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CHAPTER 8

COMBINED STRESS
(Stress Analysis)

S. Charca

Chapter 10 - 1
Stresses
Photoelasticity is an experimental method that can be used
to find the complex state of stress near a bolt connecting
two plates. (Alfred Pasieka/Peter Arnold, Inc.)

Chapter 10 - 2
Stresses
Photoelastic fringe pattern displays principal stresses in a
model of a crane-hook (a) (Frans Lemmens/Getty Images)
(b) (Courtesy Eann Patterson)

Chapter 10 - 3
Stresses
Production oil well casing (combined torsion and axial
force and internal pressure) (Courtesy of EMNRD)

Chapter 10 - 4
Stresses

Chapter 10 - 5
Stresses

Chapter 10 - 6
SKILL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES
Ø  Introduce the concept of the stress element in
applications involving combined normal
tension, compression, and bending stresses,
and by combining normal and shear stresses
resulting from torsion.

Ø  Analyze and demonstrate the transformation

of stress components that are associated with
a particular system of coordinates.

Chapter 10 - 7
Introduction
•  The most general state of stress at a point may
be represented by 6 components,
σ x ,σ y ,σ z normal stresses
τ xy , τ yz , τ zx shearing stresses
(Note : τ xy = τ yx , τ yz = τ zy , τ zx = τ xz )

•  Same state of stress is represented by a

different set of components if axes are rotated.

•  The first part of the chapter is concerned with

how the components of stress are transformed
under a rotation of the coordinate axes.

Chapter 10 - 8
A steel beam in a bridge was repaired by
welding along a line that is 35ο to the axis of the
beam. The normal stress near the bottom of the
beam is estimated using beam theory and is
shown on the stress cube. Determine the
normal and shear stress on the plane containing
the weld line.

Chapter 10 - 9
Introduction
•  Plane Stress - state of stress in which two faces of
the cubic element are free of stress. For the
illustrated example, the state of stress is defined by
σ x , σ y , τ xy and σ z = τ zx = τ zy = 0.

•  State of plane stress occurs in a thin plate subjected

to forces acting in the midplane of the plate.

•  State of plane stress also occurs on the free surface

of a structural element or machine component, i.e.,
at any point of the surface not subjected to an
external force.
Chapter 10 - 10
Transformation of Plane Stress
•  Consider the conditions for equilibrium of a
prismatic element with faces perpendicular to
the x, y, and x’ axes.
∑ Fxʹ′ = 0 = σ xʹ′ΔA − σ x (ΔA cosθ )cosθ − τ xy (ΔA cosθ )sin θ
− σ y (ΔA sin θ )sin θ − τ xy (ΔA sin θ )cosθ
∑ Fyʹ′ = 0 = τ xʹ′yʹ′ΔA + σ x (ΔA cosθ )sin θ − τ xy (ΔA cosθ )cosθ
− σ y (ΔA sin θ )cosθ + τ xy (ΔA sin θ )sin θ

•  The equations may be rewritten to yield

σ x +σ y σ x −σ y
σ xʹ′ = + cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ
2 2
σ x +σ y σ x −σ y
σ yʹ′ = − cos 2θ − τ xy sin 2θ
2 2
σ x −σ y
τ xʹ′yʹ′ = − sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ
2
Chapter 10 - 11
EXAMPLE 1
The state of plane stress at a point on the surface of the
airplane fuselage is represented on the element oriented as
shown in Fig. Represent the state of stress at the point on an
element that is oriented 30° clockwise from the position
shown.

Chapter 10 -
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
EXAMPLE 1 (cont)
Solutions
•  The element is sectioned by the line a-a.

•  The free-body diagram of the segment is as shown.

Chapter 10 -
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
EXAMPLE 1 (cont)
Solutions
Applying the equations of force equilibrium in the x’ and y’
direction,
+ ∑ Fx ' = 0; σ x ' ΔA − (50 ΔA cos 30°)cos 30° + (25ΔA cos 30°)sin 30°
+ (80 ΔA sin 30°)sin 30° + (25ΔA sin 30°)cos 30° = 0
σ x ' = −4.15 MPa (Ans)

+ ∑ Fy ' = 0; τ x'y' ΔA − (50ΔA cos 30°)sin 30° − (25ΔA cos 30°)cos 30°
− (80ΔA sin 30°)cos 30° + (25ΔA cos 30°)sin 30° = 0
τ x'y' = 68.8 MPa (Ans)

Chapter 10 -
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
EXAMPLE 1 (cont)
Solutions
Repeat the procedure to obtain the stress on the perpendicular
plane b–b.
+ ∑ Fx ' = 0; σ x ' ΔA − (25ΔA cos 30°)sin 30° + (80 ΔA cos 30°)cos 30°
− (25ΔA cos 30°)cos 30° − (50 ΔA sin 30°)sin 30° = 0
σ x ' = −25.8 MPa (Ans)

+ ∑ Fy ' = 0; - τ x'y' ΔA + (25ΔA cos 30°)cos 30° + (80ΔA cos 30°)sin 30°
− (25ΔA sin 30°)sin 30° + (50ΔA sin 30°)cos 30° = 0
τ x'y' = 68.8 MPa (Ans)

The state of stress at the point can be

represented by choosing an element
oriented.

Chapter 10 -
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
EXAMPLE 2
The state of plane stress at a point is represented by the
element shown in Fig. Determine the state of stress at the
point on another element oriented 30° clockwise from the
position shown.

Chapter 10 -
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
EXAMPLE 2 (cont)
Solutions
From the sign convention we have,

To obtain the stress components on plane CD,

σ x +σ y σ x −σ y
σ x' = + cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ = −25.8 MPa (Ans)
2 2
σ x −σ y
τ x' y' = − sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ = −68.8 MPa (Ans)
2

Chapter 10 -
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
EXAMPLE 2 (cont)
Solutions
To obtain the stress components on plane BC,

σ x = −80 MPa σ y = 50 MPa τ xy = −25 MPa θ = 60°

σ x +σ y σ x −σ y
σ x' = + cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ = −4.15 MPa (Ans)
2 2
σ x −σ y
τ x' y' = − sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ = 68.8 MPa (Ans)
2

The results are shown on the element as shown.

Chapter 10 -
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Principal Stresses
The principal stresses represent the maximum and minimum normal stress at
the point. When the state of stress is represented by the principal stresses, no
shear stress will act on the element.
•  The previous equations are combined to yield
parametric equations for a circle,
(σ xʹ′ − σ ave )2 + τ x2ʹ′yʹ′ = R 2
where
2
σ x +σ y ⎛ σ x − σ y ⎞ 2
σ ave = R = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + τ xy
2 ⎝ 2 ⎠
•  Principal stresses occur on the principal
planes of stress with zero shearing stresses.
2
σ x +σ y ⎛ σ − σ y ⎞
σ max,min = ± ⎜⎜ x ⎟⎟ + τ xy2
2 ⎝ 2 ⎠
2τ xy
tan 2θ p =
σ x −σ y
Note : defines two angles separated by 90 o

Chapter 10 - 19
Maximum Shearing Stress
Maximum shearing stress occurs for σ xʹ′ = σ ave

2
⎛ σ x − σ y ⎞ 2
τ max = R = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + τ xy
⎝ 2 ⎠
σ x −σ y
tan 2θ s = −
2τ xy

Note : defines two angles separated by 90o and

offset from θ p by 45o
σ x +σ y
σ ʹ′ = σ ave =
2

Chapter 10 - 20
Example 03
SOLUTION:
•  Find the element orientation for the principal
stresses from
2τ xy
tan 2θ p =
σ x −σ y
•  Determine the principal stresses from
2
σx +σ y ⎛ σ x − σ y ⎞ 2
σ max,min = ± ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + τ xy
For the state of plane stress 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠
shown, determine (a) the •  Calculate the maximum shearing stress with
principal panes, (b) the 2
principal stresses, (c) the ⎛ σ x − σ y ⎞ 2
τ max = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + τ xy
maximum shearing stress and ⎝ 2 ⎠
the corresponding normal
σx +σ y
stress. σ ʹ′ =
2

Chapter 10 - 21
Example 03
SOLUTION:
•  Find the element orientation for the principal
stresses from
2τ xy 2(+ 40)
tan 2θ p = = = 1.333
σ x − σ y 50 − (− 10)
2θ p = 53.1°, 233.1°

σ x = +50 MPa τ xy = +40 MPa θ p = 26.6°, 116 .6°

σ x = −10 MPa •  Determine the principal stresses from
2
σ x +σ y ⎛ σ − σ y ⎞
σ max,min = ± ⎜⎜ x ⎟⎟ + τ xy2
2 ⎝ 2 ⎠
= 20 ± (30 )2 + (40 )2

σ max = 70 MPa
σ min = −30 MPa

Chapter 10 - 22
Example 03
•  Calculate the maximum shearing stress with
2
⎛ σ − σ y ⎞
τ max = ⎜⎜ x ⎟⎟ + τ xy2
⎝ 2 ⎠
= (30 )2 + (40 )2
τ max = 50 MPa
σ x = +50 MPa τ xy = +40 MPa θ s = θ p − 45
σ x = −10 MPa θ s = −18.4°, 71.6°

•  The corresponding normal stress is

σ x + σ y 50 − 10
σ ʹ′ = σ ave = =
2 2
σ ʹ′ = 20 MPa

Chapter 10 - 23
Example 04
SOLUTION:
•  Determine an equivalent force-couple
system at the center of the transverse
section passing through H.
•  Evaluate the normal and shearing
stresses at H.
•  Determine the principal planes and
calculate the principal stresses.
A single horizontal force P of 150 lb
magnitude is applied to end D of
lever ABD. Determine (a) the
normal and shearing stresses on an
element at point H having sides
parallel to the x and y axes, (b) the
principal planes and principal
stresses at the point H. Chapter 10 - 24
Example 04
SOLUTION:
•  Determine an equivalent force-couple
system at the center of the transverse
section passing through H.
P = 150 lb
T = (150 lb)(18in ) = 2.7 kip ⋅ in
M x = (150 lb)(10 in ) = 1.5 kip ⋅ in

•  Evaluate the normal and shearing

stresses at H.
Mc (1.5 kip ⋅ in )(0.6 in )
σy =+ =+
I 1 π (0.6 in )4
4
Tc (2.7 kip ⋅ in )(0.6 in )
τ xy = + =+
J 1 π (0.6 in )4
2

σ x = 0 σ y = +8.84 ksi τ y = +7.96 ksi

Chapter 10 - 25
Example 04
•  Determine the principal planes and
calculate the principal stresses.
2τ xy 2(7.96)
tan 2θ p = = = −1.8
σ x − σ y 0 − 8.84
2θ p = −61.0°,119°
θ p = −30.5°, 59.5°

2
σx +σ y ⎛ σ x − σ y ⎞ 2
σ max,min = ± ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + τ xy
2 ⎝ 2 ⎠
2
0 + 8.84 ⎛ 0 − 8.84 ⎞ 2
= ± ⎜ ⎟ + (7.96)
2 ⎝ 2 ⎠
σ max = +13.52 ksi
σ min = −4.68 ksi

Chapter 10 - 26
EXAMPLE 5
When the torsional loading T is applied to the bar, it
produces a state of pure shear stress in the material.
Determine (a) the maximum in-plane shear stress and
the associated average normal stress, and (b) the
principal stress.

Chapter 10 -
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
EXAMPLE 5 (cont)
Solutions
From the sign convention we have, σ x = 0 σ y = 0 τ xy = −τ

a)  Maximum in-plane shear stress is

2
⎛ σ x − σ y ⎞ σ x +σ y
τ max in-plane = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + τ xy 2 = ±τ σ avg = = 0 (Ans)
⎝ 2 ⎠ 2

b)  For principal stress,

τ xy
tan 2θ p =
(σ x − σ y )/ 2 ⇒ θ p 2 = 45°,θ p1 = 135°
2
σ +σy ⎛ σ − σ y ⎞ 2
σ 1, 2 = x ± ⎜ x ⎟ + τ xy = ±τ (Ans)
2 ⎝ 2 ⎠

Chapter 10 -
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
EXAMPLE 5 (cont)
Solutions
If we useθ p2 = 45°

σ x +σ y σ x −σ y
σ x' = + cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ
2 2
= 0 + 0 + (− τ )sin 90° = −τ

Thus, σ 2 = −τ acts at σ p = 45° as shown in Fig, and σ1 = τ acts on the other

2

face σ p = −45°
1

Chapter 10 -
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 06
The stresses on the bottom surface of a fuel
tanker (figure part a) are known to be ,σx = 50
MPa, σy = 8 MPa , and τxy = 6.5 MPa..
Determine the stresses acting on an element
oriented at an angle θ = 52o from the x axis,
where the angle θ is positive when
counterclockwise. Show these stresses on a
sketch of an element oriented at the angle θ.

Chapter 10 - 30
Example 07
An element in plane stress from the frame of a racing
car is oriented at a known angle θ (see figure). On this
inclined element, the normal and shear stresses have
the magnitudes and directions shown in the figure.
Determine the normal and shear stresses acting on an
element whose sides are parallel to the xy axes, that is,
determine σx, σy, and τxy. Show the results on a sketch
of an element oriented at θ = 0°.

Chapter 10 - 31
Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress
•  With the physical significance of Mohr’s
circle for plane stress established, it may be
applied with simple geometric considerations.
Critical values are estimated graphically or
calculated.
•  For a known state of plane stress σ x ,σ y ,τ xy
plot the points X and Y and construct the
circle centered at C.
2
σ x +σ y ⎛ σ x − σ y ⎞ 2
σ ave = R = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + τ xy
2 ⎝ 2 ⎠

•  The principal stresses are obtained at A and B.

σ max, min = σ ave ± R
2τ xy
tan 2θ p =
σ x −σ y
The direction of rotation of Ox to Oa is
the same as CX to CA.
Chapter 10 - 32
Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress
•  With Mohr’s circle uniquely defined, the state
of stress at other axes orientations may be
depicted.

•  For the state of stress at an angle θ with

respect to the xy axes, construct a new
diameter X’Y’ at an angle 2θ with respect to
XY.

•  Normal and shear stresses are obtained

from the coordinates X’Y’.

Chapter 10 - 33
Chapter 10 - 34
Properties of Mohr’s Circle
Ø  The center of Mohr’s circle lies on the σ axis at
(σavg, 0).
Ø  Points on the circle that lie above the σ axis (i.e., τ
negative) correspond to faces that have a
clockwise-acting shear; points that lie below the σ
axis (i.e., τ positive) correspond to faces that have
a counterclockwise-acting shear.
Ø  The radius of the circle is determined by applying
the Pythagorean theorem to the triangle with sides
τxy and ,giving

Chapter 10 - 35
Chapter 10 - 36
Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress
•  Mohr’s circle for centric axial loading:

P P
σx = , σ y = τ xy = 0 σ x = σ y = τ xy =
A 2A

Tc Tc
σ x = σ y = 0 τ xy = σx =σy = τ xy = 0
J J
Chapter 10 - 37
Example 08

For the state of plane stress

shown, (a) construct Mohr’s
circle, determine (b) the principal SOLUTION: a)
planes, (c) the maximum shearing
•  Construction of Mohr’s circle
stress and the corresponding σ x + σ y (50) + (− 10)
normal stress. σ ave = = = 20 MPa
2 2
CF = 50 − 20 = 30 MPa FX = 40 MPa
R = CX = (30)2 + (40)2 = 50 MPa
Chapter 10 - 38
Example 08
•  b) Principal planes and stresses
σ max = OA = OC + CA = 20 + 50
σ max = 70 MPa

σ min = OB = OC − BC = 20 − 50
σ min = −30 MPa
FX 40
tan 2θ p = =
CP 30
2θ p = 53.1°
θ p = 26.6°

Chapter 10 - 39
Example 08

θ s = θ p + 45° τ max = R σ ʹ′ = σ ave

θ s = 71.6° τ max = 50 MPa σ ʹ′ = 20 MPa

Chapter 10 - 40
Example 09

For the state of stress shown,

determine (a) the principal
planes and the principal
stresses, (b) the stress
components exerted on the SOLUTION:
element obtained by rotating the•  Construct Mohr’s circle
given element counterclockwise σ x + σ y 100 + 60
through 30 degrees. σ ave = = = 80 MPa
2 2
R= (CF )2 + (FX )2 = (20)2 + (48)2 = 52 MPa
Chapter 10 - 41
Example 09

•  Principal planes and stresses

XF 48 σ max = OA = OC + CA σ max = OA = OC − BC
tan 2θ p = = = 2.4
CF 20 = 80 + 52 = 80 − 52
2θ p = 67.4°
σ max = +132 MPa σ min = +28 MPa
θ p = 33.7° clockwise
Chapter 10 - 42
Example 09

φ = 180° − 60° − 67.4° = 52.6°

•  Stress components after rotation by 30o
σ xʹ′ = OK = OC − KC = 80 − 52 cos 52.6°
Points X’ and Y’ on Mohr’s circle that σ yʹ′ = OL = OC + CL = 80 + 52 cos 52.6°
correspond to stress components on the
τ xʹ′yʹ′ = KX ʹ′ = 52 sin 52.6°
rotated element are obtained by rotating
XY counterclockwise through 2θ = 60° σ xʹ′ = +48.4 MPa
σ yʹ′ = +111.6 MPa
τ xʹ′yʹ′ = 41.3 MPa
Chapter 10 - 43
Example 10
At a point on the surface of a hydraulic ram on a piece
of construction equipment, the material is subjected to
biaxial stresses σx = 90 MPa and σy = 20 MPa, as
shown on the stress element. Using Mohr’s circle,
determine the stresses acting on an element inclined
at an angle . (Consider only the in-plane stresses, and
show the results on a sketch of a properly oriented
element.)

Chapter 10 - 44
Example 11
An element in plane stress on the surface of an oil-
drilling pump arm is subjected to stresses , σx = 100
MPa, σy = 34 MPa and τxy = 28 MPa, as shows.
Using Mohr’s circle, determine the following
quantities: (a) the stresses acting on an element
inclined at an angle , (b) the principal stresses, and (c)
the maximum shear stresses. (Consider only the in-
plane stresses, and show all results on sketches of
properly oriented elements.)

Chapter 10 - 45
Example 12
The stresses at a point on the down tube of a bicycle
frame are σx = 33 MPa and τxy = -13 MPa (see figure). It is
known that one of the principal stresses equals 44 MPa in
tension.
(a) Determine the stress σy.
(b) Determine the other principal stress and the orientation
of the principal planes, then show the principal stresses on
a sketch of a properly oriented element.

Chapter 10 - 46
Stress Transformation (Optional)
essMatrix
transformation
Version:
Stress transformation
cos sin cos sin
on T XX
Matrix version T
XY
XX XY cos sin
xx
xx
xy
xy cos sin
YX YY YX
sin
YY sincos cos yxyx yyyy sinsin cos cos
2 2
Or XX2 cos 2yy sin 2 cos sin
XX xx cos xx
yy
2
sin 2
2 xy cos sin
xy

YY xx sin yy cos 2 xy cos sin

2 2
YY xx sin XY
cos 2
yy yy sin cos
xx xy cos
xy cos
sin
2
sin 2
2 2
XY xx XX yy12 sin
xx yy
cos1 xx xy cos
yy cos 2 xy
sin2
sin
2
1 1
YY 2 xx yy 2 xx yy cos 2 xy sin 2
1 1
XX 2 xx XY yy12 xx 2 yy xx sin 2 yy
cos
xy cos22 xy sin 2
Chapter 10 - 47
1 1
General State of Stress
•  Consider the general 3D state of stress at a point and
the transformation of stress from element rotation

•  Consider tetrahedron with face perpendicular to the

line QN with direction cosines: λx , λ y , λz

•  The requirement ∑ Fn = 0 leads to,

σ n = σ xλ2x + σ y λ2y + σ z λ2z
+ 2τ xy λxλ y + 2τ yz λ y λz + 2τ zxλz λx
•  Form of equation guarantees that an element
orientation can be found such that
σ n = σ a λ2a + σ bλb2 + σ cλc2
These are the principal axes and principal planes
and the normal stresses are the principal stresses.
Chapter 10 - 48
Application of Mohr’s Circle to the
Three-Dimensional Analysis of Stress

•  Transformation of stress for an element •  The three circles represent the

rotated around a principal axis may be normal and shearing stresses for
represented by Mohr’s circle. rotation around each principal axis.
•  Points A, B, and C represent the •  Radius of the largest circle yields the
principal stresses on the principal planes maximum shearing stress.
(shearing stress is zero) 1
τ max = σ max − σ min
2
Chapter 10 - 49
Application of Mohr’s Circle to the
Three-Dimensional Analysis of Stress
•  In the case of plane stress, the axis
perpendicular to the plane of stress is a
principal axis (shearing stress equal zero).
•  If the points A and B (representing the
principal planes) are on opposite sides of
the origin, then
a)  the corresponding principal stresses
are the maximum and minimum
normal stresses for the element
b)  the maximum shearing stress for the
element is equal to the maximum “in-
plane” shearing stress
c)  planes of maximum shearing stress
are at 45o to the principal planes.
Chapter 10 - 50
Application of Mohr’s Circle to the
Three-Dimensional Analysis of Stress
•  If A and B are on the same side of the
origin (i.e., have the same sign), then

a)  the circle defining σmax, σmin, and

τmax for the element is not the circle
corresponding to transformations
within the plane of stress

b)  maximum shearing stress for the

element is equal to half of the
maximum stress

c)  planes of maximum shearing stress are

at 45 degrees to the plane of stress

Chapter 10 - 51
Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress
•  Failure of a machine component
subjected to uniaxial stress is directly
predicted from an equivalent tensile test
•  Failure of a machine component
subjected to plane stress cannot be
directly predicted from the uniaxial state
of stress in a tensile test specimen
•  It is convenient to determine the
principal stresses and to base the failure
criteria on the corresponding biaxial
stress state
•  Failure criteria are based on the
mechanism of failure. Allows
comparison of the failure conditions for
a uniaxial stress test and biaxial
Chapter 10 - 52
Background and definitions
Yielding…

Ø  For ductile material under simple tension, stress no

longer proportional to strain
Ø  Plastic (irreversible) deformation (permanent molecular
rearrangement) once a certain level of stress is reached
Ø  Highly material dependent

Understanding yielding is important for designing a pressure

vessel, rotating disc, crank shaft, ... that does not allow any
irreversible strain, i.e. material must remain elastic

Chapter 10 - 53
Fracture vs yield
Fracture

Ø  Driven by normal stresses, acting to separate one atomic

plane from another
Ø  Broken atomic bonds are not allowed to reform in new
positions

Yield

Ø  Driven by shear stresses, sliding one plane along

another.
Ø  Broken atomic bonds are allowed to reform in new
positions
Chapter 10 - 54
Stress-strain curve of ductile materials

Chapter 10 - 55
Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress

Maximum normal stress theory:

Ignores any interaction between the normal
principal stresses, and assumes that failure
occurs when either of the normal stresses
exceed the ultimate stress. This is written as,
i.e.,

This failure criteria is really good for brittle materials and should not
used for ductile material like steel, aluminum, and plastics.

Chapter 10 - 56
Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress

Maximum shearing stress criteria:

Structural component is safe as long as the
maximum shearing stress is less than the
maximum shearing stress in a tensile test
specimen at yield, i.e.,
σ
τ max < τ Y = Y
2
For σa and σb with the same sign,
σa σb σ
τ max = or < Y
This criteria is actually fairly 2 2 2
accurate for ductile materials like
steel, alumunim and plastics. The For σa and σb with opposite signs,
difficulty is that three conditions σa −σb σ
need to be checked τ max = < Y
2 2
Where σa and σb are the two principal stresses. The exagon associated
with the initiation of yield in the material is known as Tresca´s Hexagon.
(French Engineer Henri Edouard Tresca, 1814-1885) Chapter 10 - 57
General multiaxial
General stress
multiaxial states
stress states
Mohr’s circle for simple tension test :

Thus, general form of Tresca Criterion is :

σmax − σmin = σy
Chapter 10 - 58
pecial case :case
Special Plane stressstress
: Plane
Let σ1 , σ2 and σ3 be the principale stresses (σ3 = 0) :

|σ1 −σ2 |
When σ1 and σ2 are of opposite sign : τmax = 2
The yield condition is given by :
σ1 σ2
|σ1 − σ2 | = σy or − = ±1
σy σy

When σ1 and σ2 carry the same sign :

|σ1 − σ3 | |σ1 |
if |σ1 | > |σ2 | , τmax = = and |σ1 | = σy
2 2
|σ2 − σ3 | |σ2 |
if |σ1 | < |σ2 | , τmax = = and |σ2 | = σy
2 2

Chapter 10 - 59
scaTresca
yield surface for plane
yield surface stressstress
for plane problems
problems

Chapter 10 - 60
Yielding
Generalstarts when
multiaxial the states
stress maximum distortion/shear
energy in the material Wd,max equals the maximum
Maximum distortion/shear energy:
distortion/shear energy at yielding in a simple tension
Yielding starts when the maximum distortion/shear energy in the
test Wmaterial
d,y Wd,max equals the maximum distortion/shear energy at
yielding in a simple tension test Wd,y

Wd,max = Wd,y

Distortion/shear energy :
on/shear energy :
Part of the strain energy corresponds to volume-preserved shape
change
the strain energy corresponds to volume-preserved sh

Chapter 10 - 61
General multiaxial stress states
General multiaxial stress states

In terms of the stress components :

1 ! 2 2 2 " 2 2 2
#\$
Wd,max = (σxx − σyy ) + (σyy − σzz ) + (σzz − σxx ) + 6 τxy + τyz + τzx
12G
1 2
Wd,y = σ
6G y

Thus, general form of Von Mises Criterion is :

1 % 2 2 2
" 2 2 2
#&1/2
√ (σxx − σyy ) + (σyy − σzz ) + (σzz − σxx ) + 6 τxy + τyz + τzx = σy
2

Left hand side : the Von Mises stress σvm

Chapter 10 - 62
General multiaxial stress states
General multiaxial stress states

In terms of the principal stresses σ1 , σ2 , σ3 :

1 ! "1/2
√ (σ1 − σ2 )2 + (σ2 − σ3 )2 + (σ3 − σ1 )2 = σy
2

Chapter 10 - 63
Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress
Maximum distortion energy criteria: (Von
Mises)
Structural component is safe as long as the
distortion energy per unit volume is less
than that occurring in a tensile test specimen
at yield.
ud < uY
1 2 1 2
6G
(
σ a − σ aσ b + σ b2 < )
6G
(
σ Y − σ Y × 0 + 02 )
σ a2 − σ aσ b + σ b2 < σ Y2

This criteria is especially useful since it is a single equation. It is also

accurate for ductile materials. The shape of the region is an ellispe that
is rotated 45 degrees

Chapter 10 - 64
Special case
Special case: : Plane stress
Plane stress

Let σ1 , σ2 and σ3 be the principale stresses (σ3 = 0) :

1 ! "1/2
σvm = √ (σ1 − σ2 )2 + (σ2 − 0)2 + (0 − σ1 )2
2
#
= σ12 − σ1 σ2 + σ22

In σ1 − σ2 plane, this equation represents an ellipse

Chapter 10 - 65
n Misses yield surface for plane stress problems
Von Misses yield surface for plane stress problems

Chapter 10 - 66
esca and Von Misses yield surfaces : 2D space
Tresca and Von Misses yield surfaces : 2D space

Chapter 10 - 67
Example : Thin pressurized tube with end caps
Example : Thin pressurized tube with end caps

Given a thin walled tube (radius r, thickness t) containing gas.

Using Tresca and Von Mises yield criteria, determine the maximum
allowable gas pressure pmax so that no yielding occurs.

Chapter 10 - 68
Example : Thin
Example : Thinpressurized tubewith
pressurized tube withend
end caps
caps

From Strength of Material course, the radial (σr ), hoop (σθ ) and
longitudinal (σz ) stresses are :
pr pr
σr = 0 σθ = σz =
t 2t

1 Tresca criterion
t
σθ − 0 = σy → pmax = σy
r

2 Von Mises criterion

2t
σθ2 − σθ σz + σz2 = σy2 → pmax = √ σy
3r

Chapter 10 - 69
Example 13

Chapter 10 - 70
Solution

Chapter 10 - 71
Solution

Chapter 10 - 72
Solution

Chapter 10 - 73
Example 14
A force P0 kips applied by a lever arm to the shaft in Fig.
produces stresses at the critical point A having the
values shown on the element in Fig. Determine the load
PS = cSP0 that would cause the shaft to fail according to
the maximum-shear-stress theory, and determine the
load PD = cDP0 that would cause failure according to the
maximum-distortion energy theory. The shaft is made of
steel with σY = 36 ksi.

Chapter 10 - 74
Solution It will be help
stress state in Fig. 1 and a
Solution
P0
ure theories. Figure 2 is a
Since !1 is positive
Will be helpful it we
Fig.construct
1 a Mohr’s
fourthcircle for of the fa
the plane stress state. stresses at point A are pr
cP0 will lie along the rad
Y(0, –14.14) line passes through the o
point (!1P ! 20 ksi, !2P
stresses due to load P0.
theory occurs at the stres
to the maximum-distorti
σ2 = –10 ksi 5 σ1 = 20 ksi
σ(ksi)
5 Maximum-Shear-Stress T
line given by
14.14

X(10, 14.14)
τ(ksi) and the maximum-shear-
Fig. 2 Mohr’s circle for stress state at Chapter 10 - 75
Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory
Point S is the intersection of the load line
given by:

Combining these values with σ1 and σ2 we

get:

Chapter 10 - 76
Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory:
Point D in Fig. is the intersection of the load line,
and the ellipse. Thus

Knowing:

Then, since σ1< 0 and σ2 > 0, we get

Chapter 10 - 77
Fracture Criteria for Brittle Materials Under Plane Stress

Brittle materials fail suddenly through rupture

or fracture in a tensile test. The failure
condition is characterized by the ultimate
strength σU.

Maximum normal stress criteria:

Structural component is safe as long as the
maximum normal stress is less than the
ultimate strength of a tensile test specimen.
σ a < σU
σ b < σU

Chapter 10 - 78
Example 15

Chapter 10 - 79
Failure Theories
•  Static failure
–  Ductile
–  Brittle
–  Stress concentration

•  Recall
–  Ductile
•  Significant plastic
deformation between
yield and fracture
–  Brittle
•  Yield ~= fracture

Chapter 10 -
Tensile Test
•

Chapter 10 -
Linear Stress Strain Plot
•

Chapter 10 -
Mohr’s Circle for Tensile Test
•

Chapter 10 -
Static Ductile Failure

•  Two primary theories for static ductile failure

–  Von Mises criterion
•  Maximum Distortion-energy Theory
•  MDE
–  Maximum Shear Stress criterion
•  MSS

Chapter 10 -
Failure Theory Problem Statement

•  Given:
–  Stress-strain data for
simple uniaxial tension

•  Find:
–  When failure occurs
for general state of
stress

Chapter 10 -
Static Ductile Failure

•  Max Shear Stress criterion

–  Material yields (fails) when:

Sy
1) τ max ≥ 2
or
2) (σ 1 − σ 3 ) ≥ S y

Sy Sy
–  Factor of Safety: η = =
(σ 1 − σ 3 ) 2τ max

Chapter 10 -
Maximum Shear Stress Criteria
•

Chapter 10 -
Static Ductile Failure

•  Von Mises criterion

–  Let the Mises stress (σe, equivalent stress) be:

1
σe =
2
[
(σ 1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 )2 + (σ 1 − σ 3 )2 ]
–  Then failure (yield) occurs when: σ e ≥ Sy
Sy
–  Factor of Safety: η =
σe

•  Typically, 1.25 ≤ η ≤ 4
•  Want a margin of error but not completely
overdesigned
Chapter 10 -
Which theory to use?
•  Look at a plot of the principal
stresses
–  σB vs. σA
–  The non-zero principal stresses
•  Failure occurs when the
principal stresses lie outside
the enclosed area
•  Shape of area depends on the
failure theory
•  Data points are experimental
results
•  MSS
–  Slightly more conservative
–  Easier to calculate
•  MDE
–  More accurate
–  If not specified, use this one!

Chapter 10 -
Comparison of MDE, MSS,MNS
•

Chapter 10 -
Hydrostatic Stress State Diagonal
•

Chapter 10 -
Stresses in Thin-Walled Pressure
Vessels
•  Cylindrical vessel with principal stresses
σ1 = hoop stress
σ2 = longitudinal stress

•  Hoop stress:
∑ Fz = 0 = σ1(2t Δx ) − p(2r Δx )
pr
σ1 =
t

•  Longitudinal stress:
( )
∑ Fx = 0 = σ 2 (2π rt ) − p π r
2

pr
σ2 =
2t
σ1 = 2σ 2

Chapter 10 - 92
Stresses in Thin-Walled Pressure
Vessels
•  Points A and B correspond to hoop stress, σ1,
and longitudinal stress, σ2

•  Maximum in-plane shearing stress:

1 pr
τ max(in − plane) = σ 2 =
2 4t

•  Maximum out-of-plane shearing stress

corresponds to a 45o rotation of the plane
stress element around a longitudinal axis
pr
τ max = σ 2 =
2t

Chapter 10 - 93
Stresses in Thin-Walled Pressure
Vessels
•  Spherical pressure vessel:
pr
σ1 = σ 2 =
2t

•  Mohr’s circle for in-plane

transformations reduces to a point
σ = σ1 = σ 2 = constant
τ max(in-plane) = 0

•  Maximum out-of-plane shearing

stress
pr
τ max = 12 σ1 =
4t

Chapter 10 - 94
Given: The shaft of a femur (thigh
bone) can be approximated as a
hollow cylindrical shaft. The loads that
tend to cause femur bones to fracture
are torques and bending moments. A
particular femur has an outside
diameter of D = 24 mm and an inside
diameter of Di = 16 mm. The ultimate
tensile strength of bone is Su = 120
MPa. During a strenuous activity, such
as skiing, the femur is subjected to a
torque of T = 100 N·m.
Required: Under the applied torque,
determine the maximum bending
moment M that the bone can support
without failure. Consider only torsion
and bending loads, and assume the
bone to be a brittle material. Chapter 10 - 95
Given: A thin-walled cylindrical pressure vessel
contains a gas at pressure p. The vessel radius is R and
its wall thickness is t. The axial yield strength from
tensile experiments performed on the material is Sy .
Required: Determine the pressure at yield using (a) the
Tresca criterion and (b) the von Mises yield criterion.

Chapter 10 - 96
Given: A stress element in a component made
of Aluminum 6061-T6 is subjected to the
following plane stress state: σx = 10.0 ksi; σy =
6.0 ksi; τxy = –4.0 ksi The axial yield strength of
Aluminum 6061-T6 used in design is Sy = 35 ksi.

Required: Determine (a) the factor of safety

using the Tresca criterion (assuming
τy = Sy /2 = 17.5 ksi) and (b) the factor of safety
using the von Mises criterion.

Chapter 10 - 97