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FUNDAMENTAL OF PHYSICS

CHAPTER 1

Units and

Measurements

Lesson Content

1. Units

2. Physical Quantities

3. Basic Quantities

4. Derived Quantity

5. Unit Prefixes

6. Conversion of Units

Lesson Outcomes

differentiate base and derived quantities with their

respective SI units.

understand unit prefixes in measurements.

perform conversion in metric units into SI units.

HMMMM....

picture? PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 4

4

Physical Quantities…..

Introduction

• Anything that can be measured is called physical quantity.

• Physical quantity is a quantity that consists of numerical value and unit.

• Without anyone of them, the physical quantity is not completely

written.

• Physical quantity can be grouped into two types:

Base quantity

Derived quantity

Physical quantity

Base Derived

quantity quantity

1.1 Base Quantities

Quantity SI Unit Symbol

Length meter m

Mass kilogram kg

Time second s

Current Ampere A

Temperature Kelvin K

Amount of substance mole mol

Intensity candela cd

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 7

1.1 Derived Quantities

Quantity is a quantity constructed from the combination

of several base quantities.

Velocity Length and Time ms-1

Acceleration Length and Time ms-2

Force Mass, Length and Time kgms-2, N

Pressure Mass, Length and Time kgm-1s-2,

Pa, Nm-2

Frequency Time s-1, Hz

BASIC COMBINATION OF DERIVED

QUANTITIES QUANTITIES QUANTITIES

Length (Length)2 Area(m2)

Several apparatus to measure physical

quantities

Thermometer Voltmeter/Ammeter

Stop watch

Ruler tape

10

0

Example 1.1:

Derive the SI unit for the force quantity in terms of the units for basic

quantities.

velocity

= mass

time

length

= mass time

time

mass length

=

time2

kg m

= 2

s

= kgms −2

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 1

11

1

Exercises 1.1:

i. Velocity

ii. Acceleration

iii. Momentum

iv. Tension

v. Frequency

12

2

1.2 Unit Conversion

• A physical quantity can be measured using

standard size of measurement called unit.

• For example: meter (m), kilogram (kg), etc.

• This unit is called SI unit.

• Examples :

– 1 second is defined as the time required for 9,192,631,770

vibrations of radiation emitted by a caesium-133 atom

– 1 kilogram is defined as the mass of a platinum-iridium

cylinder kept at International Bureau of Weights and

Measures Paris.

– 1 meter is defined as the length of the path travelled by light

in vacuum during a time interval of

1.2 Unit Conversion

• System of units can be classified based on:

mks (metric system) – meter, kilogram, second

1 m = 100 cm 1 kg = 1000 g

1 ft = 12 in 1 in = 2.54 cm

• The other standard size of unit is called fps (British Engineering

System) – foot, pound, second

1 kg = 2.2 Ib

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 14

1.2 Unit Conversion

• Prefix is a method to shorten the large value in SI unit.

• It is written in the following form (so-called standard

scientific notation):

a × 10b

• For example:

• An electron’s mass is about 0.000 000 000 000 000 000

000 000 000 000 910 938 22 kg.

• In scientific notation, this is written 9.1093822×10−31 kg.

• This also can be determine by using calculator.

-If want find 1 Tera?

-Enter T

1 shift 9PHY145

= ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 15

Remember: we use power of ten to represent prefix

Example 1.2:

1. Convert,

(a) 20.5 kJ to J (b) 0.65 nm to m

Solution:

(a) 20.5 kJ to J

1 k = 1000 or 103

= 20 .5 1000 J

= 20500 or 2.05 10 4 J

(b) 0.65 nm to m

1 n = 0.000000001 or 10 −9

= 0.65 10 −9 m

= 6.5 10 −10 m

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 17

Example 1.2:

2. Convert,

(a) 3560 J to kJ (b) 35.60 J to kJ

(c) 0.000006 m to μm (d) 0.0000006 m to μm

(e) 6 m to μm

Solution:

(a) 3560 J to kJ

= 3560 J

= 3560 J 10 3

= 3.560 k J

(b) 35.60 J to kJ

= 35 .60 J

= 35 .60 10 3

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR

= 0.0356 k J 18

Example 1.3:

Solution:

• Step 1: Identify how many physical quantities involved.

In this example, it involves only one physical unit; i.e cm into km.

• Step 2: Determine what unit is going to be converted.

cm into km.

• Step 3: List all equivalent units to be used in conversion.

1 m = 100 cm

1 km = 1000 m

• Step 4: Perform your conversion by cancelling upper and lower unit accordingly.

• Step 4: Perform your conversion by cancelling upper and lower unit accordingly.

45 cm = ? km

1 m 1 km

45 cm = 45 cm

100 cm 1000 m

45 cm = 4.510−4 km

Example 1.4:

3 km = ? m – Identify how many physical quantities

involved.

– Determine what unit is going to be

converted.

Solution – List all equivalent units to be used in

conversion.

– Perform your conversion by cancelling

upper and lower unit accordingly.

1000 m

3 km = 3 km

1 km

3 kmPHY145

= 3000 m

ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 21

Example 1.5:

physical quantity and power.

• Example:

20 kg.m-3 = ? g.cm-3

• Step 1: Identify how many physical quantities involved.

In this example, it involves only two physical units; (i.e kg into g and m3 in cm3).

• Step 2: Determine what unit is going to be converted.

kg into g and m3 into cm3.

• Step 3: List all equivalent units to be used in conversion.

1 kg = 1000 g

1 m = 100 cm

• Step 4: Perform your conversion by cancelling upper and lower unit accordingly.

• Step 4: Perform your conversion by cancelling upper and lower unit accordingly.

kg g

20 3 = ?

m cm3

kg

kg 1000 g (1) 3 m3

20 3 = 20 3

m m 1 kg (100)3 cm3

kg

20 3 = 0.02 g.cm−3

m

Exercise 1.2:

1. Convert

(a) 350 MHz to Hz (b) 25 nm to m

(c) 6 μA to A (d) 30 kJ to J

(e) 0.255 s to ms (f) 265,500,000 W to GW

(g) 2000 J to kJ

unit meter.

Exercise 1.2:

3. Convert,

(a) 365 mm to km (b) 44 kg to g

(c) 45 cm to km (d) 20 kg to g

(e) 0.02 mm to m (f) 0.44 s to hr

(g) 500 mm to km

4. Convert,

(a) 205 cm3 to m3 (b) 0.40 mm2 to m2

(c) 200 cm2 to m2 (d) 0.25 cm3 to m3

(e) 20 cm3 to m3 (f) 0.01 cm2 to m2

5. Convert,

(a) 33 kmh-1 to ms-1 (b) 0.40 g/m-3 to kg/m-3

(c) 25 m/s to km/h (d) 25 kmh-1 to ms-1

(e) 0.15 ms-1 to kmh-1 (f) 35 km/s to m/s

(g) 59 gm-3 to kgm-3PHY145 ISHAK(h)

BIN20 kgm-3 to gcm-3

ANNUAR 25

PHY145 ISHAK BIN ANNUAR 26

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