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Jer-Fu Wang,a) M.EERI, Chi-Chang Lin,b) M.EERI, Ging-Long Lin,c)

and Chun-Hao Yangd)

In this paper, a story damage index was developed to evaluate the damage

condition of a torsionally coupled building based on its dominant modal frequen-

cies and mode shapes. This index has an analytical formula with a calculated

value ranging from 0 (undamaged) to 1.0 (collapsed) to indicate the reduction

of story lateral stiffness. The involved computation is simple once the modal

parameters of any three modes are obtained through system identification tech-

niques from few floor acceleration measurements. The damage region within a

story can also be identified through tracking the change of eccentricity of center

of rigidity. This index was verified by numerical simulations and a data analysis

of the ASCE benchmark model. In addition, it was also applied to the damage

assessment of a four-story reinforced concrete building in Taiwan, which experi-

enced severe damage during the 2006 Taitung Beinan earthquake (M = 6.2). The

results agree fairly well with the visual inspection and show the applicability of

the proposed damage assessment technique. [DOI: 10.1193/1.4000168]

INTRODUCTION

Most modern earthquake-resistant design codes allow a building to experience repairable

damage during moderate and large earthquakes. In consequence, damage is inevitable, and it

is important to acquire damage information for a building’s owner to take immediate and

appropriate actions after a strong earthquake event. Damaged buildings without immediate

retrofit may probably encounter further damage and even collapse in the next extreme event.

Therefore, the development of damage assessment techniques, which are able to detect,

locate, and quantify the damage of a structure, receives considerable attention and becomes

a crucial topic in earthquake engineering research and practice.

Damage assessment can be done in global or in local ways. The latter is called as non-

destructive testing (NDT) which is applied after the location of damage is detected, while the

former is usually referred to as structural health monitoring (SHM). A well-established SHM

a)

Assistant Research Fellow, 921 Earthquake Museum of Taiwan, National Museum of Natural Science, Wufeng

District, Taichung City, Taiwan 413, R.O.C. Tel: 886-4-23390906 ext 960, E-mail: jfwang@nmns.edu.tw /

jfwang@921emt.edu.tw

b)

Corresponding author, Distinguished Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, National Chung Hsing

University, Taichung, Taiwan 40227, R.O.C. Tel: 886-4-22840438 ext 225, E-mail: cclin3@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

c)

Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Department of Civil Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung,

Taiwan 40227, R.O.C.

d)

Graduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan

40227, R.O.C.

963

Earthquake Spectra, Volume 29, No. 3, pages 963–985, August 2013; © 2013, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute

964 WANG ET AL.

system needs the installation of hardware incorporated with suitable damage assessment

algorithms. Nowadays, hardware technologies for SHM, such as sensor and data acquisition

equipment, are extensively developed, whereas a reliable damage assessment technique

remains unrecognized.

Damage assessment techniques based on vibration responses of structures are considered

to be practical for SHM because damage may alter the dynamic characteristics and then affect

the vibration behavior of structures (Allemang and Brown 1982, Barone et al. 2008, De

Roeck 2003, Elenas and Meskouris 2001, Farrar and Jauregui 1998, Farrar et al. 2001, Hajela

and Soeiro 1990, Hjelmstad and Shin 1997, Hong et al. 2009, Katkhuda and Haldar 2008,

Lieven and Ewins 1988, Pandey et al. 1991, Pandey and Biswas 1994, Park and Ang 1985,

Salawu 1997, Thermou and Pantazopoulou 2011, Xu and Wu 2007, Yan et al. 2007).

Vibration-based techniques usually need to acquire the measurements of structural vibration

responses, such as acceleration, velocity, and energy. Also, the features related to damage

have to be defined and calculated either directly or indirectly from the measurements. More-

over, algorithms based on the obtained features are also the key to a successful damage

assessment. In the studies by Farrar et al. (2001) and by Yan et al. (2007), various

vibration-based damage assessment techniques were summarized and reviewed. The signif-

icance of using modal-based damage indices was also described.

Damage detection of a structural system according to the change of modal frequencies is

instinctive because damage is often accompanied with stiffness loss that may cause the reduc-

tion of modal frequencies. Damage in different locations and components may induce dif-

ferent changes in modal frequencies. Nevertheless, the detection of damage just by observing

the changes of modal frequencies remains some challenges (Salawu 1997). Among the modal

parameters, mode shape is the only one containing the location information. Some mode

shape-based indices with simple expression, such as modal assurance criterion (MAC;

Allemang and Brown 1982), coordinate modal assurance criterion (COMAC; Lieven and

Ewins 1988), and modal curvature index (Farrar and Jauregui 1998, Pandey et al. 1991),

have been broadly applied to detect and locate the damage. However, it has been shown

that these indices were insensitive to damage in some cases (Brasiliano et al. 2004, Ndambi

et al. 2002). Indices—for example, the modal flexibility damage index (MFDI, Pandey and

Biswas 1994), based on both modal frequencies and mode shapes—may be more reliable in

detecting and locating the damage. In addition, some researchers (Di and Law 2007, Gomes

and Silva 2008, Jiang and Mahadevan 2008, Kim and Chun 2004, Kim et al. 2005) developed

more accurate damage indices with complicated mathematical expressions for various types

of structures. Recently, Wang et al. (2007) developed damage indices with simpler expres-

sions and better accuracy. However, all of the above-mentioned damaged indices were devel-

oped for symmetric buildings that can be treated as planar buildings.

The asymmetry of a general building, leading to the center of rigidity (CR) inconsistent

with the center of mass (CM), may not be fully avoided. This induces the coupling of transla-

tional and torsional motions of a building structure during translational ground motions.

Several studies (Chandler and Hutchinson 1986, Chopra 2011, De la Llera and Chopra

1994, Hajal and Chopra 1989, Kan and Chopra 1977a, 1977b, 1981, Lin et al. 2005,

Ueng et al. 2000) have revealed that buildings with this torsionally coupled (TC) effect

have different dynamic characteristics and vibration behavior from symmetric buildings.

STORY DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION OF IRREGULAR BUILDINGS BASED ON EARTHQUAKE RECORDS 965

damage index, called SDITC, which is defined as the reduction of story stiffness. A general

TC building model with multiple floors and two-way eccentricity under bi-directional ground

motions is established. It is attempted to analytically derive this index and express it in terms

of the modal frequencies and mode shapes of structural vibration modes. Besides, it is

expected that the change of CR location, indicating the damaged region within a story

can also be derived based on the same parameters expressing the SDITC.

To demonstrate the advantage of this study, a damage assessment procedure incorporat-

ing the SRIM (System Realization using Information Matrix) system identification technique

(Juang 1997, Lin et al. 2005, Lin et al. 2008) with the SDITC was performed through numer-

ical simulations and experimental data analysis. The SRIM technique is applicable for both

stationary and transient response measurements. In addition, regarding a TC building as two

independent planar buildings in two directions, a planar building-based damage index was

also used to examine the estimated error when the TC effect is ignored. Lastly, a really

damaged building, the Taitung Fire Department Building which experienced severe damage

during the 2006 Taitung Beinan Earthquake, was investigated. The damage assessment

results are compared with visual inspection results to verify the applicability of the proposed

damage assessment technique.

THEORETICAL DERIVATION

Consider an N-story TC shear building subjected to bi-directional ground motions, ẍg and

ÿg , with mass ml and polar moment of inertia J l at the lth floor and the uncoupled stiffness kxl ,

k yl and kθl in the lth story along x-, y- and θ-directions, respectively, as shown in Figure 1.

The equation of motion of the linear building system can be written in matrix form as

MÜðtÞ þ CUðtÞ

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e1;62;314

_ þ KUðtÞ ¼ MrÜgðtÞ (1)

where M, C, and K are the 3N 3N mass, damping, and stiffness matrices, respectively. The

3N 1 vector, U(t), represents the floor displacements relative to the ground at time t. r

indicates the 3N 1 influence vector. With the free body diagrams in Figure 2, M, K,

and U(t), can be written as

2 3

M1 ::: ::: 0

6 .. .. 7

6 . M2 . 7

6 7 2 3

6 .. 7

6 . 7 ml 0 0

6 7

M¼6 Ml 7 where M l ¼ 4 0 ml 05 (2a)

6 7

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e2a;62;232

6 .. 7 0 0 Jl

6 . 7

6 . .. 7

4 .. MN1 . 5

0 ::: ::: MN

966 WANG ET AL.

STORY DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION OF IRREGULAR BUILDINGS BASED ON EARTHQUAKE RECORDS 967

Figure 2. Free body diagrams of (a) the top floor and (b) the ith floor for the TC building.

2 3

K1;1 K1;2 ::: ::: 0

6 .. 7

6 K2;1 K2;2 K2;3 . 7

6 7

6 . .. 7

6 .. 7

6 . 7

K¼6

6

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e2b;62;215

7 (2b)

6 .. .. 7

6 7

6 . . 7

6 .. 7

4 . KN2;N1 KN1;N1 KN1;N 5

0 ::: ::: KN1;N KN;N

968 WANG ET AL.

8 9

n o < xl ðtÞ =

UT ðtÞ ¼ U1 ðtÞ U2 ðtÞ ::: Ul ðtÞ ::: UN ðtÞ where Ul ðtÞ ¼ yl ðtÞ (2c)

: ;

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e2c;41;640

θl ðtÞ

where xl ðtÞ, yl ðtÞ, and θl ðtÞ represent displacements of the lth floor in x-, y-, and θ-directions,

respectively. In Equation 2b), 3 3 submatrices K 1;1 , K 2;2 , : : : , K N1;N1 , can be expressed

in detail as

2 3

k xl þ k xlþ1 0 k xl eyl;l k xlþ1 eyl;lþ1

6 k yl þ k ylþ1 k yl exl;l þ k ylþ1 exl;lþ1 7

Kl;l ¼ 4

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e2d;41;550

0 5 (2d)

k xl eyl;l k xlþ1 eyl;lþ1 k yl exl;l þ k ylþ1 exl;lþ1 ðk θl þ k θlþ1 þ k xl e2yl;l þ k xlþ1 e2yl;lþ1 þ k yl e2xl;l þ k ylþ1 e2xl;lþ1 Þ

2 3

k xN 0 k xN eyN;N

6 k yN k yN exN;N 7

KN;N

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e2e;41;482 ¼4 0 5 (2e)

k xN eyN;N k yN exN;N ðk θN þ k xN eyN;N þ kyN exN;N Þ

2 2

written as

2 3

kx 0 kxl eyl1;l

6 0 l kyl k yl exl1;l 7

Kl;l1

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e2f;41;376 ¼4 5 (2f)

kxl eyl;l k yl exl;l ðkθl k xl eyl;l eyl1;l kyl exl;l exl1;l Þ

2 3

k xlþ1 0 kxlþ1 eylþ1;lþ1

6 kylþ1 kylþ1 exlþ1;lþ1 7

Kl;lþ1

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e2g;41;312 ¼4 0 5 (2g)

kxlþ1 eyl;lþ1 kylþ1 exl;lþ1 ðk θlþ1 kxlþ1 eyl;lþ1 eylþ1;lþ1 kylþ1 exl;lþ1 exlþ1;lþ1 Þ

In Equations 2d–2g, exm;n and eym;n (m, n = l-1, l, or l+1) represent the eccentricity of the

CR from the CM of the mth floor due to the elements providing stiffness in nth story in x- and

y-directions, respectively.

Let ωj and Φj be the jth modal frequency and the 3N 1 vector of jth mode shape,

respectively. The characteristic equation of the building system with proportional damping

can be written as

ðK ω2j MÞΦj ¼ 0

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e3a;41;157 (3a)

STORY DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION OF IRREGULAR BUILDINGS BASED ON EARTHQUAKE RECORDS 969

n oT

Φj ¼

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e3b;62;640

ϕx1 j ϕy1 j ϕθ1 j ::: ϕxl j ϕyl j ϕθl j ::: ϕxN j ϕyN j ϕθN j (3b)

From Equation 3a), the relationship between physical parameters and modal parameters of

the building system is established.

Substituting Equations 2a–2g into Equation 3a, the lateral stiffnesses in x and y directions

of the lth story can be analytically derived as

X

N mϕ

i xj X

N mϕ

i yj

kxl ¼ ω2j i

; kyl ¼ ω2j i

(4a, 4b)

ΔϕCR ΔϕCR

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e4a;62;531

i¼l xl j i¼l yl j

where ϕxi j and ϕyi j represent the ith element of the jth mode shape in x and y directions,

respectively. The constant j can be 1, 2, : : : , or 3N. Moreover,

CR

CR

ϕxl j ϕCR

xl1 j for l ¼ 2; 3; : : : ; N

Δϕxl j ¼ (5a)

ϕCR for l ¼ 1

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e5a;62;455

xl j

ϕCR CR

yl j ϕyl1 j for l ¼ 2; 3; : : : ; N

ΔϕCR

yl j ¼ (5b)

ϕCR for l ¼ 1

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e5b;62;407

yl j

ϕCR CR

xl1 j ¼ ϕxl1 j eyl1;l ϕθl1 j ; ϕxl j ¼ ϕxl j eyl;l ϕθl j

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e6a;62;335 (6a, 6b)

ϕCR CR

yl1 j ¼ ϕyl1 j þ exl1;l ϕθl1 j ; ϕyl j ¼ ϕyl j þ exl;l ϕθl j

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e6c;62;301 (6c, 6d)

The superscript CR in Equations 6a–6d indicates that the right-hand side of each equation

is equivalent to the mode shape value at the CR. In addition, the eccentricities in

Equations 6a–6d can be calculated with the following equations:

exl;l 1 Ax22 Ax13 Ax12 Ax23

¼ (7a)

exl1;l ðAx11 Ax22 Ax21 Ax12 Þ Ax21 Ax13 þ Ax11 Ax23

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e7a;62;218

eyl;l 1 Ay22 Ay13 Ay12 Ay23

¼ (7b)

eyl1;l ðAy11 Ay22 Ay21 Ay12 Þ Ay21 Ay13 þ Ay11 Ay23

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e7b;62;171

where

Ax11 ¼ ϕθl j1 F yl j2 ϕθl j2 F yl j1 ; Ax12 ¼ ϕθl1 j2 F yl j1 ϕθl1 j1 F yl j2

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e7c;62;117 (7c, 7d)

970 WANG ET AL.

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e7e;41;640 (7e)

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e7f;41;616 (7f, 7g)

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e7h;41;589 (7h)

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e7i;41;561 (7i, 7j)

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e7k;41;534 (7k)

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e7l;41;506 (7l, 7m)

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e7n;41;479 (7n)

X

N X

N

F xl m ¼

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e8;41;439 ω2m mi ϕxi m ; F xl n ¼ ω2n mi ϕyi n (8)

i¼l i¼l

modes. To make Equations 7a and 7b solvable, j1 and j2 has to be different. k1 and k2 cannot

be identical, either.

To interpret Equation 4 from a physical point of view, one can imagine a building vibrat-

ing in x direction and in its jth mode. In this condition, the vibration frequency of the building

is the jth modal frequency, ωj , and mode shape value, ϕxl j , can be regarded as the displace-

ment of the lth floor in x direction. Therefore, the lth floor acceleration in x direction equals to

ω2j ϕxl j . Also, the inertial force of the lth floor in x direction is equal to the mass multiplied by

the acceleration and expressed as ml ω2j ϕxl j according to Newton’s second law. The resultant

X

force applying to the lth story is the summation of the inertial force above the story,

N

m ω2 ϕ . In addition, the lateral resisting force in the lth story is equal to the relative

i¼l i j xi j

displacement between CRs of the lth and the (l–1)th floors, ΔϕCR xl j , times the lth story stiffness

kxl according to Hook’s law. Equating the resultant force and the resisting force, kxl is

obtained and identical to Equation 4a.

Define the reduction of lateral story stiffness in each horizontal direction as the damage of

a building. Suppose there is no mass loss after damage. According to Equation 4a, the

damage index of the lth story in x direction, termed SDITCxl , can be expressed as

STORY DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION OF IRREGULAR BUILDINGS BASED ON EARTHQUAKE RECORDS 971

X

N mi ϕxi j

kxl ω2

j i¼l

ml ΔϕCR

xl j

SDITCxl ¼ 1 ¼1 2 N (9)

k xl ωj X mi ϕxi j

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e9;62;640

i¼l

ml ΔϕCR

xl j

where the superscript asterisk (*) denotes the damage state. Similarly, SDITCyl can be

obtained by replacing x with y in Equation 9). Both SDITCxl and SDITCyl ranges from 0

(undamaged) and 1 (collapsed), which provides a convenient way to measure the degree

of story damage.

The value of SDITC mainly expresses the reduction in story stiffness, which is provided

by columns, shear walls (structural components), and partition walls (nonstructural compo-

nents). The correlation of the level of damage with the index values is case by case. For

example, buildings with same structural components but different amounts of partition

walls have different lateral stiffnesses. Structural component failure is a significant damage.

However, nonstructural component failure is repairable. So, same index value would mean

different level of damage. The values of SDITC can be applied in damage alarming.

However, visual inspection and further damage assessment are still needed to determine

the physical damage.

For a symmetric building, Wang et al. (2007) derived a story damage index, ASDIl to

evaluate the damage degree of the lth story with the assumption of uniform floor masses. The

equation of ASDIl takes the form as

XN

ϕij

ω2

j

i¼l

Δϕlj

ASDIl ¼ 1 (10)

XN

ϕij

EQ-TARGET;temp:intralink-;e10;62;334

ω2j

i¼l

Δϕ lj

It is obviously seen that Equation 10 can be reduced from Equation 9. In this study, ASDI is

also be implemented to assess the damage of a TC building with the neglect of floor eccen-

tricity. The results are compared with those by SDITC and the error of Equation 10 are

examined.

PRACTICAL ISSUES

For a real building, its modal data could be obtained through system identification tech-

niques based on its vibration responses. Practically, vibration sensors, such as acceler-

ometers, are deployed to measure the dynamic responses of the building at some specific

locations. To apply the proposed SDITC index, three horizontal uni-axial sensors (two sen-

sors aligned to one direction and the third one perpendicular to the first two sensors) are

needed to acquire the two lateral and one torsional mode shape components at the CM

of each floor, which is assumed to be rigid in plan. Therefore, for an N-story building,

972 WANG ET AL.

at least 3(N + 1) sensors are required when an input/output system identification technique is

employed. For incomplete measurements due to limited number of sensors, mode shape

interpolation scheme (Ueng et al. 2000) is required to obtain full mode shape information.

NUMERICAL VERIFICATION

A one-story steel TC building with L-shape plan in bird’s-eye view was modeled using the

software ETABS, as shown in Figure 3. This model is designed to verify the proposed technique

in detecting the damage region within a specific story and evaluating the accuracy of SDITC.

The length of each bay is 1,800 cm. There are two diagonal bracings: one at bay A-B on

grid line 4; another at bay 1-2 on grid line D. According to the output data of ETABS, the

eccentricity of CR in both x and y directions is 398 cm, about 22% of the building width, as

illustrated in Figure 4. The floor is assumed to be a rigid diaphragm so that the mode shape of

the building can be represented with the mode shape at CM

Five consecutive damage scenarios are set. The first four damage scenarios are simulated

by releasing the moment at the tops of some columns, indicating the formation of plastic

hinges. At the final stage, in addition to the damage of columns, one bracing is totally

removed. In Figure 4, the numbers represent the scenario stage sequence, and their locations

indicate where the damage are set. It can be seen that the damage progresses along one leg of

the L shape. In each scenario, the modal frequencies, mode shapes, and eccentricities of CR

in x- and y-directions are analyzed by the ETABS software.

Table 1 presents the modal parameters of the three modes of the building at undamaged

and five damaged states. Note that each column of the 3 3 mode shape matrix indicates

Figure 3. A one-story TC building model and assumed five-stage damaged sequence (dots at

joints represent plastic hinge; dot at element indicates removal of that element; numbers indicate

damage states).

STORY DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION OF IRREGULAR BUILDINGS BASED ON EARTHQUAKE RECORDS 973

Figure 4. True and predicted center of rigidity of the one-story TC building at different damaged

states (“0” indicates undamaged state).

Table 1. Comparison of true modal parameters and damage assessment results of a one-

story TC building at five damage states

Modal

Damaged frequency Mode shape (ex ; ey ) kx (ex ; ey )

1

state (Hz) ( 1st 2nd 3rd ) (cm) kx (cm)

8 9 8 9

< 3.453 = < 3.4432 3.7210 1.4114 = ky

ASDIx SDITCx

Intact 4.075 3.4432 3.7210 1.4114 (398, 398) 1 (390, 390) ASDIy SDITCy

: ; : ; ky

6.738 0.0025 0.0000 0.0061

8 9 8 9

< 3.084 = < 3.3921 3.7220 1.5281 =

State 1 3.918 3.3941 3.7200 1.5281 (485,484) 0.076 (479, 479) 0.20 0.076

: ; : ;

6.695 0.0027 0.0000 0.0060 0.076 0.076 0.076

8 9 8 9

< 2.973 = < 3.3217 3.7004 1.5127 =

State 2 3.858 3.4507 3.6501 1.5697 (521, 501) 0.10 (524, 489) 0.26 0.11

: ; : ;

6.686 0.0027 0.0001 0.0060 0.10 0.10 0.10

8 9 8 9

< 2:858 = < 3.3810 3.7210 1.5541 =

State 3 3:797 3.3810 3.7210 1.5541 (539, 539) 0.13 (534, 534) 0.32 0.13

: ; : ;

6:677 0.0027 0.0000 0.0060 0.13 0.13 0.13

8 9 8 9

< 2:408 = < 2.6745 4.3466 1.2836 =

State 4 3:497 3.9229 2.9664 1.8722 (732, 500) 0.26 (727,497) 0.51 0.26

: ; : ;

6:385 0.0028 0.0000 0.0059 0.26 0.26 0.27

8 9 8 9

< 0:608 = <1.8214 4.9254 0.3735 =

State 5 1:993 3.9942 1.6995 2.9761 (1058, 0.78 (1057, 0.97 0.78

: ; : ;

5:230 0.0036 0.0009 0.0054 −451) 0.44 −451) 0.76 0.43

974 WANG ET AL.

different vibration mode with ascending order from left to right. The first, second, and third

rows of the matrix represent the mode shape values in x, y, and θ directions, respectively. The

true k x and k x are obtained by forcing the model to move only in x-z plane and then dividing

the applied x-direction force by the x-direction displacement at roof. The true ky and k y can

Figure 5. The absolute acceleration time traces of the floor at 4-A node in x-direction, 1-A node

in x-direction, and 1-D node in the y-direction of the intact and five damaged models. (Each row

of graphs corresponds to the model state labeled at the right; each column of graphs corresponds

to the location and direction.)

STORY DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION OF IRREGULAR BUILDINGS BASED ON EARTHQUAKE RECORDS 975

also be obtained in the similar way. It is observed that the more the columns that lose moment

resistance, the smaller the modal frequencies as well as the lateral stiffnesses. Because the

column moment is released in two directions simultaneously, it is found that lateral stiffness

reductions in x and y directions remain the same from the first to the fourth damaged stages.

In the final stage, it can be seen that the x-directional stiffness is significantly reduced due to

the removal of bracing. The eccentricities of CR, ex and ey, corresponding to each damaged

state are also provided, as shown in Table 1 and in Figure 4 by hollow circles.

To demonstrate the damage assessment procedure, the intact and the five-state damaged

buildings are excited by the E-W and the N-S ground accelerations recorded at the campus of

National Chung Hsing University during the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake. The time

histories of absolute acceleration at 4-A and 1-A nodes along the x-axis and at 1-D node

along the y-axis, as shown in Figure 5, are collected as output responses of the building.

With the input and output accelerations, the SRIM identification technique is employed

to identify the state matrix and output matrix of the state-space system. Then, by solving

eigen-problem and coordinate transformation, the modal frequencies and mode shapes at

CM can be obtained. Using the formulas in Equations 7a and 7b, the predicted (ex and

ey) are firstly obtained. The results are presented in Table 1 and Figure 4, which show

good agreements with the true ex and ey. Figure 6 shows that each predicted CR moves con-

sistently toward the opposite side in which the damage is developed. With the predicted

eccentricities and identified modal parameters before and after damage, the SDITC values

in x and y directions are calculated and presented in Table 1. For comparison, the ASDI

values are given as well based on the first modal parameters in both directions. It can be

seen that most of the SDITC values are same as the true story stiffness reductions in

two decimal digits. It is seen that the index ASDI could overestimate the damage severity

when the eccentricity in the evaluated direction is significant.

In view of difficult situation of comparing the merits of different SHM techniques, a series

of benchmark studies were sponsored by the International Association for Structural Control

(IASC)—ASCE Task Group on Structural Health Monitoring, beginning with a relatively

simple benchmark problem and proceeding on to more realistic problems, to provide a com-

mon basis for the comparison of different techniques (Ching and Beck 2004). The benchmark

studies consist of Phases I and II simulated and experimental benchmark problems. The bench-

mark model is a four-story, two-bay by two-bay steel-frame scaled-down building built in the

Earthquake Engineering Research Laboratory at the University of British Columbia (UBC),

Canada. Phase II of the experimental benchmark studies conducted on 4–7 August 2002, fol-

lowed previous numerical and experimental benchmark problems developed by the ASCE

Task Group. Various configurations were considered where damage was simulated by remov-

ing bracing or loosening bolts in the benchmark model. Config. 1, as illustrated in Figure 7, is

the reference (undamaged) case in which x-direction is the strong direction of the columns and

each bay of outer frame is braced with a steel bar. Three types of excitation—electrodynamic

shaker, impact hammer, and ambient vibration—were considered. Accelerometers were

placed throughout the structure to provide horizontal response measurements.

976 WANG ET AL.

To demonstrate the accuracy of index SDITC, this study chose two other configurations

(see Figure 7) of Phase II benchmark model as damaged buildings, that is, (1) Config. 3:

removal of the left-hand side brace in each story on the –y face, (2) Config. 7: removal

of all braces. The SRIM system identification technique was employed to extract the

modal parameters from ambient vibration data. Since each floor is instrumented with 3 hor-

izontal sensors, this building model has full measurement to record its shear deformation.

Beginning with modal parameter identifications for Configs. 1 and 7 respectively, the

identified first modal frequencies in x- and y-directions are summarized in Table 2. It is

shown that the fundamental frequency along the y (weak) axis is actually larger than

STORY DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION OF IRREGULAR BUILDINGS BASED ON EARTHQUAKE RECORDS 977

Table 2. Identified modal frequencies and damage indices (SDITC and ASDI) of the

Phase II experimental benchmark model for Config. 1 and Config. 7

ω1 ∕ω1 (Hz) 7.57 / 2.62 8.15 / 3.70

ω

2

1 12 0.88 0.79

ω1

Story SDITC ASDI SDITC ASDI

4 0.88 (0.88) 0.88 (0.88) 0.82 (0.80) 0.82 (0.80)

3 0.89 (0.88) 0.89 (0.88) 0.81 (0.80) 0.81 (0.80)

2 0.89 (0.88) 0.89 (0.88) 0.79 (0.80) 0.79 (0.80)

1 0.87 (0.88) 0.87 (0.88) 0.74 (0.80) 0.74 (0.80)

The value in parentheses shows the actual story damage degree

978 WANG ET AL.

that along the x (strong) axis. Moreover, removal of all braces makes the fundamental fre-

quency of the model structure reduce significantly. The SDITC and ASDI indices of the first

to fourth stories for both x- and y-directions are illustrated in Table 2. The reduction ratio of

squared frequency, which represents the stiffness reduction ratio of entire building model,

was also calculated. Because the mode shape and eccentricity between Config. 1 model and

Config. 7 model are identical, the SDITC and ASDI indices (one to four stories) for each

story are same as the reduction ratio of squared frequency. In addition, the damage degrees of

88% and 80% show that each of four story braces provides 12% and 20% of lateral story

stiffness in x- and y-directions, respectively. The greater damage degree in x-direction

reflects that the braces have more contribution to the stiffness in stronger axis of a building.

From these results, it is also concluded that the brace acting like an in-filled wall provided

most of the lateral stiffness of a story even though its cross section area is quite smaller than

that of the column.

The results for the second configuration pair (Configs. 1 and 3) are illustrated in Table 3.

Because each story has a 20% stiffness reduction in the y-direction, large eccentricity in

Config. 3 model was expected. The TC effect makes the fundamental frequency of the

model structure smaller than that without TC effect. Thus, the ASDI indices in y-direction over-

estimated the story damage degree due to the over-evaluation of squared-frequency reduc-

tion ratio.

Above investigations on Phase II benchmark model have shown that the damage degree

by SDITC is more reasonable than that by the planar damage index ASDI. On the other hand,

by calculating the eccentricities, the moving directions of CR at each floor for Config. 1 and

Config. 3 are shown in Figure 8. It is seen that each predicted CR moves consistently toward

the opposite side in which the damage is developed. The discrepancies between predicted and

actual eccentricities were caused by the inaccuracy of identified mode shapes due to noisy

measurements. This result reveals that tracking the change of CR location is helpful in locat-

ing the damage region.

Table 3. Identified modal frequencies and damage indices (SDITC and ASDI) of the

Phase II experimental benchmark model for Config. 1 and Config. 3

ω1 ∕ω1 (Hz) 7.57 / 7.61 8.15 / 6.84

ω

2

1 12 −0.01 0.30

ω1

Story SDITC ASDI SDITC ASDI

4 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.15 (0.20) 0.31 (0.20)

3 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.18 (0.20) 0.27 (0.20)

2 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.20 (0.20) 0.25 (0.20)

1 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.18 (0.20) 0.24 (0.20)

Config. 3: Removal of the left-hand side brace in each story on the –y face

The value in parentheses shows the actual story damage degree

STORY DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION OF IRREGULAR BUILDINGS BASED ON EARTHQUAKE RECORDS 979

SEISMIC INSTRUMENTATION

To better understand the seismic behavior of structures, the Taiwan Central Weather

Bureau (CWB) initiated a strong-motion instrumentation program in 1993. Nowadays, 52

buildings and 17 bridges have been installed with accelerometers. Among them, the Taitung

Fire Department (TFD) building was severely damaged by the 2006 Taitung Beinan earth-

quake (M = 6.2). The acceleration responses of the building before, during, and after the

damage event were completely recorded.

The TFD building is a four-story reinforced concrete building with partial basement. The

story height above the second floor is 3.5 meters. However, the first story is 5 meter high with

980 WANG ET AL.

walls fewer than the other stories for the purposes of parking fire fighting trucks and storing

essential equipments, as shown in Figure 9. Since the outer and partition walls above the

second floor contribute a great amount of stiffness, it is expected that the lateral deformation

of the building centers on the soft first story. Consequently, the first story would probably

suffer significant damage while the other stories might remain intact because the ductility at

the first story might be smaller than the actual ductility demand.

Twenty-two accelerometers are instrumented throughout the free field, ground level

(GL), second floor (2F), and roof (RF), as shown in Figure 10. From the architectural draw-

ings (Figure 11), it is shown that the plan shape and the lateral resisting elements are not

Figure 10. Accelerograph locations and directions in the Taitung Fire Department Building.

STORY DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION OF IRREGULAR BUILDINGS BASED ON EARTHQUAKE RECORDS 981

Figure 11. Architectural drawings of TFD building: (a) GL; (b) 2F; (c) 3F; (d) 4F.

regularly arranged, which leads to the TC effect. Because each instrumented floor has four

accelerometers, the translational accelerations along x- and y-axes and torsional acceleration

about z-axis at the CM of each floor are available.

DAMAGE ASSESSMENT

During the 2006 Taitung Beinan earthquake, many columns and walls in the first story

were severely damaged. It is seen from Figure 12 that most damages occurred at the north-

side columns and east-side walls. For the damaged columns, moment failure near beam-

column joint and shear failure due to short-column effect were observed. As to the

982 WANG ET AL.

Figure 12. Wall and column damage locations in the first story and damage pictures from three

different views.

walls, typical X-shape shear cracks appeared. For the stories above second floor, no sig-

nificant damage was found.

To evaluate the TFD building, the earthquake records of December 28, 2005, and after-

shocks of the Taitung Beinan earthquake were used. Because this building has a soft bottom

story, the SDITC was calculated only for the first story. Table 4 presents the identified modal

Table 4. Identified modal parameters of the Taitung Fire Department building before and

after the 2006 Benan earthquake

Peak base x: 0.40 x: 8.90

acceleration (gal) y: 0.53 y: 12.7

8 9 8 9

< 3.3350 = < 1.5129 =

Modal 4.6480 2.6968

: ; : ;

frequency (Hz) 6.7563 5.5340

Mode shape 2F-x 8 9 8 9

>

>0.7312 0.1948 0.2196 >

> >

>0.8375 0.7817 0.1032 >

>

2F-y >

> > > >

>

> 0.3033 0.5379 0.1327 >

>

>

>

>

> 0.6582 0.5436 0.1370 >

>

>

2F-θ < = < =

0.0002 0.0002 0.0004 0.0004 0.0003 0.0004

RF-x >1.0000 0.4216 0.4516 > >1.0000 1.0000 0.2678 >

>

> >

> >

> >

>

RF-y >

> 0.2670 1.0000 1.0000 >

> >

> 0.6170 0.7443 1.0000 >

>

>

: >

; >

: >

;

RF-θ 0.0002 0.0003 0.0008 0.0004 0.0003 0.0008

STORY DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION OF IRREGULAR BUILDINGS BASED ON EARTHQUAKE RECORDS 983

Table 5. Damage index SDITC of the Taitung Fire Department building after the 2006

Beinan earthquake

Changes of eccentricities −369 cm −433 cm

SDITC1 0.66 0.49

ASDI1 0.81 0.70

parameters of the first three modes before and after the main earthquake event using the

SRIM system identification technique. The large reduction of fundamental modal frequencies

(55% in the first mode and 42% in the second mode) reflects the occurrence of serious

damage of the building. The changes of eccentricities in x- and y-directions and the

SDITC index were calculated as shown in Table 5. It is seen that the CR moved toward

southwestern direction indicating that the damage is located at the northeastern region of

the building. It agrees well with the results of field inspections as shown in Figure 12. More-

over, the (SDITC1)EW is larger than (SDITC1)NS, representing that the damage in EW direction

is more severe than that in NS direction. The results are expected because a wall contributes

large lateral stiffness and more wall damages encountered along the EW-direction. For

comparison, the ASDI1 is also presented in Table 5. The results indicate that 81% of the

EW-direction stiffness was reduced, which is overestimated due to large torsion coupling

effect.

CONCLUSIONS

Damage assessment of a building after a strong earthquake is essential for post-earthquake

recovery and has received great interest from researchers and engineers in recent decades.

This study derives a story damage index for irregular buildings, named SDITC, expressed

with closed form in terms of modal frequencies and mode shapes of three selected vibration

modes. This index was demonstrated to be a good damage indicator in the numerical study

and the ASCE benchmark model data analysis. It also proves that without considering the

TC effect, the damage could be overestimated. Applying the damage assessment of the

Taitung Fire Department Building based on real earthquake records, SDITC shows its

accuracy and applicability in evaluating the damage degree and identifying the damage

region within a particular story in comparison with the visual inspection results. This

study also proves that when the TC effect is significant, damage assessment based on

planar-based damage index may overestimate the damage degree and SDITC is more

reasonable.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work was supported by the National Science Council of the Republic of China under

Grant NSC 97-2625-M-005-004 and by the Central Weather Bureau under Grant MOTC-

CWB-97-E-10. These supports are greatly appreciated.

984 WANG ET AL.

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(Received 30 May 2011; accepted 21 March 2012)

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