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Harvard Referencing

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Books & e-books


Material Type In-text example Reference List example
Direct Quote A student's aspirations and attitudes Fuller, C 2011, Sociology, gender and
are influenced by 'the interplay of educational aspirations: girls and their
class alongside other equally ambitions, Continuum International,
important factors including for New York.
example, gender, ethnicity, levels of
trust, self-confidence and self-
Book: Single Author
identification' (Fuller 2011, p. 162).

OR

Indirect Quote
Self-identification is one of many
factors that influence a student's
aspirations (Fuller 2011).
Book: 2 or 3 Authors According to Weinberg and Gould Weinberg, RS & Gould, D
(2011) 2011, Foundations of sport and
OR exercise psychology, Human Kinetics,
... this is evident (Weinberg & Gould Champaign, IL.
2011)
Book: More Than 3 Allen et al. (2011) have found... Allen, J, O'Toole, W, Harris, R &
Authors OR McDonnell, I 2011, Festival and special
Special events are a celebration event management, 5th edn, John
(Allen et al. 2011) Wiley & Sons, Milton, QLD.

Show only the name of the first Provide the names of all authors in
author or body, followed by et al. the reference list.
Book: No Author According to the Style manual for Style manual for authors, editors and
authors, editors and printers (2002, p. printers 2002, 6th edn, AGPS,
197)... Canberra, ACT.

When there is no author, the title is If no author or editor, the title is


used as the first element in the used as the first element of the
reference (Style manual for reference.
authors, editors and printers 2002, Edition number is placed after the
p. 197). title (not necessary for first edition).
Book: Editor (ed. Ashwin 2006) Ashwin, P (ed.) 2006, Changing higher
OR education: the development of learning
edited by Ashwin (2006) and teaching, Routledge, London.

When more than one editor, use

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Harvard Referencing
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Material Type In-text example Reference List example


(eds.).
Chapter or part of a Book Boud (2006, p. 23) states that 'self- Boud, D 2006, 'Aren't we all learner-
to which a number of directed learning...' OR 'Self-directed centred now?: the bittersweet flavour of
authors have learning is...' (Boud 2006, p. 23) success', in P Ashwin (ed.), Changing
contributed higher education: the development of
In the in-text reference, name the learning and teaching, Routledge,
author of the chapter. London, pp. 19–32.
Book: Translator & (Marklund 2011) Marklund, L 2011, Exposed, trans. N
Author Smith, Random House, Canada.
Book: Organisation as (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011) Australian Bureau of Statistics
Author 2011, 2011 census dictionary, cat. no.
Department of Health and Family 2901.0, ABS, Canberra.
Services prepared the guidelines
(DHFS 2007) Department of Health and Family
Services 2007, Youth suicide in
Abbreviations can be used for long Australia: the National Youth Suicide
organisational names but be Prevention Strategy, AGPS, Canberra.
consistent.
E-book (Rosen 2011) Rosen, L 2011, The culture of Islam:
OR changing aspects of contemporary
Rosen (2011) regards... Muslim life, University of Chicago
Press, Chicago.

E-books are referenced in the same


way as print books.
Book on eReader (Tsiolkas 2010) Tsiolkas, C 2010, The slap, eReader
version, accessed 14 September 2011
For direct quotations of online from Amazon.com.
material without pagination, name
the major sections, chapter
section, and paragraph number.
Multiple works same Marketing requires matching your McDonald, M & Payne, A
author customers needs (McDonald & Payne 1996, Marketing planning for services,
1996, 2006) Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

OR McDonald, M & Payne, A


2006, Marketing plans for service
McDonald and Payne (1996, 2006) businesses: a complete guide, 2nd edn,
state... Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann,
Oxford.

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Harvard Referencing
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Material Type In-text example Reference List example

Multiple works same The illustrations in Bradford & Coutts Branford, A & Coutts, L 2015a, The
author, same year (2015a, 2015b) highlight how bright precious ring, Walker Books Australia,
colours add to the textual message ... Newtown, NSW.

Branford, A & Coutts, L 2015b, The


wishing seed, Walker Books Australia,
Newtown, NSW.
Secondary '...optimistic, independent yet good at El-Shamy, S 2004, How to design and
Sources: When you are collaboration' (Tapscott, cited in El- deliver training for the new and
referring to the ideas or Shamy 2004, p. 25). emerging generations, Wiley, San
words of an author who Francisco.
has been referenced in Provide names of both authors.
the book you are Provide the reference for the book
referencing that you actually read.
Classical Works 'Remain in me, and I will remain in If you are quoting a verse or extract,
you. No branch can bear fruit by itself’ you do not need to provide a
(John 15:4, New International Reference List entry.
Version).
If you are referring to a particular
edition for a significant reason,
William Shakespeare, Romeo and reference in the same way as a print
Juliet, act 3, scene 2, line 74 book.
illustrates the involvement of family...

Journal Articles
Material Type In-text example Reference List example
Direct quote According to Cant (2010, p. 82), Cant, RP 2010, 'Investing in patients'
'undernutrition in hospital patients is nutrition: nutrition risk screening in
a condition that requires serious hospital', Australian Journal of Advanced
examination'. Nursing, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 81-87.
Journal Article:
An article obtained from a Database,
Print or Online OR
from E-reserve or from VU
Collaborate is referenced in the same
Cant (2010) suggests that there is a
way as a print article.
need for more research into the
Indirect quote nutritional screening of patients.

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Harvard Referencing
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Material Type In-text example Reference List example


Journal Article with two (Allen & Black 1995) Allen, MC & Black, R 1995, 'The future of
authors OR instructional designers in
Allen and Black (1995) have Australia', Distance Education, vol. 15, no.
found... 2, pp. 16-25.

Journal Article with three (Allen, Zuboff & Black 1994) Allen, MC, Zuboff, T & Black, R 1994,
authors OR 'Instructional designers in Australia: the
Allen, Zuboff and Black (1994) have state of play', Distance Education, vol. 16,
found... no. 1, pp. 26-34.

Journal Article with more (Allen et al. 1993) Allen, MC, Grant, BA, Zuboff, T & Black,
than three authors OR R 1993, 'Instructional designers in
Allen et al. (1993) have found... Australia: a brief history', Distance
Education, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 15-17.

Newspaper Articles
Material Type In-text example Reference List example
Newspaper: Print (Gordon 2011) Gordon, M 2011, 'The boat that changed it all',
The Age, 20 August, p. 18.

Article obtained from a Database, from E-


reserve or from VU Collaborate is
referenced in the same way as a print
article.
Newspaper: From a (Norton 2011) Norton, A 2011, 'Why teaching must be rated',
Website The Age, 11 October, viewed 13 October
2011,
<http://www.theage.com.au/national/eduaction/
why-teaching-must-be-rated-20111010-
1lhc6.html>.
Newspaper article: (The Age 24 January 2011, p. 12) For newspaper articles where no author is
without author OR indicated, provide details of the source in the
...in The Age (24 January 2011, p. in-text reference.
12)
No entry in the reference list is required.

Newspaper article: from (Wilson 2009) Wilson, J 2009, 'In defence of the
a separately paginated superficial', The Age, 26 September, A2, p. 23.
section

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Harvard Referencing
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Material Type In-text example Reference List example


The title of the separately paginated section
of the newspaper is indicated before the
page number (separated by a comma).
Media Release (Nutall 2011) Nuttall, N 2011, UNEP study confirms DR
Congo's potential as environmental
powerhouse but warns of critical
threats, media release, UNEP, viewed 10
October
2011, <http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multili
ngual/Default.asp?DocumentID
=8890&l=en&t=long>.

Internet / Websites
Material Type In-text example Reference List example
Website Complementary and conventional HealthInsite 2011, Complementary and alternative
medicine when used together is therapies, National Health Call Centre Network,
Indirect quote known as integrative medicine viewed 14 September 2011,
(HealthInsite 2011) <http://www.healthinsite.gov.au/topics/Complemen
tary and Alternative Therapies>.
Webpage: No (Occupy Melbourne 2011) Occupy Melbourne 2011, Beat, viewed 17 October
Author 2011, <http://www.beat.com.au/arts/occupy-
Only use the first few words of a melbourne>.
page title if it is too long.
Webpage: No Date (Nutrition Australia n.d.) Nutrition Australia n.d., Healthy eating schools,
Nutrition Australia, viewed 17 October 2011,
<http://www.nutritionaustralia.org/vic/healthy-
eating-schools>.

Use the abbreviation n.d. for "no date".


Web Document The Department of Human Services Department of Human Services 2001, Achieving
(2001, p.33) found that '...' service quality improvement: best practice
OR initiatives in placement and support services 2000-
It has been reported that '...' 2001, Child Protection and Juvenile Justice
(Department of Human Services Branch, Community Care Division, Department of
2001, p.33) Human Services, Melbourne, viewed 2 September
2010,
<http://www.cyf.vic.gov.au/data/assets/pdf.../Place
ment_Support_SQI_2001.pdf >.

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Harvard Referencing
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Material Type In-text example Reference List example


… as stated in the Section C - Fire Australian Building Codes Board 2015, National
Resistance of the National Construction Code 2015 Building Code of
Construction Code Series (Australian Australia Volume One, Australian Building Codes
Building Codes Board 2015)… Board, viewed 22 May 2015,
<http://services.abcb.gov.au/NCCOnline/Publicatio
ns/2015/Volume1>.
Blog Post (Wilton 2010) Wilton, P 2010, ‘Proteins prove their metal’, Oxford
Science Blog, weblog post, 7 July, viewed 10
August 2011,
<http://www.ox.ac.uk/media/science_blog/100707.
html>.
Computer Software (OpenOffice.org 2011) OpenOffice.org 2011, computer software,
downloaded 17 October 2011,
<http://www.openoffice.org>.

Lecture Notes
Material Type In-text example Reference List example
Lecture Notes 'IIegal or unauthorised access to Thomas, B 2010, Security and controls, lecture notes,
information does not leave a theft Systems Design BCO3144 Victoria University,
Direct quote record' (Thomas 2010). delivered 2 September 2010.

Lecture notes obtained from an online source


(such as VU Collaborate or E-reserve) are
referenced as shown in the example above.
Lecture Recording Patient ratios were highlighted in Ryan, R 2010, Week 4: Nurse patient relationships &
a recent lecture (Ryan 2010)... professional boundaries, lecture recording,
Indirect quote Frameworks for Nursing Practice HNB1101, Victoria
University, delivered 23 March 2010.

Theses
Material Type In-text example Reference List example

Suwetwattanakul, C 2010, 'Developing a


Thesis: (Suwetwattanakul 2010) knowledge sharing model for the implementation of
unpublished the learning organization in Thailand', PhD thesis,
Victoria University, Melbourne.

Title is not italicised for unpublished theses.

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Harvard Referencing
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Material Type In-text example Reference List example


Thesis: published (Binder 2009) Binder, G 2009, Corporate governance in Arab
countries: development of corporate governance in
Arab and MENA countries, University of Vienna,
Vienna.
Barua, S 2010, Drought assessment and
Thesis: (Barua 2010) forecasting using a nonlinear aggregated drought
Online index, PhD thesis, Victoria University, Melbourne,
viewed 12 October
2011, <http://vuir.vu.edu.au/1598>.

Legislation
Material Type In-text example Reference List example
Acts/Statutes
Section 28 of the Crimes Act 1958 Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) s.28
(Vic) states that...
OR
Acts done with intent...(Crimes
Act 2001 (Cth), s.28)

(Sex and Age Discrimination Sex and Age Discrimination Legislation Amendment
Legislation Amendment Act 2011 Act 2011 (No. 40, 2011)
(No. 40)).
No full stops at the end of the reference for
the Reference List for legislation and cases.

Bills Carbon Tax Plebiscite Bill 2011 Carbon Tax Plebiscite Bill 2011 (Cth)
(Cth).
No Italics.
Cases James Hardie Industries NV v
James Hardie Industries NV v Australian Securities
Australian Securities and and Investments Commission (2010) 274 ALR 85
Investments Commission (2010)
274 ALR 85.

Conference Proceedings
Material Type In-text example Reference List example
Conference Paper: (Bayne & Ross 2007) Bayne, S & Ross, J 2007, 'The ‘digital native’ and
Online ‘digital immigrant’: a dangerous opposition', Annual
Conference of the Society for Research into Higher
Education (SRHE), Brighton, Sussex, 11-13

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Material Type In-text example Reference List example


December 2007, viewed 9 October 2011,
<http://www.malts.ed.ac.uk/staff/sian/natives_final.p
df>.

Conference Paper: (Buckley 2001) Buckley, R 2001, 'Presentation on the application of


Published (Print) regulatory and voluntary instruments for sustainable
tourism development in small islands', Island
tourism in Asia and the Pacific: a report on
WTO/UNEP international conference on
sustainable tourism in the islands of the Asia-Pacific
region, Sanya, Island of Hainan, China, 6-8
December 2000, World Tourism Organization,
Madrid, pp. 46-64.

The techniques for referencing conference


papers are very similar to those used when
referencing a journal article. Put the conference
name in italics.
Conference Paper: (Olasoji & Draganova 2010) Olasoji, R & Draganova, C 2010, 'Mobile Learning
Unpublished Portal for Computing Students' paper presented at
the IADIS International Conference, Mobile
Learning 2010, Porto, Portugal,19 - 21 March 2010.

For unpublished papers, include the phrase


‘paper presented at...’ before the name of the
conference. You do not need to put the
conference name in italics.
Complete Conference (WTO & UNEP 2001) World Tourism Organization & United Nations
Proceedings Environment Programme 2001, Island tourism in
Asia and the Pacific: a report on WTO/UNEP
international conference on sustainable tourism in
the islands of the Asia-Pacific region, Sanya, Island
of Hainan, China, 6-8 December 2000, World
Tourism Organization, Madrid.

This example shows how to deal with


organisations as corporate authors.

The name, place and date of the conference are


italicised because they form part of the title of
the work.

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Harvard Referencing
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Personal Communications
Material Type In-text example Reference List example
An email (JW Ayers 2011,
Email You do not need to include an entry in the
personal communication, 2
reference list.
September) confirming that
results are accurate ...

During an interview conducted on You do not need to include an entry in the


Interview
11 October 2011, Prof Peter reference list.
Dawkins stated that …
OR This example is about referencing information from
The Vice Chancellor's statement an interview that you have conducted. For
was confirmed during an interview interviews conducted by another person or using
(P Dawkins 2011, personal different media, please refer to the page on multi-
communication, 11 October) media formats in this guide.

In a letter dated 17 October 2011, You do not need to include an entry in the
Letter
Ben Cork stated that... reference list.
OR
Ben Cork expressed sincere
regret in his letter (B Cork 2011,
personal communication, 17
October)

Telephone call During a phone interview You do not need to include an entry in the reference
list.
conducted on 11 October 2011,
Professor Sally Richards stated
that...
OR
The Vice Chancellor's statement
was confirmed during a phone
interview (S Richards 2011,
personal communication, 11
October)

Multi-media materials
Material Type In-text example Reference List example
Online Video (Brooklyn, 2015) Brooklyn 2015, online video, Transmission Films, viewed
14 February 2017,
<https://vu.kanopystreaming.com/video/brooklyn>.

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Harvard Referencing
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Victoria University Library Victoria University Library 2017, Ebooks: how to


2017) download an EBook Central e-book, online video,
viewed 16 February 2017,
<https://vimeo.com/vicunilibrary/ebookcentral>.
Online Audio (Coldplay 2008) Coldplay 2008, Viva la vida, online audio, accessed 14
February 2017,
<https://open.spotify.com/track/1mea3bSkSGXuIRvnydl
B5b>.
Twitter post ... and Tony Abbott (2014) Abbott, T 2014, 'A momentous, historic
shared on Twitter: 'A day', TonyAbbottMHR, Twitter, 16 June, viewed 23 June
momentous, historic day - at 2014, <https://twitter.com/tonyabbottmhr>.
the signing of our Free Trade
Agreement with China'.
Facebook post Victoria University (2014) Victoria University 2014, 'The news is out - we're hosting
posted an announcement in the Southern Uni Games in 2016', Victoria University,
relation to hosting the Melbourne Australia, Facebook, 18 June, viewed 23
Southern Uni Games in June 2014,
2016. <https://www.facebook.com/victoria.university>.
Blog Post (Wilton 2010) Wilton, P 2010, ‘Proteins prove their metal’, Oxford
Science Blog, weblog post, 7 July, viewed 10 August
2011,
<http://www.ox.ac.uk/media/science_blog/100707.html>.

Television (Grasswell Grasswell, H (producer) 2011, The Gavin Larkin story -


Program 2011) Australian Story, television broadcast, Australian
Broadcasting Service, 12 September, viewed 17 October
2011, <http://0-
search.informit.com.au.library.vu.edu.au/documentSum
mary;dn=TEX20113700853;res=TVNEWS>.
Audio Podcast (Duncan 2011) Duncan, M 2011, 'Abdication', The History of
Rome, podcast,6 March, accessed 17 October 2011,
<http://thehistoryofrome.typepad.com/the_history_of_ro
me/2011/03/129-abdication.html>.
Video Podcast ...in an ABC Science Gary, S 2010, 'Solar max sends journos spinning', Star
podcast Star Stuff (Gary Stuff, podcast,
2010) ABC Science, Sydney, NSW, 1 September, accessed 31
August 2011, <http://www.abc.net.au/science/starstuff/>.

DVD (Bowling for Columbine 2003) Bowling for Columbine 2003, DVD, Umbrella
Entertainment, Melbourne, Vic. Written and directed by
Michael Moore.

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Harvard Referencing
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Material Type In-text example Reference List example


Music Track from (Yunupingu 2011) Yunupingu, GG 2011,
an Album 'Gopuru', on Rrakala, CD, Skinnyfish, Sydney.

Note that the title track is in single quotation marks and


the album title is in italics.

Company Information
Material Type In-text example Reference List example
Company (BHP Billiton BHP Billiton 2011, BHP Billiton exploration and
Report 2011) development report for the year ended 30 June 2011,
viewed 20 October 2011
<http://www.bhpbilliton.com/home/investors/reports/Pages
/default.aspx>.
Company (Mint Global 2011) Bureau van Dijk 2011, Vodafone Group annual report
Annual Report 2011, viewed 5 October 2011, retrieved from Mint Global
database.
Company Profile (Datamonitor 2011) Datamonitor 2011, Apple Inc., company profile, viewed 5
October 2011, retrieved from Business Source Complete.
Financial Data (Datastream 2011) Datastream 2011, S&PASX200 daily index data 2009-
2010, viewed 20 October 2011, retrieved from Datastream
database.
Industry Report (Ibisworld 2011) Ibisworld 2011, Global Logistics - Air Freight - global
industry report, viewed 20 October 2011, retrieved
from IbisWorld database.

Patents and Standards


Material Type In-text example Reference List example
Patent (print) (Wynne 2003) Wynne, BM 2003, Shark repellent system, US 6606963.
Patent: Retrieved (Oldani 2010) Oldani, MD 2010, Herbal formulations for controlling blood
from a database glucose levels in patients with diabetes, European Patent
EP 2178546 (A1), viewed 17 October 2011, retrieved
from Scopus.

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Harvard Referencing
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Material Type In-text example Reference List example


Standard: Retrieved (Standards Australia Standards Australia 2008, Personal floatation devices -
from a database 2008) General requirements, AS 4758.1-2008, viewed 17
October 2011, retrieved from Australian
Standards Online.

Standard (print) (Standards Standards Australia 1994, Information processing - text


Australia/New Zealand and office systems - office document architecture (ODA)
Standard 1994) and interchange format: part 10: formal specifications,
AS/NZS 3951.10:1994, Standards Australia, NSW.

Encyclopedia entries
Material Type In-text example Reference List example
Indirect Quote Who's Who in the Twentieth Century (1999) Smith, J 1999, ‘Aung San Suu Kyi’,
says of Aung San Suu Kyi she… Who's Who in the Twentieth Century,
Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Online encyclopedia OR
– Oxford Reference Where no author is indicated,
Online provide details of the source in the
in-text reference. No entry in the
'Aung San Suu Kyi was deprived of her father's reference list is required.
Direct Quote guidance by his assassination in 1947'. (Who's
Who in the Twentieth Century 1999)

Image/Photograph/Table/Artwork
Material Type In-text example Reference List example
Image from a The beautiful Attic Red Figure Cup by Lissarrague, F 2001, Greek vases: the Athenians
book the Cage Painter made in 490 BCE, is and their images, Riverside Books, New York.
now in the Paris Louvre and depicts a
young man drinking (Lissarrague 2001,
p. 36).
Original Jane Sutherland's masterly depiction Sutherland, J 1895, The mushroom gatherers, Oil
artwork of early morning light at the artist's on canvas, 481x993 mm, Australian Collection,
camp in Box Hill was particularly National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
admired in her painting The Mushroom
Gatherers (1895).

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Harvard Referencing
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Material Type In-text example Reference List example


Image from The blue banded bee, depicted, has a Sekar, S 2013, Blue banded bee, image, Flickr,
Flickr striking blue and black abdomen 13 February 2017, <https://flic.kr/p/g49u8f>.
(Sekar 2013).
Image from a Blue banded bees are attracted to the Wilson, J 2014, Blue banded bee and salvia,
webpage colour blue, as shown in this image image, The Planthunter, 13 February 2017,
(Wilson 2014). <http://theplanthunter.com.au/uncategorized/bee-
hotel/>.
Original The Martinware Pottery factory Martin, RW 1903, Owl, salt-glazed stoneware,
artwork produced zoomorphic pottery vessels Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, England.
from the 1870's to the First World
When you War. Owl (Martin 1903) is a good
have viewed example of the factory's whimsical
works in-situ. style.

Note: Below is an example of the


citation of the original work viewed in
a temporary exhibition. Ektoras, M 2014, Wishing well, Mono-print: Acrylic
on rice paper, Exhibited at: Light & Shade
In Wishing Well (Ektoras, 2014) exhibition, Beth Hulme Gallery & Studio,
demonstrates. Melbourne, 15 May - 6 Jun 2015.
Table or figure Selection bias is identified as a threat Riddick, CC & Russell, RV 2015, Research
from a book to internal validity (Riddick 2015, Table methods: how to conduct research in recreation,
7.6, p.138). parks, sport, and tourism, 3rd edn, Sagamore
Publishing, Urbana, Illinois.
Note: Include the table or figure
number if available.
Table or figure Latest figures show there are 165 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
from an online public hospitals in Victoria (Australian 2015, Australia’s hospitals 2013–14 at a glance,
source Institute of Health and Welfare, 2015, cat. no. HSE 157, AIHW, Canberra, viewed 23
Table 1, p.3). June 2015, <http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-
detail/?id=60129551440>.

Data
Material Type In-text example Reference List example
Dataset (DOI) (Sanciolo et al. 2015) Sanciolo, P, Monis, P, Blackbeard, J, Salveson, A,
Ryan, G, & Gray, SR 2015, Pasteurisation for
production of Class A recycled water: laboratory
scale testing and pilot plan trial data, electronic
dataset, Victoria University Research Repository,
doi: 10.4226/80/579ae0c32baeb.

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Harvard Referencing
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Material Type In-text example Reference List example


Dataset (URL) (Fluker 2015) Fluker, M 2015, Fluker posts: community based
environmental monitoring, electronic dataset,
Fluker Post Research Project, viewed 7 February
2017, <http://www.flukerpost.com>.

Case Studies
Material Type In-text example Reference List example
Case Study: (Business Queensland 2016). Business Queensland 2016, Coastal Cruises
Online Mooloolaba, case study, viewed 14 February
2017, <http://www.business.qld.gov.au/starting-
business/advice-support/support/case-
studies/coastal-cruises>.
Case Study: According to Gaff, 2016, p. 147 there Gaff, L 2016, ‘Coronary heart disease’, case
Book Chapter is... study, in J Lawrence, P Douglas & J Gandy (ed.),
Dietetic and nutrition case studies, John Wiley &
Sons, Chichester, UK, pp. 146-149.
Case Study: (Gupta, Nicovich & Garrison 2016) Gupta, A Nicovich, S & Garrison, T
From a Library 2016, Electronic Arts: gambling on the future of
Database video games, case study, Emerald Emerging
Markets Case Studies.

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