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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter.

I - 1 of 12

BASIC CONCEPTS
AND DEFINITIONS

Thermodynamics is the branch of science which treats of various phenomena of energy, and especially of the laws of
transformations of heat into other forms, and vice versa.
The science that is devoted to understanding energy in all its forms such as, mechanical, electrical, chemical, and how energy
changes forms.
Derived from the Greek words, therme, meaning heat and dynamis, meaning strength, particularly applied to motion.

In engineering, the science of thermodynamics is conventionally divided into two parts:


1) Chemical Thermodynamics, which is devoted largely into reactions and solutions.
2) Thermodynamics concerned with the production and use of work and power

Macroscopic and Microscopic Analysis


BOUNDARY is an imaginary partition that separates the
Macroscopic thermodynamics is the level on which we system from the surrounding environment.
live in. It is concern on the overall effect of the individual
molecular interaction. The measurements are large SURROUNDING is the region outside the boundary or
compared with the measurement of events on the molecular anything not in the system.
levels, such as distance in meter, time in second, etc.
In many cases, an analysis is simplified if attention is
Microscopic thermodynamics look at every molecule focused on a particular volume in space into which, or from
and analyze collective molecular action by statistical which, a substance flows. Such volume is a control volume. A
methods. pump, a turbine, and an inflating or deflating balloon are
examples of control volume. The surface that completely
System, Boundary and Surrounding surrounds the control volume is called the control surface.

SYSTEM (thermodynamic system) is that portion of the Types of System


universe, an atom or a galaxy, or some certain quantity of
1) Closed System is a system where matter does not cross the
matter, which we specifically wish to study. It is a region
boundaries.
enclosed by specified boundaries or by imaginary but
-energy can pass through boundaries
definite mental boundaries.
- examples are piston cylinder assembly, air in a balloon
and mercury in a thermometer and pressure cooker

2) Open System is a system where matter and energy pass


across its boundaries
- examples are pump, turbine, air conditioner, hair blower,
etc.

Flow
through a pipe (Open System)
Piston cylinder assembly (Closed System)

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 2 of 12

3) Isolated System is a system where neither mass nor Fundamental Units in SI


energy passed through its boundaries. QUANTITY NAME SYMBOL
- example of a partially isolated system is a thermos Base units
Length Meter M
Mass Kilogram Kg
Property and State Time Second S
Electric current Ampere A
A pure substance is uniform in chemical composition. Thermodynamic
It may exist in more than one phase in which each phase Kelvin K
temperature
would have the same composition. The condition when Amount of substance Mole Mol
three phases, the solid phase, the liquid phase and the Luminous intensity Candela Cd
gaseous phase, coexist is called triple point. Supplementary unit
Plane angle Radians Rad
PROPERTY is a characteristic quality of the entire Solid angle Steradians Sr
system and depends not on how the system changes state
but only on the final system state. Common Macroscopic Properties
- are quantities that may be measured or calculated and
give meaningful information about the state of the substance Mass is the absolute quantity of matter in a substance. It is
but are independent of the path (or method) taken to invariant with location: the mass of the body is the same
achieve their values. Therefore properties are point anywhere in the universe.
functions. 1 Kgm = 2.2046 lbm
1 slug = 32.174 bm
Two Kinds of Properties
Volume is the amount of space occupied by the mass or
Intensive Properties are properties that are independent
matter.
of the mass (extent) of the substance
1 m3 = 1000 liters = 35.3147 Ft3
- it is also independent of the size of the system; example
1 gal = 3.7853 liters
are temperature and pressure
1 ft3 = 7.481 gal
1 barrel = 42 gal
Extensive Property are properties that depend on the 1 drum = 50 gal
size or extent of the system; examples are mass and
volume. Formula of Volume for Common Solids:
Rectangular parallelepiped V  ABASE * H
STATE – It completely described how the substance
exists. Knowing the macroscopic properties, we can Cylinder D 2
V  R 2 H  H
determine the state of a substance. 4
Sphere 4 1
V  R 3  D 3
3 6
Fundamental and Derived Units
Force is defined as the mass times the acceleration.
1N = 2.2046 lbf
FUNDAMENTAL UNITS are units that are postulated
1kgf = 9.8066 N
Length - is the distance between to points in
1kgf = 2.2046 lbf
space
Time - is the period between two events or
Newton’s Second Law of Motion: “the acceleration of a
during which something happens.
body is directly proportional to the force acting on it and
inversely proportional to its mass.
DERIVED UNITS are units formed from fundamental
F
units. a
m
Pressure - is force per unit area
F  ma
Velocity - distance per unit time

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 3 of 12

F
d
mv   m dv   v dm   
W mg o

g
 o
dt  dt   dt  V g cV gc

but, from classical mechanics mass is invariable with Specific Gravity / Relative Density is the ratio of the
velocity density of a substance to the density of a standard substance.
dm - for liquid the standard substance is water and for gas the
 0
dt standard substance is air at same pressure and temperature.
dv Density of Substance
F m  ma S .G. 
dt Density of Standard Substance
by introducing a gravitational constant, gc
ma For Solid and Liquid : ratio of the weight of substance to the
F
gc weight of equal volume of water.
W subs.  subs.V subs.
S .G.  
W std . subs.  std . subs.V std . subs.

 subs. g o g cVsubs.
S .G. 
 std . subs. g o g cVstd . subs.
but Vsubs  Vstd .subs.
 subs.   subs.

gc 
ma

 s   1slug1 Ft s 
1kgm 1 m 2 2
S .G.   subs. 
 std . subs.  std . subs. Water at 4 deg . Celsius
F 1N 1lb f  subs.  subs
S .G.  
kg m  m kg f 1000kg 62.4
lbm
gc  1  9.8066 2 m3 ft 3
s N
2
s N
lb  Ft Weight in air
slug  Ft S .G. 
1 2  32.174 2m Weight in air  Weight in water
s  lb f s  lb f

For Solids (Using Archimedes Principle)

Weight is the force due to the gravitational pull of the


earth.
mg o
W
gc

Density is the mass per unit volume. It is a measure of


the size of the molecules and how closely the molecules are
spaced in a material.
m

V

Specific Volume - volume per unit mass.


V 1
v 
m 
W F W  BF  F '
Specific Weight / Weight Density is the weight per unit where:
volume of the material. F is the weight of object in air
F’ is the weight of object in water

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 4 of 12

W then the two blocks are said to be in thermal equilibrium and


 subs Vsubs
S .G.   the their temperature are the same.
 Water WWater
VWater.
Third Law of Thermodynamics
The third law of thermodynamics allows the calculation of
But, volume of the liquid displaced equals the volume
absolute entropy. The Nearest postulate of the third law is “The
of the object submerged.
absolute entropy of a pure crystalline substance in
Vsubs  VWater
complete internal equilibrium is zero at zero degrees
W W F F absolute.”
S .G.    
WWater BF W  F ' F  F '

S .G. 
Weight in air Since temperature is related to the kinetic energy of the
Weight in air  Weight in water fluid, it is evident that the motion of the molecules will increase
with increasing temperature. At absolute zero there will be no
For Ideal Gases (ratio of molecular weight of the gas to the motion, and the molecules will be completely still.
molecular weight of air)
Pg Temperature
K °C R °F
 gas RgTg Scale
S .G.  
 air Pa Steam point
373.15 100 671.67 212
RaTa (Boiling point)
but, Pg = Pa and Tg = Ta Triple Point of
273.16 0.01 491.69 32.02
_ _ water
R R Ice point
Ra  and Rg  273.15 0 491.67 32
MWa MWg (Freezing point)
_ Absolute zero 0 -273.15 0 -459.67
R
R MWa MWg
S .G.  a  _  S .G.  Note: ΔC = ΔK , ΔF = ΔR and 1ΔC = 1.8ΔF (ΔC = C°)
Rg R MWa
MWg
x  FPx y  FPy

MWg BPx  FPx BPy  FPy
S .G. 
MWa
Pressure is the force exerted by a fluid per unit area.
F
P
Temperature is the measure of hotness and coldness of A
a body. It is a measure of the average linear kinetic energy
of the molecules of the substance, that is, the total kinetic
energy of all the molecules divided by the number of
molecules.
Temperature Scale
1) Absolute Temperature Scale (ex. Kelvin & Rankine)
2) Arbitrary or Man-made Temperature Scale (ex. Celsius &
Fahrenheit)

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics


The zeroth law of thermodynamics state that “when
two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body,
they are in thermal equilibrium with each other and
hence are at the same temperature”. Consider two blocks Pabs  Patm  Pgage
of material, say, iron; if these two blocks are brought
together and there is no change in any observable property, Pabs  Patm  Pvacuum

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 5 of 12

Atmospheric pressure Determine (a) the flow rate in kg/s; (b) the time it takes to fill the
Atmospheric pressure is the pressure associated with tank.
the atmosphere due to the weight of air. Although this
pressure varies according to location and weather patterns, Solution:
an average value at sea level is 101.325 kPa.
a) flow rate
Standard Atmospheric Pressure   
m   V  S .G.Water V
1 atm = 101.325 kPa = 1.01325 Bar = 760 mmHg
= 760 mmHg = 14.7 psi = 29.92 in. Hg

 kg  L  1m 3  1 min  kg
m  1.21000 3  300     6.0
 m  min  1000L  60s  s
Gauge pressure
Gauge pressure is the amount by which pressure b) time to fill the tank
differs from atmospheric pressure. This is measured with a  V V 333m 3  1000L  t  90 min or 1.5 hr
V  t 
  
gauge that measures the pressure above (or below) t V 300
L  m3 
atmospheric pressure. The gauge pressure below min

atmospheric is called vacuum.


2.1 Two liquids of different densities (ρ1=1500 kg/m3, ρ2= 500
Absolute pressure kg/m3) are poured together into a 100-L tank, filling it. If the
Although there is no limit to how high a pressure can resulting density of the mixture is 800 kg/m3, find the respective
be, there is a limit to how low it can be. This point of amounts of liquids used. Also, find the weight of the mixture;
absolute minimum is the absolute zero pressure (no local go=9.675m/s2.
pressure at all). Absolute pressure is pressure measured Solution :
above this zero point.
m  V
Pressure Variation with Liquid Column Vm  V1  V2  0.01m3  V2  0.01  V1
For a substance of constant density (such as a liquid), m m  m2 1V1   2V2
the pressure at any vertical position due to the self-weight of m  m  1 
Vm 100L 0.01m 3
the substance above the datum is dependent of the surface 1V1   2 0.01  V1  1V1  0.01 2   2V1 kg
area and is given by the equation: m    800
0.01m 3 0.01m 3 m3
Pgage   h
800
kg
 
0.01m 3  0.01m 3  2
V1  m3
1   2

800
kg
   kg 
0.01m 3  0.01m 3  500 3 
V1 
m3  m 
 0.003m 3
1500  500 kg3
m
V2  0.01  V1  0.01  0.003  0.007 m3

m1  1 V1  1500
kg
m3
0.003m 3    4.5 kg

+h -h kg
m2   2 V2  500 3 0.007m 3
m
   3.5 kg

mm  m1  m2  4.5  3.5  8 kg
SAMPLE PROBLEMS
 m
8kg 9.675 2 
1.1 A pump discharges into a 3 m per side cubical tank. Wm 
mm g o
  s 
 7.8926 N
gc kg  m
The flow rate is 300 liters/min, and the fluid has a density 9.8066 2
s N
1.2 times that of water (density of water ρ=1000.0 kg/m3).

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 6 of 12

a 5gO mg O
F W  W W  W  6W 6
1.3 The mass of a given airplane at sea level (g=32.10 fps2) gO gO gC
is 10 tons. Find its mass in lbm, slugs and kg and its
gravitational weight in lbf and in N when it is travelling at a  m
80kg m  9.8066 2 
50,000 ft. elevation. The acceleration of gravity F 6  s 
 4707.168 N
kg  m
(g) decreases by 3.33 × 10-6 fps2 for each foot of elevation. 1 2m
s N
Solution :
a) Mass in lbm, slugs and kg
1.5 Make a conversion formula from Fahrenheit scale to
 lb f  lb  ft 
10tons 2000  32.174 2m Celsius scale and vice versa.
  lb f 
Wg c  tons  s
m 
ft
Solution :
go
32.10 2
s
m  20,046.106lbm C  0C F  32 F C F  32
  
100C  0C 212  32 F 100 180
 1kg m 
m  20,046.106lbm    9,092.854 kg m
 2.2046lbm 
9
F  C  32 and C
5
F  32
5 9
 slug 
m  20,046.106lb   623.053slug
 32.174lb 
1.6 At what temp is the Fahrenheit and Celsius scale has the
same reading?
b) Weight lbf and N Solution : (F = C = A)
mg o
 
623.053slug 32.10  3.33x10 6 50,000  ft
W  s2
slug  ft C  0C F  32 F C F  32
gc
1 2   
s  lb f 100C  0C 212  32 F 100 180
C F  32 A A  32
W  19,896.263lb f   
100 180 100 180
 1kg f   9.8066N  A   40 C or  F
W  19,896.263lb f   
 2.2046lb   1kg 
 f  f 
W  88.503.444 N
1.7 At what temperature will the Fahrenheit scale be 64° more
that the Celsius scale?
1.4 During take-off in a space ship, an 80 kg astronaut is Solution :
subjected to an acceleration equal to 5 times the pull of
earth’s standard gravity. If the take-off is vertical, what force F = 64 + C
does he exert on the seat? C 0 F  32 F C 64  C   32
  
Solution: 100C  0C 212  32 F 100 180
C C  32

5 9
C  40 C or F  104 F

1.8 A water manometer is connected to the inlet manifold of an


engine and records a height of 300 mm. Convert this to gage
pressure in kilopascal and absolute pressure in psi if barometer
reading is 13.95 psi.
Solution :
kg  m  1kN 
Pgage   h  1000 3  9.8066 2 0.3m  
m  s   1000N 
Pgage  2.942 kPa
From Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion : Action and Reaction
Wa
R  14.7 psi 
gO Pabs  Patm  Pgage  13.95 psi  2.942kPa 
 101.325kPa 
 Fv  0  Fup  Fdown  F  R  W
Pabs  14.3768psia

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 7 of 12

1.9 Compute for the value of h based on the figure. EXERCISES

(01) A tank contains a mixture of 20 kg of nitrogen and 20 kg of


carbon dioxide. The total tank volume is 20 m3. Determine the
density and specific volume of the mixture.

(02) A spring scale is used to measure force and to determine


the mass of a sample of moon rocks on the moon’s surface.
The springs were calibrated for the earth’s gravitational
acceleration of 9.8 m/s2. The scale reads 4.5 kg, and the
moon’s gravitational attraction is 1.8 m/s2. Determine the
Solution : samples mass. What would the reading be on a beam balance
P1   h  P2 scale? (Ans. 24.5 kg)
 lb  1 ft 
3
8.2lb 3.2
 0.93 62.4 3   h (03) Someone proposes a new absolute temperature scale in
5.32in 2  ft  12in  2.13
which the boiling and freezing points of water at atmospheric
h  1.1615in
pressure are 500°X and 100°X, respectively. Develop a
relation to convert this scale to degree Celsius.
1.10 For the situation sketched above, the following
information is known :
(04) A vertical column of water will be supported to what height
density of water 1000 kg/m3
by standard atmospheric pressure?
density of mercury 13590.0 kg/m3
pressure at point I 500 kPa
(05) A diver descends 100 m to a sunken ship. A container is
local gravity 9.8 m/s2
found with a pressure gage reading 100 kPa (gage).
Determine the pressure at point II
Atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa. What is the absolute
pressure of the gas in the container? (Ans. 1180.66
kPaa)

(06) Containers A, B and C contains three different liquids with


specific gravities of 1.2, 1.6 and 2.0 respectively. If the liquids in
containers A and B are mixed, the resulting specific gravity is
1.36. When liquids in containers B and C are mixed the
resulting specific gravity is 1.8. Mixing liquids in containers A
and C result to a specific gravity of 1.52. Determine the
resulting specific gravity when the three liquids in the
containers A, B and C are mixed together.

(07) The readings tA & tB of two centigrade thermometer A & B


Solution :
agree at the ice point (0C) and steam point (100C) and are
PII  0.4m water  0.5m Hg  2m water   500kPa
related by a equation tA = l + mtB + ntB2 between these two
points, where l, m, n are constant. When both are immersed in
PII  0.4m water  0.5m Hg  2m water 
go
 500kPa a well stirred oil bath, thermometer A registers 51C while B
gc
registers 50C. Determine the reading on the thermometer A
 m 
 9.8  when B reads 25C. (Ans.25.75°C)
  kg   k g   2
 1k N 
PII   2.4m1000   0.5m13590  s
 1000 N 
 3  3   k g  m
  m   m   1 
 2
 s N 
 500 k Pa (08) A beer barrel has a mass of 10 kg and a volume of 20
PII  456.929 kPa liters. Assuming the density of beer is 1000kg/m3, determine

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 8 of 12

the total mass and weight of the barrel when it is filled with
beer. (Ans.294N)

(09) A certain thermometer is calibrated using ice and


steam points as fixed points designating them as being
temperature 0C & 100C respectively, then the
thermodynamic function chosen to establish the scale is t
= alnx + b; instead of the line scale t=ax+b. (a)
Determine the constant a & b and (b) Developed a relation
to express t = f (x,xi,xs).
(13) A pressure cooker operates by cooking food at a higher
pressure and temperature that is possible at atmospheric
(10) If the total length of the tube containing mercury is
1.5m, what should be the value of height x so that the conditions. Steam is contained in the sealed pot, with a small
difference in pressure between points 1 and 2 is vent hole in the middle of the cover, allowing steam to escape.
78.743kPag? Assume the following specific gravity: for The pressure is regulated by covering the vent hole with a
water=1.0, mercury=13.59 and oil = 0.80. (Ans. 0.5 m) small weight, which is displaced slightly by the escaping steam.
Atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa, the vent hole area is 7 mm2,
and the pressure inside should be 250 kPa. What is the mass
of the weight? (Ans. 0.107kg)

(14) Steam is held in two compartments (A and B) separated


by a membrane. The total volume is 777 ft3, and the volume of
compartment B is 280 ft3. The specific volume of the steam in B
is 9.5 ft3/lbm. The membrane breaks, and the resulting specific
volume is 12.75 ft3/min. Determine the original specific volume
in compartment A.
(15) A tank has a vacuum gage attached to it indicating 25 in
Hg (vacuum) where atmospheric pressure is 14.5 psia.
Determine the tank. (Ans. 2.22 psia)
(11) Find the area of the piston on which the 45 kN force
act.
(16) A hiker is carrying a barometer that measures 29.92inHg
absolute at the base of the mountain. The barometer reads
25.5inHg absolute at the top of the mountain. The average air
density is 0.076 lbm/ft3, the gravitational acceleration remains
constant at 32.174 ft /s2. What is the mountain’s height? (Ans.
4114.6 ft)

(17) An inhabitant of another planet weighs 50 lb on a spring


type of scale in the planet atmosphere, where the local gravity
acceleration is g = 6.0 fps2. This inhabitant appears in St.
Michael, Alaska, where the local gravity acceleration is g=32.22
(12) The vertical frictionless piston-cylinder shown below fps2. For this outer-space being, determine (a) his mass in lb in
contains a gas at an unknown pressure. The piston has a slugs on his native planet, (b) his mass in lb and slugs on earth
(c) his weight as indicated by a spring type scale on earth.
mass of 10 kg and a cross-sectional area of 75cm2. The
(Ans. a. 268lb, b. 8.33 slugs, c. 268.4 lb)
spring exerts a downward force of 100 N on the piston, and
atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa. Determine the pressure of
the gas. (126.4 kPa)
(18) A Fahrenheit and a centigrade thermometer are both
immersed in a fluid. The Fahrenheit numerical reading is twice

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 9 of 12

that of the centigrade reading. What is the temperature of man would experience in an aircraft whose acceleration is 6
the fluid in Rankine and Kelvin scale? (Ans. 433) g’s.

(26) Consider a 70 kg woman who has a total foot imprint area


(19) A 3 kg plastic tank has a volume of 0.2m3 is filled with
of 400cm2. She wishes to walk in the snow, but the snow
liquid water. Assuming the density of water is 1000kg/m3.
cannot withstand pressure greater than 0.5 kPa. Determine the
Determine the weight of the combined system.
minimum size of the snow shoes needed (imprint area per
shoe) to enable her to walk on the snow without sinking.
(20) What is the net force acting on the car cruising at
constant velocity of 70 km/hr (a) on a level road and (b) on (27) The gage pressure in a liquid at a depth of 3m is read to
an uphill road? be 28 kPa. Determine the gage pressure in the same liquid at
depth of 12m.
(21) Determine the mass and weight of air contained in a
room whose dimensions are 6m x 6m x 8m. Assume the (28) The absolute temperature in water at a depth of 5m is read
density of air is 1.16kg/m3. (Ans. 334.1 kg, 3277N) to be 145 kPa. Determine (a) the local atmospheric pressure,
and (b) the absolute pressure at a depth of 5m in a liquid
(22) A manometer containing water (density = 62.1 lb/ft3) whose specific gravity is 0.85 at the same location.
and mercury (specific gravity = 13.55) connects two
pressure regions A and B as shown in the figure. The local (29) A vacuum gage connected to a tank reads 30 kPa at a
gravity acceleration is g = 32 fps2. If the pressure at point B location where the barometric reading is 755 mmHg. Determine
is 50 psig, find the pressure in A. the absolute pressure in the tank. Take ρHg=13,590kg/m3.
(Ans. 70.6 kPa)

(30) A pressure gage connected to a tank reads 50 psi at a


location where the barometric reading is 29.1 inHg. Determine
the absolute pressure in the tank. Take ρHg=848.4 lb/ft3.
(Ans. 64.29 psi)

(31) The barometer of a mountain hiker reads 930 mbars at the


beginning of a hiking trip and 780 mbars at the end. Neglecting
the effect of altitude on the local gravitational acceleration,
determine the vertical distance climbed. Assume an average air
density of 1.20 kg/m3. (Ans. 1274m)
(23) At 24° latitude, the gravitational acceleration as a
function of elevation z above sea level is given by g=a-bz, (32) Determine the pressure exerted on a diver at 30m below
where a=9.807 m/s2 and b=3.32x10-6 s-2. Determine the the free surface of the sea. Assume a barometric pressure of
height above sea where the weight of an object will 101 kPa and a specific gravity of 1.03 for seawater. (Ans.
decrease by 1 percent. (Ans. 29,539m) 404.0 KPa)

(24) A 150 lbm astronaut took his bathroom scale (a spring (33) Determine the force necessary to accelerate a mass of 20
scale) and a beam scale (compares masses) to the moon lbm at a rate of 60 ft/s2 vertically upward. (Ans.53.3 lbf)
where the local gravity is g=5.48 ft/s2. Determine how much
he will weigh (a) on the spring scale and (b) on the beam (34) The weight of a10 lb mass is measured at a location where
scale. (Ans. 25.5 lb, 150 lb) g=32.1 ft/s2 on a spring scale originally calibrated in a region
where g=32.3 ft/s2. What will be the reading?
(25) The acceleration of high-speed aircraft is sometimes
expressed in g’s (in multiples of the standard acceleration of (35) A gas is contained in a vertical, frictionless piston cylinder
gravity). Determine the net upward force, in N that a 90 kg device. The piston has a mass of 4 kg and a cross sectional
area of 35 cm2. A compresses spring above the piston exerts a

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 10 of 12

force of 60 N on the piston. If the atmospheric pressure is 95 (41) A 20 ft3 tank of air separated by a membrane into section
kPa, determine the pressure inside the cylinder. A with an initial specific volume of 0.80ft3/lbm and section B with
a mass of 12.0 lbm. The membrane is broken, and the resulting
density is 1.350lbm/ft3. Find the initial specific volume in section
B. in ft3/lbm. (Ans. 0.667)

(42) A horizontal 2m diameter gate is located in the bottom of a


water tank. Determine the force required to just open the gate.

(36) A cubic meter of water at room temperature has a


weight of 9800 N at a location where g=9.8m/s2. What is its 5m F
specific weight and its density at a location where Hinge
g=9.77m/s2?

(37) The acceleration of gravity is given as a function of


elevation above sea level by the relation g=9.81- (43) A vertical storage tank initially contains water
3.32x10-6h, with h measured in meters. What is the weight (ρ=1000kg/m3) at a depth of 4m. Immiscible oil with a specific
of an airplane at 10km elevation when its weight at sea level gravity of 0.88 is added until the total liquid height is 10m. If the
is 40 kN? (Ans. 39.86kN) barometer pressure is 97.2kPa and g=9.80m/s2, determine the
absolute pressure at the bottom of the water, in kPa and bars.
(38) The force of attraction between two masses m1 and m2, (Ans. 188.1, 1.88)
having dimensions that are small compared with their
separation distance R, is given by Newton’s third law, (44) The gage pressure of a gas inside a tank is 25kPa.
F=Gm1m2/R2, where G=6.67259x10-11 N-m2/kg2. What Determine the vertical height, in meters, of liquid within a
is the total gravitational force that the sun (1.97x1030 kg) and manometer attached to the system if the fluid at room
the earth (5.95x1024 kg) exert on the moon (7.37x1022 kg) at temperature is (a) water, (b) mercury (ρ=13,600kg/m3), and (c)
an instant when the earth, moon, and sun form a 90° angle? an oil with a specific gravity of 0.88 and g=9.75 m/s2.
The earth-moon and sun-moon distances are 380x103 km
and) 150x106 km, respectively (45) A pilot notices that the barometer pressure outside his
aircraft is 800 mbars. The airport below the plane reports a
(39) A bell jar 250mm in diameter sits on a plate and is barometric pressure of 1020 mbar. If the air density averages
evacuated until a vacuum of 700mmHg exits. The local 1.15 kg/m3 and the local gravity is 9.70 m/s2, determine the
barometer reads 760mmHg. Find the absolute pressure height of the aircraft above the ground, in meters. (Ans. 128,
inside the jar, and determine the force required to lift the jar 188)
off the plate. Neglect the weight of the bell jar. (Ans.
8005 Pa, 4584 N) (46) A submarine is cruising at a depth of 280 m in seawater
with a specific gravity of 1.03. If the inside of the submarine is
(40) Assume the acceleration of gravity on a celestial body pressurized to standard atmospheric, determine the pressure
to be given as a function of altitude by the expression difference across the hull in (a) kPa, (b) bars. The average local
g=4-1.6x10 – 6h m/s2, where h is in meters above the gravity is 9.70m/s2. (2700, 28)
surface of the planet. A space probe weighed 100 kN on the
earth sea level. Determine (a) the mass of the probe. (b) Its (47) If the atmosphere is assumed to be isothermal at 60°F and
weight on the surface of the planet (c) Its weight at an follows the relationship Pv=RT (an ideal gas), compute the
elevation of 200 km above the surface of the planet. (Ans. pressure, in psia, and density, in lbm/ft3, at (a) 5000ft and (b)
10197.2141 kg, 40.79 kN, 37.53 kN) 2000 ft above sea level. The pressure and density at sea level
are taken to be 14.7psia and 0.077lbm/ft3, respectively.

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 11 of 12

(48) A constant volume gas thermometer is brought into where Tatm is the temperature of the atmosphere in Kelvin and z
contact with a system of unknown temperature T and then is the altitude in kilometer with z = 0 at sea level. Determine the
into contact with the triple state of water. The mercury average temperature of the atmosphere outside an airplane
column attached to the thermometer has readings of 14.6 that is cruising at an altitude of 11,000 m.
and -2.6 in, respectively. The barometer pressure is 29.80 in
Hg, and the specific gravity of mercury is 13.6. Find the (52) Two liquid streams are pouring in a container, 8 in.
value of the unknown temperature in degrees Rankine. diameter and 15in. high. The mass flow rate of stream A is 1.2
lb/sec and the volume flow rate of B is 0.035 ft3/s. If the specific
(49) The average atmospheric pressure on earth is gravities of A and B are 1.1 and 0.9, respectively, in how many
approximated as a function of altitude by the relation seconds will the container be filled? What is the gage and

Patm  101.325 1  0.02256z 


5.256 absolute pressure at the bottom of the filled tank in psia. (Ans.
8.31s, 15.22 psia)
where Patm is the atmospheric pressure in kPa and z is the
altitude in km with z=0 at sea level. Determine the (53) Assume the acceleration of gravity on a celestial body to
approximate atmospheric pressure at Atlanta ( z = 306m ). be given as a function of altitude by the expression g=4-1.6x10
At what height above the sea level will the barometer read – 6h m/s2, where h is in meters above the surface of the planet.

14 psia? A space probe weighed 100 kN on the earth sea level.


Determine (a) the mass of the probe. (b) Its weight on the
surface of the planet (c) Its weight at an elevation of 200 km
above the surface of the planet. (Ans. 10197.2141 kg, 40.79
kN, 37.53 kN

(54) A bell jar 250mm in diameter sits on a plate and is


evacuated until a vacuum of 700mmHg exists. The local
barometer reads 760mmHg. Find the absolute pressure inside
the jar, and determine the force required to lift the jar off the
plate. Neglect the weight of the bell jar. (Ans. 8005 Pa, 4584
N)

(55) The resistance-temperature relationship for a thermistor


(50) A pressure cooker cooks a lot faster than an ordinary can be described by an equation of the form R=Ke/t where R
pan by maintaining a higher pressure and temperature is the resistance at temperature t, with K, and  being
inside. The lid of a pressure cooker is well sealed, and constant. Test results from calibration are:
steam can escape only through an opening in the middle of Trials Resistance in kΩ Temperature in °C
the lid. A separate piece of certain mass, the petcock, sits 1 210 27
on top of this opening and prevents steam from escaping 3 90 39
until the pressure force overcomes the weight of the
petcock. The periodic escape of the steam in this manner Approximate (a) the temperature when the resistance is 190Ω.
prevents any potentially dangerous pressure buildup and (b) the resistance of the thermistor at 40°C. (Ans. a. 28.02°C
keeps the pressure inside at a constant value. Determine and b. 85.81)
the height (H) and diameter (D) of the petcock of a pressure
cooker whose operating pressure is 105 kPa gage and has (56) A small experimental rocket which has a mass of 70 kg is
an opening cross-sectional area of 4.5 mm2 (steam opening accelerated at a rate of 6.0 m/s2. What total force is required, in
for pressure relief). Assume an atmospheric pressure of 101 Newton, is (a) the rocket is moving horizontally and without
kPa and the density of the metal used is 4625 kg/m3. friction and (b) the rocket is moving vertically upward and
without friction at a location where local gravity is 9.45 m/s2.
(51) The average temperature of the atmosphere in the (Ans. 420, 1082)
world is approximated as a function of altitude by the
relation (57) A 7 lbm piece of steel is subjected to a vertical force of 8
Tatm  288.15  6.5 z lbf. The local gravity is 31.1 ft/s2, and frictional effects are

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 12 of 12

neglected. Determine the acceleration of the mass if the entries of 2.667 (at 150°F) and 3.819 (at 200°F). Assume a
external vertical force is (a) downward, (b) upward in ft/s2. linear relation between the two.
(Ans. 67.9, 5.65)
(62) Determine the pressure at point A for the inclined
(58) An 9-m3 tank of nitrogen is separated by a membrane manometer shown in the figure below.
into two sections. Section A has an initial density of 1.667
kg/m3 and section B has a mass of 6 kg. After the
Open to atmosphere
membrane is broken, the density is found to be 1.778kg/m3.
Find the initial density of the gas in section B in kg/m3. (Ans. Air A
Reservoir
0.667)

(59) A vertical piston-cylinder device has a piston diameter 5"


of 11 cm and piston mass of 40 kg. the atmospheric B
pressure is 0.10Mpa and the local gravity is 9.79 m/s2. Mercury
(SG=13.59)
Determine the absolute pressure of the gas within the
device. 30°

(60) A vertical storage tank initially contains water (density =


1000kg/m3) at a depth of 4 m. immiscible oil with a specific (63) Two gaseous streams enter a combining tube and leave
gravity of 0.88 is added until the total height is 10 m. If the as a single mixture. These data apply at the entrance sections:
barometric pressure is 97.2 kPa and local gravity is 9.80 For one gas, A1 = 70 in2, v1 = 500 fps, v1 = 10 ft3/lb; for the
m/s2, determine the absolute pressure at the bottom of the other gas, A2 = 60 in2, ρ2 = 0.120 lb/ft3 and a mass flow rate of
water, in kPa and bars. (Ans. 188.1, 1.88) 60,000 pounds per hour. At the exit, v3 = 350 fps, v3 = 7 ft3/lb.
Find (a) the velocity at section 2 (b) the flow rate, area at the
(61) Convert a chromel-alumel thermocouple measurement exit section.
of 3.100 millivolts (mV) to degress Celsius. For a chromel-
alumel type K thermocouple, 3.100 mV is between the

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