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The 6P Rule of Project Management: Prior Planning Prevents Poor Project Performance
If you fail to plan, you will plan to fail
Project best understood by breaking it down into its parts Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
powerful tool for doing this (not just a task list) defines the total scope of the project fundamental to much of project planning & tracking
Start at top, progressively break work down (tree structure) into work packages Roll up the packages for bottom up estimating Packages give clear work assignments
Project time management involves processes required to ensure timely completion of a project Processes include: Activity definition Activity sequencing Activity duration estimating Schedule development Schedule control .
progressively break work down (tree structure) into work packages Roll up the packages for bottom up estimating Packages give clear work assignments .Project best understood by breaking it down into its parts Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) powerful tool for doing this (not just a task list) defines the total scope of the project fundamental to much of project planning & tracking Start at top.
4 Define server owner requirements 1.2.2 Define Requirements 1.3 Define specific functionality 1.0 Support .3 Define system requirements 1.1 Evaluate current systems 1.5 Develop project plan 1.2 Define content requirements 1.2.0 Concept 1.6 Brief web development team 2.1 Define user requirements 1.0 Roll Out 5.0 Web Site Design 3.2.Intranet WBS in Tabular Form 1.0 Web Site Development 4.2.4 Define risks and risk management approach 1.
Intranet WBS and Gantt Chart Project 98 file .
I ntranet WBS & Gantt Chart Organized by PM Groups .
politics Bottom-up cost estimating rollup the WBS packages Top-down or Parametric estimating from experience to complex models . low-balling.Lots of reasons for poor estimates inexperience. technical problems. changes optimists.
but guesses can be even more costly .Which technique is better? ideally use both early on don t have WBS so must use top-down accuracy of top-down depends on availability/ quality of historical data building complete WBS can be expensive.
Deliverables Tangible. Milestones Significant events or achievements Acceptance of deliverables or phase completion Cruxes (proof of concepts) Quality control Keeps team focused . etc. presentations. verifiable work products Reports. prototypes.
Develop work packages for each of the phases and deliverables defined in the Deliverable Structure Chart (DSC) .
irrational commitments. T. unprofessional estimating techniques. the rest of the disaster will occur almost inevitably. Once a project blindly lurches forward toward an impossible delivery date. Capers Jones .and carelessness of the project management function are the factors that tend to introduce terminal problems.The seeds of major software disasters are usually sown in the first three months of commencing the software project. Hasty scheduling.
Lines of Code (LOC) Function Points .
code bloat Language differences Easier to count afterwards than to estimate .Most traditionally used metric for project sizing Most controversial Count comments? Declaring variables? Efficient code vs.
Analysis based on evaluation of data and transactional types: Internal Logical File (ILF) External Interface File (EIF) External Input (EI) External Output (EO) External Inquiry (EQ) .
Value Adjustment Factor based on Degrees of Influence (DI) aka Processing Complexity Adjustment (PCA) General Systems Characteristics (GSC) Total Adjusted Function Points (TAFP) transformed into development estimates converted in equivalent LOC Backfiring .
Our estimating techniques fallaciously confuse effort with progress. 0ur techniques of estimation are poorly developed. they reflect an unvoiced assumption which is quite untrue i.The Mythical Man-Month Brooks 1.e. . that all will go well. hiding the assumption that men and months are interchangeable..More seriously. Frederick 2.
Schedule progress is poorly monitored.The Mythical Man-Month Brooks Frederick 3.software managers often lack the courteous stubbornness of Antoines chef 4.Techniques proven and routine in other engineering disciplines are considered radical innovations in software engineering . Because we are uncertain of our estimates.
When schedule slippage is recognized. . much worse.this makes matters worse. More fire requires more gasoline.The Mythical Man-Month Brooks Frederick 5. and thus begins a regenerative cycle which ends in disaster. Like dousing a fire with gasoline. the natural tendency (and traditional) response it to add more manpower.
Gantt Charts Critical Path Method (CPM) Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) Time Boxes Critical Chain (Theory of Constraints) .
budget Scope statement what will be done (& not done) Activity definitions develop detailed WBS plus supporting explanations to understand all work to be done .Base documents Project charter start/ end dates (tentative).
Review activities & determine dependencies Mandatory dependencies: inherent in the nature of the work. soft logic External: involve relationships between project and external activities Must determine dependencies to use critical path analysis . hard logic Discretionary: defined by the project team.
durations.Created 1800 Standard format for displaying project schedules activities. start/ end finish dates displayed in calendar format Advantages enforces planning easy to create & understand preferred for summary/ exec-level information .
Symbols include: black diamond: milestones Thick black bars: summary tasks Lighter horizontal bars: tasks Arrows: dependencies between tasks Bar Charts Simplified version Serve similar function .
Sample Project Gantt Chart .
Sample Tracking Gantt Chart white diamond: slipped milestone two bars: planned and actual times .
Developed 1957 CPM diagram shows activities. has least (zero) slack or float . start/ end dates & sequence in which they must be completed Critical path for project is the series of activities that determines the earliest time by which project can be completed Critical path is longest path through network diagram. durations.
Critical path helps you make schedule trade-offs Slack or float amount of time activity can be delayed without delaying early start of dependent activities .
Which is the critical path? d. What is the shortest amount of time needed to complete this project? Activity-on-Arrow (AOA) Network Diagram . How many paths are on this network diagram? b. How long is each path? c.Simple Example of Determining Critical Path consider following network diagram assume all times in days C=2 start 4 5 E=1 1 A=2 2 B=5 3 D=7 F=2 6 finish a.
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) Activities are represented by boxes Arrows show relationships between activities More popular than ADM method as used by PM software Better at showing different types of dependencies .
Task Dependency Types .
D D.Activity Description Estimated Duration (Days) 2 5 4 3 1 4 3 2 5 1 Predecessor A B C D E F G H I J Evaluate current technology platform Define user requirements Design Web page layouts Set-up Server Estimate Web traffic Test Web pages and links Move web pages to production environment Write announcement of intranet for corp.I .E F. newsletter Train users Write report to management None A B B B C.G G H.
Activity on the Node (AON) Network Diagram .
Possible Paths Path 1 Path A+B+C+F+H+J 2+5+4+4+2+1 Total 18 Path 2 A+B+D+F+H+J 2+5+3+4+2+1 17 Path 3 A+B+D+G+H+J 2+5+3+3+2+1 16 Path 4 A+B+D+G+I+J 2+5+3+3+5+1 19* Path 5 A+B+E+G+I+J 2+5+1+3+5+1 17 .
Longest path Shortest time project can be completed Zero slack (or float) The amount of time an activity can be delayed before it delays the project Must be monitored and managed! PM can expedite or crash Can fast track The CP can change Can have multiple CPs .
Techniques for Shortening a Project Schedule Shortening durations of critical tasks: add more resources change their scope Crashing tasks by obtaining the greatest amount of schedule compression for the least incremental cost Fast tracking tasks by doing them in parallel or overlapping them .
most likely. pessimistic estimates of activity durations .Developed 1959 for Polaris project Similar to CPM but addresses uncertainties in task durations Uses probabilistic time estimates optimistic.
and 24 = pessimistic time = 12 days . 10 = most likely time.PERT weighted average formula: optimistic time + 4X most likely time + pessimistic time 6 Example: PERT weighted average = 8 workdays + 4 X 10 workdays + 24 workdays 6 where 8 = optimistic time.
Optimistic Estimates (Days)
Most Likely Estimates (Days)
Pessimistic Estimates (Days)
Expected Duration (a+4b+c) 6 2.2 5.2 3.8 3.3 1.0 4.0 3.0 2.3 5.5 1.3
A B C D E F G H I J
None A B B B C,D D,E F,G G H,I
1 3 2 2 1 2 2 1 4 .5
2 5 4 3 1 4 3 2 5 1
4 8 5 6 1 6 4 5 9 3
Consider project size, risk and complexity Gantt
senior management smaller, less complex projects
medium size/ complexity/ risk
high risk projects medium to high complexity
Deals with delivering in short time frames Focuses on prioritization Facilitator brings stakeholders together to agree on priorities It s customer developer partnering
Compromise on scope to achieve early delivery
Addresses challenge of meeting or beating project finish dates Application of the Theory of Constraints (TOC) Developed by Eliyahu Goldratt in his books The Goal and Critical Chain Method of scheduling that takes limited resources into account when creating project schedule & includes buffers to protect completion date Assumes resources do not multitask as it often delays task completions & increases total durations .
which are addition time added before tasks on the critical path . which is additional time added before the project s due date Feeding buffers.A buffer is additional time to complete a task Critical chain schedule removes buffers from individual tasks & instead creates A project buffer.
don t try to strengthen all of the links in the chain focus on the weakest link Some organizations view as best thing since sliced bread But does it sound like common sense? .Simple view: in critical situation.
reducing the dollars and complexity with each additional subdivision 3) Stop dividing when the tasks are manageable work packages based on the following: Skill group(s) involved Managerial responsibility Length of time Value of task .1) Specify the end-item deliverables 2) Subdivide the work.
The work packages (tasks or activities) that are defined by the WBS must be: Manageable Independent Integratable Measurable .
432 items and tick each item off as people complete them .The usual mistake PMs make is to lay out too many tasks. It s easy to get caught up in the idea that a project plan should detail everything everybody is going to do on the project. The Hampton Group (1996) . This springs from the screwy logic that a project manager s job is to walk around with a checklist of 17. subdividing the major achievements into smaller and smaller subtasks until the work breakdown structure (WBS) is a to do list of one-hour chores.
Corporate Sponsorships .3 Marketing 1.1 Event Planning 1.4.WBS level 1 1.2 Item Procurement 1. Charity Auction WBS level 2 1.
3 Raffle items 1. Rent space WBS level 3 220.127.116.11 Corporate Sponsorships 1.3.2 Live auction items 1.1 Event Planning 1.3 Marketing 1.2.4 Print catalog .1.2 Advertising 18.104.22.168 Item Procurement 1. Charity Auction WBS level 2 1.1 Hire Auctioneer 1.WBS level 1 1.1 Individual ticket sales 1.1.1 Silent auction items 1.3 Arrange for decorations 1.2.1.
Probability density function Completion time of task j Time Optimistic Timeto j Expected duration = Most Likely Time =tm Pessimistic Timetp j .
to 2 j = j 36 . we must make three estimates: to most optimistic time j tp most pessimistic time j tm most likely time j to + tp + 4tm j j j = 6 Expected duration j Variance of task j = 2 j tp .For each task j.
Only one coat of paint is necessary to cover existing paint. Each room has two doors and four windows. Use flat paint on walls.Task: Paint 4 rooms. You must apply masking tape before painting woodwork around the doors and windows. hours 27 38 33 17 26 22 14 30 28 21 23 27 23 37 17 17 min 25 25 12 44 7 1 2 27 30 13 59 44 15 6 54 13 hours 31 19 26 30 25 24 32 32 13 42 22 32 32 27 26 21 min 52 15 27 27 21 28 58 1 43 45 57 15 31 15 11 52 Estimating Task Durations: Painting a Room What is your estimate of the average time you will need? What is your estimate of the variance? . Preparation consists of washing all walls and woodwork (some sanding and other prep work will be needed). each is approximately 10 x 20 . Previous times on similar painting jobs are indicated in the table below. semi-gloss paint on trim and woodwork. All supplies will be provided at the start of the task.
Task: Consider the painting job that you have just estimated. if you finish the painting job after your specified time. you will be fined $1000. If you finish painting the room before your specified time. there are explicit incentives for meeting your estimated times. Now. however. HOWEVER. Revised estimated time = . you will receive a $10 bonus payment.
there are explicit incentives for meeting your estimated times. Now.Task: Consider the painting job that you have just estimated. you will receive a $10 bonus payment. however. If you finish painting the room before your specified time. Revised estimated time = . there is no penalty. If you finish the painting job after your specified time.
Client Project Manager Subcontractors Project Team Regulating Organizations Top Management Functional Managers .
To the organization and top management Meet budget and resource constraints Engage functional managers To the project team Provide timely and accurate feedback Keep focus on project goals Manage personnel changes To the client Communicate in timely and accurate manner Provide information and control on changes/modifications Maintain quality standards To the subcontractors Provide information on overall project status .
What is a project team? A group of people committed to achieve a common set of goals for which they hold themselves mutually accountable Characteristics of a project team Diverse backgrounds/skills Able to work together effectively/develop synergy Usually small number of people Have sense of accountability as a unit .