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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS IN ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY [IJRPET]


NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INNOVATIVE TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY-2017
15TH & 16TH MARCH 2017
CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS ISSN NO - 2454-7875
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PAPER ID: NITET20
MINIMIZATION OF POLLUTANTS OF EXHAUST GAS FROM HIGH TRAFFIC
AREA & INDUSTRIAL SECTOR BY USING EXOTHERMIC REACTION.
PROF. SACHIN MOHITE,
Sr. Lecturer, Mechanical Department, A.G. Patil Polytechnic Institute, Solapur.

MR. NIKHIL HONKHAMBE,


T.Y. Mechanical, A.G. Patil Polytechnic Institute, Solapur.

MR. AMIT KSHIRSAGAR,


T.Y. Mechanical, A.G. Patil Polytechnic Institute, Solapur.

MR. NAGESH KOLI,


T.Y. Mechanical, A.G. Patil Polytechnic Institute, Solapur.

MR. SOURABH KSHIRSAGAR,


T.Y. Mechanical, A.G. Patil Polytechnic Institute, Solapur.

MR. CHANBASU KORE,


T.Y. Mechanical, A.G. Patil Polytechnic Institute, Solapur.

ABSTRACT experiments conducted are in agreement with the model


It is today undoubted that humans have to reduce their results.
impact on the environment. IC engines, being the major INDEX TERMS: Pollutants, Carbon dioxide emission,
power source in the transportation sector, play an Global warming, Exothermic Reaction,
important role in the man-made emissions. While the
mobility in the world is growing, it is important to reduce I. INTRODUCTION
the emissions that result from transportation, which are An important task in the development of internal combustion
believed to be the main cause of global warming. Exhaust engines is the reduction of emissions. As the individual
by fuel combustion contains toxic gases, various harmful mobility in the world is increasing and the transportation
pollutants mainly nitrogen oxides (NOX) and soot sector I growing, it is important to limit the impact of traffic
particles. These emissions are therefore limited by the on both the environment and the health of the population.
authorities in most countries. The main combustion products that are contained in engine
In heavy traffic area and in industrial sector we exhaust gases are water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2),
find very high Pollution. This research work is carried out nitrogen oxides (NOX), particulate matter (PM),
to minimize the pollution in our focused area. An hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO). All of these,
unsteady state behaviour of gas absorption column for except for the water vapor, are considered environmentally
CO2-NaOH system was carried out using the arm field gas harmful. This is also reflected in the fact that governments all
absorption column. A model equation was developed by over the world enact limits for the emission of these gases.
considering material balance around the system. The Therefore, engine developers work on diminishing these
concentrations of the inlet and outlet liquid streams and emissions.
the gas outlet stream varied as functions of time. By During Diesel combustion, several toxic and non-toxic gases
Experimental analysis, the percentage of pollutants from are formed. The non-toxic parts are water and carbon
exhaust gas is minimized. The test conducted for the dioxide. While water is completely unproblematic, the
duration of 90 minutes showed that 0.2 gram mole/litre emission of CO2 has negative impacts on the environment.
of NaOH solution reacts with CO2 to give 0.1 gram CO2 is believed to be the main cause of global warming and
mole/litre of Na2CO3.This clearly shows that the results of therefore, emission has to be reduced. The formation of CO2
is directly proportional to the fuel consumption of an engine,

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NOVATEUR PUBLICATIONS
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS IN ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY [IJRPET]
NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INNOVATIVE TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY-2017
15TH & 16TH MARCH 2017
CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS ISSN NO - 2454-7875
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if fossil fuel is burned. This means, that for a reduction of  An I.C. engine is the first element of the model. Pollutants
CO2, the fuel consumption has to be reduced. The two most are released in the chamber by using suction pump.
problematic emissions in diesel engines are nitrogen oxides  A catalytic converter inline converts harmful gases in
and soot particles. HC and CO emissions are quite low and harmless gases partially and supplies it to the condenser.
can be removed fairly easy from the exhaust with the help of  In a condenser the temperature of polluted air is brought
an oxidation catalyst. to the normal temperature and required pressure is
The negative effect of automotive emissions does not affect maintained and outlet of condenser is further connected
only the person driving but also the others around them. to chemical chamber where chemicals are stored.
Various greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, The exhaust gas is allowed to pass into the inlet of the
nitrous oxide and other gases like chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs) Catalytic Converter. Pressure gets reduced and velocity of the
are emitted. The gases act like a blanket and increase the gas increases because of the conical section. The flowing
global temperature which is otherwise called as global exhaust gas is free to move in all directions inside the
warming. Catalytic Converter. As the movement of exhaust gas is not
The planet's thermostat had been set at a pleasant average abruptly obstructed anywhere in its path, the back pressure
temperature of 59°F for the last 10 years and recently it is is limited to minimum level. The flowing gas passes over the
increasing rapidly2. A typical engine combustion process is trap which is fixed at the inner of the Catalytic Converter. Gas
represented below3. entering the perforated sheet mesh holes gets exposure to
Fuel + Air ® Hydrocarbons + NO2 + CO2 + CO + H2O the zeolite pellets. The exposure of the exhaust gas is
maximum by increased in size of the pellets. Zeolite pellets
Hydrocarbon emissions are the fragments of fuel molecules, are highly porous and consistent matrix of zeolite that
which are only partially burnt. provides the adsorption of impurities.
The exhaust gas containing CO2 and other particles are
II. VARIOUS EXHAUST GASES AND THEIR EFFECTS absorbed by the zeolite pellets. Adsorptions take place by
Nitrogen Oxides: Converters basically are used to break locking of gaseous CO2 molecules over the porous layer of the
down gases. A higher percentage of nitrogen-dioxide (NO2) is zeolite. Adsorption quality of CO2 is depends on the type of
formed as product compared to carbon-dioxide. NO2 makes zeolite used. Maximum adsorption limit of zeolite is depends
up about 7.2% of the gases that cause global warming3. But on the amount of exhaust produced from the engine. The
these converters, though break down molecules, they emit a material for sheet mesh is considered as steel which has high
higher quantity of their oxides into the atmosphere. thermal properties. Sheet mesh also has filtration efficiency
Carbon Monoxide: Most CO gas is produced when the fuel is .which will also filters the black carbon particles up to certain
not combusted properly in the engine. This happens when extent. As this is the first device to be designed to reduce CO2
there is an insufficient flow of air into the engine4. This emission. Its limitations will be considered. The Carbon
occurs when the vehicle is under prolonged use, in emission levels will be reduced to maximum by
mountains where the oxygen content is comparatively low or implementing this device on the exhaust manifold.
by general ageing of the engine itself. Two-third of carbon
monoxide emissions come from transportation sources,
mainly from the urban areas where the population is high.
Carbon Dioxide: Originally carbon dioxide viewed as a
product of perfect combustion, but now, it has become a
pollution concern. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that
traps the earth's heat and contributes to global warming. Fig. No. 01- Catalytic Converter

III. WORKING PRINCIPLE


Important Design aspects

Fig. No. 02- Honey comb structure of Catalytic Converter

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NOVATEUR PUBLICATIONS
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS IN ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY [IJRPET]
NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INNOVATIVE TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY-2017
15TH & 16TH MARCH 2017
CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS ISSN NO - 2454-7875
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Using catalytic converter & chemicals, pollutants are made to column was 3 litters/min. Product samples were
react with the chemical to reduce the air pollution. withdrawn after 30mins for analysis using titre metric
Whenever the harmful exhaust is generated, the suction method.
pump sucks the pollutants into the chamber and is passed to
the catalytic converter where pollutants are partially cleaned. V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Further pollutants are passed through water and then NaOH Traffic
Reading Before Test Reading After test
Conditions
solution. Here, water first removes the dust particles and
reaction with NaOH is as follows:-

2NaOH + CO2 → Na2CO3


Normal

Moderate

Fig. No. 03 Chemical Analysis (Exothermic Reaction)

IV. METHODOLOGY
 First we start the Exhaust Gas Analyzer and wait for 10
High
minutes. Then we start the engine. Put the EGA on test
mode for 40 seconds. Put the gun of the EGA in the
exhaust pipe. Then wait for 1 minute and take the
readings on the screen of the EGA.
 After that connect the inlet of the Exhausted Pollutant Result reveals that there is considerable difference in CO.
Minimiser to the exhaust of the engine. After this the CO2, PM at various conditions of traffics (Normal, Moderate
exhaust passes through the catalytic convertor and high). Pollutants from exhaust gas are measured by
 And the exhaust is partially cleaned. Then the partially Exhaust gas analyzer before and after passing through
cleaned exhaust passes through the water for filtering catalytic converter and chemicals. The testing is at nearby
purpose. And then that exhaust is passed through the place of Traffic Signal and near Chimney of Industrial sector.
(NaOH + H2O) Sodium Hydroxide. Then it is passed
through the baffle chamber and finally in the EGA for VI. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
taking the readings.
 7.5 litters of IM solution of caustic soda was prepared
and poured in 30 litres of water to make 37.5 litters of
0.2M-solution of caustic soda that was poured into the
reservoir tank at the base of the column. The gas flow
control valves were closed. The liquid pump and the
compressor were switched on and the flow of caustic
soda through the column and the airflow were regulated
to 3litres / min and 30 litters / min respectively.
 The pressure-regulating valve on the carbon dioxide
Fig No. 4 Pollution testing Setup
cylinder was carefully opened and the flow of CO2 to the
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NOVATEUR PUBLICATIONS
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS IN ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY [IJRPET]
NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INNOVATIVE TRENDS IN ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY-2017
15TH & 16TH MARCH 2017
CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS ISSN NO - 2454-7875
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7) Babatunde A. O., Principles of Mathematical Modelling
and Analysis in Chemical Engineering, Done Publishers,
University of Lagos, Nigeria, 1985, pp. 5-12.
8) Meyers R., Encyclopedia of Physical Science and
Technology, Vol. 9, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich
Publishers, London, 1988, pp. 519-528.

Authors:
Fig No. 4Location Plan of setup (Heavy Traffic Area)
Prof. Sachin Mohite, Senior Lecturer, Mechanical
Engineering Department, A.G. Patil Polytechnic
VII. CONCLUSION Institute, Solapur, Maharashtra, (India)
In this work it has been presented a dynamic work effort to Date of Birth: 15th August 1982,
Teaching Experience: 13 Yrs.,
reduce CO2 emissions through Carbon capture mechanisms Email: sachinmohite.in@gmail.com
.Adsorption technique is followed to control the Carbon
emissions from the exhaust gas. The solid adsorbent used in
Mr. Amit Kshirsagar
this work is Catalytic Converter, were it locks and holds the Student, T.Y. Mechanical Engineering,
carbon molecules from the exhaust. The carbon capture by A.G. Patil Polytechnic Institute, Solapur,
exothermic reaction is successively designed for automotive Maharashtra, (India)
emission control. It is the first action taken from automobile
sector for controlling CO2 emission from the automobile
exhaust and Industrial sector. The design model is analyzed Mr. Nikhil Honkhambe
for its fluid flow inside the system. The model derived has Student, T.Y. Mechanical Engineering,
been seen to agree with experiment, which was conducted A.G. Patil Polytechnic Institute, Solapur,
Maharashtra, (India)
under unsteady state regime. Thus, the values of the carbon
dioxide concentrations in caustic soda can be predicted if
given initial NaOH concentration, volume of NaOH and flow
rate. This naturally translates into the Na2CO3 formed. Mr. Nagesh Koli
Student, T.Y. Mechanical Engineering,
A.G. Patil Polytechnic Institute, Solapur,
VIII. REFERENCES Maharashtra, (India)
1) S.Jenoris Muthiya, V.Amarnath, P.Senthil Kumar,
S.Mohan Kumar., Carbon capture and storage from
automobile exhaust to reduce co2 emission, Volume 3,
Mr. Sourabh Kshirsagar
Special Issue 2, April 2014. Student, T.Y. Mechanical Engineering,
2) Muralikrishnan R., Swarnalakshmi M. and Nakkeeran E., A.G. Patil Polytechnic Institute, Solapur,
Nanoparticle-Membrane Filtration of Vehicular Exhaust Maharashtra, (India)
to Reduce Air Pollution., Vol. 3(4), 82-86, April (2014)
3) Maryam Mahmoudkhani , David W. Keith. Low-energy Mr. Chanbasu Kore
sodium hydroxide recoveryfor CO2 capture from Student, T.Y. Mechanical Engineering,
A.G. Patil Polytechnic Institute, Solapur,
atmospheric air.,
Maharashtra, (India)
4) Mahmoudkhani M.a,, Heidel K.R.a, Ferreira J.C.a, Keith
D.W.a, Cherry R.S., Low energy packed tower and
caustic recovery for direct capture of CO2 from air.,
5) Coulson J.M., Richardson J.F., Chemical Engineering,
Vol.2, 4th Ed., Butterworth Heinman Pub., London, 1996,
pp. 530-550.
6) Himmelblau D. M, Basic Principles and Calculations in
Chemical Engineering, Prentice-Hall international, New
York, 1996.

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