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You are on page 1of 97

COMBINED STRESS

(Stress Analysis)

S. Charca

Chapter 10 - 1

Stresses

Photoelasticity is an experimental method that can be used

to find the complex state of stress near a bolt connecting

two plates. (Alfred Pasieka/Peter Arnold, Inc.)

Chapter 10 - 2

Stresses

Photoelastic fringe pattern displays principal stresses in a

model of a crane-hook (a) (Frans Lemmens/Getty Images)

(b) (Courtesy Eann Patterson)

Chapter 10 - 3

Stresses

Production oil well casing (combined torsion and axial

force and internal pressure) (Courtesy of EMNRD)

Chapter 10 - 4

Stresses

Chapter 10 - 5

Stresses

Chapter 10 - 6

SKILL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

Ø Introduce the concept of the stress element in

applications involving combined normal

tension, compression, and bending stresses,

and by combining normal and shear stresses

resulting from torsion.

**Ø Analyze and demonstrate the transformation
**

of stress components that are associated with

a particular system of coordinates.

Chapter 10 - 7

Introduction

• The most general state of stress at a point may

be represented by 6 components,

σ x ,σ y ,σ z normal stresses

τ xy , τ yz , τ zx shearing stresses

(Note : τ xy = τ yx , τ yz = τ zy , τ zx = τ xz )

**• Same state of stress is represented by a
**

different set of components if axes are rotated.

**• The first part of the chapter is concerned with
**

how the components of stress are transformed

under a rotation of the coordinate axes.

Chapter 10 - 8

A steel beam in a bridge was repaired by

welding along a line that is 35ο to the axis of the

beam. The normal stress near the bottom of the

beam is estimated using beam theory and is

shown on the stress cube. Determine the

normal and shear stress on the plane containing

the weld line.

Chapter 10 - 9

Introduction

• Plane Stress - state of stress in which two faces of

the cubic element are free of stress. For the

illustrated example, the state of stress is defined by

σ x , σ y , τ xy and σ z = τ zx = τ zy = 0.

**• State of plane stress occurs in a thin plate subjected
**

to forces acting in the midplane of the plate.

**• State of plane stress also occurs on the free surface
**

of a structural element or machine component, i.e.,

at any point of the surface not subjected to an

external force.

Chapter 10 - 10

Transformation of Plane Stress

• Consider the conditions for equilibrium of a

prismatic element with faces perpendicular to

the x, y, and x’ axes.

∑ Fxʹ′ = 0 = σ xʹ′ΔA − σ x (ΔA cosθ )cosθ − τ xy (ΔA cosθ )sin θ

− σ y (ΔA sin θ )sin θ − τ xy (ΔA sin θ )cosθ

∑ Fyʹ′ = 0 = τ xʹ′yʹ′ΔA + σ x (ΔA cosθ )sin θ − τ xy (ΔA cosθ )cosθ

− σ y (ΔA sin θ )cosθ + τ xy (ΔA sin θ )sin θ

**• The equations may be rewritten to yield
**

σ x +σ y σ x −σ y

σ xʹ′ = + cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ

2 2

σ x +σ y σ x −σ y

σ yʹ′ = − cos 2θ − τ xy sin 2θ

2 2

σ x −σ y

τ xʹ′yʹ′ = − sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ

2

Chapter 10 - 11

EXAMPLE 1

The state of plane stress at a point on the surface of the

airplane fuselage is represented on the element oriented as

shown in Fig. Represent the state of stress at the point on an

element that is oriented 30° clockwise from the position

shown.

Chapter 10 -

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

EXAMPLE 1 (cont)

Solutions

• The element is sectioned by the line a-a.

• The free-body diagram of the segment is as shown.

Chapter 10 -

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

EXAMPLE 1 (cont)

Solutions

Applying the equations of force equilibrium in the x’ and y’

direction,

+ ∑ Fx ' = 0; σ x ' ΔA − (50 ΔA cos 30°)cos 30° + (25ΔA cos 30°)sin 30°

+ (80 ΔA sin 30°)sin 30° + (25ΔA sin 30°)cos 30° = 0

σ x ' = −4.15 MPa (Ans)

**+ ∑ Fy ' = 0; τ x'y' ΔA − (50ΔA cos 30°)sin 30° − (25ΔA cos 30°)cos 30°
**

− (80ΔA sin 30°)cos 30° + (25ΔA cos 30°)sin 30° = 0

τ x'y' = 68.8 MPa (Ans)

Chapter 10 -

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

EXAMPLE 1 (cont)

Solutions

Repeat the procedure to obtain the stress on the perpendicular

plane b–b.

+ ∑ Fx ' = 0; σ x ' ΔA − (25ΔA cos 30°)sin 30° + (80 ΔA cos 30°)cos 30°

− (25ΔA cos 30°)cos 30° − (50 ΔA sin 30°)sin 30° = 0

σ x ' = −25.8 MPa (Ans)

**+ ∑ Fy ' = 0; - τ x'y' ΔA + (25ΔA cos 30°)cos 30° + (80ΔA cos 30°)sin 30°
**

− (25ΔA sin 30°)sin 30° + (50ΔA sin 30°)cos 30° = 0

τ x'y' = 68.8 MPa (Ans)

**The state of stress at the point can be
**

represented by choosing an element

oriented.

Chapter 10 -

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

EXAMPLE 2

The state of plane stress at a point is represented by the

element shown in Fig. Determine the state of stress at the

point on another element oriented 30° clockwise from the

position shown.

Chapter 10 -

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

EXAMPLE 2 (cont)

Solutions

From the sign convention we have,

σ x = −80 MPa σ y = 50 MPa τ xy = −25 MPa θ = −30°

**To obtain the stress components on plane CD,
**

σ x +σ y σ x −σ y

σ x' = + cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ = −25.8 MPa (Ans)

2 2

σ x −σ y

τ x' y' = − sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ = −68.8 MPa (Ans)

2

Chapter 10 -

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

EXAMPLE 2 (cont)

Solutions

To obtain the stress components on plane BC,

σ x = −80 MPa σ y = 50 MPa τ xy = −25 MPa θ = 60°

σ x +σ y σ x −σ y

σ x' = + cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ = −4.15 MPa (Ans)

2 2

σ x −σ y

τ x' y' = − sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ = 68.8 MPa (Ans)

2

The results are shown on the element as shown.

Chapter 10 -

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Principal Stresses

The principal stresses represent the maximum and minimum normal stress at

the point. When the state of stress is represented by the principal stresses, no

shear stress will act on the element.

• The previous equations are combined to yield

parametric equations for a circle,

(σ xʹ′ − σ ave )2 + τ x2ʹ′yʹ′ = R 2

where

2

σ x +σ y ⎛ σ x − σ y ⎞ 2

σ ave = R = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + τ xy

2 ⎝ 2 ⎠

• Principal stresses occur on the principal

planes of stress with zero shearing stresses.

2

σ x +σ y ⎛ σ − σ y ⎞

σ max,min = ± ⎜⎜ x ⎟⎟ + τ xy2

2 ⎝ 2 ⎠

2τ xy

tan 2θ p =

σ x −σ y

Note : defines two angles separated by 90 o

Chapter 10 - 19

Maximum Shearing Stress

Maximum shearing stress occurs for σ xʹ′ = σ ave

2

⎛ σ x − σ y ⎞ 2

τ max = R = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + τ xy

⎝ 2 ⎠

σ x −σ y

tan 2θ s = −

2τ xy

**Note : defines two angles separated by 90o and
**

offset from θ p by 45o

σ x +σ y

σ ʹ′ = σ ave =

2

Chapter 10 - 20

Example 03

SOLUTION:

• Find the element orientation for the principal

stresses from

2τ xy

tan 2θ p =

σ x −σ y

• Determine the principal stresses from

2

σx +σ y ⎛ σ x − σ y ⎞ 2

σ max,min = ± ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + τ xy

For the state of plane stress 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠

shown, determine (a) the • Calculate the maximum shearing stress with

principal panes, (b) the 2

principal stresses, (c) the ⎛ σ x − σ y ⎞ 2

τ max = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + τ xy

maximum shearing stress and ⎝ 2 ⎠

the corresponding normal

σx +σ y

stress. σ ʹ′ =

2

Chapter 10 - 21

Example 03

SOLUTION:

• Find the element orientation for the principal

stresses from

2τ xy 2(+ 40)

tan 2θ p = = = 1.333

σ x − σ y 50 − (− 10)

2θ p = 53.1°, 233.1°

**σ x = +50 MPa τ xy = +40 MPa θ p = 26.6°, 116 .6°
**

σ x = −10 MPa • Determine the principal stresses from

2

σ x +σ y ⎛ σ − σ y ⎞

σ max,min = ± ⎜⎜ x ⎟⎟ + τ xy2

2 ⎝ 2 ⎠

= 20 ± (30 )2 + (40 )2

σ max = 70 MPa

σ min = −30 MPa

Chapter 10 - 22

Example 03

• Calculate the maximum shearing stress with

2

⎛ σ − σ y ⎞

τ max = ⎜⎜ x ⎟⎟ + τ xy2

⎝ 2 ⎠

= (30 )2 + (40 )2

τ max = 50 MPa

σ x = +50 MPa τ xy = +40 MPa θ s = θ p − 45

σ x = −10 MPa θ s = −18.4°, 71.6°

**• The corresponding normal stress is
**

σ x + σ y 50 − 10

σ ʹ′ = σ ave = =

2 2

σ ʹ′ = 20 MPa

Chapter 10 - 23

Example 04

SOLUTION:

• Determine an equivalent force-couple

system at the center of the transverse

section passing through H.

• Evaluate the normal and shearing

stresses at H.

• Determine the principal planes and

calculate the principal stresses.

A single horizontal force P of 150 lb

magnitude is applied to end D of

lever ABD. Determine (a) the

normal and shearing stresses on an

element at point H having sides

parallel to the x and y axes, (b) the

principal planes and principal

stresses at the point H. Chapter 10 - 24

Example 04

SOLUTION:

• Determine an equivalent force-couple

system at the center of the transverse

section passing through H.

P = 150 lb

T = (150 lb)(18in ) = 2.7 kip ⋅ in

M x = (150 lb)(10 in ) = 1.5 kip ⋅ in

**• Evaluate the normal and shearing
**

stresses at H.

Mc (1.5 kip ⋅ in )(0.6 in )

σy =+ =+

I 1 π (0.6 in )4

4

Tc (2.7 kip ⋅ in )(0.6 in )

τ xy = + =+

J 1 π (0.6 in )4

2

σ x = 0 σ y = +8.84 ksi τ y = +7.96 ksi

Chapter 10 - 25

Example 04

• Determine the principal planes and

calculate the principal stresses.

2τ xy 2(7.96)

tan 2θ p = = = −1.8

σ x − σ y 0 − 8.84

2θ p = −61.0°,119°

θ p = −30.5°, 59.5°

2

σx +σ y ⎛ σ x − σ y ⎞ 2

σ max,min = ± ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + τ xy

2 ⎝ 2 ⎠

2

0 + 8.84 ⎛ 0 − 8.84 ⎞ 2

= ± ⎜ ⎟ + (7.96)

2 ⎝ 2 ⎠

σ max = +13.52 ksi

σ min = −4.68 ksi

Chapter 10 - 26

EXAMPLE 5

When the torsional loading T is applied to the bar, it

produces a state of pure shear stress in the material.

Determine (a) the maximum in-plane shear stress and

the associated average normal stress, and (b) the

principal stress.

Chapter 10 -

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

EXAMPLE 5 (cont)

Solutions

From the sign convention we have, σ x = 0 σ y = 0 τ xy = −τ

**a) Maximum in-plane shear stress is
**

2

⎛ σ x − σ y ⎞ σ x +σ y

τ max in-plane = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + τ xy 2 = ±τ σ avg = = 0 (Ans)

⎝ 2 ⎠ 2

**b) For principal stress,
**

τ xy

tan 2θ p =

(σ x − σ y )/ 2 ⇒ θ p 2 = 45°,θ p1 = 135°

2

σ +σy ⎛ σ − σ y ⎞ 2

σ 1, 2 = x ± ⎜ x ⎟ + τ xy = ±τ (Ans)

2 ⎝ 2 ⎠

Chapter 10 -

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

EXAMPLE 5 (cont)

Solutions

If we useθ p2 = 45°

σ x +σ y σ x −σ y

σ x' = + cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ

2 2

= 0 + 0 + (− τ )sin 90° = −τ

**Thus, σ 2 = −τ acts at σ p = 45° as shown in Fig, and σ1 = τ acts on the other
**

2

face σ p = −45°

1

Chapter 10 -

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 06

The stresses on the bottom surface of a fuel

tanker (figure part a) are known to be ,σx = 50

MPa, σy = 8 MPa , and τxy = 6.5 MPa..

Determine the stresses acting on an element

oriented at an angle θ = 52o from the x axis,

where the angle θ is positive when

counterclockwise. Show these stresses on a

sketch of an element oriented at the angle θ.

Chapter 10 - 30

Example 07

An element in plane stress from the frame of a racing

car is oriented at a known angle θ (see figure). On this

inclined element, the normal and shear stresses have

the magnitudes and directions shown in the figure.

Determine the normal and shear stresses acting on an

element whose sides are parallel to the xy axes, that is,

determine σx, σy, and τxy. Show the results on a sketch

of an element oriented at θ = 0°.

Chapter 10 - 31

Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress

• With the physical significance of Mohr’s

circle for plane stress established, it may be

applied with simple geometric considerations.

Critical values are estimated graphically or

calculated.

• For a known state of plane stress σ x ,σ y ,τ xy

plot the points X and Y and construct the

circle centered at C.

2

σ x +σ y ⎛ σ x − σ y ⎞ 2

σ ave = R = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + τ xy

2 ⎝ 2 ⎠

**• The principal stresses are obtained at A and B.
**

σ max, min = σ ave ± R

2τ xy

tan 2θ p =

σ x −σ y

The direction of rotation of Ox to Oa is

the same as CX to CA.

Chapter 10 - 32

Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress

• With Mohr’s circle uniquely defined, the state

of stress at other axes orientations may be

depicted.

**• For the state of stress at an angle θ with
**

respect to the xy axes, construct a new

diameter X’Y’ at an angle 2θ with respect to

XY.

**• Normal and shear stresses are obtained
**

from the coordinates X’Y’.

Chapter 10 - 33

Chapter 10 - 34

Properties of Mohr’s Circle

Ø The center of Mohr’s circle lies on the σ axis at

(σavg, 0).

Ø Points on the circle that lie above the σ axis (i.e., τ

negative) correspond to faces that have a

clockwise-acting shear; points that lie below the σ

axis (i.e., τ positive) correspond to faces that have

a counterclockwise-acting shear.

Ø The radius of the circle is determined by applying

the Pythagorean theorem to the triangle with sides

τxy and ,giving

Chapter 10 - 35

Chapter 10 - 36

Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress

• Mohr’s circle for centric axial loading:

P P

σx = , σ y = τ xy = 0 σ x = σ y = τ xy =

A 2A

• Mohr’s circle for torsional loading:

Tc Tc

σ x = σ y = 0 τ xy = σx =σy = τ xy = 0

J J

Chapter 10 - 37

Example 08

**For the state of plane stress
**

shown, (a) construct Mohr’s

circle, determine (b) the principal SOLUTION: a)

planes, (c) the maximum shearing

• Construction of Mohr’s circle

stress and the corresponding σ x + σ y (50) + (− 10)

normal stress. σ ave = = = 20 MPa

2 2

CF = 50 − 20 = 30 MPa FX = 40 MPa

R = CX = (30)2 + (40)2 = 50 MPa

Chapter 10 - 38

Example 08

• b) Principal planes and stresses

σ max = OA = OC + CA = 20 + 50

σ max = 70 MPa

σ min = OB = OC − BC = 20 − 50

σ min = −30 MPa

FX 40

tan 2θ p = =

CP 30

2θ p = 53.1°

θ p = 26.6°

Chapter 10 - 39

Example 08

• c) Maximum shear stress

**θ s = θ p + 45° τ max = R σ ʹ′ = σ ave
**

θ s = 71.6° τ max = 50 MPa σ ʹ′ = 20 MPa

Chapter 10 - 40

Example 09

**For the state of stress shown,
**

determine (a) the principal

planes and the principal

stresses, (b) the stress

components exerted on the SOLUTION:

element obtained by rotating the• Construct Mohr’s circle

given element counterclockwise σ x + σ y 100 + 60

through 30 degrees. σ ave = = = 80 MPa

2 2

R= (CF )2 + (FX )2 = (20)2 + (48)2 = 52 MPa

Chapter 10 - 41

Example 09

**• Principal planes and stresses
**

XF 48 σ max = OA = OC + CA σ max = OA = OC − BC

tan 2θ p = = = 2.4

CF 20 = 80 + 52 = 80 − 52

2θ p = 67.4°

σ max = +132 MPa σ min = +28 MPa

θ p = 33.7° clockwise

Chapter 10 - 42

Example 09

φ = 180° − 60° − 67.4° = 52.6°

• Stress components after rotation by 30o

σ xʹ′ = OK = OC − KC = 80 − 52 cos 52.6°

Points X’ and Y’ on Mohr’s circle that σ yʹ′ = OL = OC + CL = 80 + 52 cos 52.6°

correspond to stress components on the

τ xʹ′yʹ′ = KX ʹ′ = 52 sin 52.6°

rotated element are obtained by rotating

XY counterclockwise through 2θ = 60° σ xʹ′ = +48.4 MPa

σ yʹ′ = +111.6 MPa

τ xʹ′yʹ′ = 41.3 MPa

Chapter 10 - 43

Example 10

At a point on the surface of a hydraulic ram on a piece

of construction equipment, the material is subjected to

biaxial stresses σx = 90 MPa and σy = 20 MPa, as

shown on the stress element. Using Mohr’s circle,

determine the stresses acting on an element inclined

at an angle . (Consider only the in-plane stresses, and

show the results on a sketch of a properly oriented

element.)

Chapter 10 - 44

Example 11

An element in plane stress on the surface of an oil-

drilling pump arm is subjected to stresses , σx = 100

MPa, σy = 34 MPa and τxy = 28 MPa, as shows.

Using Mohr’s circle, determine the following

quantities: (a) the stresses acting on an element

inclined at an angle , (b) the principal stresses, and (c)

the maximum shear stresses. (Consider only the in-

plane stresses, and show all results on sketches of

properly oriented elements.)

Chapter 10 - 45

Example 12

The stresses at a point on the down tube of a bicycle

frame are σx = 33 MPa and τxy = -13 MPa (see figure). It is

known that one of the principal stresses equals 44 MPa in

tension.

(a) Determine the stress σy.

(b) Determine the other principal stress and the orientation

of the principal planes, then show the principal stresses on

a sketch of a properly oriented element.

Chapter 10 - 46

Stress Transformation (Optional)

essMatrix

transformation

Version:

Stress transformation

cos sin cos sin

on T XX

Matrix version T

XY

XX XY cos sin

xx

xx

xy

xy cos sin

YX YY YX

sin

YY sincos cos yxyx yyyy sinsin cos cos

2 2

Or XX2 cos 2yy sin 2 cos sin

XX xx cos xx

yy

2

sin 2

2 xy cos sin

xy

**YY xx sin yy cos 2 xy cos sin
**

2 2

YY xx sin XY

cos 2

yy yy sin cos

xx xy cos

xy cos

sin

2

sin 2

2 2

XY xx XX yy12 sin

xx yy

cos1 xx xy cos

yy cos 2 xy

sin2

sin

2

1 1

YY 2 xx yy 2 xx yy cos 2 xy sin 2

1 1

XX 2 xx XY yy12 xx 2 yy xx sin 2 yy

cos

xy cos22 xy sin 2

Chapter 10 - 47

1 1

General State of Stress

• Consider the general 3D state of stress at a point and

the transformation of stress from element rotation

• State of stress at Q defined by: σ x ,σ y ,σ z ,τ xy ,τ yz ,τ zx

**• Consider tetrahedron with face perpendicular to the
**

line QN with direction cosines: λx , λ y , λz

**• The requirement ∑ Fn = 0 leads to,
**

σ n = σ xλ2x + σ y λ2y + σ z λ2z

+ 2τ xy λxλ y + 2τ yz λ y λz + 2τ zxλz λx

• Form of equation guarantees that an element

orientation can be found such that

σ n = σ a λ2a + σ bλb2 + σ cλc2

These are the principal axes and principal planes

and the normal stresses are the principal stresses.

Chapter 10 - 48

Application of Mohr’s Circle to the

Three-Dimensional Analysis of Stress

**• Transformation of stress for an element • The three circles represent the
**

rotated around a principal axis may be normal and shearing stresses for

represented by Mohr’s circle. rotation around each principal axis.

• Points A, B, and C represent the • Radius of the largest circle yields the

principal stresses on the principal planes maximum shearing stress.

(shearing stress is zero) 1

τ max = σ max − σ min

2

Chapter 10 - 49

Application of Mohr’s Circle to the

Three-Dimensional Analysis of Stress

• In the case of plane stress, the axis

perpendicular to the plane of stress is a

principal axis (shearing stress equal zero).

• If the points A and B (representing the

principal planes) are on opposite sides of

the origin, then

a) the corresponding principal stresses

are the maximum and minimum

normal stresses for the element

b) the maximum shearing stress for the

element is equal to the maximum “in-

plane” shearing stress

c) planes of maximum shearing stress

are at 45o to the principal planes.

Chapter 10 - 50

Application of Mohr’s Circle to the

Three-Dimensional Analysis of Stress

• If A and B are on the same side of the

origin (i.e., have the same sign), then

**a) the circle defining σmax, σmin, and
**

τmax for the element is not the circle

corresponding to transformations

within the plane of stress

**b) maximum shearing stress for the
**

element is equal to half of the

maximum stress

**c) planes of maximum shearing stress are
**

at 45 degrees to the plane of stress

Chapter 10 - 51

Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress

• Failure of a machine component

subjected to uniaxial stress is directly

predicted from an equivalent tensile test

• Failure of a machine component

subjected to plane stress cannot be

directly predicted from the uniaxial state

of stress in a tensile test specimen

• It is convenient to determine the

principal stresses and to base the failure

criteria on the corresponding biaxial

stress state

• Failure criteria are based on the

mechanism of failure. Allows

comparison of the failure conditions for

a uniaxial stress test and biaxial

component loading

Chapter 10 - 52

Background and definitions

Yielding…

**Ø For ductile material under simple tension, stress no
**

longer proportional to strain

Ø Plastic (irreversible) deformation (permanent molecular

rearrangement) once a certain level of stress is reached

Ø Highly material dependent

**Understanding yielding is important for designing a pressure
**

vessel, rotating disc, crank shaft, ... that does not allow any

irreversible strain, i.e. material must remain elastic

Chapter 10 - 53

Fracture vs yield

Fracture

**Ø Driven by normal stresses, acting to separate one atomic
**

plane from another

Ø Broken atomic bonds are not allowed to reform in new

positions

Yield

**Ø Driven by shear stresses, sliding one plane along
**

another.

Ø Broken atomic bonds are allowed to reform in new

positions

Chapter 10 - 54

Stress-strain curve of ductile materials

Chapter 10 - 55

Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress

**Maximum normal stress theory:
**

Ignores any interaction between the normal

principal stresses, and assumes that failure

occurs when either of the normal stresses

exceed the ultimate stress. This is written as,

i.e.,

**This failure criteria is really good for brittle materials and should not
**

used for ductile material like steel, aluminum, and plastics.

Chapter 10 - 56

Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress

**Maximum shearing stress criteria:
**

Structural component is safe as long as the

maximum shearing stress is less than the

maximum shearing stress in a tensile test

specimen at yield, i.e.,

σ

τ max < τ Y = Y

2

For σa and σb with the same sign,

σa σb σ

τ max = or < Y

This criteria is actually fairly 2 2 2

accurate for ductile materials like

steel, alumunim and plastics. The For σa and σb with opposite signs,

difficulty is that three conditions σa −σb σ

need to be checked τ max = < Y

2 2

Where σa and σb are the two principal stresses. The exagon associated

with the initiation of yield in the material is known as Tresca´s Hexagon.

(French Engineer Henri Edouard Tresca, 1814-1885) Chapter 10 - 57

General multiaxial

General stress

multiaxial states

stress states

Mohr’s circle for simple tension test :

Thus, general form of Tresca Criterion is :

σmax − σmin = σy

Chapter 10 - 58

pecial case :case

Special Plane stressstress

: Plane

Let σ1 , σ2 and σ3 be the principale stresses (σ3 = 0) :

|σ1 −σ2 |

When σ1 and σ2 are of opposite sign : τmax = 2

The yield condition is given by :

σ1 σ2

|σ1 − σ2 | = σy or − = ±1

σy σy

When σ1 and σ2 carry the same sign :

|σ1 − σ3 | |σ1 |

if |σ1 | > |σ2 | , τmax = = and |σ1 | = σy

2 2

|σ2 − σ3 | |σ2 |

if |σ1 | < |σ2 | , τmax = = and |σ2 | = σy

2 2

Chapter 10 - 59

scaTresca

yield surface for plane

yield surface stressstress

for plane problems

problems

Chapter 10 - 60

Yielding

Generalstarts when

multiaxial the states

stress maximum distortion/shear

energy in the material Wd,max equals the maximum

Maximum distortion/shear energy:

distortion/shear energy at yielding in a simple tension

Yielding starts when the maximum distortion/shear energy in the

test Wmaterial

d,y Wd,max equals the maximum distortion/shear energy at

yielding in a simple tension test Wd,y

Wd,max = Wd,y

**Distortion/shear energy :
**

on/shear energy :

Part of the strain energy corresponds to volume-preserved shape

change

the strain energy corresponds to volume-preserved sh

Chapter 10 - 61

General multiaxial stress states

General multiaxial stress states

**In terms of the stress components :
**

1 ! 2 2 2 " 2 2 2

#$

Wd,max = (σxx − σyy ) + (σyy − σzz ) + (σzz − σxx ) + 6 τxy + τyz + τzx

12G

1 2

Wd,y = σ

6G y

**Thus, general form of Von Mises Criterion is :
**

1 % 2 2 2

" 2 2 2

#&1/2

√ (σxx − σyy ) + (σyy − σzz ) + (σzz − σxx ) + 6 τxy + τyz + τzx = σy

2

Left hand side : the Von Mises stress σvm

Chapter 10 - 62

General multiaxial stress states

General multiaxial stress states

In terms of the principal stresses σ1 , σ2 , σ3 :

1 ! "1/2

√ (σ1 − σ2 )2 + (σ2 − σ3 )2 + (σ3 − σ1 )2 = σy

2

Chapter 10 - 63

Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress

Maximum distortion energy criteria: (Von

Mises)

Structural component is safe as long as the

distortion energy per unit volume is less

than that occurring in a tensile test specimen

at yield.

ud < uY

1 2 1 2

6G

(

σ a − σ aσ b + σ b2 < )

6G

(

σ Y − σ Y × 0 + 02 )

σ a2 − σ aσ b + σ b2 < σ Y2

**This criteria is especially useful since it is a single equation. It is also
**

accurate for ductile materials. The shape of the region is an ellispe that

is rotated 45 degrees

Chapter 10 - 64

Special case

Special case: : Plane stress

Plane stress

Let σ1 , σ2 and σ3 be the principale stresses (σ3 = 0) :

1 ! "1/2

σvm = √ (σ1 − σ2 )2 + (σ2 − 0)2 + (0 − σ1 )2

2

#

= σ12 − σ1 σ2 + σ22

Von Mises yield criterion becomes :

σ12 − σ1 σ2 + σ22 = σy2

In σ1 − σ2 plane, this equation represents an ellipse

Chapter 10 - 65

n Misses yield surface for plane stress problems

Von Misses yield surface for plane stress problems

Chapter 10 - 66

esca and Von Misses yield surfaces : 2D space

Tresca and Von Misses yield surfaces : 2D space

Chapter 10 - 67

Example : Thin pressurized tube with end caps

Example : Thin pressurized tube with end caps

**Given a thin walled tube (radius r, thickness t) containing gas.
**

Using Tresca and Von Mises yield criteria, determine the maximum

allowable gas pressure pmax so that no yielding occurs.

Chapter 10 - 68

Example : Thin

Example : Thinpressurized tubewith

pressurized tube withend

end caps

caps

**From Strength of Material course, the radial (σr ), hoop (σθ ) and
**

longitudinal (σz ) stresses are :

pr pr

σr = 0 σθ = σz =

t 2t

1 Tresca criterion

t

σθ − 0 = σy → pmax = σy

r

**2 Von Mises criterion
**

2t

σθ2 − σθ σz + σz2 = σy2 → pmax = √ σy

3r

Chapter 10 - 69

Example 13

Chapter 10 - 70

Solution

Chapter 10 - 71

Solution

Chapter 10 - 72

Solution

Chapter 10 - 73

Example 14

A force P0 kips applied by a lever arm to the shaft in Fig.

produces stresses at the critical point A having the

values shown on the element in Fig. Determine the load

PS = cSP0 that would cause the shaft to fail according to

the maximum-shear-stress theory, and determine the

load PD = cDP0 that would cause failure according to the

maximum-distortion energy theory. The shaft is made of

steel with σY = 36 ksi.

Chapter 10 - 74

Solution It will be help

stress state in Fig. 1 and a

Solution

P0

ure theories. Figure 2 is a

Since !1 is positive

Will be helpful it we

Fig.construct

1 a Mohr’s

fourthcircle for of the fa

quadrant

the plane stress state. stresses at point A are pr

cP0 will lie along the rad

Y(0, –14.14) line passes through the o

point (!1P ! 20 ksi, !2P

stresses due to load P0.

theory occurs at the stres

to the maximum-distorti

σ2 = –10 ksi 5 σ1 = 20 ksi

σ(ksi)

5 Maximum-Shear-Stress T

line given by

14.14

X(10, 14.14)

τ(ksi) and the maximum-shear-

Fig. 2 Mohr’s circle for stress state at Chapter 10 - 75

Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory

Point S is the intersection of the load line

given by:

and the maximum-shear-stress boundary line

Solving Eqs. for σ1 and σ2 we get

**Combining these values with σ1 and σ2 we
**

get:

Chapter 10 - 76

Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory:

Point D in Fig. is the intersection of the load line,

and the ellipse. Thus

Knowing:

Then, since σ1< 0 and σ2 > 0, we get

Chapter 10 - 77

Fracture Criteria for Brittle Materials Under Plane Stress

**Brittle materials fail suddenly through rupture
**

or fracture in a tensile test. The failure

condition is characterized by the ultimate

strength σU.

**Maximum normal stress criteria:
**

Structural component is safe as long as the

maximum normal stress is less than the

ultimate strength of a tensile test specimen.

σ a < σU

σ b < σU

Chapter 10 - 78

Example 15

Chapter 10 - 79

Failure Theories

• Static failure

– Ductile

– Brittle

– Stress concentration

• Recall

– Ductile

• Significant plastic

deformation between

yield and fracture

– Brittle

• Yield ~= fracture

Chapter 10 -

Tensile Test

•

Chapter 10 -

Linear Stress Strain Plot

•

Chapter 10 -

Mohr’s Circle for Tensile Test

•

Chapter 10 -

Static Ductile Failure

**• Two primary theories for static ductile failure
**

– Von Mises criterion

• Maximum Distortion-energy Theory

• MDE

– Maximum Shear Stress criterion

• MSS

Chapter 10 -

Failure Theory Problem Statement

• Given:

– Stress-strain data for

simple uniaxial tension

• Find:

– When failure occurs

for general state of

stress

Chapter 10 -

Static Ductile Failure

**• Max Shear Stress criterion
**

– Material yields (fails) when:

Sy

1) τ max ≥ 2

or

2) (σ 1 − σ 3 ) ≥ S y

Sy Sy

– Factor of Safety: η = =

(σ 1 − σ 3 ) 2τ max

Chapter 10 -

Maximum Shear Stress Criteria

•

Chapter 10 -

Static Ductile Failure

**• Von Mises criterion
**

– Let the Mises stress (σe, equivalent stress) be:

1

σe =

2

[

(σ 1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 )2 + (σ 1 − σ 3 )2 ]

– Then failure (yield) occurs when: σ e ≥ Sy

Sy

– Factor of Safety: η =

σe

• Typically, 1.25 ≤ η ≤ 4

• Want a margin of error but not completely

overdesigned

Chapter 10 -

Which theory to use?

• Look at a plot of the principal

stresses

– σB vs. σA

– The non-zero principal stresses

• Failure occurs when the

principal stresses lie outside

the enclosed area

• Shape of area depends on the

failure theory

• Data points are experimental

results

• MSS

– Slightly more conservative

– Easier to calculate

• MDE

– More accurate

– If not specified, use this one!

Chapter 10 -

Comparison of MDE, MSS,MNS

•

Chapter 10 -

Hydrostatic Stress State Diagonal

•

Chapter 10 -

Stresses in Thin-Walled Pressure

Vessels

• Cylindrical vessel with principal stresses

σ1 = hoop stress

σ2 = longitudinal stress

• Hoop stress:

∑ Fz = 0 = σ1(2t Δx ) − p(2r Δx )

pr

σ1 =

t

• Longitudinal stress:

( )

∑ Fx = 0 = σ 2 (2π rt ) − p π r

2

pr

σ2 =

2t

σ1 = 2σ 2

Chapter 10 - 92

Stresses in Thin-Walled Pressure

Vessels

• Points A and B correspond to hoop stress, σ1,

and longitudinal stress, σ2

**• Maximum in-plane shearing stress:
**

1 pr

τ max(in − plane) = σ 2 =

2 4t

**• Maximum out-of-plane shearing stress
**

corresponds to a 45o rotation of the plane

stress element around a longitudinal axis

pr

τ max = σ 2 =

2t

Chapter 10 - 93

Stresses in Thin-Walled Pressure

Vessels

• Spherical pressure vessel:

pr

σ1 = σ 2 =

2t

**• Mohr’s circle for in-plane
**

transformations reduces to a point

σ = σ1 = σ 2 = constant

τ max(in-plane) = 0

**• Maximum out-of-plane shearing
**

stress

pr

τ max = 12 σ1 =

4t

Chapter 10 - 94

Given: The shaft of a femur (thigh

bone) can be approximated as a

hollow cylindrical shaft. The loads that

tend to cause femur bones to fracture

are torques and bending moments. A

particular femur has an outside

diameter of D = 24 mm and an inside

diameter of Di = 16 mm. The ultimate

tensile strength of bone is Su = 120

MPa. During a strenuous activity, such

as skiing, the femur is subjected to a

torque of T = 100 N·m.

Required: Under the applied torque,

determine the maximum bending

moment M that the bone can support

without failure. Consider only torsion

and bending loads, and assume the

bone to be a brittle material. Chapter 10 - 95

Given: A thin-walled cylindrical pressure vessel

contains a gas at pressure p. The vessel radius is R and

its wall thickness is t. The axial yield strength from

tensile experiments performed on the material is Sy .

Required: Determine the pressure at yield using (a) the

Tresca criterion and (b) the von Mises yield criterion.

Chapter 10 - 96

Given: A stress element in a component made

of Aluminum 6061-T6 is subjected to the

following plane stress state: σx = 10.0 ksi; σy =

6.0 ksi; τxy = –4.0 ksi The axial yield strength of

Aluminum 6061-T6 used in design is Sy = 35 ksi.

**Required: Determine (a) the factor of safety
**

using the Tresca criterion (assuming

τy = Sy /2 = 17.5 ksi) and (b) the factor of safety

using the von Mises criterion.

Chapter 10 - 97

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