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Project Report of Production of Butadiene from Butane part 1.docx

selectivity (16.4%) are quite low, thus giving very low BD yield
(2.7%). The 1-butene conversion for Al2O3 reaches 72.1%, which is
much higher than that of Fe2O3. However, the BD selectivity is pretty
low (6.5%), again resulting in a very low BD yield (4.7%).
With Fe2O3 impregnated on Al2O3 support, both conversion and BD
selectivity are significantly improved. At 600 °C, 10 wt.% Fe2O3/Al2O3
shows 77.1% conversion and 21.8% BD selectivity. The main byproducts
are trans-2-butene 33.3%, cis-2-butene 25.6%, iso-butene
1.4%, butane 1.1%, propane 2.9%, ethene 2.2% and methane 5.7%. Thus,
the BD yield is greatly improved from 2.7% on Fe2O3 and 4.7% on Al2O3
support to 16.8% on Fe2O3/Al2O3 sample. This result clearly indicates
that highly dispersed Fe2O3 on an acidic Al2O3 support leads to a significantly
more efficient redox cycle between 1-butene/BD–CO2/CO–Fe
oxides.

1. Justificación de la ruta química a utilizar para la producción del compuesto químico


asignado. Utilice los criterios que se presentan en la sección 2, complete 27 a “Tabla
1. Matriz de selección de proceso” y justifique la ponderación asignada en cada ítem.

The proposals of the preceding steps for different reactor selection criteria are used on the
final selection level for the selection of suitable technical reactors. Additional constraints and
further selection criteria will enter the selection process of suitable technical reactors.
First all reactors are collected from a database in READPERT which can handle the reaction
phase system considered (e.g. liquid-liquid). In the succeeding step so-called knock out
criteria as for example deposit forming or foaming caused in the reactor by the reaction mixture
are applied. In case a reactor cannot handle such reaction mixtures it is excluded from the
selection process. Having checked the knock out criteria the subsequent selection steps utilize
so-called ranking criteria to find favorable reactors. The list of ranking criteria consists of the
reactor selection criteria determined in the preceding selection levels (e.g. backmixing and
contacting of phases, interfacial area, kinetic regime etc.). Additional criteria such as phase
dispersion or corrosive phase are also part of the list of ranking criteria. Applying the ranking
criteria- for each step the user of READPERT can select one ranking criteria out of the list -
the number of favorable technical reactors will be reduced step by step, so that at the end of
the selection a list of most favorable reactors will be left. Moreover, READPERT offers the
option to change the input of a selection step in order to create alternative solution branches.
Having finished the reactor selection procedure it is possible to evaluate heat transfer
options. At first the reactors are analyzed by shortcut methods concerning a feasible adiabatic
operation. In case an adiabatic operation is not possible different heat transfer options will be
regarded for each reactor such as boiling cooling, external heat exchange equipment, internals
for heat exchange and heat exchange using the reactor wall. First general constraints are
checked which prevent the usage of a heat transfer option for the reactor (e.g. boiling cooling
cannot be applied in case strong foaming occurs). In a second step short cut methods for heat
transfer options are applied in order to roughly estimate whether the heat production can be
controlled by the heat transfer option. As a results one for example gets the necessary heat
transfer area for external heat exchange equipment.
An extra advantage of the presented heuristic-numeric strategy is the fact that it can provide
useful hints with regard to additional laboratory experiments which may help to improve
the investigation of the selection criteria and the reactor selection itself.