You are on page 1of 133

Chapter (5)

PUMP SYSTEM CURVE

CHARACTERISTICS OF
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL
PUMPS
• Centrifugal pumps are specified by four
characteristics.

1. Capacity
2. Total Head
ƒ Suction Head
ƒ Discharge Head
3. Power
4. Efficiency
CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
• Centrifugal pumps are specified by four
characteristics.
1. Capacity:
This is defined as the quantity of liquid which
is discharged from the pump in a given time.
Capacity is expressed in 'm3/hr', 'gal/min', ..etc.
The capacity of a pump is governed by the
'Head', the 'Speed' and the 'Size' of the pump.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
• Centrifugal pumps are specified by four
characteristics.
2. Total Head:
The total head of a pump is the difference
between the pump suction and discharge
pressures - expressed in terms of meters or feet
head .
CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
• Centrifugal pumps are specified by four
characteristics.
Suction Head :
This is the vertical distance, in feet or meters,
from the centerline of the pump to the level of
liquid in the vessel from which the liquid is
being pumped.
IF THE LIQUID LEVEL IS ABOVE THE
PUMP CENTRELINE, THE SUCTION
HEAD IS POSITIVE.
IF BELOW THE CENTRELINE, THE
SUCTION HEAD IS NEGATIVE.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
• Centrifugal pumps are specified by four
characteristics.
Discharge Head:
Is the discharge pressure of the pump,
expressed in feet or meters of liquid.
Total Head: = Discharge head -Suction head
( See Figure : 5.1 )
Figure : 5.1 – Total Head
CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
• Centrifugal pumps are specified by four
characteristics.
3. Power:
This is the energy used by the pump in a given
time. Its unit is 'Horsepower' (HP).

1 HP is equivalent to 0.746 kilowatt. (kW).


CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
• Centrifugal pumps are specified by four
characteristics.
4. Efficiency:
This is a percentage measure of the pump's
effectiveness in transferring the power used into
energy added to the pumped liquid.
The formula for calculation of efficiency is :
Efficiency = (Output power)/(Input power) X
100%
Pumps in industry, usually operate at 70% to
80% efficiency.
In Figure 5.1, the Figure : 5.1 – Total Head
pump is taking
suction from Tank
'A' and discharging
to Tank 'B'. The
Head (or height) of
water in 'A' to the
centre-line of the
pump is 23 feet. This
is called the
'SUCTION HEAD'.
The discharge line inlet to 'B' is 50 feet above the pump centre-line.
This is the 'DISCHARGE HEAD'. The 'TOTAL HEAD' is the
difference between the two figures.
This is 50 -23 = 27 feet.
(Note: If the suction vessel is BELOW the pump centre line, the
suction head will be a NEGATIVE figure).
Using the formula for Static Head Pressure, we can find the suction
and discharge pressures of the pump. (Both tanks are at
atmospheric pressure).
Suction pressure = 23 x 0.433 = 10 Psig.
Discharge pressure = 50 x 0.433 = 21.7 Psig

• If a liquid other than water


is used, the Specific Gravity
of the liquid must be
included in the above
formula to obtain the
pressures.
E.g.
If we use an oil with S.G. of
0.88, the pressures would
be: -
Suction pressure = 23 x
0.433 x 0.88 = 8.8 Psig.
Discharge pressure = 50 x
0.433 x 0.88 = 19.1 Psig
NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD
REQUIRED
• The pump manufacturer's specified margin of
suction pressure above the boiling point of the
liquid being pumped, is required to prevent
cavitation.

• This pressure is called the 'Net Positive Suction


Head' pressure (NPSH).
NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD
REQUIRED
• In order to ensure that a NPSH pressure is
maintained, the Available NPSH should be
higher than that required.

• The NPSH depends on the height and density of


the liquid and the pressure above it.
NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD
REQUIRED
NPSHA = HA ± HZ - HF + HV – HVP
Where:
ƒ HA = The absolute pressure on the surface of the
liquid in the supply tank
ƒ HZ = The vertical distance between the surface
of the liquid in the supply tank and the centerline of
the pump
ƒ HF = Friction losses in the suction piping
ƒ HV = Velocity head at the pump suction port
ƒ HVP = Absolute vapor pressure of the liquid at the
pumping temperature
CAVITATION
CAVITATION
OCCURS
IN PUMPS
WHEN

NPSHA < NPSHR


CAVITATION CAN OCCUR

in
CENTRIFUGAL
PUMPS

AND
AND

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT
PUMPS
FLUID VAPOR
BUBBLES

Pump suction parts

cavities

Pump suction parts


After attack
What is Cavitations Effect
1-
1- CENTRIFUGAL
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
PUMPS

Impeller deterioration
Decrease discharge pressure

Decrease pump flow rate


Increase vibration level
Bearings & M/S failure
2-
2- RECIPROCATING
RECIPROCATING PUMPS
PUMPS

Suction valve deteriorations


Spring Rupture
Decrease discharge pressure

Decrease pump flow rate


Cylinder Head Damage
Piston Damage
NPSH
Net Positive Suction Head NPSH

NPSH available vs. HPSH required


NPSHa = Patmos+Pstatic – (Pfriction+Pvap)
Pvap = Saturation Pressure at the operating temperature of
the fluid should be obtained from tables
NPSHrequired = Losses in pump suction
Patoms or (absolute pressure in
vessel)
Pstatic
Pfriction
NPSH
1- NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD
REQUIRED
YOU CAN GET FROM PUMP MANUAL

2- NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD


AVAILABLE
YOU CAN CALCULATE FROM PUMP SITE

TO AVOID SUCTION CAVITATION


AND FOR SAFE OPERATION

NPSHA > NPSHR


What is the parameters affecting
NPSHA
SUCTION PIPE LENGTH
SUCTION PIPE DIAMETER
LIQUID SPECIFIC GRAVITY
INTERNAL SURFACE OF SUCTION PIPE
LIQUID SURFACE ALTITUDE
VAPOR CONTAMINATION
SUCTION PIPE LEAKS
SUCTION PRESSURE
LIQUID TEMPERATURE
LIQUID VISCOCITY
LIQUID VAPOR PRESURE
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
HOW TO IMPROVE
NPSHA
SHORTEN THE SUCTION PIPE LENGTH
INCREASE SUCTION PIPE SIZE

DECREASE SUCTION LIQUID TEMP.

DECREASE SUCTION NEGATIVE ALTITUDE

INCREASE SUCTION POSITIVE ALTITUDE

STOP THE PIPING SUCTION LEAKS

RENEW THE SUCTION PIPE


NPSHA
IS
NOT
THE SUCTION
GAUGE
PRESSURE
CENTRIFUGAL
CENTRIFUGAL
PUMPS
PUMPSLOSSES
LOSSES
FRICTION LOSS
EDDY LOSS
LEAK LOSS
THEORITICAL HEAT LOSS
CURVE
Ppsi
40
60

or
30
50

H ft ACTUAL
CURVE
20
10

100 200 300 400 500

Q g.p.m.
The Valves of a Centrifugal Pump
• The suction and discharge piping of a centrifugal
pump, will generally have the following valve
arrangements:
1.Suction Valve: Allows liquid to enter the pump.
2.Discharge Valve: Allows liquid to flow from the
pump to other parts of the system.
3.Check or Non-Return Valve: In the discharge
line -Prevents back-flow from discharge to
suction through the pump.
4.Vent (priming) Valve: This is used to vent off
air/gases from the pump before start-up.
The Valves of a Centrifugal Pump (cont.)
• The suction and discharge piping of a centrifugal
pump, will generally have the following valve
arrangements:
5. Gauge Isolation Valves: Allows the replacement
of pressure gauges on suction and discharge
lines, the most important being the discharge
pressure.
6. Gland Seal Valve (where fitted): Controls the
flow of cooling media to the pump gland cooling
fluid.
The Valves of a Centrifugal Pump (cont.)
• The suction and discharge piping of a centrifugal
pump, will generally have the following valve
arrangements:
7. Recycle Valve: This is a flow line valve which is
used to recycle pumped liquid back to the suction
side or to the suction vessel, in order to maintain
a flow through the pump when the discharge
valve, (and/or FCV), is closed. (Prevents heat
build-up).
8. Drain Valve: Fitted on the bottom of the pump
casing and used to drain the pump prior to
maintenance work being done.
( See Figure : 5.2 )
Figure : 5.2
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OPERATION
I- Pump Start-up Procedure
1.Line up the pump valves.

2.Ensure that the drain valve is closed.

3.Open the suction valve.

4.Open the vent valve to bleed off gases - when


liquid comes from the vent valve - close it
again. (This is called 'Priming the pump').
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OPERATION
I- Pump Start-up Procedure
5.Open the gland-seal valve (if fitted).

6.Commission the bearing and oil cooling


systems (if fitted).

7.If an oil bottle or 'slinger-ring' reservoir is used


for the bearings, ensure it is full and
functioning properly.
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OPERATION
I- Pump Start-up Procedure (cont.)
8. Check by hand that the pump shaft is freely
rotating - (power is OFF at this point).

9. Energise or, if the rule applies, have the


electrician energise, the power supply.

10. The discharge valve, at this point, should


still be closed.
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OPERATION
I- Pump Start-up Procedure (cont.)
11. Start the pump motor. Check that the pump is
rotating in the correct direction.

12. Check that the discharge pressure is steady - if


not check at the vent and release any further
trapped gas.

13. Check for vibration, overheating and/or any


undue noise from the pump, bearings or coupling.
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OPERATION
I- Pump Start-up Procedure (cont.)
14. Re-check the lube and cooling systems and
check for leaks at the pump glands. (With the
'packed' type gland seal, a slight leakage is
desirable for lubrication and cooling of the
gland). Open the discharge valve
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OPERATION
I- Pump Start-up Procedure (cont.)
15. Report to control room that the pump is in
operation and all is O.K. (If not O.K. -shut
down the pump and have the control room
operator call a maintenance mechanic).
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OPERATION

II- Pump Shut-down Procedure


1.Close the discharge valve.
2.Press the stop button.
• Leave the suction open unless the shut-down is
for maintenance. This will prevent pressure build
up due to temperature increase on hot days.
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OPERATION

II- Pump Shut-down Procedure (cont.)


If the shut-down is for maintenance:
3.Close the suction valve and stop other
ancillary systems where fitted.
4.Open the drain and vent valves and ensure that
the pump is fully drained and de-pressured.
5.Report to the control room that the pump is
ready for maintenance.

Note:1
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS - FLOW &
PRESSURE
A.In Parallel:
Where extra flow is required, two or more
pumps can be operated in 'parallel'.
This means that the pumps all take suction
from a common header and discharge into
another common header.
The number of pumps in the parallel line-up,
depends on the system flow requirements.
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS - FLOW &
PRESSURE
B. In Series:
Where extra pressure is required, pumps may
be operated in 'series'.
Here, a pump takes suction from a vessel and
discharges into the suction of another pump
which then discharges into the system.
The number of pumps lined up in series
depends on the system pressure requirements.
(See Figure: 5.3)
Figure
5.3
CAVITATION
• Cavitation is a problem condition which may
develop while a centrifugal pump is operating.

• This occurs when a liquid boils inside the pump


due to insufficient suction head pressure.

• Low suction head causes a pressure below that of


vaporization of the liquid, at the eye of the
impeller.
CAVITATION (cont.)
• The resultant gas which forms causes the
formation and collapse of 'bubbles' within the
liquid.

• This, because gases cannot be pumped together


with the liquid, causes violent fluctuations of
pressure within the pump casing and is seen on
the discharge gauge.
CAVITATION (cont.)
• These sudden changes in pressure cause
vibrations which can result in serious damage to
the pump and, of course, cause pumping
inefficiency.
CAVITATION (cont.)
• To overcome cavitation:
1.Increase suction pressure if possible.

2.Decrease liquid temperature if possible.

3.Throttle back on the discharge valve to


decrease flow-rate.

4.Vent gases off the pump casing.


Air Binding In a Centrifugal Pump
• Air binding occurs when air is left in a pump
casing due to improper venting, or, air collects
when the pump is operating.

• The air, as it collects, forms a pocket around the


impeller which forces liquid away from it.

• The impeller then spins in the air and heat begins


to build up.
Air Binding In a Centrifugal Pump (cont.)
• Symptoms of air binding:

1.Fluctuating pressure for a short time. The


pressure may then stop jumping and fall
quickly.

2.Overheating of the pump may take place


shortly after air binding occurs.

3.An air-bound pump sounds quieter than normal.


Air Binding In a Centrifugal Pump (cont.)
• To correct air binding:

1.Vent the pump during operation.

2.In some cases, the pump must be shut down


and allowed to cool. The air must then be
vented off.
Pump System Curve
• A system curve is a plot for the desired
capacities against the required head over the
total anticipated operating range of the pump.

• The head will be measured in feet or meters


and the capacity will be measured in gallons
per minute or cubic meters per hour.

• Some of the confusion begins when we realize


that there are three different kinds of head:
STATIC HEAD:
• This is the vertical distance measured from the
center line of the pump to the height of the
piping discharge inside the tank. Look at figure
"A" and note that the piping discharge is below
the maximum elevation of the piping system.
STATIC HEAD: (cont.)
• We do not use the maximum elevation in our
calculations because the siphoning action will
carry the fluid over this point once the piping
is full of liquid. (This is the same action that
lets you siphon gasoline out of an automobile
to a storage can.)
STATIC HEAD: (cont.)
• The pump will have to develop enough head to
fill the pipe and then the siphoning action will
take over. The pump operating point should
move back towards the best efficiency point
(B.E.P.) if the pump was selected correctly.
FIGURE "A"
DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD:
• As the liquid flows through the piping and
fittings, it is subject to the friction caused by
the piping inside finish, restricted passages in
the fittings and hardware that has been
installed in the system.
DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)
• The resulting "pressure drop" is described as a
"loss of head" in the system, and can be
calculated from graphs and charts provided by
the pump and piping manufacturers.
DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)
• This "head" loss is related to the condition of
the system and makes the calculations difficult
when you realize that older systems may have
"product build up" on the piping walls, filters,
strainers, valves, elbows, heat exchangers, etc.,
making the published numbers somewhat
inaccurate.
Note:2
DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)
• A general "rule of thumb" says that the friction
loss in clean piping will vary approximately
with 90% of the square of the change in flow
in the piping, and 100% of the square with the
change of flow in the fittings and accessories.
DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)
• You calculate the change in flow by dividing
the new flow by the old flow and then square
the number. As an example:
DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)
• You calculate the change in flow by dividing the
new flow by the old flow and then square the
number. As an example:
• At 200 G.P.M. the piping resistance, calculated
from published charts is seventy five feet (75.0
ft). What will it be at 300 G.P.M.?
• New piping resistance head / Old piping
resistance head = (300 / 200)2 = (1.5)2 = 2.25
• New piping resistance head = 2.25*75 * 90% =
151.88 feet
DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)
• In other words, when we went from 200 to 300
gallons per minute the piping resistance increased
from 75.0 feet to 151.88 feet.
• The loss through the fittings and hard ware was
calculated 25 feet. What will the new loss be?
• New fittings resistance head / Old fittings
resistance head = (300 / 200)2 = (1.5)2 = 2.25
• New fittings resistance head = 2.25*25 * 100% =
56.25 feet
DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)
• In the original application system, loss was a
combination of the loss through the piping and
the loss through the fittings for a total of 100
feet at 200 gallons per minute.
• When we increased the flow to 300 gallons per
minute our system head changed to a total of
208.13 feet.
• This change would have to be added to the
static and pressure heads to calculate the total
head required for the new pump.
DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)
• Please note that the pump is pumping the
difference between the suction head and the
discharge head, so if you fail to consider that
the suction head will be either added to or
subtracted from the discharge head, you will
make an error in your calculations.
DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)
• The suction head will be negative if you are
lifting liquid from below ground or if you are
pumping from a vacuum.

• It will be positive if you are pumping from a


tank located above ground.

Note:3
DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)
• If the suction head is pressurized, this pressure
must be converted to head and subtracted from
the total head required by the pump.

• A centrifugal pump will create a head/capacity


curve that will generally resemble one of the
curves described in figure "B“.
The shape of the curve is determined by the
Specific Speed number of the impeller.
DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)
• Centrifugal pumps always pump somewhere
on their curve, but should be selected to pump
as close to the best efficiency point (B.E.P.) as
possible.

• The B.E.P. will fall somewhere between 80%


and 85% of the shut off head (maximum head).
DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)
• The manufacturer generated these curves at a
specific R.P.M.. Unless you are using
synchronous motors (you probably are using
induction motors on your pumps) you will have
to adjust the curves to match your actual pump
speed.
DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)
• Put a tachometer on the running motor and record
the rpm. difference between your pump and the
speed shown on the pump manufacturer's
published curve. You can use the pump affinity
laws to approximate the change.
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
• Positive displacement pumps have a different
shaped curve. They look something like Figure
"C".

The capacity of a positive displacement pump, will remain almost


as long as you do alter the pump speed. Run it faster and it will
pump more. The maximum head is determined by the strength of
the pump casing and horse power (kw) available.
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
• Positive displacement pumps have a different
shaped curve. They look something like Figure
"C".
System Curves
• For a specified impeller diameter and speed, a
centrifugal pump has a fixed and predictable
performance curve.
• The point where the pump operates on its
curve is dependent upon the characteristics of
the system in which it is operating, commonly
called the System Head Curve. ..or, the
relationship between flow and hydraulic losses
in a system.
System Curves (cont.)
• This representation is in a graphic form and,
since friction losses vary as a square of the flow
rate, the system curve is parabolic in shape.
• By plotting the system head curve and pump
curve together, it can be determined:
1. Where the pump will operate on its curve.
2. What changes will occur if the system head
curve or the pump performance curve
changes.
System Curves
NO STATIC HEAD - ALL FRICTION
• As the levels in the suction and discharge are
the same (Fig. 1), there is no static head and,
therefore, the system curve starts at zero flow
and zero head and its shape is determined solely
from pipeline losses.
• The point of operation is at the intersection of
the system head curve and the pump curve.
• The flow rate may be reduced by throttling
valve.
NO STATIC HEAD - ALL FRICTION

Fig.1 No Static Head All Friction


POSITIVE STATIC HEAD
• The parabolic shape of the system curve is
again determined by the friction losses through
the system including all bends and valves.

• But in this case there is a positive static head


involved.
POSITIVE STATIC HEAD (cont.)
• This static head does not affect the shape of the
system curve or its "steepness", but it does dictate
the head of the system curve at zero flow rate.

• The operating point is at the intersection of the


system curve and pump curve.

• Again, the flow rate can be reduced by throttling


the discharge valve.
POSITIVE
STATIC
HEAD

Fig. 2
Positive Suction Head
NEGATIVE (GRAVITY) HEAD
• In the illustration below, a certain flow rate
will occur by gravity head alone.

• But to obtain higher flows, a pump is required


to overcome the pipe friction losses in excess
of "H" - the head of the suction above the level
of the discharge.
NEGATIVE (GRAVITY) HEAD
• In other words, the system curve is plotted
exactly as for any other case involving a static
head and friction head, except the static head is
now negative.

• The system curve begins at a negative value and


shows the limited flow rate obtained by gravity
alone.

• More capacity requires extra work.


NEGATIVE
(GRAVITY)
HEAD

Fig. 3
Negative (Gravity) Head
MOSTLY LIFT- LITTLE FRICTION HEAD
• The system head curve in the illustration
below starts at the static head "H" and zero
flow.

• Since the friction losses are relatively small


(possibly due to the large diameter pipe), the
system curve is "flat".
MOSTLY LIFT- LITTLE FRICTION HEAD

Fig. 4 Mostly Lift - Little Friction Head


MOSTLY LIFT- LITTLE FRICTION HEAD
• In this case the pump is required to overcome
the comparatively large static head before it
will deliver any flow at all.
Calculating System Curve
• Advanced Analysis of Pumping Systems
Requires and Understanding of "System Curve"

• In order to analyze many pumping systems, a


thorough understanding of "System Curve" is
required.
Calculating System Curve
• Understanding variable speed systems, parallel
pump systems, and series pump systems all rely
on understanding the system curve.

• Also, predicting the energy usage of a pump


with different diameter impellers relies on an
understanding of system curve.
Calculating System Curve
• Keys to understanding the system curve are:
1. Each piping system has a unique
performance curve called its system curve.
Calculating System Curve
• Keys to understanding the system curve are:
2. The system curve defines the relationship
between flow quantity through the system and
the total resistance that the system offers to flow.
Units most often used in the English system are
GPM for flow and "feet" for total resistance
where GPM is short for gallons per minute and
"feet" is short for feet of head.
Calculating System Curve
• Keys to understanding the system curve are:
3. The system curve is completely independent
of any pump curve. One could install any
pump in a given piping system, and the
system curve would not change.
Calculating System Curve
• Keys to understanding the system curve are:
4. The system curve is parabolic shaped. It can
be completely defined and plotted if two
operating points are known.
Calculating System Curve
• Keys to understanding the system curve are:
5. When a pump is installed and operated in a
system, the point of operation (expressed in
flow and head) will be at a single point where
the pump curve and the system curve
intersect.
Calculating System Curve
• Keys to understanding the system curve are:
5. (cont.)

This is logical, because the system must


operate on its curve, and the pump must
operate on its curve, so the point of operation
of an installed pump must be common to both
curves.
Calculating System Curve
• Keys to understanding the system curve are:
6. When we "balance" a pump’s capacity by
throttling a valve, we actually shift the system
curve by adding or subtracting resistance to
flow. The balanced point of operation is
where the pump curve and "new" system
curve intersect.
Calculating System Curve
• To draw a system curve, it is first necessary to
calculate the resistance to flow through the
system (the "head") at one operating point.

• This is normally done at the design flow point.

• For example, if the design flow is 200 GPM,


the head is calculated at 200 GPM.
Calculating System Curve
• The method for doing so is beyond the scope of
this paper.

• An understanding of that article is necessary to


understand development of the system curve.
System Curve for Closed Systems
• The resistance to flow for a closed system
consists only of friction head (also called
pressure drop).
• Velocity head, static head, and pressure head
do not affect the resistance to flow in a closed
system.
• It is generally accepted that the resistance to
flow varies with the square of the quantity of
flow.
System Curve for Closed Systems
• Assume that a flow rate of 100 GPM results in
a friction head of 75 ft. in a given system.
ƒ Doubling the flow in the same system to 200
GPM would result in a friction head of:
(200 GPM/100 GPM)2 X 75 ft. = 300 ft.
ƒ Reducing the flow to 80 GPM in the same
system would result in a friction head of:
(80 GPM/100 GPM)2 X 75 ft. = 48 ft.
System Curve for Closed Systems
• This squared relationship allows us to plot a
complete system curve very quickly once we
have calculated the design flow and design head.
• By completing Table 1, we can quickly
determine six points, which should be a
sufficient number to construct a reasonably
smooth curve.
• To use this table, one must first have calculated
the design flow (DF) and the design head
(DH).
Table 1, Closed System Curve (Friction Head Only)
System Curve for Closed Systems
Example 1:
• Assume a design flow (DF) of 200 GPM at a
design head (DH) of 30.0 ft. Calculate the
system curve points. The points are calculated
as follows:
Table
2,
(Closed
System)

Remember that in closed systems, the friction head is the total head
as well, so the values in the right hand column represent the heads
for the system curve.
Typical System Curves for Open and Closed Systems
Calculating System Curve Points for Open
Systems
• For open systems, the formula for the system
head is:
Total System Head = Friction Head +
Static Head +
Pressure Head +
Velocity Head
Calculating System Curve Points for Open
Systems
• Velocity head appears in italics to remind us
that velocity head is generally ignored, as it is
insignificant in hydraulic applications.
• Neither static head nor pressure head vary with
flow.
• This is logical, because the height of the
system (static head) remains fixed regardless of
the flow rate; the pressures in the "beginning"
and "final" vessels are independent of flow rate
as well.
Calculating System Curve Points for Open
Systems
• So each point consists of friction head which
varies with flow, and static and pressure heads,
which do not.
Calculating System Curve Points for Open
Systems
• Consider the following example:
– A process system consists of an open tank, a
pressurized tank, and piping between the two.
– A pump delivers water from the open tank to the
pressurized tank.
– The friction head for the piping has been
calculated at 30 ft. at 200 GPM.
– The water level in the pressurized tank is located
5’ above the level in the open tank.
– The pressurized tank operates at 4 PSIG.
4 psi

5 ft

Pressurized tank
Pump Open tank
Calculating System Curve Points for Open
Systems
• Consider the following example: (cont.)
• Calculate the points for the system curve.
• Note that the friction head is exactly the same
as in the previous example, so there is no need
to recalculate that.
• The other heads are:
ƒ Static Head = 5’
ƒ Pressure Head = (4 PSIG –0 PSIG) X 2.31
ft./PSIG = 9.2 ft.
Calculating System Curve Points for Open
Systems
• Consider the following example: (cont.)
• Remember that the static head and pressure
head are fixed.
• We can construct the following table (Table 3).
Table 3
(Open
System)
Typical System Curves for Open and Closed Systems
Calculating System Curve Points for Open
Systems
• Note that each curve demonstrates characteristics
of its particular system type.
1. The closed system curve is parabola-
shaped and passes through the origin
(0 GPM at 0 ft) and through the design
point (200 GPM at 30 ft.).
All closed system curves pass through the
origin in the design point.
Calculating System Curve Points for Open
Systems
• Note that each curve demonstrates characteristics
of its particular system type.
2. The open system curve is parabola-shaped
and meets the Y axis at a head equal to the
sum of the static head plus the fixed head.

It also passes through the design point.

All open system curves exhibit these traits.


Summary
• The system curve tells us little in and of itself.

• However, when combined with pump curves,


it is an essential element in predicting the point
of operation.

• Therefore, it is important to understand how to


construct system curves for both closed and
open systems.
System Head Curve
• To Calculate a System Head Curve several
points must be chosen to calculate friction
losses on both the suction and discharge sides
of the pump at various flow rates.
• The static suction head/lift and the static
discharge head remain constant.
Example:
• Calculating TDH for a flooded suction
application plot the friction losses for 50, 90
and 100 GPM as follows:
Suction Side
Discharge Side
System Head Curve
• Total Dynamic Head(TDH) at 50 GPM
= 70.03' - 9.67' = 60.36'
• Total Dynamic Head(TDH) at 90 GPM
= 109.5' - 8.93' = 100.6'
• Total Dynamic Head(TDH) at 100 GPM
= 122.4' - 8.70' = 113.7'
Selecting a pump
A basic pump system
• A pump has two key characteristics. Fluid will
be caused to flow at a particular rate, ie the
fluid will be pushed along at a rate.
• Secondly, it will support a head of fluid.
• There are two parts as seen in the diagram:
1. Static head.
2. Losses caused by friction due to the
piping.
System curve showing static head and
friction head lost.
Selecting a pump (cont.)
• A pump selected for a duty, as the pump curve
is superimposed on the system characteristic
curve.

• The curves cross over at the pump’s best


efficiency point (BEP) at the desired flow rate.
The pump curve (left) and pump curve
superimposed on the system curve (right)
showing the crossover point.
Selecting a pump (cont.)
• Obtaining a perfect match between the system
curve and the best efficiency point is difficult
and not practical.

• In fact, the pump can become unstable.


Selecting a pump (cont.)
• In the past the following methods were
employed:
adjusting the pump speed
adjusting the pump impeller diameter
changing the impeller design
adjusting the system resistance
modifying static head
providing a system bypass flow route.
Selecting a pump (cont.)
• A preferred technique is to use a variable
speed drive to drive the pump as this will
enable the performance of the pump to be
adjusted instantaneously.

• The VSD motor is a very efficient, low cost


method of varying the motor speed.
‰Ideal pump performance curves against impeller diameter.
‰Ideal pump efficiency curves are superimposed.
Real pump performance curves, system curves and
efficiency curves
End
of
Chapter (5)