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Photo image credit: Ananta Palani

POST DEADLINE PAPERS

30th Annual Conference of the IEEE Photonics Society

Photo image credit: Ananta Palani POST DEADLINE PAPERS 30th Annual Conference of the IEEE Photonics Society
Photo image credit: Ananta Palani POST DEADLINE PAPERS 30th Annual Conference of the IEEE Photonics Society

1-5 October

Hilton Orlando Lake Buena Vista Orlando, Florida USA

General Chair

Hilmi Volkan Demir, NTU Singapore, Singapore and Bilkent University, Turkey

Members-at-Large

Amr Helmy, University of Toronto, Canada Carmen Menoni, Colorado State University, USA

Program Chair

Nikola Alic, University of California, San Diego, USA

www.IPC-IEEE.org

www.PhotonicsSociety.org

Photo image credit: Ananta Palani POST DEADLINE PAPERS 30th Annual Conference of the IEEE Photonics Society
Photo image credit: Ananta Palani POST DEADLINE PAPERS 30th Annual Conference of the IEEE Photonics Society

POST DEADLINE SESSION

Thursday, 5 October 2017 Salon IV/V

Session Chair: Nikola Alic, University of California San Diego, USA

PD1: Single-Wavelength, Single-Polarization, Single-Photodiode Kramers-Kronig Detection of 440-Gb/s Entropy-Loaded Discrete Multitone Modulation Transmitted over 100-km SSMF Xi Chen, Nokia Bell Labs, USA

We demonstrate 100-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) 1550-nm dispersion-uncompensated transmission and single-photodiode Kramers-Kronig direct detection of 440-Gb/s line rate and 279 Gb/s net-data-rate using discrete multitone modulation with entropy- and power-loaded probabilistically shaped subcarriers generated by digital band interleaving.

PD2: A 32x10 Gb/s OLT Using a Single Ultra-wide Bandwidth Dual Local Oscillator Coherent Receiver Domanic Lavery and Lidia Galdino and Zhixin Liu and Sezer Erkilinc and Polina Bayvel, University College London

Detection of a 32x10 Gb/s channel UDWDM-PON in a single, wide bandwidth coherent receiver is enabled using two, frequency-separated, local oscillator lasers. The preservation of receiver linearity is demonstrated through digital dispersion compensation and channel isolation after 80 km transmission.

PD3: Dual Polarization In-phase and Quadrature High Speed Submarine Transmission with Only Two

Photodiodes, ADCs, MZMs and DACs Rafael Rios-Müller, José Estaran, Jeremie Renaudier and Gabriel Charlet, Nokia Bell Labs, USA We propose a transceiver design capable of full-field modulation and detection with only two photodiodes, two

analog-to-digital converters, two Mach-Zehnder modulators and two digital-to-analog converters based on joint in-phase/quadrature generation and detection. Design is validated by long-haul transmission of dual-polarization 16QAM at 200 Gb/s.

PD4: Photonic Integrated Circuit Optical Phase Lock Loop Tuneable Active Filter Katarzyna Balakier, Haymen Shams, Martyn Fice, Lalitha Ponnampalam, Chris Graham, Cyril Renaud and Alwyn Seeds, University College London

We report the first foundry-fabricated photonic integrated circuit (PIC) optical phase lock loop tuneable active optical filter for optical frequency comb line selection and amplification. The PIC functions as a highly selective optical filter with sub-GHz bandwidth and 50 dB out-of-band suppression.

PD5: Efficient Frequency Conversion over S-C-L-U Bands within an Electrically Pumped Chip using

\chi^2

Meng Lon Iu, Nima Zareian, Dongpeng Kang, Eric Chen, Paul Charles and Bilal Janjua, University of Toronto, Youichi Akasaka and Tadashi Ikeuchi, Fujitsu Laboratories of America and Amr S. Helmy, University of Toronto

Continuous frequency conversion from 1486nm to 1686nm is achieved by utilizing \chi^2 in um-scale AlGaAs chip, where pump is electrically generated within the same cavity where nonlinear conversion takes place. A record high normalized internal conversion efficiency of 342%W^-1 cm^-2 is obtained.

PD6: Interband Cascade Laser on Silicon Alexander Spott, Eric Stanton, Alfredo Torres and Michael Davenport, UCSB, USA and Chadwick Canedy, Igor Vurgaftman, Mijin Kim, Chul Soo Kim, Charles Merritt, William Bewley and Jerry Meyer, Naval Research Laboratory, USA and John Bowers, UCSB, USA

We demonstrate the first interband cascade lasers heterogeneously integrated with silicon waveguides. The 3.6 µm wavelength lasers operate in pulsed mode at room temperature, with threshold currents as low as 394 mA.

PD7: Athermal Wavelength-Scale Amorphous Plasmonic Detectors, Amr S. Helmy, University of Toronto, Canada

An on-chip silicon hybrid plasmonic photodetector is demon-strated with amorphous materials. The device

exhibits mini-mum sensitivity, dark current and static power of -35dBm, 0.2nA, and 1.2nW within only 5μm device length. The device can operate up to 100°C with an optical bandwidth from 1.2μm to 1.8μm, integrates

to silicon photonics with only 1.5dB coupling loss and its RC time constant provides a fre-quency cut-off of

400GHz. The performance and fabrication techniques used suggest potential for plasmonic-optoelectronic integration via back-end processing.

Single-Wavelength, Single-Polarization, Single- Photodiode Kramers-Kronig Detection of 440-Gb/s Entropy-Loaded Discrete Multitone Modulation Transmitted over 100-km SSMF

X. Chen 1 , J. Cho 1 , S. Chandrasekhar 1 , P. Winzer 1 , C. Antonelli 2 , A. Mecozzi 2 , and M. Shtaif 3

  • 1 Nokia Bell Labs, New Jersey, 07733, United States, xi.v.chen@nokia-bell-labs.com

  • 2 Dpt. of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila 67100, Italy

  • 3 Dpt. of Physical Electronics, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel

AbstractWe demonstrate 100-km standard single-mode

fiber (SSMF) 1550-nm dispersion-uncompensated transmission

and single-photodiode Kramers-Kronig direct detection of 440-

Gb/s line rate and 279 Gb/s net-data-rate using discrete

multitone modulation with entropy- and power-loaded

probabilistically shaped subcarriers generated by digital band

interleaving.

Keywordsdata

center

Kramers-Kronig receiver.

interconnection,

direct

detection,

I.

INTRODUCTION

Compact solutions for 400-Gb/s client interfaces that enable

~100-km dispersion-uncompensated transmission and can be

densely wavelength-division multiplexed across a wide optical

amplification bandwidth are crucial for future data-center

interconnects (DCI). Contending technologies competing with

technically superior but practically more complex digital

coherent receivers include multi-wavelength 4-ary pulse

amplitude modulation (PAM-4) [1], various forms of single-

sideband direct detection [2-4], Stokes vector receivers [5,6],

and Kramers-Kronig (KK) receivers [7-10]. The highest single-

polarization, single-wavelength raw line rate of 360 Gb/s

demonstrated in this context today uses a Stokes receiver that

has a complexity almost identical to a full digital coherent

solution [6]. A raw data rate of 218 Gb/s (net 182 Gb/s) [9] and

256 Gb/s (net 215 Gb/s) [10] per channel can be achieved

using only a single polarization and a single ADC based on KK

detection. Here, we increase the net data rate to a record of

279 Gb/s (raw 440 Gb/s) and transmit over 100 km of

dispersion-uncompensated standard single-mode fiber (SSMF)

in the C-band. This record is based on a few key technologies

including a 50-GHz digital band interleaved (DBI) DAC [11],

and discrete multitone modulation (DMT) using

probabilistically shaped (PS) subcarriers with entropy- [12]

and power-loading.

II.

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

The KK transmitter consists of one 1550-nm external cavity

laser (ECL), two 50-GHz DACs, one I/Q modulator, and a

frequency shifter to generate the required CW for KK

detection. The 50-Hz DACs are two independent 184-GSa/s

50-GHz DBI-DACs [11]. Each DBI-DAC consists of two

baseband DACs. The low-frequency (LF) DAC covers DC to

35 GHz, and the high-frequency (HF) DAC covers 35 Hz to 50

GHz (as indicated in the inset of Fig.1). The 4 baseband DACs

(2 x I, 2 x Q) are the 4 channels of a Keysight 92-GSa/s

arbitrary waveform generator, ensuring proper synchronization

across all DACs. The peak-to-peak voltage at the 50-GHz DBI-

DAC output is 370 mV. The two 50-GHz I and Q signals are

input to 50-GHz SHF amplifiers driving the I/Q modulator.

Single-Wavelength, Single-Polarization, Single- Photodiode Kramers-Kronig Detection of 440-Gb/s Entropy-Loaded Discrete Multitone Modulation Transmitted over 100-km SSMFxi.v.chen@nokia-bell-labs.com Dpt. of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila 67100, Italy Dpt. of Physical Electronics, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel Abstract — We demonstrate 100-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) 1550-nm dispersion-uncompensated transmission and single-photodiode Kramers-Kronig direct detection of 440- Gb/s line rate and 279 Gb/s net-data-rate using discrete multitone modulation with entropy- and power-loaded probabilistically shaped subcarriers generated by digital band interleaving. Keywords — data center Kramers-Kronig receiver. interconnection, direct detection, I. I NTRODUCTION Compact solutions for 400-Gb/s client interfaces that enable ~100-km dispersion-uncompensated transmission and can be densely wavelength-division multiplexed across a wide optical amplification bandwidth are crucial for future data-center interconnects (DCI). Contending technologies competing with technically superior but practically more complex digital coherent receivers include multi-wavelength 4-ary pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) [1], various forms of single- sideband direct detection [2-4], Stokes vector receivers [5,6], and Kramers-Kronig (KK) receivers [7-10]. The highest single- polarization, single-wavelength raw line rate of 360 Gb/s demonstrated in this context today uses a Stokes receiver that has a complexity almost identical to a full digital coherent solution [6]. A raw data rate of 218 Gb/s (net 182 Gb/s) [9] and 256 Gb/s (net 215 Gb/s) [10] per channel can be achieved using only a single polarization and a single ADC based on KK detection. Here, we increase the net data rate to a record of 279 Gb/s (raw 440 Gb/s) and transmit over 100 km of dispersion-uncompensated standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) in the C-band. This record is based on a few key technologies including a 50-GHz digital band interleaved (DBI) DAC [11], and discrete multitone modulation (DMT) using probabilistically shaped (PS) subcarriers with entropy- [12] and power-loading. II. E XPERIMENTAL S ETUP The KK transmitter consists of one 1550-nm external cavity laser (ECL), two 50-GHz DACs, one I/Q modulator, and a frequency shifter to generate the required CW for KK detection. The 50-Hz DACs are two independent 184-GSa/s 50-GHz DBI-DACs [11]. Each DBI-DAC consists of two baseband DACs. The low-frequency (LF) DAC covers DC to 35 GHz, and the high-frequency (HF) DAC covers 35 Hz to 50 GHz (as indicated in the inset of Fig.1). The 4 baseband DACs (2 x I, 2 x Q) are the 4 channels of a Keysight 92-GSa/s arbitrary waveform generator, ensuring proper synchronization across all DACs. The peak-to-peak voltage at the 50-GHz DBI- DAC output is 370 mV. The two 50-GHz I and Q signals are input to 50-GHz SHF amplifiers driving the I/Q modulator. Fig. 1. System setup of the 440-Gb/s entropy loaded DMT modulation with KK detection. The inset in Fig. 1 shows the unequalized electrical spectral response of one of the two DBI DACs. The spectral shape could be equalized for frequency-flat performance across the 50-GHz bandwidth. However, instead of digitally equalizing the DBI amplitude response, as advantageous for single-carrier formats [11], we employed DMT with adaptive bit and power loading in this work. As we use PS subcarriers, the adaptive bit loading task turns into entropy loading [12]. We first measure the channel signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) when all sub-carriers are loaded with quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK). Based on the SNR profile and a waterfilling algorithm, we then obtain " id="pdf-obj-15-148" src="pdf-obj-15-148.jpg">

Fig. 1. System setup of the 440-Gb/s entropy loaded DMT

modulation with KK detection.

The inset in Fig. 1 shows the unequalized electrical spectral

response of one of the two DBI DACs. The spectral shape

could be equalized for frequency-flat performance across the

50-GHz bandwidth. However, instead of digitally equalizing

the DBI amplitude response, as advantageous for single-carrier

formats [11], we employed DMT with adaptive bit and power

loading in this work. As we use PS subcarriers, the adaptive bit

loading task turns into entropy loading [12]. We first measure

the channel signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) when all sub-carriers

are loaded with quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK). Based

on the SNR profile and a waterfilling algorithm, we then obtain

the generalized mutual information (GMI) and power

allocation for each subcarrier, yielding each sub-carrier’s

optimum shaping factor β [13]. Then, PS 256-QAM symbols

are loaded with the determined β, and the normalized GMI

(NGMI) is measured. Iterations are done to optimize the power

and entropy loading, with the goal of maximizing capacity

while having constant NGMI across all frequencies. Our DMT

signal has an FFT size of 512, resulting in 279 subcarriers

within its 100-GHz optical signal bandwidth. Among these, 8

subcarriers are pilots to perform phase estimation; 16 samples

of cyclic prefix (CP) are used. With an entropy rate on each

DMT symbol of H, the line rate is H*(279-

8)/(256+16)*184GSa/s (including FEC overhead but excluding

all DMT overhead). Entropy and power loading of the optical

DMT signal for 100-km SSMF transmission are shown in Fig.

2. The entropy- and power-loaded electrical DMT signal is

imprinted onto the laser carrier using a 45-GHz I/Q modulator.

In order to generate the frequency tone required by the KK

algorithm, we split a portion of the unmodulated laser carrier

and pass it through a 50-GHz sinusoidally driven LiNbO 3

single-sideband modulator operated as a frequency shifter

(Δf). The signal is then transmitted over a 100-km span of

SSMF with a loss of 19.5 dB. At the receiver, a single

photodiode (PD, 3-dB bandwidth of 100 GHz) is used in

conjunction with a single channel of a 100-GHz real-time

Keysight oscilloscope prototype acting as our analog-to-digital

converter. The underlying DSP chain is sketched in Fig. 1.

the generalized mutual information (GMI) and power allocation for each subcarrier, yielding each sub- carrier’s optimum

Fig. 2. Optimized entropy and power loading.

III. FORWARD ERROR CORRECTION AND NGMI

We assess the performance of our system in terms of the

NGMI required by an actually implementable FEC. This

results in highly accurate end-to-end performance predictions,

as it has recently been shown that the NGMI represents a

reliable performance indicator for an FEC’s error correction

capability, independent of the underlying (square or PS)

modulation format [14,15]. We used a rate-0.8 (25%-overhead)

systematic binary spatially-coupled low-density parity-check

(SC-LDPC) code (SC Code B in Ref. 14), which has been

proven through extensive field-programmable gate array

(FPGA) emulation to achieve a post-FEC BER < 10 -15 without

an error floor within 0.94 dB of the Shannon limit on a binary-

input AWGN channel. It has an NGMI threshold of

NGMI*=0.845 under moderate-complexity sliding-window

decoding with the normalized min-sum algorithm. For PS-

256QAM, the γ = 0.2 [13]. Combining the loaded β shown in

Fig. 2 and DMT overhead calculation shown earlier in this

section, we can calculate a net data rate of 279.6 Gb/s.

IV. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

Figure 3 shows the measured NGMI after 100-km SSMF

transmission. The average NGMI (0.849), applicable under

FEC coding across all sub-carriers, is above 0.845, indicating

that the assumed realistically implementable FEC can correct

the received signal to error-free performance. Figure 4 presents

the GMI, yielding the raw line rate of 440.8 Gb/s and a net data

rate of 279.6 Gb/s.

the generalized mutual information (GMI) and power allocation for each subcarrier, yielding each sub- carrier’s optimum

Fig. 3. NGMI across the DMT subcarriers measured at receiver.

the generalized mutual information (GMI) and power allocation for each subcarrier, yielding each sub- carrier’s optimum

Fig. 4. GMI distribution over DMT subcarriers

In conclusion, we have demonstrated single-carrier, single-

polarization, single-photodiode transmission over 100-km

SSMF using KK detection of PS-DMT, achieving a line rate

of 440 Gb/s and a net data rate of 279.4 Gb/s. To the best of

our knowledge, the achieved net data rate is the highest

interface rate obtained with single wavelength, single

polarization, and single diode detection.

We thank Keysight for loaning us a 100-GHz scope prototype.

Acknowledgement: This work was partly supported by an Institute for

Information & Communications Technology Promotion grant from the

Korean government (MSIP), B0101-16-0021, “Development of key

technologies for flexible optical nodes in software-defined network”.

C.Antonelli and A. Mecozzi acknowledge financial support from the Italian

Government under project INCIPICT. M. Shtaif acknowledges financial

support from Israel Science Foundation (grant 1401/16).

 

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