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EUROPA-TECHNICAL BOOK SERIES

for the electrotechnical, electronic M


and information technology trades

Electrical C

Engineering
Tables, Standards, Formulas E

2nd English edition


A

Prepared and revised by teachers in vocational colleges and


engineers from the production industry (see next page).

W
VERLAG EUROPA-LEHRMITTEL · Nourney, Vollmer GmbH & Co. KG
Düsselberger Straße 23 · 42781 Haan-Gruiten · Germany

Europa no. 30337

BU
Original title: Tabellenbuch Elektrotechnik, 26nd edition, authors:
Häberle, Gregor Dr.-Ing., department manager Tettnang, Germany
Häberle, Heinz Dipl.-Gwl., VDE Kressbronn, Germany
Jöckel, Hans-Walter Dipl.-Ing. (FH), Oberstudienrat Friedrichshafen, Germany
M
Krall, Rudolf Dipl.-Päd. Ing., Berufsschuloberlehrer St. Leonhard, Austria
Schiemann, Bernd Dipl.-Ing. Durbach, Germany
Schmitt, Siegfried staatl. gepr. Techniker, Techn.
Oberlehrer Bad Bergzabern, Germany
Tkotz, Klaus Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Kronach, Germany
TM
Head of the working group:
Dr.-Ing. Häberle, Tettnang, Germany

Graphic design:
Design office of the publisher Verlag Europa-Lehrmittel, Ostfildern, Germany

EI

DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. and VDE Verband der Elektrotechnik Elektronik
SE Informationstechnik e.V. have authorised the citation of excerpts from DIN standards
classified as VDE for the registered limited edition of this book, approval no. 302.015. For
additional reproductions or editions, a separate authorisation will be required.
Please verify that you are using the most recent version of a standard prior to its application.
Standards can be ordered from VDE-VERLAG GmbH, Birmarckstr. 33, 10625 Berlin,
www.vde-verlag.de.
IC

2nd English edition 2015


Print 5 4 3 2 1
All printed versions of this edition may be used concurrently since they are unchanged, except for some
corrections to typographical errors.

AC
ISBN 978-3-8085-3270-6

All rights reserved. This publication is protected under copyright law. Any use other than those permitted by
the law must be approved in writing by the publisher.

© 2015 by Verlag Europa-Lehrmittel, Nourney, Vollmer GmbH & Co. KG, 42781 Haan-Gruiten, Germany
MC http://www.europa-lehrmittel.de.

Translation: Technische Übersetzungen Eva Schwarz, 76879 Ottersheim, Germany


www.technische-uebersetzungen-eva-schwarz.de
Many thanks to Hans Jurgen Porten for his technical review of the translation and his valuable advice.

Typesetting: Satz+Layout Werkstatt Kluth GmbH, 50374 Erftstadt, Germany

Print: M.P. Media-Print Informationstechnologie GmbH, 33100 Paderborn, Germany


CE
MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS, THEORY
OF CIRCUITS, COMPONENTS 11 … 66
M
TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION,
MEASURING 67 … 120
TM
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS
121 … 198
EI
SAFETY, ENERGY SUPPLY
199 … 286
SE
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION
TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS IC
287 … 334

AUTOMATION, DRIVE AND


CONTROL SYSTEMS AC
335 … 424

MATERIALS, CONNECTING, JOINING


AND BONDING 425 … 458
MC
THE COMPANY AND ITS ENVIRONMENT,
ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY, ANNEX CE
459 … 527
4 Preface to the 2nd English edition
This edition is based on the 26th German edition of “Tabellenbuch Elektrotechnik”, a leading compendium in
German-speaking countries. The English edition addresses professionals in the various fields of electrical
engineering, such as power and building engineering, field engineering, automation systems, machinery,
drive systems, components and other electronic systems. This book is intended to
M
• prepare professionals for an activity in an international environment and
• help make the world’s leading work processes and standards known outside of the German-
speaking region.
Despite the harmonisation of the most important European standards, local regulations may differ slightly
from German standards under certain circumstances, which means that where safety matters are con-
cerned, the user has to check whether any other local regulations exist.
The book is divided into the following main sections focusing on the specified subjects:
B • Section M: Formula symbols, units and quantities, mathematical symbols, exponents, unit
mathematics, prefixes, logarithmic unit decibel, force, moment of force, motion rules, work, power,
physics, heat, charge, voltage, current, resistance, electric and magnetic fields, alternating
theory of circuits, quantities, switching capacitors and coils, three-phase current, diodes, transistors,
components IGBTs, thyristors, magnetic field-dependent and photoelectronic components.
• Section TM: Technical drawing, dimensioning, circuit diagrams, circuit symbols, comparison of
technical circuit symbols, preparing documentation, measuring instruments and systems, meas-
documentation, uring categories, measurement in electrical installations, power meters, bidirectional
measuring watt meters, ripple control receivers, oscilloscopes, measuring with sensors.
C
• Section EI: Working in electrical installations, laying of cables, cable routing, installation circuits,
electrical intercom systems, types of dimmers, electrical installation with low-voltage halogen
installations lamps, field-reducing electrical installation, building management and automation,
project design based on KNX, house connection, foundation earth electrode, elec-
trical installations in residential buildings, calculation of circuit loading, ampacity of
cables and wires, lighting engineering, LED lighting.
• Section SE: First aid, workplace health and safety, personal protective equipment, signs for
safety, energy accident prevention, differential current devices, basic protection, fault protection,
E supply additional protection, conductors for protective measures, types of power stations,
insulator classes, transformers, overhead power cables, buried cables, private
power generating systems, smart grids, fuel cells, primary cells, accumulators, UPS
systems, electromagnetic compatibility EMC, lighting protection, quality of power
supply, harmonics, power factor correction, smoke alarms, AFDD, AFCI, security
and monitoring devices, energy conservation directive, energy efficiency, house-
hold appliances, electricity tariffs.
• Section IC: Number systems, codes, Boolean algebra, flip-flops, D/A converters, A/D con-
A information and verters, modulation and demodulation, IT networks, components for data networks,
communication Ethernet, wireless LAN, AS-i bus system, interbus, PROFIBUS, identification systems,
technology connection to the telephone network, internet, aerial systems, satellite systems, safe
systems communication across different field busses.
• Section AC: Rectifier, switch-mode power supplies, multivibrators, control relays, program-
automation, drive mable logic controllers PLC, word processing in PLCs, control engineering, auxiliary
and control circuits, sequence control with GRAFCET, contactors, motor protection, electrical
systems equipment of machines, automatic control engineering, three-phase motors, single-
phase A.C. motors, D.C. motors, efficiency of drive systems, servomotors, micro-
K motors, linear drives, design of automation systems, EC Machinery Directive.
• Section MC: Periodic table, specific material values, steel standardisation, magnetic materials,
materials, connec- insulators, cables and wires, buried cables, connectors, solderless connection
tion, joining and technology, ISO threads, screws, bolts and nuts, dowels and plugs.
bonding
• Section CE: Organisational structures of companies, teamwork, job planning, cost accounting
the company and and key numbers, skills of electrical specialists, realisation of projects, conflict
its environment, management, communication with customers, environmental terms, hazardous
W environmental materials, electronic waste products, standards, glossary, subject index.
technology, annex We have integrated modifications of standards, e.g. in the terms taken from DIN VDE
0100-200. It should be noted in general that standards allow different ways of repre-
sentation, e.g. DIN EN 610892 (Documents in Electrical Engineering, Rules) allows
the representation of electricity branching with or without a point. As in professional
practice, we have taken advantage of this freedom also in the book.
The publisher and authors would be grateful for any suggestions and constructive comments.
Summer 2015 The authors’ working group
BU
Contents 5
Section M: Resistors and Capacitors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Mathematics, Physics, Theory of Circuits, Colour Marking of Resistors and Capacitors . . 51
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Application Groups and Structures M
Symbols in this Book. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 of Capacitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Subscripts and Signs for Formula Symbols Semiconductor Resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
in this Book. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
International Formula Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Field Effect Transistors, IGBT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Quantities and Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Bipolar Transistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Mathematical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Thyristor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Exponents, Unit Prefixes, Logarithms, B
Thyristor Types and Trigger Diodes . . . . . . . . 59
Calculations According to the Rule of Three . . 18
Rectifier Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Logarithmic Unit Decibel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Types of Packages for Diodes, Transistors
Angles, Trigonometric Functions, Percentage
and ICs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Magnetic Field-dependent Components . . . . . 62
Relationships Between Trigonometric
Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Photoelectronic Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Lengths and Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Protection Circuits for Diodes and Thyristors . 64 C
Body and Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Components for Surge Protection . . . . . . . . . . 65
Mass, Force, Pressure, Moment of Force . . . . 24 Cooling of Semiconductor Components . . . . . 66
Motion Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Mechanical Work, Mechanical Power, Energy 26
Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Section TM:
Pulleys, Wedges, Winches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Technical Documentation, Measuring . . . . . . 67 E
Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Graphical Representation of Characteristics . . 68
Charge, Voltage, Electric Current, Resistance . 30
General Technical Drawing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Electric Power, Electric Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Graphical Representation of Bodies ....... 70
Electric Field, Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Dimension Arrows, Special Representations 71
Alternating Quantities, Wavelength . . . . . . . . . 33
Dimensioning, Hatching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Power of Alternating Sine-wave Current, A
Impulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Circuit Diagrams as Functional Documents . . 74

Magnetic Field, Coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Other Functional Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Electric and Magnetic Field Strengths . . . . . . . 36 Location- and Connection-related Documents 76

Current in the Magnetic Field, Induction . . . . . 37 Marking in Circuit Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77


Resistor Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Code Letters for Components (Objects)
in Circuit Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Reference Arrows, Kirchhoff’s Rules,
Voltage Dividers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Subclasses According to the Task of K
an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Potentiometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Contact Marking in Circuit Diagrams . . . . . . . . 80
Equivalent Voltage Source, Equivalent Current
Source, Matching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Circuit Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Basic Circuits of Inductances and General Circuit Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Capacitances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Additional Circuit Symbols, Switches in
Switching Capacitors and Coils . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Energy Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Series Connection of R, L, C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Measuring Instruments and Devices . . . . . . . . 84 W
Equivalent Series Connection and Equivalent Semiconductor Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Parallel Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Binary Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Simple Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Analog Information Processing, Meters and
Three-phase Systems (Alternating Current) . . 48 Tariff Switchgears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Unbalanced Load, Star-delta Conversion, Audio Converter, Video Converter and
Bridge Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Aerial Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
BU
6 Contents

Circuit Symbols for Installation Circuit Automatic Switch for Staircase Lighting,
Diagrams and Installation Diagrams . . . . . . . . 90 Doorbell System with Door Opener . . . . . . . . . 129
Installation Circuit Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Circuits with Latching Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
M
Circuit Symbols for Overview Diagrams . . . . . 93 Louvre-control Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Coils, Transformers, Rotating Generators . . . . 94 Intercom Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Single-phase A.C. Motors and Starters . . . . . . 95 Two-wire Door Intercom Systems . . . . . . . . . . 134
Three-phase Motors and Starters . . . . . . . . . . 96 Lamp Circuits with Dimmers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Converter-fed Motors with A.C./D.C. Drive Push-button Dimmer, Types of Dimmers . . . . 136
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Automatic Controller with Heat Sensor . . . . . . 137
B Comparison of Circuit Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Automatic Switch with Ultrasonic
Marks and Symbols on Electrical Motion Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Equipment (Examples) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Electrical Installation with Low-voltage
Halogen Lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Hydraulic and Pneumatic Controls. . . . . . . . . . 101
Field-reducing Electrical Installation . . . . . . . . 140
Symbols in Process Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Building Management and Automation . . . . . 141
Preparing Documentation on Equipment
and Plant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Lines and Areas in a KNX-TP System . . . . . . . 142
C
Structure and Contents of Operating Circuit Symbols for KNX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Components of KNX-TP Systems . . . . . . . . . . 144
Electrical Measuring Instruments and Special Actuators and System Devices
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 for KNX-TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Pictographs for Measuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Sensors for KNX-TP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Measuring Circuits for Resistance Calculation 107 Actuators for KNX-TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
E Measuring Range Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Installation Bus with FSK Control KNX-PL . . . 148
Measurements in Electrical Installations . . . . . 109 Project Design and Commissioning Based
on KNX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Low-voltage Power Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Local Operating Network LON . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Electricity Meters, Kilowatt-hour Meters . . . . . 113
LON Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Digital Watt Meters (Smart Meters) . . . . . . . . . 114
Electrical Installations with Wireless Control . 153
Oscilloscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Local Control Network LCN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
A Measurement with the Oscilloscope . . . . . . . . 116
House Connection with Protective
Displacement and Angle Measurement Equipotentional Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
with Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Foundation Earth Electrode Installed in
Measurement of Force and Pressure Concrete or Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
with Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Main Power Supply Lines in Residential
Motion Measurement with Sensors. . . . . . . . . 119 Buildings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Temperature Measurement with Sensors . . . . 120 Installation of the Meter Cabinet . . . . . . . . . . . 159
K Minimum Electrical Equipment in Residential
Buildings, Meter Cabinets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Section EI: Wiring in Residential Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Electrical Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Calculation of Circuit Loading of Lines
without Branching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Qualifications to Performing Electrotechnical
Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Calculation of Circuit Loading of
Branched Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
W Working on Electrical Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Protection of Conductors against Overload
Workshop Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 and Short Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Cable Installation, Working on Methods of Installation for Permanent
Electrical Conductors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
On-off Circuits, Series Connection . . . . . . . . . . 126 Ampacity of Cables and Wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Three- and Four-way Switch Circuits . . . . . . . . 127 Ampacity of Flexible or Heat-resistant Cables 169
Practical Installation of Electrical Circuits . . . . 128 Ampacity Correction Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
BU
Contents 7
Minimum Conductor Cross Sections, Fault Protection by Automatic Disconnection
Ampacity of Power Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 from the Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Overcurrent Protection Devices Other Protection Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
(Low-voltage Fuses) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 M
Additional Fault Protection in Professionally
Overcurrent Protection Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Monitored Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Bathrooms with Bathtubs or Showers. . . . . . . 174 Conductors for Protective Measures . . . . . . . . 216
Special Rooms and Facilities, Working Initial Testing of Protective Measures . . . . . . . 217
Under Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Repetitive Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Saunas, Swimming Pools, Accessible Pools. . 176 Repair, Modification and Testing of
Electrical Installations in Hazardous Electrical Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 B
Locations (Risk of Fire) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Transformers and Chokes, Insulation Testing 221
Electrical Installations in Agricultural Calculation of Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Additional Operating Parameters of
Electrical Installations in Medical Areas . . . . . 179 Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Electrical Installations in Teaching Rooms Small Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
with Experimental Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Types of Power Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Electrical Installations in Hazardous Locations C
(Risk of Explosion) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Rotating Generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Power Supply of Workshops and Machine Insulator Classes, Nameplates of
Shops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Lighting Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Transformers for Three-phase Current . . . . . . 228
Design of Interior Workshop Lighting . . . . . . . 185 Transformers in Parallel Operation . . . . . . . . . 229
Maintenance Factors of Workplace Lighting . . 186 Power Mains for Energy Supply. . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Calculation of Lighting Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Overhead Power Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 E
Lighting and Glare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Overhead Mains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Fluorescent Lamps for 230 V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Sag of Overhead Power Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Incandescent Lamps, Metal-vapour Lamps. . . 190 Installation of Buried Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Energy-saving Lamps, Colour Reproduction . 191 Private Power Generating Systems . . . . . . . . 235
Induction Lamps and Optical Fibres . . . . . . . . 192 Reimbursement for Renewable Energies
According to EEG. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Electronic Ballasts for Fluorescent Lamps. . . . 193
Wind Power Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 A
Discharge Lamp Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Photovoltaic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
LED Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Photovoltaic Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
LED-Lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Smart Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Photometric Data of Light Fixtures . . . . . . . . . 197
Fuel Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Fluorescent Tube Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Protection of Electrical Equipment, IP Codes . 243
Electrochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 K
Primary Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Section SE:
Safety, Energy Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Accumulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Charging Methods for Rechargeable
First Aid at the Workplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Personal Protective Equipment PPE. . . . . . . . . 201 Emergency Power Supply and Emergency
Signs for Accident Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Lighting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Workplace Health and Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Stand-by Uninterrupted Power Supply W
Types of Contact, Current Hazards, Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Types of Faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 UPS Systems (Uninterrupted Power Supply) . 250
Protective Measures, Protection Classes . . . . . 208 Electromagnetic Compatibility EMC . . . . . . . . 251
Distribution Systems (Network Layouts) . . . . . 209 Electromagnetic Interferences EMI . . . . . . . . . 252
Protection against Electric Shock . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Measures against EMI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Differential Current Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Internal Lightning Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
BU
8 Contents

External Lightning Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Microcomputers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299


Lightning Arrester Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Visual Display Units, Monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
M Quality of Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 PC Ports and Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Harmonics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Interface Connections, Interface Converters . . 302
Compensation, Power Factor Correction. . . . . 260 Operating System Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Compensation of Reactive Power . . . . . . . . . . 261 Elements of Windows User Interfaces . . . . . . . 304
Monitoring of Final Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 IT Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Alarm and Monitoring Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Components of Data Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Safety and Security Systems in Buildings. . . . 265 Communication via Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
B
Smoke Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Installation of an Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Arc Fault Detection Device AFDD or Industrial Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Arc Fault Circuit Interrupter AFCI . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Signal Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Alarm Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Wireless Data Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Intrusion or Burglar Alarm System . . . . . . . . . 269 Wireless LAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Closed-circuit Television CCTV. . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Identification Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
C Temperatures Relevant to Heat Demand AS-Interface Bus System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Safe Communication across Different
Energy Conservation Directive . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Field Busses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Heating Energy Consumption and PROFIBUS, Process Field Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Energy Index of a Single-family House . . . . . . 274
Remote Control Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Room Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Measuring Transducers and Signal Converters
Underfloor and Ceiling Panel Heating . . . . . . . 276 for Remote Control Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
E
Air Conditioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Programmable Measuring Transducers
Electric Cookers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 for Remote Control Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Water Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Connection to the Telephone Network . . . . . . 321

Household Appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 Telecommunication via ISDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

CE Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 ISDN and Voice over IP (VoIP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

Energy Efficiency Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Internet Access. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324


A Energy-saving Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 Internet Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

Heat Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Backing up and Protecting Data . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

Electricity Tariffs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Aerials, Electrical Equipment for


Aerial Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Satellite Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Satellite Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
Section IC:
Aerial Systems for Satellite Receivers . . . . . . . 330
K Information and Communication Technology
Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Broadcasting of Digital Terrestrial Television
(DBV-T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Binary Numbers and Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Master Aerial Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Hexadecimal and Octal Numbers. . . . . . . . . . . 289
Installation and Safety of Aerial Systems . . . . 333
ASCII Code in Unicode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Broadband Communication Systems . . . . . . . 334
Binary Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Boolean Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
W
Development of Combinational Circuits . . . . . 293 Section AC:
Code Converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Automation, Drive and Control Systems . . . . 335
Comparators and Flip-flops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Base Circuits of Amplifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Digital Counters and Shift Registers . . . . . . . . 296 Fundamental Principles of the Operational
D/A Converters and A/D Converters. . . . . . . . . 297 Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Modulation and Demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 Circuits with Operational Amplifiers . . . . . . . . 338
BU
Contents 9
Tasks of Power Converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 Special Types of Contactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
Identification Codes for Converter Identification and Actuation of Contactors . . . 381
Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 Utilisation Categories and Test Conditions M
Circuits for Rectifiers and Power Converters . 342 Applying to Contactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
Bidirectional Connection, Contactor Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Control Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Contactor Circuits with Control Devices . . . . . 385
Operating Quadrants for Drives, Motor Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Linear Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Electronic Motor Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Semi-controlled Power Converters . . . . . . . . . 345
Control via Motor Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Fully Controlled Power Converters . . . . . . . . . 346
Optoelectronic Proximity Switches B
Inverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 (Light Barriers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
D.C. Choppers, Voltage Source Inverters (VSI) . 348 Proximity Switches (Sensors). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
Voltage Source Inverters VSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 Ultrasonic Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Triggering Circuits for Semiconductors . . . . . 350 Automatic Control Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
Smoothing and Voltage Stabilisation . . . . . . . 351 Discontinuous Automatic Control Elements . . 393
Fundamentals of Switch-mode Digital Control Elements for Continuous
Power Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
C
Automatic Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
Switch-mode Power Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 Analog Control Elements for Continuous
Switching Transistors and Multivibrators . . . . 354 Automatic Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Solid-state Relays SSR and Safety Relays. . . . 355 Automatic Digital Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
Control Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 Setting of Control Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Small Controller EASY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 Operating Modes and Temperature Rise
Limits of Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 E
Small Controller LOGO! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Efficiency of Electrical Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Structograms and Program Flowcharts. . . . . . 359
Converter-fed Motors for Three-phase A.C.
Programmable Logic Controller PLC,
Supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
Stored-program Control SPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Surface-cooled Squirrel Cage Motors
Signal Coupling for PLCs and
(Standard Motors) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
Microcomputers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Operating Data of Squirrel Cage Motors . . . . . 403
Control Statements for PLCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
Program Examples for PLCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Types of Construction of Rotating Electrical A
Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Counters and Timers in PLCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
Calculation Formulas for Rotating Electrical
Programming Languages SCL Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
(Structured Control Language) and
Conventional D.C. Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
SFC (Sequential Function Chart) . . . . . . . . . . . 366
Nameplates of Rotating Electrical Machines. . 407
Program Structure for PLC S7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Three-phase Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
Word Processing with PLCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Pole-changing Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 K
Sequential Control with Sequential Function
Charts GRAFCET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 Troubleshooting on Three-phase
Asynchronous Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
Alphanumeric Identification of Connections . . 371
Single-phase A.C. Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
Electronic Control of Electrical Consumers . . . 372
D.C. Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
Limit Values for Loads Connected to the
National Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 Servomotors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
Auxiliary Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374 Activation of Servomotors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 W
Safety-Related Parts of Control Systems. . . . . 375 Stepper Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
Architectures of Control Systems . . . . . . . . . . 376 Micromotors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
EC Machinery Directive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 Data of Microdrives, Gears of Micromotors . . 417
Electrical Low-voltage Equipment Linear Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
of Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 Piezo Actuators and Piezo Drives . . . . . . . . . . . 419
Contactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 Testing on Electrical Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
BU
10 Contents

Drive Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 Section CE:


Selection of the Suitable Drive Motor . . . . . . . 422 The Company and its Environment,
Environmental Technology, Annex . . . . . . . . 459
M Starting of Squirrel Cage Motors . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Design of Automation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 Organisational Structures of Companies . . . . 460
Organisation of Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
Job Planning, Network Planning . . . . . . . . . . . 462
Section MC: Teamwork. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
Materials, Connecting, Joining and Bonding 425 Conflict Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
Periodic Table, Chemical Bond. . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 Analysing and Designing Processes . . . . . . . . 465
B
Specific Material Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Preparing a Presentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Steel Standardisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 Presentation of a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
Conducting Materials in Electrical Engineering Diagrams and Charts for Presentations . . . . . . 468
(Nonferrous Metals) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Realising Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
Magnetisation Characteristics (B-H Curves) . . 430 Systematic Marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
Magnetic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 Communication with Customers . . . . . . . . . . . 471
C Solders, Thermal Bimetals, Carbon Brushes . 432 Customer Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
Contact Materials, Overhead Power Lines . . . 433
Constituents of a Collective Labour
Insulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Synthetic Materials Used as Insulators . . . . . . 436 Legal Transactions of the Company . . . . . . . . 474
Other Insulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Costs and Key Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
Auxiliary Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 Cost Accounting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
Cables and Wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 Preparing a Quotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
E
Insulated Power Cables and Cords . . . . . . . . . 440 Design-of-work and Scope-of-work
Power Cables and Cords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
Other Cables for Permanent Installation . . . . . 442 Computer-aided Planning of Electrical
Cables for the Connection of Mobile Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443 Certification and Auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
Cables and Wires for Alarm and Signalling Hazardous Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
A Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444 Hazard Statements (H-Statements) for
Cables and Wires in Data Networks . . . . . . . . . 445 Hazardous Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
Wires for ELV Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 Precautionary Statements (P-Statements)
Multimedia Cabling in Private Homes . . . . . . . 447 for Hazardous Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
Codes for Colour Marking of Power Cables . . 448 Handling of Electronic Waste Products . . . . . . 484
Cables for Power Distribution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 Standards & Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
Connectors in Power Engineering . . . . . . . . . . 450 Important Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
K Important VDE Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
RJ45 and RJ11 Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 Parts of DIN VDE 0100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
Solderless Connection Technology . . . . . . . . . 453 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
Cable Conduits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 Overcurrent Protection Devices
for Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
Plugs and Anchors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
Nomenclature and Samples of Screws, Shortcuts of Technical Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
W Bolts and Nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506
Metric ISO Threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 Supporting Companies and Organisations . . . 524
ISO System of Limits and Fits . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458 List of Picture Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527

BU
Section M: Mathematics, Physics, Theory of Circuits, Components 11

Mathematics, Physics, Theory


Mathematics
Symbols in this Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
B
Subscripts and Signs for Formula Symbols in this Book 13 M
International Formula Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
ec
us

Opposite a
en Quantities and Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

of Circuits,
ot

Compon-
p Mathematical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Hy
} Exponents, Unit Prefixes, Logarithms, Calculations

ents
90
å

A
According to the Rule of Three . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Adjacent b C Logarithmic Unit Decibel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Angles, Trigonometric Functions, Percentage Calculation 20
Relationships Between Trigonometric Functions . . . . . 21
Physics
r Lengths and Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Body and Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Mass, Force, Pressure, Moment of Force . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Motion Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
F Mechanical Work, Mechanical Power, Energy . . . . . . . . 26
Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3
Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Charge, Voltage, Electric Current, Resistance . . . . . . . . 30
2 Electric Power, Electric Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Electric Field, Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
G/S 1 Alternating Quantities, Wavelength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Magnetic Field, Coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Electric and Magnetic Field Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
R/Q Current in the Magnetic Field, Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Circuit theory
Resistor Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
¡ R1 R2
Reference Arrows, Kirchhoff’s Rules, Voltage Dividers . 39
Equivalent Voltage Source, Equivalent Current Source,
G U U1 U2 Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Basic Circuits of Inductances and Capacitances. . . . . . . 42
Switching Capacitors and Coils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
¡ Equivalent Series Connection and Equivalent Parallel
¡1 ¡2 Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
G U R1 R2
Simple Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Three-phase Systems (Alternating Current) . . . . . . . . . . 48
Unbalanced Load, Star-delta Conversion, Bridge Circuit 49
Components
Resistors and Capacitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Semiconductor Resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Diodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
1 2 3 4 Field Effect Transistors, IGBT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Bipolar Transistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Thyristor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
D Is G S Rectifier Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Types of Packages for Diodes, Transistors and ICs . . . . 61
P+ P P+
Magnetic Field-dependent Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
N Photoelectronic Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Protection Circuits for Diodes and Thyristors. . . . . . . . . 64
Su
Cooling of Semiconductor Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
12 Symbols####
in this Book

Symbol Meaning Symbol Meaning Symbol Meaning

M Lower-case letters Upper-case letters Lower-case Greek letters


a acceleration A 1. area, 2. cross section a 1. angle
3. attenuation constant (alpha) 2. temperature coefficient
c 1. spec. heat capacity 4. apparent power 3. triggering angle
2. electrochemical 5. amplification factor
equivalent 6. phase of three-phase b 1. angle
3. propagation system (beta) 2. short-circuit current
velocity of waves B 1. magn. flux density amplification factor
4. coefficient 2. current gain
3. number base g 1. angle
d 1. diameter 4. phase of three-phase (gamma) 2. conductivity
2. distance system
3. dissipation factor d angle for losses
C 1. capacitance (delta)
4. duty cycle 2. thermal capacity
e elementary charge 3. constant e0 electric field constant
4. coupling factor
f 1. frequency 5. phase of three-phase e permittivity
2. filter factor system (epsilon)
D 1. electric flux density f work ratio,
g 1. gravitational 2. damping factor
acceleration, (zeta) utilisation ratio
3. deflection coefficient
position E 1. electric field strength n efficiency
h height 2. illuminance (eta)
F 1. force, 2. factor, 3. fault k conductivity (optional
i time-controlled current
G 1. conductance (kappa) symbol)
Π1. length 2. amplification factor
2. spacing 3. gravitational force h temperature in °C
H magnetic field strength (theta)
m 1. mass
2. number of strands I 1. electric current l wavelength
2. light intensity (lambda)
n 1. speed, number of J 1. current density
revolutions 2. mass moment of inertia m 1. permeability
2. integer 1, 2, 3, ... L 1. level (mu) 2. friction coefficient
3. refractive index 2. inductance m0 magnetic field constant
o overdrive factor M 1. moment of force
2. memory capacity p number 3.1415926…
p 1. number of pole pairs N number of turns (pi)
2. pressure P 1. active or effective power r 1. specific resistance
3. percentage rate 2. process value in controller (rho) 2. density
q 1. quantity circuits, often also PV
Q 1. electric charge s 1. leakage factor
2. shunt current ratio
2. heat (sigma) 2. stress
r 1. radius 3. reactive power t time constant
2. rate 4. resonant circuit quality
(tau)
3. differential R 1. active resistance
  resistance 2. spring rate j angle, particularly
3. rigidity (phi) phase-shift angle
s 1. section, strength
2. normalized slip S 1. susceptance
2. steepness w 1. angular velocity
3. correction 3. slip (absolute) (omega) 2. angular frequency
t 1. time 4. transmission quantity
2. transformation ratio 5. set value in controller Upper-case Greek letters
circuits, often also SV
v 1. velocity T 1. cycle time D difference
2. time-controlled voltage 2. transmission factor (Delta)
3. temperature in K
w 1. width 4. torque Q current linkage,
2. energy density (Theta) (phase-shift angle in NA)
U voltage
3. command variable
V volume G 1. magnetic flux
x controlled variable W 1. energy (Phi) 2. luminous flux
y correcting variable 2. work U electric flux
X reactance (Psi)
z integer, e.g. number of
Y admittance
teeth of a gear O 1. solid angle
Z 1. impedance 2. resistance
2. wave impedance (Omega)
3. oscillation impedance

Special symbols are created by adding one or more subscripts or other signs to the symbol.
Subscripts and Signs for######
Formula Symbols in this Book 13
Subscript,
sign Meaning Subscript Meaning Subscript Meaning

Numerals, symbols max maximum F 1. forward, 2. fault


M
mec mechanical 3. (negative) feedback
0 1. idle G gate
2. vacuum min minimum
3. reference variable n 1. nominal, 2. normal H 1. hysteresis
3. noise 2. Hall, 3. height
1 1. input 4. heat sink
2. order, sequence o oscillator
off switch off, turn off K cathode
2 1. output
2. order, sequence out output L 1. inductive 2. load
p 1. parallel, 2. pause 3. left 4. Lorentz
3, 4, … order, sequence 5. loop
3. pulse, 4. potential
:, e.g. u: peak value 5. pressure, 6. pre- N nominal, rated
; ;
, e.g. u minimum value per permissible O 1. operation,
:
; , e.g. u
;: 1. peak-to-peak value q quality 2. operational earthing
2. oscillation width r 1. reactive quantity (network)
‘, e.g. u’ 1. related to 2. relative, related to P positive feedback
2. note 3. derivation 3. rise, 4. resonance 1. reverse, reward
5. remanence, retentivity R
왕 delta connection 2. active resistance
6. reception 3. right
Y star connection
s 1. screen... 4. regular
2. signal... 5. red
Lower-case letters 3. specific
S 1. source, 2. saddle ...
a 1. armature, 2. ambient, sh short circuit 3. smoothing
3. actual st step 4. switching
ab absorbed t 1. test, 2. transverse 5. sluice ...
3. time 6. sector
adm admissible 7. system earthing
th thermal, heat ...
del delivered 8. scanning
tot total
amb ambient air ... T 1. transformer ...
v 1. voltage
2. transverse
b 1. bit 2. visual
3. track 4. test ...
2. brake ... w 1. command variable
2. wind... V voltage meter
c 1. cut-off, 2. crest,
3. comparison 3. wave ... W weight
4. centripetal... x 1. unknown variable at the x-port
X
d 1. referring to DC 2. in x-direction
Y 1. at the y-port
2. duration, 3. digit y 1. correcting variable
2. star connection
4. damping, 5. direction 2. in y-direction
6. desired z zigzag connection Z Zener ...
7. derivation, derived
e 1. exterior, 2. effective, Upper-case letters Lower-case Greek letters
3. error
A 1. ammeter a in direction of the
eff effective value
2. aerial (alpha) angle a
f 1. frequency 3. armature, 4. anode
s leakage
2. fall ... 5. acceleration, 6. area
(sigma)
h high, upper 7. amplifyer, amplifying
B 1. base j phase-shift related
i 1. inner, internal (phi)
2. building
2. induced, 3. current
4. ideal, 5. intermediate C 1. collector, 2. capacitive
6. impulse 3. clock pulse, 4. coercitive Upper-case Greek letters
5. cluster, 6. channel D
in input 1. referring to a
7. maximum (max) (Delta) difference
j junction contact voltage
2. configuration of a
k kinetic 8. carrier
three-phase system
D 1. drain, 2. data,
— 1. low, lower, 2. loss
3. discharge
m 1. magnetic E 1. emitter
2. mean value 2. environment
3. measuring, measured 3. earth
Subscripts may be combined, e.g. VCE for collector-emitter voltage. Subscripts that consist of several letters may
be reduced to the first letter.
14 International Formula Symbols cf. DIN EN 60027-4: 3-08

Quantity Symbol until Symbol after September 2010 Unit, unit symbol
September
2010 Preferred Reserve
M symbol symbol

Current and related quantities


Rated current In Irat or Ir IN

Nominal current IN In or Inom –

Sustained short-circuit current Ikd Ik ISC

Maximum aperiodic short-circuit current Is :


Ik :
I SC Ampere, A

Initial periodic short-circuit current is Ik0 ISCO

Transient current i Ik’ ISC’

Subtransient current is Ik’’ ISC’’

Current load I’ A Not applicable Amperes per


metre, A/m

Voltage and related quantities


Rated voltage UN Urat or Ur UN

Nominal voltage Un Not applicable


Volt, V
Induced voltage Ui Ug Not applicable

Open-loop voltage U0 U0

Power and related quantities


Rated power PN Prat or Pr PN Watt, W

Rated apparent power SN Srat or Sr Volt-ampere, VA

Nominal power Pn Pn or Pnom

Input power P1 or Pi Pin

Output power P2 or Po Pout Watt, W

Mechanical power P Pmec Not applicable

Dissipation Pv Pt

Power factor (P.F.) cos j l (lambda)


One (no unit)
Active factor – cos j

Moments of force, torques


Torque, moment of force M T M

Nominal moment/torque Mn Not applicable Not applicable

Rated moment/torque MN Trat or Tr Mrat or Mr


Newton meter,
Breakdown torque MK Tb Mb
Nm
Holding torque MH TH MH

Pull-up torque MS Tu Mu

Breakaway torque MA Tl Ml

nom = nominal, rat = rated, T = torque, active factor = cosine of fundamental (without overtones),
power factor (P.F.) = relation of wattage to apparent power (with overtones)
Quantities
######
and Units 1 15
Quantity SI unit Unit symbol, Quantity SI unit Unit symbol,
(other unit) unit equation (other unit) unit equation

Length, area, volume, angle Electricity M


length metre m electric charge, coulomb 1C =1A·1s
(sea mile) 1 sm = 1,852 m electric flux = 1 As
(mile) 1 mi = 1,609.344 m electric charge coulombs per C/m2
(inch) 1’’ = 25.4 mm density, electric square metre
(foot) 1 ft = 12 x 1’’ = 0.3048 m flux density
area square metre m2 space charge coulombs per C/m3
volume cubic metre m3 density cubic metre
(litre) 1 l = 1 dm3 = electr. voltage, volt 1V = 1 J/C
= 1/1000 m3 electr. potential
angle (plane) radian rad electr. field strength volts per metre 1 V/m = 1 N/C
π
(see page 20) (degree) 1° = ––– rad
180 electr. capacitance farad 1 F = 1 As/V = 1 C/V
solid angle steradian sr
current loading amperes per A/m
Time, frequency, velocity, acceleration metre
time second s permittivity, farads per 1 F/m = 1 C/(Vm)
(minute) 1 min = 60 s dielectric constant metre
(hour) 1h = 60 min electric current ampere 1A = 1 C/s
= 3 ,600 s
electric current amperes A/m2
(day) 1d = 24 h per m2
density
frequency hertz 1Hz = 1/s electric resistance, ohm 1O = 1 V/A
rotational speed- per second 1/s = 60/min active resistance,
rotational frequency (per minute) reactance,
impedance
angular frequency per second 1/s 1
electric conduct- siemens 1S = –––
velocity metres per m/s 1Ω
ance, susceptance,
second (knot) 1 kn = 1 sm/h admittance
= 0.5144 m/s
specific electric ohmmetre 1 Om = 100 Ωcm
1
1 km/h = ––– m/s resistance 1 Omm2/m = 1μOm
3.6
electric siemens per 1 Sm/mm2
angular radians rad/s conductivity metre = 1 MS/m
velocity per second
power watt 1W =1V·1A
acceleration – m/s2
reactive power (var) 1 var =1V·1A
Mechanics apparent power (VA) 1 VA =1V·1A
inductance henry 1H = 1 Vs/A
mass kilogram kg
(carat) 1 Kt = 0.2 g work, energy joule 1J = 1 Ws
(tonne) 1t = 1,000 kg (watt-hour) 1 Wh = 3.6 kNm
(electron volt) 1 eV = 0.1602 aJ
density – kg/m3, kg/dm3
moment of inertia – kg · m2 Magnetism
force newton 1N = 1 kg · m/s2
current linkage ampere A
moment of force, – Nm
magnetic field amperes per A/m
torque
strength metre
impulse newton sec. 1 Ns = 1 kg · m/s magnetic flux weber 1 Wb = 1 T · 1 m2
pressure pascal 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 = 1 Vs
(bar) 1 bar = 0.1 MPa magn. flux density tesla 1T = 1 Wb/m2
= 10 N/cm2 magn. polarisation = 1 Vs/m2
surface pressure, – N/mm2 inductance henry 1H = 1 Vs/A
rigidity, modulus
permeability henrys 1 H/m = 1 Vs/(Am)
of elasticity
per metre
work, energy joule 1 J = 1 Nm = 1 Ws magn. resistance – 1/H = A/Vs
(electron volt) 1 eV = 0.1602 aJ
power watt 1 W = 1 J/s
= 1 Nm/s
16 Quantities
####
and Units 2
Quantity SI unit Unit symbol, Quantity SI unit Unit symbol,
(other unit) unit equation (other unit) unit equation

M Electromagnetic radiation (except light) Nuclear reaction, ionising radiation


radiant energy joule 1 J = 1 Nm = 1 Ws activity of a bequerel 1 Bq = 1/s
radiant power watt 1 W = 1 J/s radioactive
substance

radiant intensity watt/sterad. W/sr absorbed dose gray 1 Gy = 1 J/kg


radiant intensity – W/(sr · m2) absorbed dose grays per Gy/s
irradiance – W/m2 rate second
dose equivalent sievert 1 Sv = 1 J/kg
Light, optics dose equivalent sieverts per 1 Sv/s
rate second = 1 J/(kg · s)
light intensity candela cd
luminance candelas per m2 cd/m2 ion dose coulombs per C/kg
kilogram
luminous flux lumen lm
luminous efficacy lumens per lm/W ion dose rate amperes per 1 A/kg
watt kilogram = 1 C/(kg · s)
1 lx = 1 lm/m2
illuminance lux
optical power of – 1/m
lenses (dioptre) 1 dpt = 1/m Acoustics

Heat sound pressure pascal 1 Pa = 1 N/m2

centigrade degree °C sound particle metres per m/s


temperature centigrade velocity second

thermodynamic kelvin K sound velocity metres per m/s


temperature (0 K ‡ – 273.15 °C) (propagation second
velocity)
temperature kelvin K
difference volume velocity – 1 m3/s
heat, inner energy joule 1 J = 1 Ws = 1 m2 · 1 m/s
sound intensity – W/m2
heat flow watt 1 W = 1 J/s
specific – Pa · s/m
thermal resistance kelvins per K/W
sound impedance
(of components) watt
thermal – W/(K · m) acoustic – Pa · s/m3
conductivity impedance
heat transfer – W/(K · m2) mechanical – N · s/m
coefficient impedance
thermal capacity, joules per J/K
entropy kelvin equivalent square metre m2
absorption area
specific thermal – J/(kg · K)
capacity

Chemistry, molecular physics Other disciplines


quantity of mol(e) mol distance in (astronomical 1 AU = 149.6 Gm
substance astronomy unit) parsec 1 pc = 30.857 Pm
concentration of – mol/m3 velocity of light km/s c = 3 x 108 m/s
quantity of sub- ≈ 300,000 km/s
stance light year l.y. km 1 l.y. = 9.461 · 1012 km
molar volume – m3/mol mass in nuclear (nuclear 1 u = 1.66 · 10–27 kg
molality – mol/kg physics mass unit)
molar mass – kg/mol mass per unit tex 1 tex = 1 g/kg
molar thermal – J/(mol · K) length of textile
capacity fibres and threads

diffusion – m2/s area of are 1a = 100 m2


coefficient plots of land hectare 1 ha = 100 a
Mathematical Symbols 17

Symbol Meaning Example Symbol Meaning Example

General symbols 6 infinite n = 1, 2, 3, ..., 6


∫ versus, approaches, x ∫ a, x approaches M
... n and so on until n k = 1, 2, 3, ..., n exceeds the value a
... and so on until n = 1, 2, 3,... f (x) function of x f (I) = I 2 • R
infinity 02
2 = 1.41421 ... i or j i2 = j2 = – 1
imaginary unit
Z
\
\ complex quantity Z Z = R + jX
\
Boolean algebra
Geometry, vectors
} a, ă NOT a a _ b = } (a _ b)
_ AND a _ b or _ (a, b) ææ parallel g1 ææ g2, R1 ææ R2
∂ OR a ∂ b or ∂ (a, b) ΩΩ parallel in the same dir. g ΩΩ h
_
2 NOT AND (NAND) a_
2b = a_b Ωº parallel in opposite dir. g1 Ωº g2

2 NOT OR (NOR) a∂
2b = a∂b ü orthogonal,
güh
perpendicular
Set theory ™ triangle ™ ABC
9 congruent ™ ABC 9 ™ DEF
◊ element of a ◊ M: a is element
of M , similar ™ P1P2P3 , ™ ABC
÷ M1 ÷ M2: M1 is subset @ angle 苶A, BC),
@ ABC = @ (B 苶
subset
of M2 ¯ b¯)
@ (a,
‘ union of sets {1, 2} ‘ {3, 4} = P33
AB
33 line segment AB 1P2
= {1, 2, 3, 4}
£
AB arc AB £ = @g
AB
π from this follows that a • b = c π a = c/b
Ā , B¯ vector A, vector B C¯ = Ā + B¯
Arithmetic æ∫Aæ absolute value of æ∫
Fæ= 50 N
vector A
= equal to P=U•I
Ï not equal, unequal 4 Ï5 Differentiation, integration
, proportional u,r D difference DU = U2 – U1
fi approximately p fi 3.14 y* y prime y * is the first
‡ corresponds to 1 cm ‡ 20 N derivation of y,
dy dy by dx or first derivative
ˆ less than 2ˆ3 dx dy over dx quotient y * = dy/dx
b
˜ greater than 5˜2 5 integral 5 f (x) dx, 5 f (x) dx
a
‰ less than or equal to a ‰ 10
› greater than or equal to n › 7 Exponents, logarithms
ˆˆ considerably less than R ˆˆ 100 kO ax a to the power of x 53, 10x
˜˜ considerably greater than Rx ˜˜ Rn exp exponential function expx=ex,with e =2.718...
•, ® times, multiplied a • b = ab, 12 x 3 = 36 log general logarithm
––, /, : divided by 7 loga logarithm to the basis a log3 9 = 2
= 7/2 = 7 : 2
2 lg lg 2 = 0.30103...
common logarithm
% per cent 1 % = 10–2, 50 % = 0.5 lb dyadic logarithm lb 8 = 3
‰ per thousand, per mil 1 ‰ = 10–3, 8 ‰ = 0.8 % ln natural logarithm ln 10 = 2.3025...
( ), ¸ ˛, round, squared,
{} curly, pointed ¸ a (b – c) + d ˛2 Trigonometry
brackets
sin sine sin a
æzæ amount of z æ4æ= 4, æ–7æ= 7 cos cosine sin2 a + cos2 a =
n! n factorial n!=1•2•3•...•n, 3!=6 = (sin a)2 + (cos a)2 = 1
tan tangent tan a = sin a/cos a
∑ sum SI = I1 + I2 + I3 + ...
cot cotangent cot a = 1/tan a
∏ product Wk = k1 • k2 • k3 • ...
arcsin arc sine sin a = x π arcsin x = a
02 square root of 022
16 = 4 arccos arc cosine cosa =x π arccosx = a
n 3
02 nth root of 02
8=2 arctan arc tangent tan a = x π arctan x = a
p pi p = 3.14159... arccot arc cotangent cot a = x π arccot x = a
18 Exponents, Unit ####
Prefixes, Logarithms,
Calculations According to the Rule of Three
Exponents
M Values less than 1 can be expressed by multiples of decimal powers with negative exponents.
Values greater than 1 can be expressed by multiples of decimal powers with positive exponents.

Value 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000

Decimal powers 10–3 10–2 10–1 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Powers of two are used in digital engineering. The base here is 2.

Value 1/128 1/64 1/32 1/16 1/8 1/4 1/2 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128

Powers of two 2–7 2–6 2–5 2–4 2–3 2–2 2–1 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Metric prefixes Binary prefixes


Prefix Prefix Meaning Prefix Prefix Meaning Prefix Prefix Meaning
symbol (factor) symbol (factor) symbol (factor)
y Yokto 10–24 da deca 10 – – – For large
z Zepto 10–21 h hecto 102 – – – mass storage
a atto 10–18 k kilo 103 Ki kibi 210 units, often
f femto 10–15 M mega 106 Mi mebi 220 the meaning
p pico 10–12 G giga 109 Gi gibi 230 of the
n nano 10-9 T tera 1012 Ti tibi 240 physical
µ micro 10-6 P peta 1015 Pi pebi 250 quantities
m milli 10-3 E exa 1018 Ei exbi 260 applies
c centi 10-2 Z zetta 1021 Zi zebi 270 (decimal
d deci 10-1 Y yobi 1024 Yi yobi 280 prefixes).

Prefixes may not be combined. You can assign only one prefix per unit.

Logarithms
The logarithm (log) indicates to
which power a base has to be raised
loga(cd ) = logac + logad
3.5 cm · lg 10 1
in order to obtain the logarithm argu-
ment. The following applies c = log c – log d
loga –– a a
d 2
3.5 cm · lg 5 ab = c, logac = b
The common logarithm (lg) has loga(cm) = m · logac
3.5 cm · lg 2
the base 10. The natural logarithm 3
loga n冑苳
(ln) has the base of the e-function 1 log c
(e=2.718...). The dyadic logarithm (lb) c = ––
n a
has the base 2. 4
3 parts 4 parts 3 parts
Extensive number ranges can be lgx = lnx / ln10
5
1 2 5 10
represented in a more structured
way when using a logarithmic scale. lnx = lgx / lge
Logarithmic sectioning Inc Inc 6
logac = ᎏ = ᎏ
lna lga lbx = lgx / lg2
7
Calculation according to the rule of three
Steps of approach Example
60
Proportional relation (unit obtained by division)
40
No. of pieces

1. Statement n elements have a weight of a kg


20 2. Calculation for 1 object 1 element has a weight of a/n kg
3. Calculation for z objects z elements have a weight of z · a/n kg
0
0 200 400 600 Inverted proportional relation (unit obtained by multiplication)
Weight/kg
1. Statement n workers need a hours
Calculation acc. to the rule of 2. Calculation for 1 object 1 worker needs n · a hours
three of a proportional relation 3. Calculation for z objects z workers need n · a/z hours
Logarithmic Unit Decibel 19

Logarithmic unit decibel


Term, definition Formula, note Comments, example
M
Transmission factor T Increase > 1 and decrease < 1:
Gain factor V
Transmission
Attenuation factor D T = V = S2/S1 S1 link
S2
1

D = S1/S2 S1, S2 quantities referring to


2 transmission

Power-related measures Gain ratio Example 1:


A filter circuit has an input of
Gain ratio G G = 10 lg (P2/P1) 500 mW and an output of 250 mW.
Attenuation ratio A 3 What are
Attenuation ratio a) the attenuation factor D and
In order to identify the value as a b) the attenuation ratio A?
logarithmic quantity, dB is added A = 10 lg (P1/P2)
instead of a unit, because the 4 a) D = S1/S2
value actually has no unit.
= 500 mW/250 mW = 2
G = –A A = –G
5 6 b) A = 10 lg (500 mW/250 mW)
dB refers to decibel (one tenth of a bel, = 3.01 dB
a unit named after the American scien-
tist Alexander Graham Bell)

Voltage-related measures, pres- Gain ratio Example 2:


sure-related measures An amplifier has an input of 3 mV
G = 20 lg (U2/U1) G = –A and an output of 5 V. What is
Gain ratio G 7 8 a) the gain factor,
Attenuation ratio A Attenuation ratio b) the gain ratio?
Sound pressure transmission
ratio Tp A = 20 lg (U1/U2) A = –G a) V = U2/U1 = 5 V/3 mV = 1,667
9 10
For these quantities, dB is also Sound pressure transmission ratio b) G = 20 lg (U1/U2)
used instead of a unit. = 20 lg (5 V/3 mV) = 64.4 dB
Tp = 20 lg (p2/p1)
11

Level in dB(*) (* place holder for additional specifications)


Sound level, general This quantity expresses the ratio be- The reference value should be
tween two values, one of which is an indicated in level specifications.
agreed reference value.
Power level LP Power level The agreed reference values are
Identified by dB (1 mW) or dBm, 1 mW for LP, 1mV for LU and
LP = 10 lg (P/1 mW) 20 μN/m2 for LP.
Voltage level LU, identified by 12
dB (1 μV) or dBm = dB (1 mV)
Voltage level Example 3:
Sound-pressure level Lp An aerial has an output of 80 mV.
actually identified by LU = 20 lg (U/1 μV) LU = ?
dB (20 μN/m2) 13 LU = 20 lg (U/1 mV) = 38 dBm
Sound-pressure level
LP = 20 lg (p/20 μN/m2)
14
Rated sound-pressure level The measured quantity is the sound- The rated sound-pressure level
Identified by dB(A), dB(B) or dB(C), pressure level. The measuring values in dB(A) corresponds to a great
depending on the correction are modified with the help of filters A, B extent to the human loudness
or C for frequencies other than 1,000 Hz. sensation in phon.
A attenuation ratio LU voltage level U voltage
D attenuation factor lg common logarithm V gain factor
G gain ratio P power Subscripts:
LP power level p pressure 1 input, 2 output of the trans-
Lp sound-pressure level T transmission factor mission link
20 Angles, Trigonometric Functions,
#### Percentage Calculation
Figures Explications Notes, formulas

Angles
M
The units referring to angles are de- Important angles
gree, centesimal degree and radian.
e
n gl The round angle has Round Straight Right
Righ
0}
a

t a a) 360 ° (degrees) angle angle angle


d
36
Roun

ng b) 400 gon (centesimal degrees)


9

c) 2 p rad (radian)
0}

le
The unit radian corresponds to the 360° 180° 90°
proportion of the circular arc length
1 ra

to the radius in a circle.


d

2 · p rad p rad p rad


––
p 2
ar = a° ·
180°
1 400 gon 200 gon 100 gon
360° Still customary in survey
1 rad = = 57.296°
Angle dimensions 2p engineering: 1 gon = (p/200) rad

Angle functions
B The longest side (c) of the right- An angle in a right-angled triangle
angled triangle is referred to as the can be defined by its angle degrees
ec hypotenuse. It is the side opposite or as a ratio of two triangle sides.
us
Opposite a

en
p ot the right angle. The two other sides The ratio of the sides depends on
Hy (a and b) of the triangle form the the size of the angle. That is why the
}

right angle. These sides are referred ratios of two sides in a right-angled
90

to as the catheti or simply legs of the triangle are referred to as angle func-
å

A triangle. The leg (a) opposite the tions (function = dependence) or


Adjacent b C
acute angle a is the opposite. The trigonometric functions.
leg contiguous to the angle a is
Right-angled triangle the adjacent (b).

sin å cos å opposite a


Sine = sin a =
hypotenuse c 2
¢ ¢ 3¢ 2¢
2 2 adjacent b
å Cosine = cos a =
hypotenuse c
tan å cot å 3
opposite a
Tangent = tan a =
¢ ¢ 3¢ 2¢ adjacent b 4
å
2 2 adjacent
Cotangent = b
opposite cot a =
Trigonometric functions a
5
Percentage calculation

Per cent (pro cent in Latin) means


Percentage P · 100%
“per hundred”. The total quantity
calculation p=
(basic quantity) is always equal to B 6
one hundred, the partial quantity
23 % (percentage) is expressed in per
cent (= hundredths). Calculation of C0 · p · n
interest I=
23% of 300 € is equal to 69 € 100% 7


percentage  basic value percentage


amount Calculation of compound interest
77 %
100 · percentage amount p n
Cn = C0 · ±1 +
100% ≤ 9
percentage =
basic value
8
a, b, c legs of a right-angled triangle I interest per year a, b, g angles in a triangle
B basic amount n term in years a° degrees of an angle
C0 starting capital P percentage amount ar radian of an angle
Cn capital after n years p percentage in %, interest rate in %