COMPLETACION

© All Rights Reserved

0 views

COMPLETACION

© All Rights Reserved

- Column Design
- Behaviour of Composite Cellular Steel - Concrete Beams at Elevated Temperatures
- Verify 87
- Gotluru Torsion Paper
- SN003b (NCCI - Elastric Critical Moment for Lateral Torsional Buckling)
- MBA Admission in India
- Sections12.1-3
- D6641.1166550-1
- Honbun-5030_03
- Buck
- Review of LRFD Steel Design
- Compression Manual
- Workshop1 Ia
- Lecture 36
- 201502244 (3)
- Term Paper1-Arijit Dey.docx
- COMPRESSION BEHAVIOR OF DOUBLER-PLATE
- 2017 q4 Engineering Journal
- Ura
- A Study on the Flex Ura of i Led Composite Beams

You are on page 1of 26

Selection

Review

This topic introduces ‘tubing’ - definitions - load tolerances etc.

and is presented under specific sections listed below. Further

detail (stress analysis for example) is presented under module

ENM206 (Advanced Completion & Subsea Systems).

Table of Contents

This section introduces definitions and applications of tubing design

factors for various load conditions.

This section introduces the common terminology used to describe the

different properties such as sizes and grades of tubing.

This section defines the main loads acting on common oilfield tubulars.

Axial, radial and tangential stress loads are described in detail.

Axial Loading

This section shows how axial loads on tubing strings are defined and

determined, it also discusses elongation and calculation of the maximum

axial loads allowed.

This section shows how tubing strings can buckle, it describes the main

two buckling modes and it also presents how the critical conditions that

will cause buckling can be determined.

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

Content

The recommended design factors are shown in the following table.

TEST 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

OTHER 1.25 1.1 1.33 1.25

Test conditions are defined with the following criteria:

• the tubing must be new, or newly inspected with correspondingly

well defined properties such as minimum dimensions, minimum

weights, wall thickness tolerances and metallurgical properties;

• the tubing must be mechanically isolated from the reservoir with

no hydrocarbons in or outside the tubing. Examples are plugs

below the tailpipe or an un-perforated liner / casing;

• the conditions (such as the pressure and temperature) must be

defined so that the maximum tubing stresses can be predicted

accurately.

‘Other Conditions’ are defined as any condition not satisfying the ‘Test

Conditions’ requirements and would include all normal service loads

(production, injection, stimulation etc.) and overpulls (defined as any

action to pull the tubing). Although in an overpull (for example to shear a

pinned expansion device) the pressures and temperatures are usually

well defined, the friction is not well defined and this acts to increase

required axial loads. Therefore maximum tubing stresses cannot be

predicted accurately.

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

The purpose of design factors is to ensure that tubing is selected and

used in a manner that prevents inadvertent or premature failure. The

selection of the actual design factor values must account for the following

requirements:

• to ensure that service loads do not exceed mill test loads. Mill test

loads (API or otherwise) are not normally to the nominal rating of

the pipe;

• to allow for unexpected events such as stuck pipe;

• to allow for modelling uncertainties such as difficulties in predicting

temperature profiles, the accuracy of the Martin Decker gauge, or

the shear rating of a hydraulic set packer;

• to allow for features that are not included in an analysis eg, if

corrosion is not explicitly included;

• to account for the consequences of failure. For example, tubing

burst has a greater safety implication than tubing collapse.

The main constraint with tubing burst is that pipe is not exposed to

higher loads than the API test pressure. The hydrostatic test pressure is

equivalent to 80% of nominal pipe. As burst safety factors are based on

de-rating the pipe by the wall thickness tolerance (normally 87.5%), a

design factor of 1.094 prevents tubing being exposed to pressures higher

than the hydrostatic test pressure. Therefore a burst design factor of 1.1

is acceptable.

The burst safety factor is dependent on the minimum wall thickness.

Therefore the wall thickness tolerances must be applied to all burst loads.

The standard tolerance is the API wall thickness tolerance for new tubing

at 12.5%. However some manufacturers manufacture to lower tolerances

at no extra cost or for a premium price. These tolerances can be used

where appropriate.

A relatively low collapse design factor is acceptable as the consequences

of collapse are less severe than for tubing burst. There is still merit

however in maintaining design factors greater than 1.0, to allow for

potential small errors and uncertainties (eg, accuracy of pressure gauges

etc.). Therefore a design factor of 1.1 has been chosen.

Again a relatively low design factor is justified. The main variables in

axial loads are pipe bending, temperature effects, overpulls and

uncertainties about friction. Pipe bending will be modelled by inclusion of

appropriate dogleg severity. Temperature effects should be known, or at

least not affect the stresses (for example, temperature changes only

effect axial loads once the packer has been set). Overpulls do not satisfy

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

the criteria for the test conditions (because the conditions are not

accurately known). The constraints of sour conditions also do not apply

during test conditions, as they will be no hydrocarbons in the string.

Because of all these effects, a low design factor can be used for the test

conditions. A design factor of 1.1 is therefore considered appropriate.

Triaxial design factors consider the combined effects of axial and collapse

loads. In keeping with the casing design, it is now considered

inappropriate to use a triaxial analysis as a means of determining burst

loads. Recent work119 suggests that the burst of pipe is independent of

the axial load. Therefore there is no need to derate the wall thickness

when considering triaxial loads. As a design factor of 1.1 has been used

for axial, burst and collapse loads, a triaxial design factor of 1.1 is also

appropriate.

Other Conditions

As the burst safety factor is related only to tubing properties and

pressure differentials, a relatively low design factor should be acceptable

as pressure differentials can usually be estimated fairly accurately or at

least conservatively. The tubing should be derated for the wall thickness

tolerance (API or manufacturer’s as appropriate). As the burst of tubing

is so closely related to the minimum wall thickness, then any process that

affects this should be included.

Other processes likely to affect the burst resistance are erosion, wear

(particularly for casing) or mechanical damage such as tong marks and

wireline induced damage. As corrosion and other forms of wear can be

difficult or impossible to predict then a certain amount of a safety margin

is required. This does not allow corrosion or damage to be ignored in

tubing stress analysis as pitting, in particular, can be excessive in high

temperature and acidic (CO2) environments if inappropriate tubing is

selected. A burst design factor of 1.25 has been selected based on these

key uncertainties, but every effort should be made to quantify these

uncertainties and therefore reduce any risk.

A relatively low collapse factor is acceptable because of the following

conditions:

• annulus pressures are usually known to a greater degree of

accuracy than tubing pressures;

• collapse although unwanted and costly does not normally impose

risks to personnel;

• the collapse rating is more dependent on the average wall

thickness and therefore collapse is less affected by processes such

as corrosion.

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

considerations.

Axial forces are generated by a large combination of effects. For this

reason they are harder to accurately predict than burst or collapsed

loads. Pressure, temperature, well doglegs, buckling and friction can all

contribute to axial loads. A relatively high axial design is therefore

preferred as many of these effects are hard to predict under operational

conditions. In addition, the connection strength is based on ultimate

tensile strength rather than yield strength; therefore axial loads on

connections do not have the same leeway as axial loads on tubing. This

becomes important when considering the cumulative effects of

hydrocarbons, age in service and load uncertainty.

Where pipe is exposed to sour conditions it should conform to NACE

specifications. The NACE (National Association of Corrosion Engineers)

test requirement is exposure of the tubing to a NACE sour solution with a

stress of 75% of the material yield stress. In order to prevent exposing

the pipe to higher service loads than these test loads, an axial design

factor of 1.33 is required. This design factor fits in well with a relatively

high axial design factor required to manage uncertainties in axial loads.

The triaxial design factor is supposed to account for the combination

affects of axial and burst/collapse loads. It should therefore account for

the uncertainties and consequences of failure under burst, collapse or

parting (axial failure). Therefore a relatively high triaxial design factor

should be used. However recent work suggests that the bursting of

tubing is independent of axial loads. As the buckling of tubing is now

included in axial loads as well as triaxial loads, the reliance on the triaxial

analysis has been significantly reduced. It is still required however for

examining the effects of axial loads on collapse resistance. A relatively

low design factor of 1.25 is therefore appropriate without the necessity to

include the derating for wall thickness tolerances.

Although these design factors are guidelines, it is expected that the

guidelines or those of the operator will normally be followed. However,

engineering and judgment must still be used to ensure that the tubing

stress analysis is a representation of the realistic conditions experienced

during the life of the well rather than a blind application of corporate

policy. It is therefore vital that attention is paid to accurately modelling

both the well tubing and the loads it is exposed to. After all, tubing

failures have shown to be caused more by a failure to predict or model

events (for example corrosion or annulus expansion) than by a low

design factor.

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

Tubing Nomenclature

All well tubulars follow the API specifications in standardizing on outside

diameter. Hence, 4 ½ inches tubulars have an OD of 4 ½ inches. In

addition, API defines tubing as having an OD from 11/20 in to 4 ½

inches. Tubulars with OD of 4 ½ inches or greater are classified as

casing.

Tubulars are manufactured in lengths termed joints. The API specification

only allows tubing joints to be manufactured in two length ranges.

However, some mills can produce Range 3, and, where practicable and

possible, this range is preferred.

• range 1 : 20 to 24 feet;

• range 2 : 28 to 32 feet;

• range 3 : 32 to 48 feet.

The API casing standard allows three ranges, namely:

• range 1 : 16 to 25 feet;

• range 2 : 25 to 34 feet;

• range 3 : 34 to 48 feet.

The ability of a tubular to withstand stress is governed by its mechanical

strength (grade) and wall thickness. Since API standardizes tubulars on

OD, an increase in wall thickness decreases the inside diameter (ID) and

obviously increases the weight. Tubulars are therefore specified in terms

of OD and weight of pipe per linear foot. However, some suppliers do

exceed API tolerances on OD in order to minimize the reduction in ID.

The API specifies a limited number of standard weights for any particular

tubular size. However, non-API heavy walled tubing is also available for

high strength applications. These tubulars have proprietary grades, and

the stress analysis should be discussed in detail with the individual

manufacturer.

Nominal ID

The nominal ID is the ID calculated from the OD and the weight per foot.

This ID is the one that should be used for flow and strength calculations.

Drift ID

It is important that all production/completion tubulars are drifted. This

should allow the safe passage of any equipment and will ensure injection

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

and production rates are not impeded. The drift ID should be specified as

well as the length of the drift used.

Coupling OD

This is the maximum OD of the tubing and is used when estimating the

clearances required to install tubing into casing. Technology

Tubular Grades

Tubulars are frequently designated with a singular or double letter prefix,

ie, J or HC. API grades use the single letter, while proprietary grades

utilize double letters. Generally it is true to say that for both API and

proprietary grades, these letters have very little relevance in determining

the physical properties of the tubular. To some extent the proprietary

grades do have some significance, but these are particular to specific

manufacturers.

Example:

XT155 is Extra Tough 155ksi material from British Steel. SM155 is

Sumitomo 155ksi material, which is effectively the same pipe, but with a

different designation.

There is no definable system for the use of letters as prefixes or suffixes

in the tubular grade designation. Hence, unless the user is completely

knowledgeable about the letters used in tubular descriptions, they should

not be used to identify pipe properties. It is strongly advised that that the

unfamiliar seek expert advice, either from the manufacturer or tubular

specialist. The numbers following on from the letters are important and

do have a significant meaning. The number immediately following the API

or proprietary grade prefix letters is the minimum specified yield stress of

the pipe.

Example:

N80:

80 means 80,000 psi minimum yield stress. This figure is important since

it provides information as to the minimum tensile properties of the pipe

and is also a function of most of the pipes other physical properties, ie,

burst and collapse. It should not be confused with the ultimate tensile

strength (UTS), which is not used in pipe identification. The minimum

yield stress value is used in all tubular stress analysis.

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

Forces act on tubing in three dimensions, so to analyse the stress state

accurately, all three dimensions must be considered. A cylindrical co-

ordinate system is therefore used to describe the stresses, ie, axial,

radial and tangential. There are four possible failure modes for the pipe

body:

• parting of the tubing under axial load;

• bursting of the tubing due to internal pressure;

• collapse of the tubing under external pressure.;

• when the combined stress, or triaxial stress, exceeds the yield

stress of the tubing.

In some cases the tubular connections may be weaker than the pipe

body, in which case further calculations will be necessary. Most premium

connections like NEW VAM and NS-CC are essentially structurally

equivalent to the pipe body and no further analysis is required. However,

particularly under compressive loads, some premium connections can

lose their gas tight seal.

In addition to the failure mechanisms outlined above, it is also necessary

to analyse the stability of the tubing. Since a tubing string is very long in

comparison with its diameter, it lacks the rigidity to withstand

compressive loads. Hence, a very small compressive load can cause the

tubing to buckle. As the tubing is constrained by the casing, the tubing

buckles into the shape of a helix. Although the tubing is said to 'buckle',

it does not necessarily lead to a failure and may indeed be beneficial (eg,

reducing loads on packers). Helically buckled tubing can, however,

prevent the running of wireline tools and compromise the integrity of the

tubing connections. If the instability becomes too severe, the pipe can

yield and permanently corkscrew.

To determine whether a tubing string has sufficient strength, the actual

loads are compared to the API rated load capacity at critical points in the

string. This comparison is expressed as a ratio or design factor for each

failure mode, ie:

Axial Tension Design Factor: The ratio of the rated axial tensile

strength to the actual axial tension force in the string. It is equivalent to

the ratio of the material yield stress to the total axial stress.

Burst Design Factor: The ratio of the calculated burst pressure rating to

internal pressure minus external pressure.

Collapse Design Factor: The ratio of calculated collapse pressure rating

to external pressure minus internal pressure.

Triaxial Stress Design Factor: The ratio of the material API yield stress

to triaxial stress.

The above analysis is complicated by the fact that radial and tangential

stresses also have components in the axial direction and the yield stress

in the collapse failure mode reduces with axial tensile stress.

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

A tubing string is subjected to various load conditions throughout its life.

When the well is initially completed, there is a force distribution resulting

from the weight of the tubing, the hydrostatic force exerted by the

completion fluid and the prevailing pressures and temperature at the

time the tubing is landed. During production or well operations, changes

in pressure and temperature occur in the tubing and annulus.

If the tubing is free to move, these changes will cause a change in

length. If the tubing is not permitted to move (ie, the tubing is

anchored), forces are generated in the tubing and act on the packer and

wellhead to prevent these length changes from occurring. The prevailing

conditions when the completion is landed are normally regarded as the

'base case'. Subsequent changes in pressure, pressure gradients and

temperature can then be superimposed on this base case to give the

associated load on the tubing or service load. The service life of the

tubing is then described by a series of service loads.

To properly assess the stress state of the tubing, a three-dimensional

analysis must be performed. The analysis presented in this section shows

how to determine both the API load capacity design factors and the

triaxial stress design factors. In addition, the accurate calculation of

tubing movement is also presented in order to determine the appropriate

seal length in completions which allow tubing movement.

All tubing is manufactured within strictly controlled tolerances ensuring

that weight, OD and thickness are within well defined limits. The most

common system of tolerances is the API (see table included below)

however, more strict tolerances are used by certain manufacturers and

these may be used where appropriate. Most operators have their own

procurement philosophy, but this usually follows API dimensional

tolerances found in API 5CT.

Property Tolerance

Outside diameter

OD: 4” and smaller +0.03

OD: 41/2” and larger +1.00%

-0.50

Weight

Single lengths +6.50%

-3.50%

thickness.

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

Axial Loading

If the tubing is free to move, changes in temperature and pressure

induce length changes in the string. The following conventions have been

used in the equations presented in this topic:

• increases in length are considered positive and reductions in length

are negative;

• axial tensile forces are positive and axial compressive forces are

negative.

For tubing that is free to move, changing conditions will cause changes

in both the forces acting on the tubing and the overall tubing length. All

effects like weight, pressure/area, fluid friction, tubing plugs, ballooning

and temperature will change the length. However, ballooning and

temperature, unlike the others, will not induce axial forces in the string.

The axial forces induced in anchored tubing are the sum of the axial

forces induced if the tubing were free to move plus the axial forces

created by resisting the overall length change. The method used by

software packages such as WS-Tube to calculate these forces is to first

calculate the movements as if the tubing were free to move and then

calculate the force, using Hooke's law and taking account of buckling

(where required), to restore the end of the tubing to its original position

or to the position at the extreme of its allowable movement. The sum of

the axial force calculated assuming free tubing movement and the force

required to oppose the change in length then becomes the resulting axial

force in anchored tubing.

Weight

Consider the section of tubing shown in the following figure at an

inclination angle of 'A'. The weight of the tubing acts in the vertical

direction down. This force can be divided into two components: one

acting parallel to the pipe axis and one acting perpendicular to the pipe

axis. These components can be expressed mathematically as follows:

Equation 1

FWT = W cos A

and

Equation 2

N = W sin A

where:

W = weight of the tubing, lb.

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

N does not affect the axial force profile in the string. Since cosA equals

the change in vertical depth divided by the change in measured depth for

the inclined part of the well:

Equation 3

where

W' = weight per unit length of the tubing, lb/ft

TVD = vertical distance below the point of interest to the bottom

of the tubing

Note: Friction forces between the casing and the tubing are neglected in

nearly all cases. However, for highly deviated wells, the friction force can

be significant and must be considered for over pull, particularly where

retrievable packers and pinned anchor or expansion devices are to be

used.

An open ended tube freely suspended in a fluid is subjected to

hydrostatic pressure as shown in the following figure. The result of this

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

a compressive axial force in the tubing.

hydrostatic pressure as shown in the figure above. The result of this

pressure acting on the cross-sectional area at the bottom of the string is

a compressive axial force in the tubing. This is often referred to as the

buoyancy effect and is described by the following equation:

Equation 4

FB = − p( Ao − Ai )

where

p = pressure at the bottom of the string, psi

Ao = area corresponding to the nominal pipe OD, in2

Ai = area corresponding to the nominal pipe ID, in2

It should be noted that the formulas used to calculate the effect fluids

have on reducing rig hook loads (buoyancy charts) will give the correct

surface or hook load. This technique will however incorrectly model the

force distribution within the length of the completion.

It must be noted that where crossovers are used axial loads

determination must account for the changes in cross sectional area.

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

Expansion Devices

Where expansion devices are used, pressures will still act on any exposed

areas. When there is a higher internal pressure than external, this

pressure will generate an upward force on the tubing above the

expansion device and a downward force on the tubing beneath the

expansion device. The following presents the areas where pressures and

loads act on various expansion devices.

The force acting on the upper tubing is given by the following equation:

FPR = po ( Ab − Ao ) − pi ( Ab − Ai )

Equation 5

where

pi = tubing pressure at the bottom of the string, psi

po = annulus pressure at the bottom of the string, psi

Ab = area corresponding to the ID of the packer seal bore, in2

What is critical to get right is the seal bore area (Ab). This is the real

dimension of the parts that move relative to each other:

• for an expansion joint this would normally be the OD of the male

member, as the seals are normally on the female member;

• for a PBR, this would normally be the ID of the female member, as

the seals are usually on the male member.

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

Apart from this subtle difference, PBRs and expansion joints are treated

in the same way. It is usual to position expansion devices above packers

and indeed in most commercial stress analysis programs, the expansion

joint is always assumed to be at the packer itself. The same analysis can

be used with any device, which joins two sections of tubing even if no

relative movement is possible.

Piston Effect

The pressure / area effect alters both the axial forces in the string and

results in tubing movement if movement is allowed. The force generated

through pressure acting on area can be caused by any of the pressure

area phenomenon mentioned tubing ends, crossovers, expansion devices

and plugs). The change in length (often termed as the piston effect) is

calculated with Hooke’s law as follows:

LF

∆L =

Equation 6 E ( Ao − Ai )

where

L = measured depth of the tubing

F = force (due to plug, expansion device, crossover etc.)

Temperature Effects

A property of steel and alloys which relates the change in temperature to

the change in length is the coefficient of thermal expansion. For low alloy

carbon steel the coefficient of thermal expansion is equal to 6.7 x 10-6

/°F. The change in length caused by a change in temperature for both

uniform and combination completions is calculated as follows:

∆LTEMP = CT ∆TL

Equation 7

where

CT = coefficient of thermal expansion, 1/°F

∆T = average change in temperature, °F from the base case to

the load case

L = length of tubing

If the tubing is free to move, there is no axial force associated with a

change in temperature. If the tubing is anchored, a force will be exerted

on the tubing to oppose the length change. The force is given by Hooke’s

law:

− ∆LTEMP E ( Ao − Ai )

FTEMP =

LP

Equation 8

= − CT E∆T ( Ao − Ai )

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

section separately and the results added to determine the force on the

packer.

Radial expansion or contraction of the pipe, caused by a change in

pressure, results in length changes of the tubing string as is shown in the

following figure.

the base case within each section of constant OD and wall thickness. The

length change is calculated as follows:

− 2 µL P

∆LBAL = ( ∆p A − ∆po Ao )

Equation 9 E ( Ao − Ai )

i i

where

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

µ = Poisson’s Ratio

For combination completions, the above equation is applied to each

section and the length change for each section is algebraically added

together to obtain the total length change due to Poisson's Effect for the

entire string. If the tubing is free to move, there is no axial force

associated with ballooning. If the tubing is anchored, the force required

to prevent the tubing movement from ballooning is calculated as follows:

Equation 10

Fluid Friction

The term fluid friction should not be confused with the term ‘tubing

friction’. Fluid friction is caused by fluids moving inside the tubing and the

associated friction between the fluid and the tubing wall. Tubing friction is

the friction between the tubing and the casing itself. When fluid is

pumped down the tubing string, fluid friction tends to lengthen the string.

Likewise, when fluid is flowed up the tubing, the string shortens.

If the tubing is free to move, the frictional pressure force at any given

depth is given by:

Equation 11 − ∆p

FFR = AL

∆L i

where

L = length below the point being considered (above for fluid

injection), ft

Note, for a flowing well, ∆p/∆L is assumed to be positive. This force

causes a change in length which is calculated from Hooke’s law as

follows:

⎡ ⎛ − ∆p ⎞ 2 ⎤

Equation 12 ⎢ ⎜⎝ ∆L ⎟⎠ L p Ai ⎥

∆LFR =⎢ ⎥

⎢ 2 E ( Ao − Ai ) ⎥

⎢⎣ ⎥⎦

The above equation does not consider the change in kinetic energy of the

fluid. In some cases this can be significant, such as during production of

well fluids where gas break-out and other effects cause a significant

change in the fluid's kinetic energy. Note, the length change due to fluid

friction is normally only considered critical during hydraulic fracturing, or

high rate water injection through small tubing and in this case the

equation is valid. However it is usual to use friction reducers during

hydraulic stimulation and therefore service company advice is required.

The factor of 2 in the denominator accounts for the fact that the force is

distributed along the length of the string and the average force, which is

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

half the maximum force, on any single element of the tubing is used to

determine the change in length. If the tubing is fixed at the packer, the

force is the sum of the forces calculated assuming free tubing movement

and the force induced to resist the movement due to fluid friction:

− ∆p ( − ∆LFR ) E ( Ao − Ai )

Equation 13 FFR = Ai L +

∆L Lp

⎛ − ∆p ⎞ ⎛ Lp ⎞

=⎜ ⎟ Ai ⎜ L − ⎟

⎝ ∆L ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

where

L = the completion length

Lp = the length to the packer

Most software packages do not have the ability to account for fluid

friction, despite having all the input data available. Frictional pressure

drops are used, but solely to calculate the actual pressures inside the

tubing. For most applications, the fluid friction axial forces are small and

can safely be ignored. However it should be included for small diameter

high rate wells.

When the packer and tubing hanger have been set, the base case forces

are locked in to the completion. All subsequent load cases produce forces

which are relative to this base case. The easiest way to adjust the base

case axial load is to use slack-off (or less commonly overpulls). This is

usually performed by setting the packer and then slacking off (or

overpulling) some weight onto the packer. This weight is the slack-off

weight. In practice this is achieved by setting the packer with the hanger

some distance out of the bowl. It is this distance (or stick-up) which

determines how much slack-off is applied to packer when the hanger is

lower into the bowl. The stick-up (initial change in tubing length due to

slack-off or overpull) is calculated with Hooke’s law:

FSO L p

Equation 14 ∆LSO =

E ( Ao − Ai )

program. If more than one packer is used (e.g. Annular Safety Valves)

then each packer can have its own slack-off and stick-up.

Slacking off on the tubing results in initially buckling the pipe. The

appropriate equation from the ‘Buckling Loads and Modes’ topic, is used

to calculate the length change component from buckling. The reduction in

length from slacking off, or the increase in length from picking up is

subtracted from the total length change from the load case to determine

the overall change in length.

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

The total axial force is the sum of the primary axial forces described

above and is calculated using the following equation:

Equation 15

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

The inner and outer radial and tangential stresses are calculated from

Lame's equations for thick walled cylinders. The radial stress is given by:

pi Ai − po Ao ( pi − po ) Ai Ao

Equation 16 σr = −

( Ao − Ai ) ( Ao − Ai ) A

where

A = area corresponding to either inner or outer radius, in2

For the inner radius (A = Ai ) this reduces to:

σ r ,i = − pi

Equation 17

σ r ,o = − po

Equation 18

pi Ai − po Ao ( pi − po ) Ai Ao

σt = +

Equation 19 ( Ao − Ai ) ( Ao − Ai ) A

pi ( Ai + Ao ) − 2 po Ao

Equation 20 σ t ,i =

Ao − Ai

2 pi Ai − po ( Ai + Ao )

σ t ,o =

Ao − Ai

Equation 21

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

Helical Buckling

When a tube is loaded in axial compression, it will shorten in accordance

with Hooke's law. However, if the tube is sufficiently long, which is almost

always the case for well tubing, as the compressive force increases, a

critical force will be reached that corresponds to an unstable condition. At

this critical and higher compressive load, any amount of crookedness of

the tube or slight movement of the load will cause the tube to buckle

helically. In the presence of internal and external pressures, tubing

behaves as if it was subjected to a force called the effective buckling

force. This force is given by:

(σ + σi )

Equation 22

FEFF = FTOTAL −

2

t

( Ao − Ai )

= FTOTAL + ( po Ao − pi Ai )

axial force. The criteria used for buckling is:

• if FEFF is negative, the tubing behaves as though it is in

compression and helical buckling will occur.

This concept can be difficult to understand since it is hard to visualise

how the radial and tangential stresses affect buckling. A full description is

included in the references. If the tubing is free to move and only

subjected to pressure/area forces, the effective buckling force at packer

depth reduces to:

FEFF = A p ( p o − pi )

Equation 23

Hence, in this situation buckling can only occur if the internal pressure is

greater than the external pressure. If the effective buckling force, FEFF, is

negative at packer depth, then FEFF will approach zero moving up the

string as a result of the increasing tension due to tubing weight. At some

depth, FEFF will become zero. This point is defined as the 'neutral point'.

Below the neutral point the pipe is buckled, whereas above this point the

pipe is straight, the following figure illustrates buckled tubing string.

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

FEFF

Equation 24 n=

W '+ Gi Ai − Go Ao

where

n = distance between the neutral point and the bottom of the

string, ft MD

G = fluid pressure gradient, psi/ft

W’ = weight per length of tubing

If the tubing is free to move and the neutral point is within the tubing

string, the change in length due to helical buckling is given by:

− C 2 FEFF 2

∆LHB =

8EI (W '+ Gi Ai − Go Ao )

Equation 25

where

C = radial clearance between the tubing and the casing, in

π

I = tubing moment of inertia, in4 =

64

( OD4 − ID4 )

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

When the neutral point is calculated to be above the top of the string, the

entire string is buckled and the equation for length change is:

− C 2 FEFF 2 ⎡L⎛ L⎞ ⎤

∆LHB = ⎢ ⎜2 − ⎟

Equation 26 8EI (W '+ Gi Ai − Go Ao ) ⎣ n ⎝ n ⎠ ⎥⎦

where

L = length of the tubing string, ft

Anchored Tubing

If the tubing is anchored, helical buckling can still occur. The associated

change in length relieves part of the compression exerted on the packer.

The force relieved is referred to as the unbuckling force. Since the length

change due to helical buckling is a non-linear function of the effective

buckling force, it is not possible to solve for the force due to unbuckling

directly. Instead, an iterative procedure is used to determine the total

end mechanical force, the tubing-to-packer force, when helical buckling

occurs in anchored tubing. The force due to unbuckling is then the

difference between this tubing-to-packer force, FT-P and the total primary

axial force, FTOTAL.

The method of superposition is the basis for the iterative procedure which

is used by some of the software packages to determine FT-P. A primary

reason for using this method is that it allows for solving for a restoring

force for limited movement completions where the restoring distance is

different to the distance moved.

If buckling occurs in a service condition and the tubing is fixed at the

packer, or cannot move by the amount of total length change calculated,

it is not correct to simply determine the force required to restore the end

of the tubing to the required location through a combination of buckling

and elastic strain. If the pipe is buckled when it is free to move, a change

in force and hence effective buckling force, causes a non-linear change in

length which depends on where the system is on the force versus length

curve. In the following figure it can be seen that the incremental force

changes F1 and F2 are equal, yet L2 is greater than L1 because the

absolute force existing when the incremental force is added is different.

Consequently, the absolute effective force must be established to

properly determine the length change.

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

axial stresses in the tubing. Bending induces axial compressive stresses

in one side of the pipe and axial tensile stresses in the other side of the

pipe as shown in the following figure. The equation for the axial stress

due to bending is as follows:

∆θ

Equation 28

σbend =±E×r ∆L

5730 × 12

where:

r = pipe radius where the stress is calculated, in

∆θ

= dogleg severity, deg/100 ft

∆L

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

radius of curvature and dogleg severity must first be determined. The

pitch is the distance in feet between spirals on the helix and is calculated

with the following equation:

1

⎛ 8 EI ⎞ 2

Equation 29 P=π ⎜ ⎟

⎝ FEFF ⎠

where

P = Pitch

The radius of curvature of the helix in feet is given by:

P 2 + 4π 2 C 2

Equation 30 rc =

4π 2 C

∆θ 5730

=

Equation 31 ∆L rc

12

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

These stresses are confined to the bends only and hence they do not

affect the axial force profile in the string. However, bending stresses may

contribute to tubing failure by yielding the material and they are

therefore taken account of in the Von Mises equivalent (VME) stress and,

hence, in the triaxial design factor.

Buckling of production tubing strings can be tolerated in many cases

provided that the stress intensity in the pipe is at acceptable levels.

Buckling is generally acceptable provided that the peak VME stress in the

pipe, including the axial bending stresses due to buckling and deviation,

are less than the specified minimum yield stress of the material with an

appropriate design factor. Basically, there are two instances when

buckling of production tubing is unacceptable even if the VME stress

intensity is acceptably low:

• when tools must be run through the tubing, eg, before and after

perforating with a through-tubing perforating gun;

• when the equivalent dogleg severity from buckling compromises

the structural integrity or sealability of the tubing connections.

Obviously, if the tubing is severely buckled, the running of tools in the

tubing is complicated. Preferably, during conditions where it is necessary

to run tools in the tubing, the tubing should not be buckled. However, it

is generally possible to run tools in pipe which is only mildly buckled. The

maximum free passage length for a tool in a helix shaped tube is

calculated with the following formula:

⎡ ⎤

Equation 32

Ltool

P ⎢

= cos−1 ⎢

( IDd − ODtool ) ⎥⎥

π ⎢ ⎛⎜ C + IDd ⎞⎟ ⎥

⎢⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥⎦

where

Ltool = rigid length of a tool that can pass through the buckled

tubing, ft

ODtool = tool diameter, in

IDd = tubing ID or drift diameter, in

The free passage length value can be used as a guide to determine if the

amount of buckling will prevent the running of tools. Keep in mind that

tools are not completely rigid and therefore the free passage length

calculated with Equation 32 is conservative. If buckling is a problem, it is

possible to decrease the buckling intensity or eliminate buckling by

applying external surface pressure which tends to straighten the pipe.

Also, buckling can be lessened by using a lower initial slack-off weight if

this is feasible.

The use of expansion devices may also tend to increase buckling loads,

particularly where there are high internal pressures. Consideration should

be given to removing expansion devices, or using as small a seal bore as

possible on the expansion device. Depending on the buckling intensity

and on what connection is used on the tubing, the structural integrity or

Pg Dip/MSc Energy Programme/Wells Tubing Specification & Equipment Material Selection

specialty service metal-to-metal seal, threaded and coupled (MTC)

connectors like NEW VAM, VAM ACE, NKK NK-3SB, Mannesmann TDS,

Nippon NS-CT, Fox, etc., have been proven acceptable with doglegs up to

25°/100 ft and they are probably capable of maintaining structural and

leakage integrity with doglegs as high as 40°/100 ft.

In deviated wells, or in wells with doglegs, axial bending stresses have an

axial component similar to bending stresses due to helical buckling. The

bending stress due to deviation is normally modelled by specifying a

maximum dogleg severity, either estimated or taken from a well survey.

There are no length changes associated with bending due to the deviation

of the well. The axial stress due to well deviation, σDEV, is then calculated

by use of Equation 33.

The maximum axial stresses, σa,i and σa,o, are the sum of the total

primary axial stress and the stresses due to helical buckling and hole

deviation at the inner and outer tubing walls:

FTOTAL

Equation 33 σa = ± σ HB ± σ DEV

Ao − Ai

The signs of σHB and σDEV are chosen to maximize the absolute value of

σa.

- Column DesignUploaded byAnonymous D1h2pK
- Behaviour of Composite Cellular Steel - Concrete Beams at Elevated TemperaturesUploaded byFrontlinerEagle
- Verify 87Uploaded byqwdt
- Gotluru Torsion PaperUploaded byklomps_jr
- SN003b (NCCI - Elastric Critical Moment for Lateral Torsional Buckling)Uploaded byHamati Rami
- MBA Admission in IndiaUploaded byedholecom
- Sections12.1-3Uploaded bydelu19980809809809
- D6641.1166550-1Uploaded bykhudhayer1970
- Honbun-5030_03Uploaded byromvos8469
- BuckUploaded bybritishh123
- Review of LRFD Steel DesignUploaded bybrianmanson78
- Compression ManualUploaded byxxazninvasionxx2697
- Workshop1 IaUploaded byDanar Tri Yurindatama
- Lecture 36Uploaded bymoondonoo7
- 201502244 (3)Uploaded byNasarKhan
- Term Paper1-Arijit Dey.docxUploaded byarijit
- COMPRESSION BEHAVIOR OF DOUBLER-PLATEUploaded byRio Wawo
- 2017 q4 Engineering JournalUploaded byCésar Cristóbal Pino Guzmán
- UraUploaded bygertjani
- A Study on the Flex Ura of i Led Composite BeamsUploaded byshekargundavarapu
- IR-07-01.pdfUploaded byfmboy700
- Columns and StrutsUploaded byamitsaga
- Buckling of Shells Proceedings of a State of the Art Colloquium Universit t Stuttgart Germany May 6-7-1982Uploaded byMohammed Essam Shatnawi
- Case Study of Element Types on Cold Formed Steel Angle Sections Under Tensile Using AnsysUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Ch10 COMPOSITE COLUMNS and Structural SystemsUploaded byErnie Ernie
- compression-1.pdfUploaded byjademarielle812
- a02v7n3.pdfUploaded byharishram123456
- GardnerandNethercot2004-Structuralstainlesssteeldesign-anewapproachUploaded byLinh Tran
- LAME Buckling ChecksUploaded byBen Clack
- CH-10Uploaded byKTMO

- Total Subsea Solutions.pdfUploaded byAsh1Scribd
- Optimization of Operation of a Pyrolysis Reactor oUploaded byMaría Marquina
- [Thomas S. Kuhn] the Structure of Scientific Revol(Z-lib.org)Uploaded byMaría Marquina
- Defining PCPUploaded byMus'ab Usman
- S-shaped profile for relief wells may reduce risk of missing target well - Drilling Contractor.pdfUploaded byMaría Marquina
- H011063.pdfUploaded byMaría Marquina
- Draft Relief Well Plan for Cratered WellUploaded byMaría Marquina
- A_TEXTBOOK_OF_TRANSLATIONUploaded byRangga Kustiawan
- REGG (Futher Reading 3)Uploaded byMaría Marquina
- 2 Subsea Manifolds FlowlinesUploaded byMaría Marquina
- SPE-130141-MS-PBIT.pdfUploaded byMaría Marquina
- OTC-20005-MSUploaded byAnre Thanh Hung
- Codigos y NormasUploaded byMaría Marquina
- Sec6 Subsea Blowout Preventers[1].pdfUploaded byMaría Marquina
- Historia de La Perforación Costa AfueraUploaded byMaría Marquina
- Arreglos de la BOP.pdfUploaded byMaría Marquina
- Vetco Riser .pdfUploaded byMiller Fagundes
- Guide Drilling SystemsUploaded byreynzo
- IADC Tri Cone Dull GradingUploaded byScott Fraser
- Sonatrach Directional DrillingUploaded byUsama Bin Sabir
- NS-8 Drillstring Forces TheoryUploaded byjose
- Logs Answer.pptUploaded byMaría Marquina
- Appendix A English.pdfUploaded byMaría Marquina
- IntroductionUploaded byLuis Felipe Velasco Villegas
- Module 2.pptUploaded byMaría Marquina
- Module 4.pptUploaded byMaría Marquina
- Module 1 Basic Rock Mechanics.pptUploaded byMaría Marquina

- 04604770Uploaded byAryce_
- A Memory-Jamming Theory of AdvertisingUploaded bydong hyuk
- 2. Stat 175 Intro to Time SeriesUploaded byNiccolo Aaron Mendoza Alcantara
- Analisis Pola Tata Ruang Terbuka Tepian Sungai Winongo Di Kampung Budaya BangunrejoUploaded byJalu Tathit
- Midterm 1st Sem (2015)Uploaded byrex tanong
- Digital System and IC Design_sandeppani PptsUploaded byShuvra Saha
- APPhysics1-Mobile15Uploaded byNishant Mysore
- Herman Schmid-Decimal Computation-John Wiley & Sons Inc (1974)Uploaded byFelis Yuugana
- Visual Basic Practical RecordUploaded bykabeeraryan
- heimphysicsUploaded byMark Stoneman
- Hall,Lee; Continous Dynamical Systems,1996.PsUploaded byMARCO ANTONIO RAMOS ALVA
- chapter 2Uploaded byyounessina
- docc1982Uploaded byswchen
- 64241385 Transmission Lines Wave GuidesUploaded byAnonymous lt2LFZH
- Logic GatesUploaded byNGOUNE
- Service RulesUploaded byWaqas Nadeem
- OEE DOCUploaded bydivakar suman
- 1-2 practice_cUploaded byStanley
- Design_01.pdfUploaded byAnudeep Akkana
- Detecting Novel Associations in Large Data SetsUploaded bymfilannino
- Lecture 15_elliptic Curves IIUploaded byaditi
- Case Study 1 University Database Application Till Exp 3Uploaded bysendtoshekar
- Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy - University NotesUploaded byLilac44
- ClassificationUploaded byelan
- Turbulence Transition Modeling 5Uploaded byAhmed Jabir
- 6. Hum-Optimal Energy Mix a Tool for Judicious Use of EnergyUploaded byImpact Journals
- Unit 4 Two Marks AnswersUploaded byAnonymous lt2LFZH
- Discrete Mathematics SyllabusUploaded byCorey Ellis
- Lec01 Circuit VariablesUploaded byDani
- Baycentric Coordinates in Olympiad GeometryUploaded byJonathan Huang