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You are on page 1of 133

CHARACTERISTICS OF

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL

PUMPS

• Centrifugal pumps are specified by four

characteristics.

1. Capacity

2. Total Head

Suction Head

Discharge Head

3. Power

4. Efficiency

CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

• Centrifugal pumps are specified by four

characteristics.

1. Capacity:

This is defined as the quantity of liquid which

is discharged from the pump in a given time.

Capacity is expressed in 'm3/hr', 'gal/min', ..etc.

The capacity of a pump is governed by the

'Head', the 'Speed' and the 'Size' of the pump.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

• Centrifugal pumps are specified by four

characteristics.

2. Total Head:

The total head of a pump is the difference

between the pump suction and discharge

pressures - expressed in terms of meters or feet

head .

CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

• Centrifugal pumps are specified by four

characteristics.

Suction Head :

This is the vertical distance, in feet or meters,

from the centerline of the pump to the level of

liquid in the vessel from which the liquid is

being pumped.

IF THE LIQUID LEVEL IS ABOVE THE

PUMP CENTRELINE, THE SUCTION

HEAD IS POSITIVE.

IF BELOW THE CENTRELINE, THE

SUCTION HEAD IS NEGATIVE.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

• Centrifugal pumps are specified by four

characteristics.

Discharge Head:

Is the discharge pressure of the pump,

expressed in feet or meters of liquid.

Total Head: = Discharge head -Suction head

( See Figure : 5.1 )

Figure : 5.1 – Total Head

CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

• Centrifugal pumps are specified by four

characteristics.

3. Power:

This is the energy used by the pump in a given

time. Its unit is 'Horsepower' (HP).

CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

• Centrifugal pumps are specified by four

characteristics.

4. Efficiency:

This is a percentage measure of the pump's

effectiveness in transferring the power used into

energy added to the pumped liquid.

The formula for calculation of efficiency is :

Efficiency = (Output power)/(Input power) X

100%

Pumps in industry, usually operate at 70% to

80% efficiency.

In Figure 5.1, the Figure : 5.1 – Total Head

pump is taking

suction from Tank

'A' and discharging

to Tank 'B'. The

Head (or height) of

water in 'A' to the

centre-line of the

pump is 23 feet. This

is called the

'SUCTION HEAD'.

The discharge line inlet to 'B' is 50 feet above the pump centre-line.

This is the 'DISCHARGE HEAD'. The 'TOTAL HEAD' is the

difference between the two figures.

This is 50 -23 = 27 feet.

(Note: If the suction vessel is BELOW the pump centre line, the

suction head will be a NEGATIVE figure).

Using the formula for Static Head Pressure, we can find the suction

and discharge pressures of the pump. (Both tanks are at

atmospheric pressure).

Suction pressure = 23 x 0.433 = 10 Psig.

Discharge pressure = 50 x 0.433 = 21.7 Psig

is used, the Specific Gravity

of the liquid must be

included in the above

formula to obtain the

pressures.

E.g.

If we use an oil with S.G. of

0.88, the pressures would

be: -

Suction pressure = 23 x

0.433 x 0.88 = 8.8 Psig.

Discharge pressure = 50 x

0.433 x 0.88 = 19.1 Psig

NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD

REQUIRED

• The pump manufacturer's specified margin of

suction pressure above the boiling point of the

liquid being pumped, is required to prevent

cavitation.

Head' pressure (NPSH).

NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD

REQUIRED

• In order to ensure that a NPSH pressure is

maintained, the Available NPSH should be

higher than that required.

the liquid and the pressure above it.

NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD

REQUIRED

NPSHA = HA ± HZ - HF + HV – HVP

Where:

HA = The absolute pressure on the surface of the

liquid in the supply tank

HZ = The vertical distance between the surface

of the liquid in the supply tank and the centerline of

the pump

HF = Friction losses in the suction piping

HV = Velocity head at the pump suction port

HVP = Absolute vapor pressure of the liquid at the

pumping temperature

CAVITATION

CAVITATION

OCCURS

IN PUMPS

WHEN

CAVITATION CAN OCCUR

in

CENTRIFUGAL

PUMPS

AND

AND

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT

PUMPS

FLUID VAPOR

BUBBLES

cavities

After attack

What is Cavitations Effect

1-

1- CENTRIFUGAL

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

PUMPS

Impeller deterioration

Decrease discharge pressure

Increase vibration level

Bearings & M/S failure

2-

2- RECIPROCATING

RECIPROCATING PUMPS

PUMPS

Spring Rupture

Decrease discharge pressure

Cylinder Head Damage

Piston Damage

NPSH

Net Positive Suction Head NPSH

NPSHa = Patmos+Pstatic – (Pfriction+Pvap)

Pvap = Saturation Pressure at the operating temperature of

the fluid should be obtained from tables

NPSHrequired = Losses in pump suction

Patoms or (absolute pressure in

vessel)

Pstatic

Pfriction

NPSH

1- NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD

REQUIRED

YOU CAN GET FROM PUMP MANUAL

AVAILABLE

YOU CAN CALCULATE FROM PUMP SITE

AND FOR SAFE OPERATION

What is the parameters affecting

NPSHA

SUCTION PIPE LENGTH

SUCTION PIPE DIAMETER

LIQUID SPECIFIC GRAVITY

INTERNAL SURFACE OF SUCTION PIPE

LIQUID SURFACE ALTITUDE

VAPOR CONTAMINATION

SUCTION PIPE LEAKS

SUCTION PRESSURE

LIQUID TEMPERATURE

LIQUID VISCOCITY

LIQUID VAPOR PRESURE

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

HOW TO IMPROVE

NPSHA

SHORTEN THE SUCTION PIPE LENGTH

INCREASE SUCTION PIPE SIZE

NPSHA

IS

NOT

THE SUCTION

GAUGE

PRESSURE

CENTRIFUGAL

CENTRIFUGAL

PUMPS

PUMPSLOSSES

LOSSES

FRICTION LOSS

EDDY LOSS

LEAK LOSS

THEORITICAL HEAT LOSS

CURVE

Ppsi

40

60

or

30

50

H ft ACTUAL

CURVE

20

10

Q g.p.m.

The Valves of a Centrifugal Pump

• The suction and discharge piping of a centrifugal

pump, will generally have the following valve

arrangements:

1.Suction Valve: Allows liquid to enter the pump.

2.Discharge Valve: Allows liquid to flow from the

pump to other parts of the system.

3.Check or Non-Return Valve: In the discharge

line -Prevents back-flow from discharge to

suction through the pump.

4.Vent (priming) Valve: This is used to vent off

air/gases from the pump before start-up.

The Valves of a Centrifugal Pump (cont.)

• The suction and discharge piping of a centrifugal

pump, will generally have the following valve

arrangements:

5. Gauge Isolation Valves: Allows the replacement

of pressure gauges on suction and discharge

lines, the most important being the discharge

pressure.

6. Gland Seal Valve (where fitted): Controls the

flow of cooling media to the pump gland cooling

fluid.

The Valves of a Centrifugal Pump (cont.)

• The suction and discharge piping of a centrifugal

pump, will generally have the following valve

arrangements:

7. Recycle Valve: This is a flow line valve which is

used to recycle pumped liquid back to the suction

side or to the suction vessel, in order to maintain

a flow through the pump when the discharge

valve, (and/or FCV), is closed. (Prevents heat

build-up).

8. Drain Valve: Fitted on the bottom of the pump

casing and used to drain the pump prior to

maintenance work being done.

( See Figure : 5.2 )

Figure : 5.2

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OPERATION

I- Pump Start-up Procedure

1.Line up the pump valves.

liquid comes from the vent valve - close it

again. (This is called 'Priming the pump').

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OPERATION

I- Pump Start-up Procedure

5.Open the gland-seal valve (if fitted).

systems (if fitted).

for the bearings, ensure it is full and

functioning properly.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OPERATION

I- Pump Start-up Procedure (cont.)

8. Check by hand that the pump shaft is freely

rotating - (power is OFF at this point).

electrician energise, the power supply.

still be closed.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OPERATION

I- Pump Start-up Procedure (cont.)

11. Start the pump motor. Check that the pump is

rotating in the correct direction.

not check at the vent and release any further

trapped gas.

undue noise from the pump, bearings or coupling.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OPERATION

I- Pump Start-up Procedure (cont.)

14. Re-check the lube and cooling systems and

check for leaks at the pump glands. (With the

'packed' type gland seal, a slight leakage is

desirable for lubrication and cooling of the

gland). Open the discharge valve

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OPERATION

I- Pump Start-up Procedure (cont.)

15. Report to control room that the pump is in

operation and all is O.K. (If not O.K. -shut

down the pump and have the control room

operator call a maintenance mechanic).

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OPERATION

1.Close the discharge valve.

2.Press the stop button.

• Leave the suction open unless the shut-down is

for maintenance. This will prevent pressure build

up due to temperature increase on hot days.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OPERATION

If the shut-down is for maintenance:

3.Close the suction valve and stop other

ancillary systems where fitted.

4.Open the drain and vent valves and ensure that

the pump is fully drained and de-pressured.

5.Report to the control room that the pump is

ready for maintenance.

Note:1

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS - FLOW &

PRESSURE

A.In Parallel:

Where extra flow is required, two or more

pumps can be operated in 'parallel'.

This means that the pumps all take suction

from a common header and discharge into

another common header.

The number of pumps in the parallel line-up,

depends on the system flow requirements.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS - FLOW &

PRESSURE

B. In Series:

Where extra pressure is required, pumps may

be operated in 'series'.

Here, a pump takes suction from a vessel and

discharges into the suction of another pump

which then discharges into the system.

The number of pumps lined up in series

depends on the system pressure requirements.

(See Figure: 5.3)

Figure

5.3

CAVITATION

• Cavitation is a problem condition which may

develop while a centrifugal pump is operating.

due to insufficient suction head pressure.

vaporization of the liquid, at the eye of the

impeller.

CAVITATION (cont.)

• The resultant gas which forms causes the

formation and collapse of 'bubbles' within the

liquid.

with the liquid, causes violent fluctuations of

pressure within the pump casing and is seen on

the discharge gauge.

CAVITATION (cont.)

• These sudden changes in pressure cause

vibrations which can result in serious damage to

the pump and, of course, cause pumping

inefficiency.

CAVITATION (cont.)

• To overcome cavitation:

1.Increase suction pressure if possible.

decrease flow-rate.

Air Binding In a Centrifugal Pump

• Air binding occurs when air is left in a pump

casing due to improper venting, or, air collects

when the pump is operating.

impeller which forces liquid away from it.

to build up.

Air Binding In a Centrifugal Pump (cont.)

• Symptoms of air binding:

pressure may then stop jumping and fall

quickly.

shortly after air binding occurs.

Air Binding In a Centrifugal Pump (cont.)

• To correct air binding:

and allowed to cool. The air must then be

vented off.

Pump System Curve

• A system curve is a plot for the desired

capacities against the required head over the

total anticipated operating range of the pump.

and the capacity will be measured in gallons

per minute or cubic meters per hour.

that there are three different kinds of head:

STATIC HEAD:

• This is the vertical distance measured from the

center line of the pump to the height of the

piping discharge inside the tank. Look at figure

"A" and note that the piping discharge is below

the maximum elevation of the piping system.

STATIC HEAD: (cont.)

• We do not use the maximum elevation in our

calculations because the siphoning action will

carry the fluid over this point once the piping

is full of liquid. (This is the same action that

lets you siphon gasoline out of an automobile

to a storage can.)

STATIC HEAD: (cont.)

• The pump will have to develop enough head to

fill the pipe and then the siphoning action will

take over. The pump operating point should

move back towards the best efficiency point

(B.E.P.) if the pump was selected correctly.

FIGURE "A"

DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD:

• As the liquid flows through the piping and

fittings, it is subject to the friction caused by

the piping inside finish, restricted passages in

the fittings and hardware that has been

installed in the system.

DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)

• The resulting "pressure drop" is described as a

"loss of head" in the system, and can be

calculated from graphs and charts provided by

the pump and piping manufacturers.

DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)

• This "head" loss is related to the condition of

the system and makes the calculations difficult

when you realize that older systems may have

"product build up" on the piping walls, filters,

strainers, valves, elbows, heat exchangers, etc.,

making the published numbers somewhat

inaccurate.

Note:2

DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)

• A general "rule of thumb" says that the friction

loss in clean piping will vary approximately

with 90% of the square of the change in flow

in the piping, and 100% of the square with the

change of flow in the fittings and accessories.

DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)

• You calculate the change in flow by dividing

the new flow by the old flow and then square

the number. As an example:

DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)

• You calculate the change in flow by dividing the

new flow by the old flow and then square the

number. As an example:

• At 200 G.P.M. the piping resistance, calculated

from published charts is seventy five feet (75.0

ft). What will it be at 300 G.P.M.?

• New piping resistance head / Old piping

resistance head = (300 / 200)2 = (1.5)2 = 2.25

• New piping resistance head = 2.25*75 * 90% =

151.88 feet

DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)

• In other words, when we went from 200 to 300

gallons per minute the piping resistance increased

from 75.0 feet to 151.88 feet.

• The loss through the fittings and hard ware was

calculated 25 feet. What will the new loss be?

• New fittings resistance head / Old fittings

resistance head = (300 / 200)2 = (1.5)2 = 2.25

• New fittings resistance head = 2.25*25 * 100% =

56.25 feet

DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)

• In the original application system, loss was a

combination of the loss through the piping and

the loss through the fittings for a total of 100

feet at 200 gallons per minute.

• When we increased the flow to 300 gallons per

minute our system head changed to a total of

208.13 feet.

• This change would have to be added to the

static and pressure heads to calculate the total

head required for the new pump.

DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)

• Please note that the pump is pumping the

difference between the suction head and the

discharge head, so if you fail to consider that

the suction head will be either added to or

subtracted from the discharge head, you will

make an error in your calculations.

DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)

• The suction head will be negative if you are

lifting liquid from below ground or if you are

pumping from a vacuum.

tank located above ground.

Note:3

DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)

• If the suction head is pressurized, this pressure

must be converted to head and subtracted from

the total head required by the pump.

curve that will generally resemble one of the

curves described in figure "B“.

The shape of the curve is determined by the

Specific Speed number of the impeller.

DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)

• Centrifugal pumps always pump somewhere

on their curve, but should be selected to pump

as close to the best efficiency point (B.E.P.) as

possible.

and 85% of the shut off head (maximum head).

DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)

• The manufacturer generated these curves at a

specific R.P.M.. Unless you are using

synchronous motors (you probably are using

induction motors on your pumps) you will have

to adjust the curves to match your actual pump

speed.

DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD: (cont.)

• Put a tachometer on the running motor and record

the rpm. difference between your pump and the

speed shown on the pump manufacturer's

published curve. You can use the pump affinity

laws to approximate the change.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

• Positive displacement pumps have a different

shaped curve. They look something like Figure

"C".

as long as you do alter the pump speed. Run it faster and it will

pump more. The maximum head is determined by the strength of

the pump casing and horse power (kw) available.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

• Positive displacement pumps have a different

shaped curve. They look something like Figure

"C".

System Curves

• For a specified impeller diameter and speed, a

centrifugal pump has a fixed and predictable

performance curve.

• The point where the pump operates on its

curve is dependent upon the characteristics of

the system in which it is operating, commonly

called the System Head Curve. ..or, the

relationship between flow and hydraulic losses

in a system.

System Curves (cont.)

• This representation is in a graphic form and,

since friction losses vary as a square of the flow

rate, the system curve is parabolic in shape.

• By plotting the system head curve and pump

curve together, it can be determined:

1. Where the pump will operate on its curve.

2. What changes will occur if the system head

curve or the pump performance curve

changes.

System Curves

NO STATIC HEAD - ALL FRICTION

• As the levels in the suction and discharge are

the same (Fig. 1), there is no static head and,

therefore, the system curve starts at zero flow

and zero head and its shape is determined solely

from pipeline losses.

• The point of operation is at the intersection of

the system head curve and the pump curve.

• The flow rate may be reduced by throttling

valve.

NO STATIC HEAD - ALL FRICTION

POSITIVE STATIC HEAD

• The parabolic shape of the system curve is

again determined by the friction losses through

the system including all bends and valves.

involved.

POSITIVE STATIC HEAD (cont.)

• This static head does not affect the shape of the

system curve or its "steepness", but it does dictate

the head of the system curve at zero flow rate.

system curve and pump curve.

the discharge valve.

POSITIVE

STATIC

HEAD

Fig. 2

Positive Suction Head

NEGATIVE (GRAVITY) HEAD

• In the illustration below, a certain flow rate

will occur by gravity head alone.

to overcome the pipe friction losses in excess

of "H" - the head of the suction above the level

of the discharge.

NEGATIVE (GRAVITY) HEAD

• In other words, the system curve is plotted

exactly as for any other case involving a static

head and friction head, except the static head is

now negative.

shows the limited flow rate obtained by gravity

alone.

NEGATIVE

(GRAVITY)

HEAD

Fig. 3

Negative (Gravity) Head

MOSTLY LIFT- LITTLE FRICTION HEAD

• The system head curve in the illustration

below starts at the static head "H" and zero

flow.

(possibly due to the large diameter pipe), the

system curve is "flat".

MOSTLY LIFT- LITTLE FRICTION HEAD

MOSTLY LIFT- LITTLE FRICTION HEAD

• In this case the pump is required to overcome

the comparatively large static head before it

will deliver any flow at all.

Calculating System Curve

• Advanced Analysis of Pumping Systems

Requires and Understanding of "System Curve"

thorough understanding of "System Curve" is

required.

Calculating System Curve

• Understanding variable speed systems, parallel

pump systems, and series pump systems all rely

on understanding the system curve.

with different diameter impellers relies on an

understanding of system curve.

Calculating System Curve

• Keys to understanding the system curve are:

1. Each piping system has a unique

performance curve called its system curve.

Calculating System Curve

• Keys to understanding the system curve are:

2. The system curve defines the relationship

between flow quantity through the system and

the total resistance that the system offers to flow.

Units most often used in the English system are

GPM for flow and "feet" for total resistance

where GPM is short for gallons per minute and

"feet" is short for feet of head.

Calculating System Curve

• Keys to understanding the system curve are:

3. The system curve is completely independent

of any pump curve. One could install any

pump in a given piping system, and the

system curve would not change.

Calculating System Curve

• Keys to understanding the system curve are:

4. The system curve is parabolic shaped. It can

be completely defined and plotted if two

operating points are known.

Calculating System Curve

• Keys to understanding the system curve are:

5. When a pump is installed and operated in a

system, the point of operation (expressed in

flow and head) will be at a single point where

the pump curve and the system curve

intersect.

Calculating System Curve

• Keys to understanding the system curve are:

5. (cont.)

operate on its curve, and the pump must

operate on its curve, so the point of operation

of an installed pump must be common to both

curves.

Calculating System Curve

• Keys to understanding the system curve are:

6. When we "balance" a pump’s capacity by

throttling a valve, we actually shift the system

curve by adding or subtracting resistance to

flow. The balanced point of operation is

where the pump curve and "new" system

curve intersect.

Calculating System Curve

• To draw a system curve, it is first necessary to

calculate the resistance to flow through the

system (the "head") at one operating point.

the head is calculated at 200 GPM.

Calculating System Curve

• The method for doing so is beyond the scope of

this paper.

understand development of the system curve.

System Curve for Closed Systems

• The resistance to flow for a closed system

consists only of friction head (also called

pressure drop).

• Velocity head, static head, and pressure head

do not affect the resistance to flow in a closed

system.

• It is generally accepted that the resistance to

flow varies with the square of the quantity of

flow.

System Curve for Closed Systems

• Assume that a flow rate of 100 GPM results in

a friction head of 75 ft. in a given system.

Doubling the flow in the same system to 200

GPM would result in a friction head of:

(200 GPM/100 GPM)2 X 75 ft. = 300 ft.

Reducing the flow to 80 GPM in the same

system would result in a friction head of:

(80 GPM/100 GPM)2 X 75 ft. = 48 ft.

System Curve for Closed Systems

• This squared relationship allows us to plot a

complete system curve very quickly once we

have calculated the design flow and design head.

• By completing Table 1, we can quickly

determine six points, which should be a

sufficient number to construct a reasonably

smooth curve.

• To use this table, one must first have calculated

the design flow (DF) and the design head

(DH).

Table 1, Closed System Curve (Friction Head Only)

System Curve for Closed Systems

Example 1:

• Assume a design flow (DF) of 200 GPM at a

design head (DH) of 30.0 ft. Calculate the

system curve points. The points are calculated

as follows:

Table

2,

(Closed

System)

Remember that in closed systems, the friction head is the total head

as well, so the values in the right hand column represent the heads

for the system curve.

Typical System Curves for Open and Closed Systems

Calculating System Curve Points for Open

Systems

• For open systems, the formula for the system

head is:

Total System Head = Friction Head +

Static Head +

Pressure Head +

Velocity Head

Calculating System Curve Points for Open

Systems

• Velocity head appears in italics to remind us

that velocity head is generally ignored, as it is

insignificant in hydraulic applications.

• Neither static head nor pressure head vary with

flow.

• This is logical, because the height of the

system (static head) remains fixed regardless of

the flow rate; the pressures in the "beginning"

and "final" vessels are independent of flow rate

as well.

Calculating System Curve Points for Open

Systems

• So each point consists of friction head which

varies with flow, and static and pressure heads,

which do not.

Calculating System Curve Points for Open

Systems

• Consider the following example:

– A process system consists of an open tank, a

pressurized tank, and piping between the two.

– A pump delivers water from the open tank to the

pressurized tank.

– The friction head for the piping has been

calculated at 30 ft. at 200 GPM.

– The water level in the pressurized tank is located

5’ above the level in the open tank.

– The pressurized tank operates at 4 PSIG.

4 psi

5 ft

Pressurized tank

Pump Open tank

Calculating System Curve Points for Open

Systems

• Consider the following example: (cont.)

• Calculate the points for the system curve.

• Note that the friction head is exactly the same

as in the previous example, so there is no need

to recalculate that.

• The other heads are:

Static Head = 5’

Pressure Head = (4 PSIG –0 PSIG) X 2.31

ft./PSIG = 9.2 ft.

Calculating System Curve Points for Open

Systems

• Consider the following example: (cont.)

• Remember that the static head and pressure

head are fixed.

• We can construct the following table (Table 3).

Table 3

(Open

System)

Typical System Curves for Open and Closed Systems

Calculating System Curve Points for Open

Systems

• Note that each curve demonstrates characteristics

of its particular system type.

1. The closed system curve is parabola-

shaped and passes through the origin

(0 GPM at 0 ft) and through the design

point (200 GPM at 30 ft.).

All closed system curves pass through the

origin in the design point.

Calculating System Curve Points for Open

Systems

• Note that each curve demonstrates characteristics

of its particular system type.

2. The open system curve is parabola-shaped

and meets the Y axis at a head equal to the

sum of the static head plus the fixed head.

Summary

• The system curve tells us little in and of itself.

it is an essential element in predicting the point

of operation.

construct system curves for both closed and

open systems.

System Head Curve

• To Calculate a System Head Curve several

points must be chosen to calculate friction

losses on both the suction and discharge sides

of the pump at various flow rates.

• The static suction head/lift and the static

discharge head remain constant.

Example:

• Calculating TDH for a flooded suction

application plot the friction losses for 50, 90

and 100 GPM as follows:

Suction Side

Discharge Side

System Head Curve

• Total Dynamic Head(TDH) at 50 GPM

= 70.03' - 9.67' = 60.36'

• Total Dynamic Head(TDH) at 90 GPM

= 109.5' - 8.93' = 100.6'

• Total Dynamic Head(TDH) at 100 GPM

= 122.4' - 8.70' = 113.7'

Selecting a pump

A basic pump system

• A pump has two key characteristics. Fluid will

be caused to flow at a particular rate, ie the

fluid will be pushed along at a rate.

• Secondly, it will support a head of fluid.

• There are two parts as seen in the diagram:

1. Static head.

2. Losses caused by friction due to the

piping.

System curve showing static head and

friction head lost.

Selecting a pump (cont.)

• A pump selected for a duty, as the pump curve

is superimposed on the system characteristic

curve.

efficiency point (BEP) at the desired flow rate.

The pump curve (left) and pump curve

superimposed on the system curve (right)

showing the crossover point.

Selecting a pump (cont.)

• Obtaining a perfect match between the system

curve and the best efficiency point is difficult

and not practical.

Selecting a pump (cont.)

• In the past the following methods were

employed:

adjusting the pump speed

adjusting the pump impeller diameter

changing the impeller design

adjusting the system resistance

modifying static head

providing a system bypass flow route.

Selecting a pump (cont.)

• A preferred technique is to use a variable

speed drive to drive the pump as this will

enable the performance of the pump to be

adjusted instantaneously.

method of varying the motor speed.

Ideal pump performance curves against impeller diameter.

Ideal pump efficiency curves are superimposed.

Real pump performance curves, system curves and

efficiency curves

End

of

Chapter (5)

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