You are on page 1of 26

PHY145

FUNDAMENTAL OF PHYSICS
CHAPTER 1

Units and
Measurements

1 PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR


Lesson Content

1. Units
2. Physical Quantities
3. Basic Quantities
4. Derived Quantity
5. Unit Prefixes
6. Conversion of Units

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 2


Lesson Outcomes

At the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

describe physical quantities.


differentiate base and derived quantities with their
respective SI units.
understand unit prefixes in measurements.
perform conversion in metric units into SI units.

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 3


HMMMM....

What can you say about this


picture? PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 4
4
Physical Quantities…..

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 5


Introduction
• Anything that can be measured is called physical quantity.
• Physical quantity is a quantity that consists of numerical value and unit.
• Without anyone of them, the physical quantity is not completely
written.
• Physical quantity can be grouped into two types:
Base quantity
Derived quantity

Physical quantity

Base Derived
quantity quantity

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 6


1.1 Base Quantities

Base quantity is a fundamental of all physical quantities.

• It cannot be derived from any physical quantities.


Quantity SI Unit Symbol
Length meter m
Mass kilogram kg
Time second s
Current Ampere A
Temperature Kelvin K
Amount of substance mole mol
Intensity candela cd
PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 7
1.1 Derived Quantities
Quantity is a quantity constructed from the combination
of several base quantities.

• It can be obtained and expressed in terms of base quantities.

Derived quantity Combination SI Unit


Velocity Length and Time ms-1
Acceleration Length and Time ms-2
Force Mass, Length and Time kgms-2, N
Pressure Mass, Length and Time kgm-1s-2,
Pa, Nm-2
Frequency Time s-1, Hz

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 8


BASIC COMBINATION OF DERIVED
QUANTITIES QUANTITIES QUANTITIES
Length (Length)2 Area(m2)

Length (Length)3 Volume(m3)

Length, time Length/time Speed(ms-1)

Length, time Length/(time)2 Acceleration(ms-2)

Length, mass Mass/(length)3 Density(kgm-3)

Mass, time (Mass x length)/(time)2 Force(kgms-2)

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 9


Several apparatus to measure physical
quantities

Thermometer Voltmeter/Ammeter

Stop watch
Ruler tape

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 1


10
0
Example 1.1:
Derive the SI unit for the force quantity in terms of the units for basic
quantities.

Solution: Force = mass  accelerati on


velocity
= mass 
time
length
= mass  time
time
mass  length
=
time2
kg  m
= 2
s
= kgms −2
PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 1
11
1
Exercises 1.1:

Derived the unit for the following physical quantities:

i. Velocity
ii. Acceleration
iii. Momentum
iv. Tension
v. Frequency

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 1


12
2
1.2 Unit Conversion
• A physical quantity can be measured using
standard size of measurement called unit.
• For example: meter (m), kilogram (kg), etc.
• This unit is called SI unit.
• Examples :
– 1 second is defined as the time required for 9,192,631,770
vibrations of radiation emitted by a caesium-133 atom
– 1 kilogram is defined as the mass of a platinum-iridium
cylinder kept at International Bureau of Weights and
Measures Paris.
– 1 meter is defined as the length of the path travelled by light
in vacuum during a time interval of

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 13


1.2 Unit Conversion
• System of units can be classified based on:
mks (metric system) – meter, kilogram, second

1 m = 100 cm 1 kg = 1000 g

cgs (derived from metric system) – centimeter, gram, second

1 ft = 12 in 1 in = 2.54 cm
• The other standard size of unit is called fps (British Engineering
System) – foot, pound, second

1 kg = 2.2 Ib
PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 14
1.2 Unit Conversion
• Prefix is a method to shorten the large value in SI unit.
• It is written in the following form (so-called standard
scientific notation):

a × 10b
• For example:
• An electron’s mass is about 0.000 000 000 000 000 000
000 000 000 000 910 938 22 kg.
• In scientific notation, this is written 9.1093822×10−31 kg.
• This also can be determine by using calculator.
-If want find 1 Tera?
-Enter T
1 shift 9PHY145
= ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 15
Remember: we use power of ten to represent prefix

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 16


Example 1.2:
1. Convert,
(a) 20.5 kJ to J (b) 0.65 nm to m

Solution:
(a) 20.5 kJ to J
1 k = 1000 or 103
= 20 .5  1000 J
= 20500 or 2.05  10 4 J
(b) 0.65 nm to m
1 n = 0.000000001 or 10 −9
= 0.65  10 −9 m
= 6.5  10 −10 m
PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 17
Example 1.2:
2. Convert,
(a) 3560 J to kJ (b) 35.60 J to kJ
(c) 0.000006 m to μm (d) 0.0000006 m to μm
(e) 6 m to μm

Solution:

(a) 3560 J to kJ
= 3560 J
= 3560 J  10 3
= 3.560 k J
(b) 35.60 J to kJ
= 35 .60 J
= 35 .60  10 3
PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR
= 0.0356 k J 18
Example 1.3:

• Convert the following unit, 45 cm = ? km

Solution:
• Step 1: Identify how many physical quantities involved.
In this example, it involves only one physical unit; i.e cm into km.
• Step 2: Determine what unit is going to be converted.
cm into km.
• Step 3: List all equivalent units to be used in conversion.
1 m = 100 cm
1 km = 1000 m
• Step 4: Perform your conversion by cancelling upper and lower unit accordingly.

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 19


• Step 4: Perform your conversion by cancelling upper and lower unit accordingly.

45 cm = ? km
 1 m  1 km 
45 cm = 45 cm  
 100 cm  1000 m 
 45 cm = 4.510−4 km

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 20


Example 1.4:

• Convert the following quantity:


3 km = ? m – Identify how many physical quantities
involved.
– Determine what unit is going to be
converted.
Solution – List all equivalent units to be used in
conversion.
– Perform your conversion by cancelling
upper and lower unit accordingly.

 1000 m 
3 km = 3 km  
 1 km 
 3 kmPHY145
= 3000 m
ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 21
Example 1.5:

• If your conversion involving more than one


physical quantity and power.
• Example:
20 kg.m-3 = ? g.cm-3
• Step 1: Identify how many physical quantities involved.
In this example, it involves only two physical units; (i.e kg into g and m3 in cm3).
• Step 2: Determine what unit is going to be converted.
kg into g and m3 into cm3.
• Step 3: List all equivalent units to be used in conversion.
1 kg = 1000 g
1 m = 100 cm
• Step 4: Perform your conversion by cancelling upper and lower unit accordingly.

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 22


• Step 4: Perform your conversion by cancelling upper and lower unit accordingly.

kg g
20 3 = ?
m cm3
kg 
kg 1000 g   (1) 3 m3 
20 3 = 20 3   
m m  1 kg  (100)3 cm3 
kg
 20 3 = 0.02 g.cm−3
m

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 23


Exercise 1.2:

1. Convert
(a) 350 MHz to Hz (b) 25 nm to m
(c) 6 μA to A (d) 30 kJ to J
(e) 0.255 s to ms (f) 265,500,000 W to GW
(g) 2000 J to kJ

2. The thickness of a film is 30 nm. What is the thickness in


unit meter.

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 24


Exercise 1.2:
3. Convert,
(a) 365 mm to km (b) 44 kg to g
(c) 45 cm to km (d) 20 kg to g
(e) 0.02 mm to m (f) 0.44 s to hr
(g) 500 mm to km

4. Convert,
(a) 205 cm3 to m3 (b) 0.40 mm2 to m2
(c) 200 cm2 to m2 (d) 0.25 cm3 to m3
(e) 20 cm3 to m3 (f) 0.01 cm2 to m2

5. Convert,
(a) 33 kmh-1 to ms-1 (b) 0.40 g/m-3 to kg/m-3
(c) 25 m/s to km/h (d) 25 kmh-1 to ms-1
(e) 0.15 ms-1 to kmh-1 (f) 35 km/s to m/s
(g) 59 gm-3 to kgm-3PHY145 ISHAK(h)
BIN20 kgm-3 to gcm-3
ANNUAR 25
PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 26