BASIC PRINCIPLES

© All Rights Reserved

29 views

BASIC PRINCIPLES

© All Rights Reserved

- 2nd Law of Thermodynamics - Wrong?
- Engineering Sciences and Allied Subjects
- science reviews
- Engineering Thermodynamics - Department of Mechanical Engineering
- mec3sch
- Material Science & Thermodynamics Presentation.pdf
- Metallurgical Physical Chemistry
- Hk i Termodinamika
- Courses Description - State University of Maringá in English
- Example1Taxonomy.docx
- ofr_90-183_c
- Thermal Engineering
- Entropy
- Form 2 - Chapter 1
- ST
- Thermodynamic Project
- Engineering Thermodynamics-Print Version
- Oct09-Bergersen
- Lec_1 Dan 3_Thermodinamika_REVISI(1) - Copy
- 0701016

You are on page 1of 12

I - 1 of 12

BASIC CONCEPTS

AND DEFINITIONS

Thermodynamics is the branch of science which treats of various phenomena of energy, and especially of the laws of

transformations of heat into other forms, and vice versa.

The science that is devoted to understanding energy in all its forms such as, mechanical, electrical, chemical, and how energy

changes forms.

Derived from the Greek words, therme, meaning heat and dynamis, meaning strength, particularly applied to motion.

1) Chemical Thermodynamics, which is devoted largely into reactions and solutions.

2) Thermodynamics concerned with the production and use of work and power

BOUNDARY is an imaginary partition that separates the

Macroscopic thermodynamics is the level on which we system from the surrounding environment.

live in. It is concern on the overall effect of the individual

molecular interaction. The measurements are large SURROUNDING is the region outside the boundary or

compared with the measurement of events on the molecular anything not in the system.

levels, such as distance in meter, time in second, etc.

In many cases, an analysis is simplified if attention is

Microscopic thermodynamics look at every molecule focused on a particular volume in space into which, or from

and analyze collective molecular action by statistical which, a substance flows. Such volume is a control volume. A

methods. pump, a turbine, and an inflating or deflating balloon are

examples of control volume. The surface that completely

System, Boundary and Surrounding surrounds the control volume is called the control surface.

universe, an atom or a galaxy, or some certain quantity of

1) Closed System is a system where matter does not cross the

matter, which we specifically wish to study. It is a region

boundaries.

enclosed by specified boundaries or by imaginary but

-energy can pass through boundaries

definite mental boundaries.

- examples are piston cylinder assembly, air in a balloon

and mercury in a thermometer and pressure cooker

across its boundaries

- examples are pump, turbine, air conditioner, hair blower,

etc.

Flow

through a pipe (Open System)

Piston cylinder assembly (Closed System)

THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 2 of 12

energy passed through its boundaries. QUANTITY NAME SYMBOL

- example of a partially isolated system is a thermos Base units

Length Meter M

Mass Kilogram Kg

Property and State Time Second S

Electric current Ampere A

A pure substance is uniform in chemical composition. Thermodynamic

It may exist in more than one phase in which each phase Kelvin K

temperature

would have the same composition. The condition when Amount of substance Mole Mol

three phases, the solid phase, the liquid phase and the Luminous intensity Candela Cd

gaseous phase, coexist is called triple point. Supplementary unit

Plane angle Radians Rad

PROPERTY is a characteristic quality of the entire Solid angle Steradians Sr

system and depends not on how the system changes state

but only on the final system state. Common Macroscopic Properties

- are quantities that may be measured or calculated and

give meaningful information about the state of the substance Mass is the absolute quantity of matter in a substance. It is

but are independent of the path (or method) taken to invariant with location: the mass of the body is the same

achieve their values. Therefore properties are point anywhere in the universe.

functions. 1 Kgm = 2.2046 lbm

1 slug = 32.174 bm

Two Kinds of Properties

Volume is the amount of space occupied by the mass or

Intensive Properties are properties that are independent

matter.

of the mass (extent) of the substance

1 m3 = 1000 liters = 35.3147 Ft3

- it is also independent of the size of the system; example

1 gal = 3.7853 liters

are temperature and pressure

1 ft3 = 7.481 gal

1 barrel = 42 gal

Extensive Property are properties that depend on the 1 drum = 50 gal

size or extent of the system; examples are mass and

volume. Formula of Volume for Common Solids:

Rectangular parallelepiped V ABASE * H

STATE – It completely described how the substance

exists. Knowing the macroscopic properties, we can Cylinder D 2

V R 2 H H

determine the state of a substance. 4

Sphere 4 1

V R 3 D 3

3 6

Fundamental and Derived Units

Force is defined as the mass times the acceleration.

1N = 2.2046 lbf

FUNDAMENTAL UNITS are units that are postulated

1kgf = 9.8066 N

Length - is the distance between to points in

1kgf = 2.2046 lbf

space

Time - is the period between two events or

Newton’s Second Law of Motion: “the acceleration of a

during which something happens.

body is directly proportional to the force acting on it and

inversely proportional to its mass.

DERIVED UNITS are units formed from fundamental

F

units. a

m

Pressure - is force per unit area

F ma

Velocity - distance per unit time

THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 3 of 12

F

d

mv m dv v dm

W mg o

g

o

dt dt dt V g cV gc

but, from classical mechanics mass is invariable with Specific Gravity / Relative Density is the ratio of the

velocity density of a substance to the density of a standard substance.

dm - for liquid the standard substance is water and for gas the

0

dt standard substance is air at same pressure and temperature.

dv Density of Substance

F m ma S .G.

dt Density of Standard Substance

by introducing a gravitational constant, gc

ma For Solid and Liquid : ratio of the weight of substance to the

F

gc weight of equal volume of water.

W subs. subs.V subs.

S .G.

W std . subs. std . subs.V std . subs.

subs. g o g cVsubs.

S .G.

std . subs. g o g cVstd . subs.

but Vsubs Vstd .subs.

subs. subs.

gc

ma

s 1slug1 Ft s

1kgm 1 m 2 2

S .G. subs.

std . subs. std . subs. Water at 4 deg . Celsius

F 1N 1lb f subs. subs

S .G.

kg m m kg f 1000kg 62.4

lbm

gc 1 9.8066 2 m3 ft 3

s N

2

s N

lb Ft Weight in air

slug Ft S .G.

1 2 32.174 2m Weight in air Weight in water

s lb f s lb f

earth.

mg o

W

gc

the size of the molecules and how closely the molecules are

spaced in a material.

m

V

V 1

v

m

W F W BF F '

Specific Weight / Weight Density is the weight per unit where:

volume of the material. F is the weight of object in air

F’ is the weight of object in water

THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 4 of 12

subs Vsubs

S .G. the their temperature are the same.

Water WWater

VWater.

Third Law of Thermodynamics

The third law of thermodynamics allows the calculation of

But, volume of the liquid displaced equals the volume

absolute entropy. The Nearest postulate of the third law is “The

of the object submerged.

absolute entropy of a pure crystalline substance in

Vsubs VWater

complete internal equilibrium is zero at zero degrees

W W F F absolute.”

S .G.

WWater BF W F ' F F '

S .G.

Weight in air Since temperature is related to the kinetic energy of the

Weight in air Weight in water fluid, it is evident that the motion of the molecules will increase

with increasing temperature. At absolute zero there will be no

For Ideal Gases (ratio of molecular weight of the gas to the motion, and the molecules will be completely still.

molecular weight of air)

Pg Temperature

K °C R °F

gas RgTg Scale

S .G.

air Pa Steam point

373.15 100 671.67 212

RaTa (Boiling point)

but, Pg = Pa and Tg = Ta Triple Point of

273.16 0.01 491.69 32.02

_ _ water

R R Ice point

Ra and Rg 273.15 0 491.67 32

MWa MWg (Freezing point)

_ Absolute zero 0 -273.15 0 -459.67

R

R MWa MWg

S .G. a _ S .G. Note: ΔC = ΔK , ΔF = ΔR and 1ΔC = 1.8ΔF (ΔC = C°)

Rg R MWa

MWg

x FPx y FPy

MWg BPx FPx BPy FPy

S .G.

MWa

Pressure is the force exerted by a fluid per unit area.

F

P

Temperature is the measure of hotness and coldness of A

a body. It is a measure of the average linear kinetic energy

of the molecules of the substance, that is, the total kinetic

energy of all the molecules divided by the number of

molecules.

Temperature Scale

1) Absolute Temperature Scale (ex. Kelvin & Rankine)

2) Arbitrary or Man-made Temperature Scale (ex. Celsius &

Fahrenheit)

The zeroth law of thermodynamics state that “when

two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body,

they are in thermal equilibrium with each other and

hence are at the same temperature”. Consider two blocks Pabs Patm Pgage

of material, say, iron; if these two blocks are brought

together and there is no change in any observable property, Pabs Patm Pvacuum

THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 5 of 12

Atmospheric pressure Determine (a) the flow rate in kg/s; (b) the time it takes to fill the

Atmospheric pressure is the pressure associated with tank.

the atmosphere due to the weight of air. Although this

pressure varies according to location and weather patterns, Solution:

an average value at sea level is 101.325 kPa.

a) flow rate

Standard Atmospheric Pressure

m V S .G.Water V

1 atm = 101.325 kPa = 1.01325 Bar = 760 mmHg

= 760 mmHg = 14.7 psi = 29.92 in. Hg

kg L 1m 3 1 min kg

m 1.21000 3 300 6.0

m min 1000L 60s s

Gauge pressure

Gauge pressure is the amount by which pressure b) time to fill the tank

differs from atmospheric pressure. This is measured with a V V 333m 3 1000L t 90 min or 1.5 hr

V t

gauge that measures the pressure above (or below) t V 300

L m3

atmospheric pressure. The gauge pressure below min

2.1 Two liquids of different densities (ρ1=1500 kg/m3, ρ2= 500

Absolute pressure kg/m3) are poured together into a 100-L tank, filling it. If the

Although there is no limit to how high a pressure can resulting density of the mixture is 800 kg/m3, find the respective

be, there is a limit to how low it can be. This point of amounts of liquids used. Also, find the weight of the mixture;

absolute minimum is the absolute zero pressure (no local go=9.675m/s2.

pressure at all). Absolute pressure is pressure measured Solution :

above this zero point.

m V

Pressure Variation with Liquid Column Vm V1 V2 0.01m3 V2 0.01 V1

For a substance of constant density (such as a liquid), m m m2 1V1 2V2

the pressure at any vertical position due to the self-weight of m m 1

Vm 100L 0.01m 3

the substance above the datum is dependent of the surface 1V1 2 0.01 V1 1V1 0.01 2 2V1 kg

area and is given by the equation: m 800

0.01m 3 0.01m 3 m3

Pgage h

800

kg

0.01m 3 0.01m 3 2

V1 m3

1 2

800

kg

kg

0.01m 3 0.01m 3 500 3

V1

m3 m

0.003m 3

1500 500 kg3

m

V2 0.01 V1 0.01 0.003 0.007 m3

m1 1 V1 1500

kg

m3

0.003m 3 4.5 kg

+h -h kg

m2 2 V2 500 3 0.007m 3

m

3.5 kg

mm m1 m2 4.5 3.5 8 kg

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

m

8kg 9.675 2

1.1 A pump discharges into a 3 m per side cubical tank. Wm

mm g o

s

7.8926 N

gc kg m

The flow rate is 300 liters/min, and the fluid has a density 9.8066 2

s N

1.2 times that of water (density of water ρ=1000.0 kg/m3).

THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 6 of 12

a 5gO mg O

F W W W W 6W 6

1.3 The mass of a given airplane at sea level (g=32.10 fps2) gO gO gC

is 10 tons. Find its mass in lbm, slugs and kg and its

gravitational weight in lbf and in N when it is travelling at a m

80kg m 9.8066 2

50,000 ft. elevation. The acceleration of gravity F 6 s

4707.168 N

kg m

(g) decreases by 3.33 × 10-6 fps2 for each foot of elevation. 1 2m

s N

Solution :

a) Mass in lbm, slugs and kg

1.5 Make a conversion formula from Fahrenheit scale to

lb f lb ft

10tons 2000 32.174 2m Celsius scale and vice versa.

lb f

Wg c tons s

m

ft

Solution :

go

32.10 2

s

m 20,046.106lbm C 0C F 32 F C F 32

100C 0C 212 32 F 100 180

1kg m

m 20,046.106lbm 9,092.854 kg m

2.2046lbm

9

F C 32 and C

5

F 32

5 9

slug

m 20,046.106lb 623.053slug

32.174lb

1.6 At what temp is the Fahrenheit and Celsius scale has the

same reading?

b) Weight lbf and N Solution : (F = C = A)

mg o

623.053slug 32.10 3.33x10 6 50,000 ft

W s2

slug ft C 0C F 32 F C F 32

gc

1 2

s lb f 100C 0C 212 32 F 100 180

C F 32 A A 32

W 19,896.263lb f

100 180 100 180

1kg f 9.8066N A 40 C or F

W 19,896.263lb f

2.2046lb 1kg

f f

W 88.503.444 N

1.7 At what temperature will the Fahrenheit scale be 64° more

that the Celsius scale?

1.4 During take-off in a space ship, an 80 kg astronaut is Solution :

subjected to an acceleration equal to 5 times the pull of

earth’s standard gravity. If the take-off is vertical, what force F = 64 + C

does he exert on the seat? C 0 F 32 F C 64 C 32

Solution: 100C 0C 212 32 F 100 180

C C 32

5 9

C 40 C or F 104 F

engine and records a height of 300 mm. Convert this to gage

pressure in kilopascal and absolute pressure in psi if barometer

reading is 13.95 psi.

Solution :

kg m 1kN

Pgage h 1000 3 9.8066 2 0.3m

m s 1000N

Pgage 2.942 kPa

From Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion : Action and Reaction

Wa

R 14.7 psi

gO Pabs Patm Pgage 13.95 psi 2.942kPa

101.325kPa

Fv 0 Fup Fdown F R W

Pabs 14.3768psia

THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 7 of 12

carbon dioxide. The total tank volume is 20 m3. Determine the

density and specific volume of the mixture.

the mass of a sample of moon rocks on the moon’s surface.

The springs were calibrated for the earth’s gravitational

acceleration of 9.8 m/s2. The scale reads 4.5 kg, and the

moon’s gravitational attraction is 1.8 m/s2. Determine the

Solution : samples mass. What would the reading be on a beam balance

P1 h P2 scale? (Ans. 24.5 kg)

lb 1 ft

3

8.2lb 3.2

0.93 62.4 3 h (03) Someone proposes a new absolute temperature scale in

5.32in 2 ft 12in 2.13

which the boiling and freezing points of water at atmospheric

h 1.1615in

pressure are 500°X and 100°X, respectively. Develop a

relation to convert this scale to degree Celsius.

1.10 For the situation sketched above, the following

information is known :

(04) A vertical column of water will be supported to what height

density of water 1000 kg/m3

by standard atmospheric pressure?

density of mercury 13590.0 kg/m3

pressure at point I 500 kPa

(05) A diver descends 100 m to a sunken ship. A container is

local gravity 9.8 m/s2

found with a pressure gage reading 100 kPa (gage).

Determine the pressure at point II

Atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa. What is the absolute

pressure of the gas in the container? (Ans. 1180.66

kPaa)

specific gravities of 1.2, 1.6 and 2.0 respectively. If the liquids in

containers A and B are mixed, the resulting specific gravity is

1.36. When liquids in containers B and C are mixed the

resulting specific gravity is 1.8. Mixing liquids in containers A

and C result to a specific gravity of 1.52. Determine the

resulting specific gravity when the three liquids in the

containers A, B and C are mixed together.

Solution :

agree at the ice point (0C) and steam point (100C) and are

PII 0.4m water 0.5m Hg 2m water 500kPa

related by a equation tA = l + mtB + ntB2 between these two

points, where l, m, n are constant. When both are immersed in

PII 0.4m water 0.5m Hg 2m water

go

500kPa a well stirred oil bath, thermometer A registers 51C while B

gc

registers 50C. Determine the reading on the thermometer A

m

9.8 when B reads 25C. (Ans.25.75°C)

kg k g 2

1k N

PII 2.4m1000 0.5m13590 s

1000 N

3 3 k g m

m m 1

2

s N

500 k Pa (08) A beer barrel has a mass of 10 kg and a volume of 20

PII 456.929 kPa liters. Assuming the density of beer is 1000kg/m3, determine

THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 8 of 12

the total mass and weight of the barrel when it is filled with

beer. (Ans.294N)

steam points as fixed points designating them as being

temperature 0C & 100C respectively, then the

thermodynamic function chosen to establish the scale is t

= alnx + b; instead of the line scale t=ax+b. (a)

Determine the constant a & b and (b) Developed a relation

to express t = f (x,xi,xs).

(13) A pressure cooker operates by cooking food at a higher

pressure and temperature that is possible at atmospheric

(10) If the total length of the tube containing mercury is

1.5m, what should be the value of height x so that the conditions. Steam is contained in the sealed pot, with a small

difference in pressure between points 1 and 2 is vent hole in the middle of the cover, allowing steam to escape.

78.743kPag? Assume the following specific gravity: for The pressure is regulated by covering the vent hole with a

water=1.0, mercury=13.59 and oil = 0.80. (Ans. 0.5 m) small weight, which is displaced slightly by the escaping steam.

Atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa, the vent hole area is 7 mm2,

and the pressure inside should be 250 kPa. What is the mass

of the weight? (Ans. 0.107kg)

by a membrane. The total volume is 777 ft3, and the volume of

compartment B is 280 ft3. The specific volume of the steam in B

is 9.5 ft3/lbm. The membrane breaks, and the resulting specific

volume is 12.75 ft3/min. Determine the original specific volume

in compartment A.

(15) A tank has a vacuum gage attached to it indicating 25 in

Hg (vacuum) where atmospheric pressure is 14.5 psia.

Determine the tank. (Ans. 2.22 psia)

(11) Find the area of the piston on which the 45 kN force

act.

(16) A hiker is carrying a barometer that measures 29.92inHg

absolute at the base of the mountain. The barometer reads

25.5inHg absolute at the top of the mountain. The average air

density is 0.076 lbm/ft3, the gravitational acceleration remains

constant at 32.174 ft /s2. What is the mountain’s height? (Ans.

4114.6 ft)

type of scale in the planet atmosphere, where the local gravity

acceleration is g = 6.0 fps2. This inhabitant appears in St.

Michael, Alaska, where the local gravity acceleration is g=32.22

(12) The vertical frictionless piston-cylinder shown below fps2. For this outer-space being, determine (a) his mass in lb in

contains a gas at an unknown pressure. The piston has a slugs on his native planet, (b) his mass in lb and slugs on earth

(c) his weight as indicated by a spring type scale on earth.

mass of 10 kg and a cross-sectional area of 75cm2. The

(Ans. a. 268lb, b. 8.33 slugs, c. 268.4 lb)

spring exerts a downward force of 100 N on the piston, and

atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa. Determine the pressure of

the gas. (126.4 kPa)

(18) A Fahrenheit and a centigrade thermometer are both

immersed in a fluid. The Fahrenheit numerical reading is twice

THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 9 of 12

that of the centigrade reading. What is the temperature of man would experience in an aircraft whose acceleration is 6

the fluid in Rankine and Kelvin scale? (Ans. 433) g’s.

(19) A 3 kg plastic tank has a volume of 0.2m3 is filled with

of 400cm2. She wishes to walk in the snow, but the snow

liquid water. Assuming the density of water is 1000kg/m3.

cannot withstand pressure greater than 0.5 kPa. Determine the

Determine the weight of the combined system.

minimum size of the snow shoes needed (imprint area per

shoe) to enable her to walk on the snow without sinking.

(20) What is the net force acting on the car cruising at

constant velocity of 70 km/hr (a) on a level road and (b) on (27) The gage pressure in a liquid at a depth of 3m is read to

an uphill road? be 28 kPa. Determine the gage pressure in the same liquid at

depth of 12m.

(21) Determine the mass and weight of air contained in a

room whose dimensions are 6m x 6m x 8m. Assume the (28) The absolute temperature in water at a depth of 5m is read

density of air is 1.16kg/m3. (Ans. 334.1 kg, 3277N) to be 145 kPa. Determine (a) the local atmospheric pressure,

and (b) the absolute pressure at a depth of 5m in a liquid

(22) A manometer containing water (density = 62.1 lb/ft3) whose specific gravity is 0.85 at the same location.

and mercury (specific gravity = 13.55) connects two

pressure regions A and B as shown in the figure. The local (29) A vacuum gage connected to a tank reads 30 kPa at a

gravity acceleration is g = 32 fps2. If the pressure at point B location where the barometric reading is 755 mmHg. Determine

is 50 psig, find the pressure in A. the absolute pressure in the tank. Take ρHg=13,590kg/m3.

(Ans. 70.6 kPa)

location where the barometric reading is 29.1 inHg. Determine

the absolute pressure in the tank. Take ρHg=848.4 lb/ft3.

(Ans. 64.29 psi)

beginning of a hiking trip and 780 mbars at the end. Neglecting

the effect of altitude on the local gravitational acceleration,

determine the vertical distance climbed. Assume an average air

density of 1.20 kg/m3. (Ans. 1274m)

(23) At 24° latitude, the gravitational acceleration as a

function of elevation z above sea level is given by g=a-bz, (32) Determine the pressure exerted on a diver at 30m below

where a=9.807 m/s2 and b=3.32x10-6 s-2. Determine the the free surface of the sea. Assume a barometric pressure of

height above sea where the weight of an object will 101 kPa and a specific gravity of 1.03 for seawater. (Ans.

decrease by 1 percent. (Ans. 29,539m) 404.0 KPa)

(24) A 150 lbm astronaut took his bathroom scale (a spring (33) Determine the force necessary to accelerate a mass of 20

scale) and a beam scale (compares masses) to the moon lbm at a rate of 60 ft/s2 vertically upward. (Ans.53.3 lbf)

where the local gravity is g=5.48 ft/s2. Determine how much

he will weigh (a) on the spring scale and (b) on the beam (34) The weight of a10 lb mass is measured at a location where

scale. (Ans. 25.5 lb, 150 lb) g=32.1 ft/s2 on a spring scale originally calibrated in a region

where g=32.3 ft/s2. What will be the reading?

(25) The acceleration of high-speed aircraft is sometimes

expressed in g’s (in multiples of the standard acceleration of (35) A gas is contained in a vertical, frictionless piston cylinder

gravity). Determine the net upward force, in N that a 90 kg device. The piston has a mass of 4 kg and a cross sectional

area of 35 cm2. A compresses spring above the piston exerts a

THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 10 of 12

force of 60 N on the piston. If the atmospheric pressure is 95 (41) A 20 ft3 tank of air separated by a membrane into section

kPa, determine the pressure inside the cylinder. A with an initial specific volume of 0.80ft3/lbm and section B with

a mass of 12.0 lbm. The membrane is broken, and the resulting

density is 1.350lbm/ft3. Find the initial specific volume in section

B. in ft3/lbm. (Ans. 0.667)

water tank. Determine the force required to just open the gate.

weight of 9800 N at a location where g=9.8m/s2. What is its 5m F

specific weight and its density at a location where Hinge

g=9.77m/s2?

elevation above sea level by the relation g=9.81- (43) A vertical storage tank initially contains water

3.32x10-6h, with h measured in meters. What is the weight (ρ=1000kg/m3) at a depth of 4m. Immiscible oil with a specific

of an airplane at 10km elevation when its weight at sea level gravity of 0.88 is added until the total liquid height is 10m. If the

is 40 kN? (Ans. 39.86kN) barometer pressure is 97.2kPa and g=9.80m/s2, determine the

absolute pressure at the bottom of the water, in kPa and bars.

(38) The force of attraction between two masses m1 and m2, (Ans. 188.1, 1.88)

having dimensions that are small compared with their

separation distance R, is given by Newton’s third law, (44) The gage pressure of a gas inside a tank is 25kPa.

F=Gm1m2/R2, where G=6.67259x10-11 N-m2/kg2. What Determine the vertical height, in meters, of liquid within a

is the total gravitational force that the sun (1.97x1030 kg) and manometer attached to the system if the fluid at room

the earth (5.95x1024 kg) exert on the moon (7.37x1022 kg) at temperature is (a) water, (b) mercury (ρ=13,600kg/m3), and (c)

an instant when the earth, moon, and sun form a 90° angle? an oil with a specific gravity of 0.88 and g=9.75 m/s2.

The earth-moon and sun-moon distances are 380x103 km

and) 150x106 km, respectively (45) A pilot notices that the barometer pressure outside his

aircraft is 800 mbars. The airport below the plane reports a

(39) A bell jar 250mm in diameter sits on a plate and is barometric pressure of 1020 mbar. If the air density averages

evacuated until a vacuum of 700mmHg exits. The local 1.15 kg/m3 and the local gravity is 9.70 m/s2, determine the

barometer reads 760mmHg. Find the absolute pressure height of the aircraft above the ground, in meters. (Ans. 128,

inside the jar, and determine the force required to lift the jar 188)

off the plate. Neglect the weight of the bell jar. (Ans.

8005 Pa, 4584 N) (46) A submarine is cruising at a depth of 280 m in seawater

with a specific gravity of 1.03. If the inside of the submarine is

(40) Assume the acceleration of gravity on a celestial body pressurized to standard atmospheric, determine the pressure

to be given as a function of altitude by the expression difference across the hull in (a) kPa, (b) bars. The average local

g=4-1.6x10 – 6h m/s2, where h is in meters above the gravity is 9.70m/s2. (2700, 28)

surface of the planet. A space probe weighed 100 kN on the

earth sea level. Determine (a) the mass of the probe. (b) Its (47) If the atmosphere is assumed to be isothermal at 60°F and

weight on the surface of the planet (c) Its weight at an follows the relationship Pv=RT (an ideal gas), compute the

elevation of 200 km above the surface of the planet. (Ans. pressure, in psia, and density, in lbm/ft3, at (a) 5000ft and (b)

10197.2141 kg, 40.79 kN, 37.53 kN) 2000 ft above sea level. The pressure and density at sea level

are taken to be 14.7psia and 0.077lbm/ft3, respectively.

THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 11 of 12

(48) A constant volume gas thermometer is brought into where Tatm is the temperature of the atmosphere in Kelvin and z

contact with a system of unknown temperature T and then is the altitude in kilometer with z = 0 at sea level. Determine the

into contact with the triple state of water. The mercury average temperature of the atmosphere outside an airplane

column attached to the thermometer has readings of 14.6 that is cruising at an altitude of 11,000 m.

and -2.6 in, respectively. The barometer pressure is 29.80 in

Hg, and the specific gravity of mercury is 13.6. Find the (52) Two liquid streams are pouring in a container, 8 in.

value of the unknown temperature in degrees Rankine. diameter and 15in. high. The mass flow rate of stream A is 1.2

lb/sec and the volume flow rate of B is 0.035 ft3/s. If the specific

(49) The average atmospheric pressure on earth is gravities of A and B are 1.1 and 0.9, respectively, in how many

approximated as a function of altitude by the relation seconds will the container be filled? What is the gage and

5.256 absolute pressure at the bottom of the filled tank in psia. (Ans.

8.31s, 15.22 psia)

where Patm is the atmospheric pressure in kPa and z is the

altitude in km with z=0 at sea level. Determine the (53) Assume the acceleration of gravity on a celestial body to

approximate atmospheric pressure at Atlanta ( z = 306m ). be given as a function of altitude by the expression g=4-1.6x10

At what height above the sea level will the barometer read – 6h m/s2, where h is in meters above the surface of the planet.

Determine (a) the mass of the probe. (b) Its weight on the

surface of the planet (c) Its weight at an elevation of 200 km

above the surface of the planet. (Ans. 10197.2141 kg, 40.79

kN, 37.53 kN

evacuated until a vacuum of 700mmHg exists. The local

barometer reads 760mmHg. Find the absolute pressure inside

the jar, and determine the force required to lift the jar off the

plate. Neglect the weight of the bell jar. (Ans. 8005 Pa, 4584

N)

(50) A pressure cooker cooks a lot faster than an ordinary can be described by an equation of the form R=Ke/t where R

pan by maintaining a higher pressure and temperature is the resistance at temperature t, with K, and being

inside. The lid of a pressure cooker is well sealed, and constant. Test results from calibration are:

steam can escape only through an opening in the middle of Trials Resistance in kΩ Temperature in °C

the lid. A separate piece of certain mass, the petcock, sits 1 210 27

on top of this opening and prevents steam from escaping 3 90 39

until the pressure force overcomes the weight of the

petcock. The periodic escape of the steam in this manner Approximate (a) the temperature when the resistance is 190Ω.

prevents any potentially dangerous pressure buildup and (b) the resistance of the thermistor at 40°C. (Ans. a. 28.02°C

keeps the pressure inside at a constant value. Determine and b. 85.81)

the height (H) and diameter (D) of the petcock of a pressure

cooker whose operating pressure is 105 kPa gage and has (56) A small experimental rocket which has a mass of 70 kg is

an opening cross-sectional area of 4.5 mm2 (steam opening accelerated at a rate of 6.0 m/s2. What total force is required, in

for pressure relief). Assume an atmospheric pressure of 101 Newton, is (a) the rocket is moving horizontally and without

kPa and the density of the metal used is 4625 kg/m3. friction and (b) the rocket is moving vertically upward and

without friction at a location where local gravity is 9.45 m/s2.

(51) The average temperature of the atmosphere in the (Ans. 420, 1082)

world is approximated as a function of altitude by the

relation (57) A 7 lbm piece of steel is subjected to a vertical force of 8

Tatm 288.15 6.5 z lbf. The local gravity is 31.1 ft/s2, and frictional effects are

THERMODYNAMICS-I : Basic Concepts and Definitions chapter. I - 12 of 12

neglected. Determine the acceleration of the mass if the entries of 2.667 (at 150°F) and 3.819 (at 200°F). Assume a

external vertical force is (a) downward, (b) upward in ft/s2. linear relation between the two.

(Ans. 67.9, 5.65)

(62) Determine the pressure at point A for the inclined

(58) An 9-m3 tank of nitrogen is separated by a membrane manometer shown in the figure below.

into two sections. Section A has an initial density of 1.667

kg/m3 and section B has a mass of 6 kg. After the

Open to atmosphere

membrane is broken, the density is found to be 1.778kg/m3.

Find the initial density of the gas in section B in kg/m3. (Ans. Air A

Reservoir

0.667)

of 11 cm and piston mass of 40 kg. the atmospheric B

pressure is 0.10Mpa and the local gravity is 9.79 m/s2. Mercury

(SG=13.59)

Determine the absolute pressure of the gas within the

device. 30°

1000kg/m3) at a depth of 4 m. immiscible oil with a specific (63) Two gaseous streams enter a combining tube and leave

gravity of 0.88 is added until the total height is 10 m. If the as a single mixture. These data apply at the entrance sections:

barometric pressure is 97.2 kPa and local gravity is 9.80 For one gas, A1 = 70 in2, v1 = 500 fps, v1 = 10 ft3/lb; for the

m/s2, determine the absolute pressure at the bottom of the other gas, A2 = 60 in2, ρ2 = 0.120 lb/ft3 and a mass flow rate of

water, in kPa and bars. (Ans. 188.1, 1.88) 60,000 pounds per hour. At the exit, v3 = 350 fps, v3 = 7 ft3/lb.

Find (a) the velocity at section 2 (b) the flow rate, area at the

(61) Convert a chromel-alumel thermocouple measurement exit section.

of 3.100 millivolts (mV) to degress Celsius. For a chromel-

alumel type K thermocouple, 3.100 mV is between the

- 2nd Law of Thermodynamics - Wrong?Uploaded byfred4ski
- Engineering Sciences and Allied SubjectsUploaded byReymar S. Banaag
- science reviewsUploaded byAamir Danger Hasan
- Engineering Thermodynamics - Department of Mechanical EngineeringUploaded byKarthik P Murali
- mec3schUploaded byRing Master
- Material Science & Thermodynamics Presentation.pdfUploaded byClearMind84
- Metallurgical Physical ChemistryUploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- Hk i TermodinamikaUploaded byPutri Desty Amelia
- Courses Description - State University of Maringá in EnglishUploaded byLucas Prado
- Example1Taxonomy.docxUploaded byRaphaella Niemann
- ofr_90-183_cUploaded byimarianro
- Thermal EngineeringUploaded byDaniel Ayala
- EntropyUploaded byDude M
- Form 2 - Chapter 1Uploaded byNor Hamira Hasim
- STUploaded byNur Eizzati
- Thermodynamic ProjectUploaded byNadiya
- Engineering Thermodynamics-Print VersionUploaded bycggfacu6499
- Oct09-BergersenUploaded byCvete Boris
- Lec_1 Dan 3_Thermodinamika_REVISI(1) - CopyUploaded byLemina Uli
- 0701016Uploaded bySwati Gautam
- 8-1 alex celsius thermometerUploaded byapi-384205706
- Koenig Families of Thermodynamic Equations. I. the Methods of Transformation by the Characteristic Group. J. Chem. Phys. 3,29-35Uploaded bySelene Lysis M. Ventura
- Study Guide Th2!18!19Uploaded byAnonymous bTx6sLrSF
- A Idade Decisiva - Meg JayUploaded byjardelbruno
- 92019026-Marcet-Boiler.docUploaded byqusay
- Rodante P. Hernandez Jr 12-Dalton Physics RequirementUploaded byRodante P Hernandez Jr.
- Ch1-Lecture-1.pptUploaded byWolf Moon
- hfuefbjfbUploaded byBaran Shafqat
- 3010_lec_3123Uploaded byMertcan Aslan
- safelec 2 aluminiumUploaded byBenny Yacila

- LEC ThermoI 5-AirStandardCycleHeatEngineUploaded byBasil Bautista
- LEC ThermoI 3-GasLawEquationStateUploaded byBasil Bautista
- Chapter 1 Specification.docxUploaded byBasil Bautista
- Auto Parts2Uploaded byTushar Prakash Chaudhari
- CombustionUploaded byBasil Bautista
- Lect11 Combustion ProcessUploaded byKhairi Maulida Azhari

- SEAC MayJun Online LowUploaded byYe Phone
- Kinema TicsUploaded byC Sai Sudarshan
- Lockheed Field Service Digest FSD Vol.4 No.1 Intro L1649 Starliner Part 3 of 3Uploaded byarizonaflyer
- Star BeamUploaded byarekgli
- HF41F_enUploaded byMarcelo L Zamora
- FH100 ManualUploaded byalonrab
- 47515957-HVDC-Unit-1-pptUploaded byAnney Revathi
- gas laws projectUploaded byapi-305871964
- How to Link Aadhaar Card to Bank AccountUploaded bypiyashnath
- 2017_09_science_sp_sa2_02_quesUploaded byJahnavi Patil
- Ds-datenbl Crs1 14up EnUploaded bycrastoverkill
- 5 Watt FM AmplifierUploaded bydreyes3773
- TubeMeister18_BDA_1_4_6Spr (1)Uploaded byaleburitica
- White Paper: Basics of ThermocouplesUploaded byMikeNager
- Dummy Loads and Smart ChoicesUploaded byHsu
- Zambia : A Development AgendaUploaded byChola Mukanga
- Energy Snapshot St Kitts & NevisUploaded byAspirin A. Bayer
- VIR-Hot tapUploaded bysiva8000
- Power Fuse Sm 5Uploaded byferdinandz_010
- 1295243821-31Uploaded bynandakumar kalyan
- 001 - Isotopes of Hydrogen - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded byMaxim Šporki
- M-3420-SPUploaded byIx
- BMW m3 Coupe CatalogueUploaded byKlementina Mlakar
- Evaluation of the Effect of Rotor Solidity on the Performance of a H-Darrieus Turbine Adopting a Blade Element-MomentumAlgorithmUploaded byGhada Orabi
- Lost Wax ProcessUploaded bySnehal Panchal
- Coverage and Connectivity in Wsensor NwkUploaded bySandesh Alse
- ap 09 ps em qa 04 is matter pure 3Uploaded byapi-376617489
- Centri.pumpsUploaded bymersium
- pd2t57_enUploaded bylcanudo
- AUMA SG_R_-ACUploaded bythomas

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.