the following figure.
Step 3 − We can find the maximum power that will be delivered to the load resistor,
RL by using the following formula.
PL,Max=VTh24RThPL,Max=VTh24RTh

## Substitute VTh=2003VVTh=2003V and RTh=403ΩRTh=403Ω in the above formula.

PL,Max=⟮ 2003⟯24⟮ 403⟯PL,Max=⟮ 2003⟯24⟮ 403⟯

PL,Max=2503WPL,Max=2503W

Therefore, the maximum power that will be delivered to the load resistor RL of the
given circuit is 25032503 W
https://www.tutorialspoint.com/network_theory/network_theory_maximum_power_transfer_theorem.htm

## MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREM

Statement of maximum power transfer theorem :
The maximum power transfer theorem states that the maximum amount of power will be delivered to the load
resistance when the load resistance is equal to the Thevenin /Norton resistance of the network supplying the
power. If the load resistance is lower or higher than the Thevenin /Norton resistance of the source network, then
the power delivered to load is less than maximum.
That means the condition for maximum power transfer according to maximum power transfer theorem is, RL =
RTH
General statement :
In an active network, maximum power will be transferred from source to load if the load impedance is the
complex conjugate of the internal impedance of the circuit as seen from terminals of the load.
In an electric circuit, the load receives electric energy via the supply sources and converts that energy into a
useful form. The maximum allowable power receives by the load is always limited either by the heating effect
(in case of resistive load) or by the other power conversion taking place in the load. The Thevenin and Norton
models imply that the internal circuits within the source will necessarily dissipate some of power generated by
the source. A logical question will arise in mind, how much power can be transferred to the load from the
source under the most practical conditions? In other words, what is the value of load resistance that will absorbs
the maximum power from the source? This is an important issue in many practical problems and it is discussed
with a suitable example.
Let us consider an electric network as shown in above figure, the problem is to find the choice of the resistance
RL so that the network delivers maximum power to the load or in other words what value of load resistance RL
will absorb the maximum amount of power from the network. This problem can be solved using nodal or mesh
current analysis to obtain an expression for the power absorbed by RL, then the derivative of this expression
with respect to RL will establish the condition under what circumstances the maximum power transfer occurs.
The effort required for such an approach can be quite tedious and complex. Fortunately, the network shown in
figure can be represented by an equivalent Thevenin’s voltage source as shown in below figure.

In above figure a variable load resistance RL is connected to an equivalent Thevenin circuit of original circuit.
The current for any value of load resistance is,

## Then, the power delivered to the load is..

MaximumPowerTransferTheorem
The load power depends on both; however, is constant for the equivalent Thevenin network. So power
delivered by the equivalent Thevenin network to the load resistor RL is entirely depends on the value of RL. To
find the value of RL that absorbs a maximum power from the Thevenin circuit, we differentiate PL with respect
to RL
For maximum power dissipation in the load, the condition given below must be satisfied

This result is known as “Matching the load” or maximum power transfer occurs when the load resistance RL
matches the Thevenin’s resistance RTH of a given systems. Also, notice that under the condition of maximum
power transfer, the load voltage is, by voltage division, one-half of the Thevenin voltage.

The expression for maximum power dissipated to the load resistance is given by,
The total power delivered by the source is

This means that the Thevenin voltage source itself dissipates as much power in its internal resistance RTH as
the power absorbed by the load RL.

## Efficiency under maximum power transfer condition is given by

http://www.electronics-tutorial.net/dccircuits/maximum-power-transfer-theorem/index.html

## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Ahmad Faizan Basic Electrical

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## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem Definition

Maximum power transfer theorem states that maximum power output is obtained when the load
resistance RL is equal to Thevenin resistance Rth as seen from load Terminals.
Fig.1: Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
Any circuit or network may be represented by a Thevenin equivalent circuit. The Thevenin
resistance Rth is comparable to a source internal resistance (RS) which absorbs some of the
power available from the ideal voltage source. In above figure, a variable load resistance RL is
connected to a Thevenin circuit. The current for any value of load resistance RL is connected to a
Thevenin circuit. The current for any value of load resistance is;
IL=VSRS+RLIL=VSRS+RL
Then by using I2R , the power delivered to the load is,
PL=(VSRS+RL)2RL ⋯ (1)PL=(VSRS+RL)2RL ⋯ (1)
The load power depends on both Rth (RS) and RL; however, Rth (RS) is considered constant for any
particular network. Then one might get an idea of how PL varies with a change in RL by assuming
values for Thevenin circuit of above figure and, in turn, calculating PL for different values of RL.
 You May Also Read:Thevenin’s Theorem Explained
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem Derivation
As we know power delivered to load is,
PL=(VSRS+RL)2RLPL=(VSRS+RL)2RL
Taking a derivative on both sides;
dPLdRL=V2S(RS+RL)2−2RL(RS+RL)(RS+RL)4dPLdRL=VS2(RS+RL)2−2RL(RS+RL)(RS+RL)4
For PL to be maximum;
dPLdRL=0dPLdRL=0
So,
V2S(RS−RL)(RS+RL)3=0VS2(RS−RL)(RS+RL)3=0
Finally,
RS=RLRS=RL
So maximum power transferred is;
Pmax=V2S4RSPmax=VS24RS
We got above expression by substituting RS=RL into equation (1).
Maximum Power Transfer and Efficiency of Transmission
We observe that power transfer from a real source always produces ohmic heating in the source
resistance. Calculations of such internal effects require information about the internal structure and
cannot, in general, be based upon Thevenin or Nortonequivalent networks. However, the entire load
current iL usually passes through the internal resistance of a real source, so we represent the internal
conditions by lumped parameters as shown in figure 1. The resulting internal power dissipated by
RTH or RSis then
PS=RSI2L=RS(RS+RL)2∗V2SPS=RSIL2=RS(RS+RL)2∗VS2
The dashed curve in figure 2 shows that PS steadily decreases as RL increases and that PS=PL when
RL/RS=1.

## Fig.2: Maximum Power Transfer and Transmission Efficiency

Since the total power generated by the source is PL+PS, the wasted internal power PSshould be small
compared to PL for efficient operation. Formally, we define the power-transfer efficiency as
Efficiency=PLPL+PSEfficiency=PLPL+PS
Which is often expressed as a percentage. If the load has been matched for maximum power
transfer, then PS=PL, and so efficiency,
Efficiency=PL2PL=50 %Efficiency=PL2PL=50 %
Moreover, with RL=RS, the terminal voltage drops to V=VTH/2. Clearly, electrical utilities would not,
and should not, strive for maximum power transfer. Instead, they seek higher power-transfer
efficiency by making PS as small as possible.
Maximum Power Transfer Solved Example
Find RL
Solution
Let’s find Vth first across 150 Ω resistance
Vth=VS=360∗150150+30Vth=VS=360∗150150+30
Vth=VS=300 VVth=VS=300 V
To find Rth or RS, short circuit the voltage source
Rth=RS=150 || 30=25ΩRth=RS=150 || 30=25Ω
So, for maximum power transfer, we know that

RL=Rth=25 ΩRL=Rth=25 Ω
Now, Find Maximum power transfer to the load
Pmax=V2S4RS=900 WPmax=VS24RS=900 W
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem using Matlab Code
Here is the MATLAB code to implement maximum power transfer theorem in Matlab.

## % Matlab Code for Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

3
V_TH = 300; % Thevenin's Voltage
4
R_TH = 25; % Thevenin's Equivalent Resistance
5
R_L = 0:0.5:80; % Load Resistance
6
%%
7
%% Load Current &amp; Power Calculation
8 IL = V_TH./(R_TH + R_L); % Load Current

10 %%

## %% Plotting the Results

12
plot(R_L,P_L,'b')
13
hold on
14
title('Maximum Power Transfer using Matlab');
15
xlabel('Load Resistance R_L');
16
ylabel('Power to the Load P_L');
17 gtext('R_TH = R_L = 25 Ohm')

18 legend('P_L')

19 grid on

20

21

Result
Here is a graph which clearly shows that maximum power transfer occurs when Rth=RL.
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem using Matlab Simulink
http://electricalacademia.com/basic-electrical/maximum-power-transfer-theorem/

## Thevenin’s Theorem & Max Power

Transfer
Thevenin’s theorem states that any circuit can be simplified down to a load connected to a voltage source and
resistor in series. This is especially useful when you are dealing with a load that may be changed.
As seen in the example circuit above, two values must be solved for: VTH and RTH. To solve for VTH, open circuit the
load and measure the open circuit voltage (VOC). VTH is equal to \$VOC.

To solve for RTH, there are three different methods for varying types of circuits:
Method 1

To solve for RTH using the first method, solve for both the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current across the
load, and then use the equation:

RTH=|VOCISC|(1)(1)RTH=|VOCISC|
This method does not work if the circuit only contains dependent sources.
Method 2

To solve for RTH using the second method, remove the load, turn off all independent sources, and calculate the
equivalent resistance across the load terminals. Reff = RTH.
This method does not work if the circuit contains any dependent sources.
Method 3

To solve for RTH using the third method, turn off all independent sources, replace the load with a known test voltage
(i.e. 1V), and calculate the current delivered by the test source. Then use the following equation:

RTH=VtestItest(2)(2)RTH=VtestItest
This method is always applicable. It must be used if the circuit contains only dependent sources.

## Max Power Transfer Theorem

In order to extract as much power as possible from a given network, the load must be chosen carefully. First, the
Thevenin’s equivalent circuit must be solved for, then the load must be chosen such that RL = RTH. The power that
can then be extracted from this network is calculated using the following formula:

Pmax=VTH24RTH(3)
http://www.ece.ualberta.ca/~terheide/ECE202-lab/thevenin_maxpowertransfer.html

## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

The importance of matching a load to a source for maximum power transfer is extremely important in microwaves,
as well as all manner of lower frequency stuff such as stereo sound systems, electrical generating plants, solar cells
and hybrid electric cars. It is very simple to prove using Ohm's Law, and that's what we'll do here.
The first engineer to understand the importance of source and load matching was American Joseph Henry. Check
out his portrait in our Microwave Hall of Fame!
The maximum power transfer theorem is sometimes called the conjugate match thoerem. Neophytes frequently
misapply the thoerem to situations where it is not appropriate. iI is useful only for designing loads, not generators.
A circuit diagram of a source and load is shown below. Feel free to think of everything as direct current because that
is the simplest case (RF follows ohm's law, so the theory is valid at any frequency). The source has a series
resistance (often called the Norton or Thevenin equivalent resistance) built into it. In microwave engineering, the
generator's resistance is the same as the characteristic impedance of the transmission media, usually 50 ohms, and
it is usually called "Z0" (sometimes ZC for "characteristic impedance". The load resistance is called ZL.

Notice that the generator voltage is "2V" in the schematic. Some people are wondering, "if I buy a 1.5 volt D-cell
battery, does that mean that it actually can put out 3 volts?" No way, Jose! What we are trying to show here is that
under maximum power transfer conditions, only half of the generator voltage makes its way to the load... so in the
case of a D-cell, only 0.75 volts would be available at maximum power transfer. Then you ask, "why doesn't
maximum power transfer happen when I put a short circuit on the output, I know that the battery will discharge
quickly under that condition?" The problem here is that total dissipation will be maximum with a short circuit load, but
no power will be transferred out of the battery. All of the power dissipation is internal to the battery, which is why it is
getting too hot to hold....
Using Ohm's law we can solve for the transferred power. First note that Z0 and ZL form a voltage divider. Then recall
that power is equal to voltage squared divided by resistance:

Now let's look at output voltage, current and as a function of load resistance. For convenience we will normalize the
load resistance to the characteristic impedance and let them both equal 1; for ZL=twice Z0, the normalized load
resistance is 2.0 for example. We further normalize the generator voltage 2V to 2 volts.
The equation for power, plotted in purple, has a funny shape with a clear-cut maximum. For homework you can use
calculus to find the maximum, but trust us (and the plot), it occurs at exactly (ZL/ZC)=1!
We can see from the plot, the maximum output current occurs into a normalized impedance of zero (a short circuit).
Here we get a DC current of 2, which is because the generator has a voltage of 2. Looking at an open circuit (off to
the right of the plot) we can see that the load voltage asymptotically approached 2 volts. By multiplying the current
and voltage, power is obtained.
Under open-circuit conditions (ZL=infinity) the output voltage is "2V". Under short-circuit conditions, a current of
2V/Z0 would result.
Going back to our D-battery analogy, how can you find the source impedance of a battery? You could put a variable
load on it, and when the load voltage hits 0.75 volts, it would have the same value as the generator impedance. A
faster way is to measure the short circuit current (quickly!), then divide the open circuit voltage (1.5 volts) by the
short circuit current (perhaps three amps) and you will arrive at the generator impedance of maybe 0.5 ohms.
Efficiency versus load impedance
Now lets look at efficiency versus load impedance. This time we'll plot a wide range of load impedances using a log
scale. The log scale chart is interesting from the point of view of the symmetries involved. In addition to the
maximum power point at RL/RG=1 providing 50% efficiency, the point at which RL/RG=3 provides exactly 75%
efficiency. One lesson you could take away from this is that for highest efficiency, the load impedance must be much
greater than the generator impedance even though maximum power transfer will not take place under this
condition. In the two extreme condictions, a short circuit is 0% efficient, and open circuit is 100% efficient, even
though in both cases, no power is transferred to the load.
By analogy, for a current source the efficiency increases with GL/GG. In this case a diminishing load resistance
leads to higher efficiency. The two types of sources have opposite behaviors as far as efficiency relative to load
resistance is concerned.
https://www.microwaves101.com/encyclopedias/maximum-power-transfer-theorem

## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC & DC Circuits

Electrical Technology August 24th, 2015 AC Fundamentals, Analyzing Electric Circuits, DC Circuits4 Comments 86,133 Views

## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC & DC Circuits

Table of Contents [Hide]
 1 Introduction to Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
 2 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for DC circuits
 3 Explanation of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
 4 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC circuits
 5 Explanation & Proof of the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
 6 Applications of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
 7 Summary of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
Introduction to Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
Very often we come across various real time circuits that works based on maximum power transfer
theorem. For effective way of connecting source to load, an impedance matching transformer is used.
In case of transmission lines, the distortion and reflections are avoided by making source and load
impedances to be matched to the characteristic impedance of the line.

In case of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is achieved with
incremental conductance method (ICM) in which the load resistancemust be equal to the output
resistance of the PV panel and Solar Cell
So there are several cases or applications that use maximum power transfer theorem for effectively
connecting the source to a load. This theorem can be applied for both DC and AC circuits. Let us
discuss this theorem for DC as well AC circuits with examples.

## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for DC circuits

This theorem describes the condition for maximum power transfer from an active network to an
external load resistance. It states that in a linear, active, bilateral DC network, the maximum
power will be transferred from source to the load when the external load resistance equals to
the internal resistance of the source.
This theorem can be developed with reference to practical current or voltage source.

If the source is a practical or independent voltage source, its internal series resistance must match
with load resistance to deliver maximum power. In case of practical or independent current source,
parallel internal resistance should match with load resistance.

In the above circuit internal source series resistance alters the power delivered to the load and hence
the maximum current delivered from the source to the load is limited.

## Explanation of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Let us consider the electrical system with load as shown below, to which we are going to determine
the value of load resistance so as to deliver the maximum power to the load.

Basically, the condition at which maximum power transfer can be obtained by deriving an expression
of power absorbed by the load using mesh or nodal current techniques and then finding its derivative
with respect to the load resistance.

In below figure, electrical system may be a complex circuit consisting of several elements and
sources. In such case finding of maximum power transfer condition can be tedious.

Alternatively we can find the maximum power transfer with the use of Thevenin’s equivalent circuit
(Read Here the step by step Thevenin’s Theorem with solved examples). Now we will replace the
electrical system which we are considered as complex part with its Thevenin’s equivalent circuit as

shown in below.
From the above circuit, the current flowing through the load, ‘I’ is given as

In the above equation RL is a variable, therefore the condition for maximum power delivered to the
load is determined by differentiating load power with respect to the load resistance and equating it to

zero.
This is the condition for maximum power transfer, which states that power delivered to the load is
maximum, when the load resistance RL matches with Thevenin’s resistance RTH of the network.
Under this condition, power transfer to the load is

The above equation shows that the efficiency is 50% under maximum power transfer condition. Due
to this 50 percent efficiency, maximum power transfer is not always desirable. For a given values the
Thevenin’s voltage and Thevenin’s resistance, the variation of power delivered to the load with

## varying load resistance is shown in below figure.

Solved Example on Maximum Power Transfer Theorem in DC Circuits

Consider the below circuit for which we are going to determine the value of load resistance, R L for
which maximum power will transfer from source to load.
Now, the given circuit can be further simplified by converting the current source into equivalent

## voltage source as follows. We need to find the

Thevenin’s equivalent voltage Vth and Thevenin’s equivalent resistance Rth across the load terminals
in order to get the condition for maximum power transfer. By disconnecting the load resistance, the
open-circuit voltage across the load terminals can be calculated as;

## By applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law, we get

12 – 6I – 2I – 16 = 0

– 8I = 4

I = –0.5 A

## The open-circuit voltage across the terminals A and B, VAB = 16 – 2 ×0.5

= 15 V
Thevenin’s equivalent resistance across the terminals A and B is obtained by short-circuiting the

## voltage sources as shown in the figure.

Req = (6 × 2) / (6 + 2)

= 1.5 Ω

So the maximum power will transferred to the load when RL = 1.5 ohm.
Current through the circuit, I = 15 / (1.5 + 1.5)

=5A

## Therefore, the maximum power = 52 × 1.5 = 37.5 W

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC circuits
This theorem gives the impedance conditions in AC circuit for maximum power transfer to a load. It
states that in an active AC network consisting of source with internal impedance ZS which is
connected to a load ZL, the maximum power transfer occurs from source to load when the load
impedance is equal to the complex conjugate of source impedance ZS.
Explanation & Proof of the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Consider the below circuit consisting of Thevenin’s voltage source with series Thevenin’s equivalent
resistance (which are actually replacing the complex part of the circuit) connected across the complex

## load. From the above figure, Let ZL = RL + jXL and ZTH =

RTH + jXTH then the current through the circuit is given as,
For power to be maximized, the above equation
must be differentiated with respect to XL and equates it to zero. Then we get

Again taking derivative of the above equation and equating it to zero, we get

RL+ RTH = 2 RL
RL = RTH
Therefore, in AC circuits, if XL = – XTH and RL = RTH, maximum power transfer takes place from
source to load. This implies that maximum power transfer occurs when the impedance of the load is

## complex conjugate of the source impedance, i.e., ZL = Z*TH

Solved Example on Maximum Power Transfer Theorem in AC Circuits
Consider the below AC network to which we are going to determine the condition for maximum power

## transfer and the value of maximum power.

For finding out the maximum power transfer, first we have to determine Thevenin’s voltage and
equivalent resistance. By disconnecting the load impedance and making the voltage source short-

## circuit, the network becomes as shown below.

Then, ZAB = ((4 × 4j)/ (4 + 4j)) – 2j
= (4j – 2j (1+ j)) / (1+ j)

=2Ω

## Therefore, the condition for maximum power transfer is ZL = ZTH = 2 Ω

The Thevenin’s voltage of the circuit can be determined by applying the voltage divider rule to the

below circuit.
VTH = VAB = (40 / 4 (1+j)) × 4
= 28.29∠-450
Then maximum power, Pmax = VTH2/ 4RTH
= 800/ 4 = 100 W

## Applications of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

1. In electronic circuits, especially in communication system the signal present at the receiving antenna is of
low strength. In order to receive the maximum signal from the antenna, impedance of (TV) receiver and (TV)

## antenna should be matched.

2. In an audio amplifier with audio speaker arrangement in public addressing systems, speaker resistance must
be equal to the amplifier resistance in order to transfer maximum power from amplifier to the speaker.

3. In case of a car engine starting system, starter motor resistance must be matched with internal resistance of
the battery. If the battery if full and these resistances are matched, maximum power will be transferred to the
motor to turn ON the engine.
Good to Know:
Summary of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

 Maximum power transfer theorem can be applied to both DC and AC circuits, but the only difference is that
the resistance is replaced with impedance in AC circuit.
 In an AC electrical network the maximum power will be transferred from source section to the load section
when the impedance of the load is complex conjugate of the source impedance.
 It is important to note that in AC circuit, source also possesses an internal reactance. Therefore in order to
have maximum power transfer the load must possess same value of reactance but it should be of opposite
type. This means that the load must have an equivalent capacitive reactance, if source has inductive
reactance, and vice versa.
 The efficiency is 50 percent only at maximum power transfer condition. So in power system network, this
condition causes a large voltage drop in the lines. But the goal of the power system network is to increase
the efficiency rather than maximum power. Therefore, power system never operated under maximum
power transfer.
https://www.electricaltechnology.org/2015/08/maximum-power-transfer-theorem-for-ac-dc-circuits.html

## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem Circuit

The concept of maximum power transfer theorem was proposed by “Moritz Von Jacobi” in the mid
19th century. The other name given to this theorem is Jacobi’s law. The main scenario is to transfer
the maximum power and not maximum efficiency. Maximum power transfer theorem states that “the
power transferred from a source or circuit to a load is maximum when the resistance of the load is
made equal or matched to the internal resistance of the source or circuit providing the power to the
load”. It can be used in the applications of both AC and DC circuits.

## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem Circuit

In the basic circuit diagram it consists of DC voltage source, a series resistance and a load
resistance.
In this theorem, the load resistance ‘RL’ will be equal to the internal resistance of the circuit or the
addition of R1 and R2 (R1+R2). This theorem is applicable for

Thevenins Theorem

##  Linear and non-linear circuits

 Active circuits
 AC and DC Circuits

Considering the DC circuits then the load resistance should be equal to the internal resistance of the
source by making both the resistance equal.

For AC circuits the load impedance is equal to the internal impedance of source by making the load
impedance the complex conjugate of the source.

## The load impedance of the circuit is given by R1 – jX

The internal impedance of the source ids R1 + jX

In a maximum power transfer theorem when the circuit is very complex then to solve it will take much
time. So, to overcome it, we basically follow to the Thevenin’s theorem, i.e., we replace the complex
system into the Thevenin’s equivalent circuit as shown in the below fig.

## Let RL be the load resistance and variable resistance

I=VTH/(RL+RTH) VTH/(RL+RTH)

PL = I2RL=(Vth/(RL+RTH))2.RL

V2/(R2/RL +2RI+RL)

Now RL will be varied by using the theorem of differential calculus. To calculate the PL then it has to
be differentiated

## d/dRL PL=d/dRl V^2/(〖Ri〗^2/RL+2Ri+RL)

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for DC Circuits

Let’s solve a numerical problem by which its function can be easily understood

## RL dissipates more power when RL = RTH = RN

RL = 240Ω

RT = RTH + RL = 480Ω

VL = 6V

Maximum Power

VL = ETH/2

TL = IN/2

## IL = VL/RL = 6/240 = 25mA

VL = IL * RL = 25mA * 240

= 6V

## PL = VL*IL = 6*25 = 150mW

IL = 33.3 mA
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC Circuits

The maximum power transfer theorem gives an impedance in AC circuit load. The active AC network
will have a source of internal impedance ZS which is will be connected to a load ZL. In this theorem,
maximum power will transfer from source to load only when the load impedance is equal to the
complex conjugate of source impedance ZS.

I=VTH/(ZTH+ZL)

## By substituting above given impedance, we get

I=VTH/(RTH+jXTH+RL+jXL)

PL=I2RL

## PL=(V2THxRL)/((RTH+ RL)2+( ZTH+ +ZL)2)

Power delivered to load is to be differentiated with respect to XL and equals to Zero to get maximized
power.

XL+XTH=0

XL=- XTH

## By putting XL in the power equation then we get it as

PL =( V2THxRL)/(RTH+ RL)2

## Derivation and equating to zero

RL + RTH= 2RL

RL = RTH
If XL = – XTH RL = RTH then from source to load maximum power transfer takes place. From this we
can also conclude that the impedance of the load is complex conjugate of the source impedance that
is ZL = Z*TH

Example Problem

ZAB =( (2j)/(2+2j))-1j

= ((4j)/2+2j))-1j

= (4j-2j+2)/2+2j

= 2+2j/2+2j

= 1Ω

ZL=Zth=2Ω
VTH = VAB = 20/2(1+j) X 2

= 14.15∟45

## Yet to complete the problem, Pmax = VTH2/4RTH

=196/4

= 49W

Impedance matching of reflection less in the radio, transmission lines, some of the electronic there
will be the necessity of matching the source impedance just like transmitter to the load impedance to
avoid reflection in the transmission line.

In the reactive circuits this maximum power transfer theorem applies to the source or load are not
totally resistive. In any reactive components of source and load should be of equal magnitude but
opposite phase. This implies that impedance of both load and source should be complex conjugates
of each other

For resistive circuits these two concepts are similar. If in case of source is totally inductive and load to
be total capacitive, if resistive losses are absent, then it will receive 100% of the energy from the
source but send it back after a quarter cycle.

## Power Transfer Efficiency

Basically, in the maximum power transfer theorem results in maximum power, but not maximum
efficiency. If the source resistance is greater than load resistance, power dissipated in the load is
decreased while most of the power is dissipated at the source. Then the efficiency gets reduced, in
fact becomes lower.

## Efficiency = output/input *100

= I2LRL/(2I2LRL)*100
= 50 %

Hence it can be concluded that the efficiency of the maximum power transfer system is 50%.

## The graph Power transfer to load Vs Load resistance

Power Transfer Efficiency
Applications of Power Transfer Theorem

In the real time application let’s say in Loud Speaker, we use maximum power transfer theorem. The
design of the circuit is made in such a way that amplifies the loudspeaker to get maximum power to
the speaker and thus produce the maximum sound. This will really useful in the public meeting.

In many of the Transformers coupling this maximum power transfer theorem is applied to sending the
maximum power to the load when the matching of the load and the source impedance is not possible.
Generally in electronics equipments like Radio and Television receivers will be Antenna which
amplifies the signal of TV and Radio receiver.

We know it usually in a car engine, the power delivered to the start button of the car will generally
depend upon the resistance of the motor and the internal resistance of the battery. Now it will check
the condition that if two resistances are equal, maximum power will be transferred to the motor to turn
on the engine

Thus, this is all about maximum power transfer theorem. We believe that you have got a better
understanding of this concept. Furthermore, any queries regarding this concept or electrical and
electronics projects, please give your feedback by commenting in the comment section below. Here is
a question for you, what is the main principle of the maximum power transfer theorem?

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