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Franklin Bobbit(1876-1956

)

Bobbit believes that the learning objectives, together with the activities, should be grouped and
sequenced after clarifying the instructional activities and tasks. He also views curriculum as a science that
emphasizes the needs of the students. This viewpoint explains why lessons are planned and organized
depending on the needs of the students and these needs must be addressed by the teachers to prepare
them for adult life.

Bobbitt wrote The Curriculum: a summary of the development concerning the theory of the
curriculum.

Bobbitt created five steps for curriculum making: (a) analysis of human experience, (b) job
analysis, (c) deriving objectives, (d) selecting objectives, and (e) planning in detail. The first step was about
separating all of human experience into major fields. This was followed by step two, where the fields were
broken down into more specific activities. The third step was to form the objective from the abilities
needed to perform the activities. Next is the fourth step, where the objectives are selected from to find
ones that would serve as the basis for planning activities for the students. The last step was to lay out
activities, experiences, and opportunities that would be needed to obtain the objectives.

"Educate the individual according to his capabilities. This requires that the material of the
curriculum be sufficient various to meet the needs of every class of individuals in the community and that
the course of training and study be sufficiently flexible that the individual can be given just the things that
he needs"

Ralph Tyler (1902-1994)
Tyler did not intend for his contribution to
curriculum to be a lockstep model for development.
Originally, he wrote down his ideas in a book Basic
Principles of Curriculum and Instruction for his
students to give them an idea about principles for to
making curriculum. The brilliance of Tyler’s model is
that it was one of the first models and it was and still
is a highly simple model consisting of four steps.

Determine the school’s purposes (aka objectives).
Identify educational experiences related to purpose.
Organize the experiences
Evaluate the purposes

 Step one is determining the objectives of the school or class. In other words, what do the
students need to do in order to be successful? Each subject has natural objectives that
are indicators of mastery. All objectives need to be consistent with the philosophy of the
school and this is often neglected in curriculum development. For example, a school that
is developing an English curriculum may create an objective that students will write
essays. This would be one of many objectives within the curriculum.
 Step two is developing learning experiences that help the students to achieve step one.
For example, if students need to meet the objective of writing an essay. The learning
experience might be a demonstration by the teacher of writing an essay. The students
than might practice writing essays. The experience (essay demonstration and writing) is
consistent with the objective (Student will write an essay).
 Step three is organizing the experiences. Should the teacher demonstrate first or should
the students learn by writing immediately? Either way could work and preference is
determined by the philosophy of the teacher and the needs of the students. The point is
that the teacher needs to determine a logical order of experiences for the students.
 Lastly, step four is evaluation of the objectives. Now the teacher assesses the students’
ability to write an essay. There are many ways to do this. For example, the teacher could
have the students write an essay without assistance. If they can do this, it is evidence that
the students have achieved the objective of the lesson.

Werret Charters (1875-1952)
Aside from emphasizing the
students’ needs, he believes that the
objectives, along with the
corresponding activities, should be
aligned with the subject matter or
content. For that reason, department
chairpersons or course coordinators
scrutinize the alignment or matching
of objectives and subject matter
prepared by the faculty members.

William Kilpatrick (1871-1965) For him. Classify the major aims into ideals and activities and reduce them to operational objectives. and the project method in which the teacher and students plan together. For purposes of curriculum construction. 6. Reprioritize the aims and objectives to lend greater importance to those relevant to children's experience than to those relevant to adults but remote from children. Order materials and methods consist with principles of child psychology. Identify those aims and objectives achievable within the constraints of the school setting. 1. Identify major educational aims through a study of contemporary social circumstances. the resulting specifications translated into program objectives. Charter's version of activity analysis differed from those of his contemporaries largely in terms of the emphasis that he placed on the inclusion of social ideals in the curriculum. Charters's most significant contribution to the field of curriculum development came in the form of his activity-analysis approach to curriculum construction. Identify materials and methods conducive to the achievement of the selected aims and objectives. 7. Activity analysis was considered a "scientific" approach to curriculum construction insofar as it represented a quantification of human activities as a basis for selecting educational objectives. and social relationship. Prioritize the aims and objectives. 4. Activity analysis essentially involved specification of the discrete tasks or activities involved in any social activity. it is called as the child- centered curriculum. Because activity analysis often amounted to little more than an accounting of tasks. relegating those best accomplished outside the school to extra school experiences. 5. . In 1923 Charters articulated seven "rules" that governed curriculum construction. 3. He also introduced the use of small group interaction. the purpose of curriculum is child development. critics of the approach characterized it as "scientism" in curriculum work and rejected it as overly mechanistic. Thus. growth. 2.

After initial popularity and use for twenty years. Kilpatrick's Project Method advanced similar ideas. This instructional process of student-directed learning has been promoted as a new idea. which involved primary data. constructivist-based curriculum for this research investigation. and diaries. Historians believe that a study of past events can yield insight into current and future decision-making. which will solve the problem of student motivation and achievement in the modern world. The re-opening of this collection to scholars offers an opportunity to scrutinize these primary sources utilizing standard qualitative historical techniques. and the importance of curriculum planning in advance. some similarities between Kilpatrick's educative process of purposeful activity. Constructivist theories based on Piaget's and Vygotsky's psychologies were studied. the inclusion of social studies. In 1918 William Heard Kilpatrick espoused a problem-solving philosophy with his Project Method. Through a comprehensive study of Kilpatrick's writings. Kilpatrick's personal writings were sealed for twenty years. Recently constructivists have used the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky to develop a problem solving system. reviewing films and phonograph records. Harold Rugg (1886-1960) He introduced the concept of the development of the whole child. the philosophy went out of favor due to the difficulty in implementation in large-scale systems. which emphasizes an adaptive curriculum with students as problem solvers. ^ The purpose of this study was to explore in more depth Kilpatrick's philosophy and its relationship to social constructivism. Rugg is probably best remembered for his contributions to social reconstructionism during the Great Depression. At his death. In that period . The Connecticut Invention Convention curriculum was used as an example of a modern. based on the student's own developing experiences.

The Great Technology (1933). for example—he was process. Cremin refers to as "the characteristic progressivist work of Due to his concern with creativity. So. long the most comprehensive education during the first half of the 20th treatment of the subject. and the 1950s century. and The Child- comprehensive statement of Rugg's mature Centered School (1926. involved in the pioneering attempts to apply Hollis Caswell (1901-1989) He believes that subject matter is developed around the interest of the learners and their social functions. All three were concerned with the most important books during this early problems of contemporary American society phase of his career were Statistical Methods and the role of the school in solving them. Rugg was convinced that in addition to the social During and after the 1930s Rugg was engineering endorsed by other a leading spokes-person for the reconstructionists. view that formal education could. when progressive education was in found him in the front rank of those its ascendancy. by virtue of his textbooks Consequently. that integrity could be nurtured should. which became Taken together. His two (1936). the good society required reconstructionist point of view—that is. numbers of students. Indeed. thought. Early in his career—between searching for the secrets of the creative 1915 and 1920. and further. Applied to Education (1917). Learners must experience what they learn. In Rugg's work reflected most of the 1947 he published Foundations for American significant developments in American Education. . the curriculum is a set of experiences. these three volumes are a a standard in the field." Rugg's reconstructionism differed somewhat from that of his colleagues. with Ann Shumaker). the personal integrity on a large scale and. which historian Lawrence A. change.he published three of his most important the quantitative methods of science to books: Culture and Education in America educational problems. and was identified with the popular "child- American Life and the School Curriculum centered" approach to teaching. the twenties. Then in the 1920s he (1931). at least temporarily. he consistently sought to Rugg was the only reconstructionist who enlarge the scope of creative activities in the managed to present his views to significant school curriculum. be utilized as an agent of social through creative self-expression.

he welcomed citizen interest in schools but opposed participation by people who were not educators in planning curricula: What should be taught in American history should not be left up to historians and not to citizens' committees. Steinmetz Memorial Lecture series was "The Great Reappraisal of Public Education". For her. curriculum considered as a field of study represents no strictly limited body of content. In 1958. it should be the teachers who should design the curriculum rather than the higher authorities (Oliva. Thus. He called for strengthening university centers that influence curricula and teacher training. The provocative subject of his 1952 address as the annual installment of the Charles P. and a teacher educator. 1992). Hilda Taba followed the grass-roots approach in developing curriculum. curriculum should contain all the experiences needed by the children to learn. .1967). She advocated that teachers take an inductive approach to curriculum development which meant starting with the specifics and building toward a general design. rather than the traditional deductive approach (starts with the general design and work towards the specifics) which was rooted in Tyler's model. but rather a process or procedure. She was born in the small village of Kooraste. a curriculum theorist. Dr. Caswell opposed efforts to develop a standard national curriculum for public schools. Taba believed that there has to be a definite order in creating a curriculum. in a speech at a conference in Albany. a curriculum reformer. Caswell also disputed campaigns to do away with some of the so-called frills in education.” In this regard. that driver training was worthwhile because it cut accidents and that the draft in World War II showed the nation that physical education was not a frill either. for example. Estonia. arguing instead for more differentiation in teaching methods. contending. The curriculum is composed of all the experiences children have under the guidance of teachers. Hollis Caswell define curriculum as “all experiences children have under the guidance of the teachers. He was frequently outspoken on educational subjects and did not shun controversy. an architect. In the years after World War II. More specifically stated. and a teacher should only act as a guide or facilitator. Hilda Taba (1902-1967) The Taba Model was developed by Hilda Taba (1902 .

The Taba Model was developed by Hilda Taba (1902 – 1967). Under the Taba been established and implemented. The text's many references to both historic and contemporary works give readers an excellent synthesis of the principles and practices they will have to know in order to create effective curriculum as they enter their own careers in the field of education. development is that teachers must be learning units and building to a general involved in the development of the design. and the most up-to-date curriculum issues. Taba believed that there has to be a definite order in creating a curriculum. the components of the process. technology in curriculum and instruction. a curriculum theorist.the Taba approach believes in allowing the process for evalutating student achievement curriculum to be developed and/or authored of content after the content standards have by the users (teachers). readable. a curriculum reformer. This edition . and now completely up to date. and a teacher educator. This model is used to enhance the thinking skills of students. She was born in the small village of Kooraste. The Model teachers are expected to begin each main concept of this approach to curriculum curriculum by creating specific teaching. Estonia. Developing the Curriculum guides preservice and in-service educational administrators step-by-step through the entire curriculum development process-from the underlying principles and concepts to the roles of school personnel. Hilda Taba believed that there must be a Peter Oliva (1992-2012) Practical. Hilda Taba is the developer of the Taba Model of learning. an architect. curriculum.

Oliva Mandarin. He has taught summer sessions at Portland State College (Oregon). traveled extensively on educational and/or governmental programs in Europe. and Korean. and the eight K-12 public schools. now in its 8th ed. the In this new edition readers will Middle East. he was an assistant principal at planners must address * Updates on the Glenridge Middle School. blended learning. William and new co-author William R. tenure at Winter Park High School the school Oliva. Under his eleven-year Communities . He Baccalaureate . and Western Michigan University. articles in education journals and several News and World Report repeatedly ranked textbooks and is co-author of Supervision for Winter Park High School in the top one Today's Schools. Vietnamese. Developing benefit from: * Practical guidance and advice the Curriculum has been translated into from two leading authorities-Peter F. He has percent of high schools in the nation.Race to the Top - Elementary School before becoming Advanced Placement . University of where he is responsible for managing thirty- Mississippi. and Bonneville new material on .Common Core State then moved to the principalship of Winter Standards . Indiana State University. He has also served as . Also. Florida Florida as a "High-Performing School" due to International University. guidance currently serves as the Executive Area counselor. Gordon II has served as a teacher and The latest information on how online administrator in Orange County Florida classes. Metro West latest curriculum issues with the inclusion of Elementary School. Professional Learning Park High School. and mobile Public Schools for the past twenty-seven learning are changing today's classroom years. Gordon II * R. is author of numerous outstanding student achievement.S. 21st century learners that curriculum Additionally. He began his administrative career at environment. and Georgia the school's rigorous curriculum and Southern University. and Latin America. The Digital the University of Central Florida. University of Hawaii.updates readers on technology and the part-time instructor supervising interns at curriculum in a new Chapter 14. Miami University (Ohio).Digital Citizenship Peter F. and as a professor of education at Director for the East Learning Community the University of Florida. formerly professor and chairperson at was consistently named by the State of Southern Illinois University. * Information on the changing University High School twenty years ago as a nature of the workplace and the needs of founding member of the school. He has Classroom. U.International principal at Killarney Elementary School. He served as a high school teacher.

Mary Jane Celestial Dumas UNIT EARNER .

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Mary Jane Celestial Dumas UNIT EARNER .

Mary Jane Celestial Dumas UNIT EARNER .

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LOOK INTO YOURSELF VERY WELL AND ANSWER EACH ITEM VERY HONESTLY. DUMAS SCHOOL: ALI ALY-ROLDAN. WITH THE USE OF THE CHECKLIST FIND OUT YOUR PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS WHICH WOULD HELP YOU MAKE BECOME A GOOD TEACHER. . I hold my anger. I am calm in the midst of chaos. NAME: MARY JANE C. I analyze every situation. √ 11. √ 8. Place a / mark on the blank each item if the indicator fits you most of the time or an x mark if the description does not fit you most of the time. MEMORIAL ELEMNTARY SCHOOL AM I THIS PERSON? Below are indicators of person qualities which maybe describe you. SO YOU DO NEED TO WORRY. THE QUALITIES LISTED ARE FEW OF THE MANY ATTRIBUTES NEEDED BUT THE LIST GIVEN YOU WOULD SUFFICE.Episode 1 1 . √ 7. √ 12. I maintain poise. I make correct decision. ALL YOUR ANSWERS ARE CORRECT. I am mentally alert. I give attention to details. √ 9. √ 4. I am quick to make solution. I remain undisturbed under pressure. √ 3. 6. I am very imaginative. √ 10. I maintain dignity in all circumstances. √ 2. √ 5.WHO AM I AS A PERSON? DO I HAVE PERSONAL QUALITIES THAT WOULD MAKE ME A BETTER TEACHER SOMEDAY? 2. √ 1. I create new things.

27. I give up personal time for the group. √ 54. I am clean and neat as a person. I am always willing to share. appearance. I set high goals for oneself. I treat everybody fairly. beautiful/handsome. √ 29. √ 24. √ 56. I volunteer to the task for others. √ 39. I work to succeed. √ 43. √ 20. √ 37. I have happy disposition. I have deep concern for others. √ 51. I am fair in giving judgment. √ 40.√ 13. I am consistent in words and actions. mine. √ 33. √ 15. words and √ 18. √ 38. I am pleasant in action. I work with a sense of urgency. I think that my suggestions are not √ 49. I am punctual in attendance. √ 28. 45. I help voluntarily. 58. I adjust comfortably in a crowd. I do not consider self as a better than others. √ 19. I accept responsibility and do it well. √ 35. I am simple. I treat everybody with courtesy. I am kind and sympathetic. √ 16. always correct. I see other’s opinion as different from √ 53. I utilize to the maximum every material. I am tolerant of other persons. √ 48. I like to try out new things. I give equal chance for everybody to be √ 55. √ 41. I can adjust to any group as a member. √ 25. √ 22. 26. I enjoy company of others. √ 21. √ 30. √ 42. 44. assurance in return. √ 23. √ 32. I behave appropriately. I work beyond the objectives set. I am appealing to others. √ 34. √ 17. √ 46. √ 57. . I select social functions to attend. √ 47. I work for others. I use appropriate language. √ 59. I do not give up easily on the task. I feel sure of what I do. √ 14. I am since in giving suggestions. I look at the brighter side of life. I assume responsibility with confidence. I appreciate other people. √ 31. √ 52. I laugh at my own mistakes. I extend help to many other √ 36. I adjust to different situation. I do things without being told. √ 50. I work for the group even without heard. I initiate to do job for all. √ 60. I dress up appropriately.

what you are as a person. The qualities reflect who you are. Make a similar observation of ten active teachers in a school. Cooperativeness 51-55 5 Very High 12. 2—Low. Pleasantness 41-45 3 Average 10.Personal Attributes Cluster of Items Numbers of Check Marks Interpretation 1. Emotional Stability 6-10 4 Average 3. Intelligence 1-5 5 Very High 2. Compassion 16-20 5 Very High 5. These teachers who will become your respondent. Objectiveness 26-30 3 High 7. Your observation will be done through a survey and will produce empirical evidences. This observation will be skills to collect date. 3—High. Self-confidence 36-40 5 Very High 9. You will be provided with a Survey checklist for you to reduce 10 copies for your 10 respondent teachers. Buoyancy 21-25 5 Very High 6. Reliability 56-60 4 Average Legend for Interpretation: 5—Very High. 4—Average. enabled to describe. 1—Very Low The Observations Your concrete experience. Resourcefulness 11-15 5 Very High 4. like when you doing research. Self-motivation 31-35 5 Very High 8. THE RESULTS IN THE MATRIX FOUND BELOW: . Refinement 46-50 5 Very High 11.

and determine the description of the average. To get the average. 2. 3. Study the results.4 High 7. PERSONAL SCORES OF CHECKMARKS FOR EACH CLUSTER Ave Desc ATTRIBUTES T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 1.1 Average Legend for Interpretation: 5—Very High. Compassion 4 5 4 4 5 4 4 2 4 5 4. 1—Very Low . Self-confidence 4 4 4 3 5 3 4 2 4 3 3. 4—Average.9 Average 6. Self-motivation 2 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 5 3 3. Intelligence 5 3 4 4 5 5 4 5 3 5 4. Objectiveness 4 4 4 2 2 3 4 5 4 2 3. Cooperativeness 3 3 3 3 5 5 4 3 4 4 3. 3—High.1 Average 10.1 Average 5.7 Average 12.6 Average 9.The Observe Information Procedure: 1. Look at the legend in your own checklist. Refinement 3 3 5 4 4 5 4 3 5 3 3.5 Average 4. Emotional Stability 2 4 3 4 4 5 4 3 5 3 3.3 Average 2. Pleasantness 5 3 4 5 4 3 4 4 5 4 4. 2—Low. add the scores of the ten teachers and divide by 10.4 High 8. Buoyancy 3 4 4 5 4 3 3 5 4 4 3. Reliability 5 4 4 5 5 3 4 4 4 3 4. Resourcefulness 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 3 4 4 3.9 Average 11.7 Average 3.

Study the results. buoyancy and refinement. 2. 3. To get the average. the six attributes found to be strong among the teachers are intelligence. Look at the legend in your own checklist. compassion. pleasantness. intelligence has the highest attribute that the teacher must. 4. there is no teacher that has high compassion. How many teachers are high in compassion? Based on the results. objectiveness and self-motivation shared in the lowest attribute. 5. reliability.The Observe Information Procedure: 1. PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES SCORES OF CHECKMARKS FOR EACH CLUSTER Ave De Question: 1. Which of the twelve attributes is the highest among the teachers? Based on the results. add the scores of the ten teachers and divide by 10. What six attributes are found to be strong among the teachers? Based on the results. there is no teacher that has low emotional stability. 3. and determine the description of the average. . Which of the twelve attributes is the lowest among the teachers? Based on the results. All of them were in average and very high compassion. They were all in average level. 2. How many teachers are low in emotional stability? Based on the results.

What six attributes are found to be weak among the teachers? Based on the results. emotional stability and self-confidence were attributes that is weak among the respondents. write down your reflections on the following situations reported to have happened in the school setting. specifically at this time were 21st Century skills is being highlighted. resourcefulness. 7. . objectiveness. communications skills is another data that was not asked. self-motivation. on my own idea. 1.6. they still teach and remain to be okay in the front of his class. They hold their anger so that they will not hurt their students who make way to make him irritated. My Reflection After studying the results of your teacher survey. communication skills is also one among the attributes that the teacher must possessed. Based on our book. cooperation. The teacher with good emotional stability can maintain poise despite of the things that disturb them such as those hardheaded students which has nothing to do in the class but to make noise. What interesting observations can spot from the other data not asked? I think. He also remains calm in the midst of chaos and maintains his dignity in all circumstances because teacher who maintains good emotional stability can contribute to his effectiveness as an educator. Teachers remain undisturbed under the pressure in which despite of personal problems. We all know that we are now in the advent of this new challenge (coping with the 21st Century Skills) in the Philippine educational system. Why are some teachers reported to have bumped a learner’s head on the wall or made a child swallow scratch paper or pencil filings? What attributes do you think is low for this teacher? Bumping the learner’s head on the wall or made a child swallow scratch paper or pencil filings tell us that the teacher has low emotional stability and compassion to his work.

make correct decisions. give attention to details. good or evil” referring to morality and we have to grow in knowledge and in wisdom in our “sensitivity and openness to the variety of value experiences in life. 3. the teachers with high refinement in which he treat his students with courtesy and know how to adjust and socialize with them. My Future Application Using what you have learned in this episode. the attributes that the teacher should possess were centered into the two qualities of a teacher: professional and personal.2. which attributes should all teachers possess why? For me. teachers with very high pleasantness are better loved by the students than others. with better emotional stability. This episode does not just highlight what define me most based on the number of checks that I have in the checklist on “My Concrete Experience” above but it also tell me what attributes I should have to effort more. with self-confidence and compassion (personal). I realized that this is not the problem. This episode also tells me to become a teacher who is with “quality of human acts by which we call them right or wrong. in realistic sense. I should… be a teacher who is well equipped with the good attributes that a good educator must have. analyze every situation and is quick to make solutions as part of the intelligence where my teacher respondents got high marks. If you were to choose. Although nobody is perfect to perfectly possess these good attributes mentioned in the questionnaires. Secondly. . The most important thing is that I will try to be a teacher more than those who is typical one. when I become a teacher. It also teaches me to be an educator that is mentally alert. First is with intelligence and reliability (professional). And also. Why do you think some teachers are better loved by students than others? Sometimes.