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S-Frame Theory Manual

S-Frame

Theory

Manual

Table of Contents Theory Manual
Table of Contents
Theory Manual

Table of Contents

Introduction

6

Nomenclature

8

Analysis procedures

12

Linear static analysis

12

Analysis description

13

Implementation details

14

Free-vibration analysis

15

Analysis description

15

Implementation details

16

Stressed free-vibration analysis

21

Analysis description

22

Implementation details

23

Linear dynamic analysis

23

Analysis description

23

Implementation details of Newmark algorithm

25

Implementation details of adaptive time-step size algorithm

27

Selection of constant time-step size

28

Selection of minimum and maximum time-step sizes

29

P-delta analysis

29

Analysis description

29

Implementation details

31

Linear buckling analysis

31

Analysis description

31

Implementation details

34

Buckling - Stressed Free Vibration - P-delta

34

Response spectrum analysis

35

Analysis description

36

Implementation details

40

Nonlinear static analysis

43

Analysis description

43

Implementation details

43

Newton-Raphson Method

45

Convergence Criteria

45

Other procedures

48

Skyline storage scheme

48

Mesh optimization

51

Application of boundary conditions

52

Constraints (coupled degrees of freedom)

54

Damping effects

57

Checking for non-structural degrees of freedom

59

Graph interpolation

59

Lumped mass VS. consistent mass formulations

60

Number of elements required

61

Table of Contents Theory Manual
Table of Contents
Theory Manual

Element library

62

3D Beam

64

Stiffness, geometric stiffness, and mass matrices

65

3D Thin Shell

68

Stiffness and mass matrices

68

Plate elements

68

Membrane elements

68

Aspect ratio

69

3D Truss

69

Stiffness and mass matrices

69

Two-noded spring

70

Stiffness matrix

71

Tension-only members

71

Compression-only members

71

Spring element

72

Stiffness matrix

72

Hook element

72

Gap element

73

Unit conversion factors

74

Memory requirements

78

Dynamic memory allocation requirements (RAM)

78

Storage requirements

78

References

80

Table of Contents Theory Manual
Table of Contents
Theory Manual
S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 1 : Introduction : 6
S-Frame Theory Manual
Chapter 1 : Introduction : 6

1

Introduction

This document describes the theoretical and computational aspects of the S-Frame finite-element analysis engine. It is hoped that this information will enable the user to make full use of S-Frame’s capabilities while being aware of its limitations.

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7 : Chapter 1 : Introduction
S-Frame Theory Manual
S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 2 : Nomenclature : 8
S-Frame Theory Manual
Chapter 2 : Nomenclature : 8

2

Nomenclature

Following is a list of the symbols used throughout this manual.

A cross-sectional area.

A

s

i shear area normal to direction i.

c generalized damping.

c cr

critical generalized damping.

E Young’s modulus.

F

i Dominant modal base shear in i th direction.

G shear modulus.

J jerk or torsional moment of inertia.

ˆ

J normalized jerk.

J cr

critical jerk.

k generalized stiffness.

L element length.

m generalized mass.

e element mass.

m

ˆ

m modal mass.

j

% M

P

R

S

percent of total mass participating in j th direction.

e axial load (positive for a tensile load).

i RSA Base Shear in i th direction.

i Scaling factor in i th direction.

t time.

T i

Code base shear in i th direction.

x generalized displacement.

w

h half bandwidth.

α, β

Rayleigh damping parameters.

α, δ

Newmark parameters.

t

time step.

9 : Chapter 2 : Nomenclature S-Frame Theory Manual
9 : Chapter 2 : Nomenclature
S-Frame Theory Manual

)

θ phase angle.

λ

λ cr

load factor or shift factor or scale factor. critical load factor.

j

µ modal participation factor in j th direction.

ξ damping ratio (

ω circular natural frequency.

c

c cr

)

ω shifted circular natural frequency.

frequency of disturbing force.

[A]

[c]

a square matrix.

s system modal damping matrix.

[C]

[C]

ˆ

e element damping matrix.

s system damping matrix.

[

D ]

a diagonal matrix.

[k]

s

system modal stiffness matrix.

[K]

e

element stiffness matrix.

[K]

s

system stiffness matrix.

[

K r

] reduced system stiffness matrix.

[ K

] s

[

K eq

]

[

[

[

K

g

K

g

]

]

K go

e

s

] s

[L]

[m] s

a shifted system stiffness matrix.

equivalent system stiffness matrix.

element geometric stiffness matrix.

system geometric stiffness matrix.

system geometric stiffness matrix at reference loading.

a lower matrix.

system modal mass matrix.

[M]

e

element mass matrix.

[M]

s

system mass matrix.

[

M

r

]

reduced system mass matrix.

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 2 : Nomenclature : 10
S-Frame Theory Manual
Chapter 2 : Nomenclature : 10

ˆ

[ ] s

a system matrix after the application of boundary conditions.

{a}

a vector.

{b}

a vector.

{F} e

element internal load vector.

{F} s

system internal load vector.

j

{I}

unit vector in j th direction expanded to system dimension.

{J}

system jerk vector.

{R} e

element applied equivalent load vector.

{R} s

system applied load vector.

{R} s i

system applied load vector for i th load

case/combination.

{

R

equivalent load vector.

{W} s

j

{w}

max

i

{w} i

max

{W} max

{X} e

{X} s

·

{

{

{

X

·

X

X ··

}

}

}

e

s

e

X ··

{

{Z} s

·

{

}

s

Z

}

s

relative system displacement vector.

maximum relative displacement contribution of

mode i due to ground motion in the j th direction.

maximum relative displacement contribution of mode i due to ground motion.

maximum relative displacement due to ground

motion

element displacement vector.

system displacement vector.

element velocity vector.

system velocity vector.

element acceleration vector.

system acceleration vector.

ground displacement vector.

ground velocity vector.

11 : Chapter 2 : Nomenclature S-Frame Theory Manual
11 : Chapter 2 : Nomenclature
S-Frame Theory Manual

{ Z ··

ˆ

} s

{ } s

{η} s

·

{ η

} s

ground acceleration vector.

a system vector after the application of boundary conditions.

generalized system displacement vector.

generalized system velocity vector.

{ η ··

}

s

generalized system acceleration vector.

[Λ]

natural frequencies and eigenvalues matrix (diagonal).

[Φ]

mode-shapes or eigenvectors matrix.

{φ}

mode shape or eigenvector or buckling mode.

{ψ}

normalized mode shape or eigenvector.

[Ψ]

normalized modal matrix or eigenvectors matrix.

numdir

num1Delm number of 1D elements (beams, trusses, etc.)

number of ground motion directions.

num2Delm

number of 2D elements (shells, plates, etc.)

numelm

number of elements.

numbc

number of boundary conditions (constrained

numdof

degrees of freedom). number of degrees of freedom in structure.

numitrvec

number of iteration vectors.

numldcas

number of load cases.

numldcmb

number of load combinations.

numnatfrq

number of natural frequencies.

numnod

number of nodes.

numRSAldcasnumber of RSA load cases.

numtimstp

number of time steps.

tstval

test value.

RMS

root mean square.

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 12
S-Frame Theory Manual
Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 12

3 Analysis procedures

This section briefly describes the theoretical basis of the various analysis procedures available in S-Frame. S-Frame uses the displacement method of the finite-element method. In this method, the structure to be analyzed is approximated by an assembly of structural regions (elements) connected at a finite number of points (nodes) to ensure that the displacements are continuous. Once the equilibrium equations for each element are known

{F} e

=

{R} e

(1)

then their contribution to the behavior of the overall structure can be accounted for by assembly of the element equations (Eq. 1) using standard matrix procedures

numelm

=

e

1

(

{F}

e

=

{R}

e

)

to yield the system equations

{F} s

=

{R} s

(2)

(3)

where the internal load vector, for linear analysis, is defined as

linear static analysis

{F} s

=

[K] s {X} s

linear dynamic analysis

{F} s

=

[M] s { X ··

}

s

+

[C]

s

{

·

X

}

s

+ [K] s {X} s

nonlinear static analysis

{F} s

{R}

s

= {0}

(4)

(5)

(6)

Linear static

analysis

The purpose of the static analysis is to determine the displacements and stresses due to time-independent loading conditions under the following assumptions:

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S-Frame Theory Manual

1. Stiffness effects and applied loads do not depend on time.

2. Inertial and damping effects are ignored.

3. Static acceleration fields, such as gravity, may be included (i.e. dead loads).

4. Time independent loads, displacements, pressures and temperature effects may be applied.

Analysis description

The system equilibrium equations for the linear static analysis are

[K] s {X} s

=

where the system load vector

{R} s

1. Applied nodal loads.

{R} s

(7)

includes the contributions of:

2. Loading due to static acceleration fields (such as gravity).

3. Element thermal/pressure loads.

The system stiffness matrix will have a degeneracy equal in number to the rigid-body modes of the structure. On application of adequate boundary conditions, rigid-body modes and the degeneracy of the stiffness matrix are removed and hence, the solution of the system of equations becomes possible (see Application of boundary conditions on page 52 for a discussion on the application of boundary conditions). The system of equilibrium equations after the application of the boundary conditions becomes

 

ˆ

ˆ

[

K ] s {X} s

=

{ R

}

s

(8)

and a unique solution

displacements are obtained, the element stresses and nodal forces may be computed. For the elements at the boundaries these nodal forces will be in equilibrium with the reaction forces.

{X} s

may be obtained. Once the nodal

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 14
S-Frame Theory Manual
Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 14

Implementation

details

S-Frame uses a skyline implementation (see Skyline storage scheme on page 48 for a discussion on the skyline storage scheme) of the Crout reduction (Bathe (1982), Gerald (1980), Press et. al. (1990)) to factorize the system stiffness matrix to

ˆ

ˆ

][L] T

 

[ K

] s

=

[L]

[

D

(9)

The stiffness matrix factorization, a computationally intensive process, is performed only once during a linear static analysis regardless of the number of load cases and load combinations. Therefore, for each load case and/or load combination i, S-Frame needs only forward reduce and back substitute for the corresponding system load vector, i.e.

[L]

[

ˆ

D

][L] T

=

ˆ

{ R

}

s i

(10)

During matrix factorization, the skyline solver performs the following checks:

1. If a pivot is less than zero (system matrix is negative definite), then it issues the SL001 exception. In such a case, the Crout factorization can not be performed, therefore, it will abort the factorization.

2. If a pivot is identically zero (system matrix is positive semi- definite), then it issues the SL003 exception, it replaces the zero pivot with a very small pivot and continues the factorization.

3. If a pivot is greater than zero but less than tstval, then it issues the SL002 exception. In such a case, the system matrix may be ill-conditioned and results may be meaningless. The Crout factorization will continue. The user should ensure that the results from the analysis are physically plausible. The value of the test variable tstval is calculated as follows:

tst(dv)al

=

Max

( ,

7.888 ×10

31

(

ftr1 ftr2

)maxpvt

)

(11)

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S-Frame Theory Manual

where

maxpvt

ftr1

ftr2

maximum pivot encountered.

1 ×10

13

(default)

1 ×10

23

(used if support settlements are present

in the model)

Free-vibration

analysis

The purpose of the free-vibration analysis is to determine the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of vibration. This information is needed for instance for seismic analysis. The following assumptions are made:

1. Stiffness and inertial effects of the structure are time independent and hence the free-vibration motion is simple harmonic.

2. Damping effects are ignored.

3. No forces, displacements, pressures or temperature effects are applied to the structure.

Analysis description

The equilibrium equations for the free-vibration analysis are

[M] s { X ·· } s + [K] s {X} s = {0}

(12)

In a free-vibration analysis the motion is simple harmonic and may be expressed as

{X} s = {}φ

sint + θ)

(13)

The acceleration vector may be obtained by taking the second time derivative of Eq. 13

{ X ··

} s

=

ω

2

{}φ

sint + θ)

(14)

Substituting Eqs. 13 and 14 into Eq. 12 yields the following expression

ω 2 [M] s {}φ

sint + θ)

+

[K]

s

{}φ

sint + θ)

= {0}

(15)

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 16
S-Frame Theory Manual
Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 16

which may be re-written as

(

[K]

s

ω

2

[M]

s

)φ{

}

= {0}

(16)

since the sine term is arbitrary and is not equal to zero at all times. Using Cramer’s rule (Anton (1977)), the solution of the above equation can be shown to be of the form

{φ}

= ------------------------------------- {0}

[K] s ω 2 [M] s

(17)

Hence, a non-trivial solution is possible only when the determinant vanishes, i.e.

[K] s

2

ω

[M]

s

=

0

(18)

which is the basic statement for free vibration problems. The above equation is the frequency equation of the system and its solution, after applying the necessary boundary conditions (see Application of boundary conditions on page 52 for a discussion on the application of boundary conditions), corresponds to the solution of the general eigenvalue problem

Implementation

details

ˆ

]

(

[

K

s

ω

2

i

[M]

s

{

i

}

for the numdof eigenpairs

ω i ,

{

φ

i

}

=

{0}

(19)

 

(20)

There are numerous methods for solving the general eigenvalue problem stated in Eq. 19. For small systems (a few hundred degrees of freedom) some of the most popular methods include the Jacobi, Given’s and Householder methods (Petyt (1990)). For larger systems, methods of reducing the number of degrees of freedom have been developed and are described by Bathe (1982) and Petyt (1990). However, for very large systems aforementioned methods are inefficient. The eigenvalue solver used in S-Frame is the skyline implementation (see Skyline storage scheme on page 48 for a discussion on the skyline storage scheme) of the Subspace Iteration method (Bathe

(1982)).

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S-Frame Theory Manual

Subspace iteration is a very effective method of determining the numnatfrq lowest eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of Eq. 19 simultaneously. The subspace iteration procedure is as follows:

1. The number of eigenpairs (numnatfrq) to be extracted is set to the user-specified number of eigenvalues. Note that numnatfrq will normally be much smaller than the number of degrees of freedom (i.e. numnatfrq << numdof). If this condition is not met, the solver may issue the SI004 and/or JD001 exceptions. For the current implementation of the subspace iteration, it is recommended that numnatfrq be below 100. For the case when the model is using the consistent mass formulation (i.e. a non-zero density has been specified for all the elements in the structure), the user may easily calculate the structure’s number of degrees of freedom by the following equation:

numdof

=

6

numnod numbc

(21)

However, in the case where lumped masses are used to model the inertia of the structure, the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of lumped masses times the degrees of freedom per lumped mass present in the structure.

2. Select a starting matrix

[A] 1

of dimension (numdof x

numitrvec) where numitrvec > numnatfrq and is given by

numitrvec

=

Min(2

numnatfrq, numnatfrq + 8)

(22)

The columns of matrix

first column of the product

[A] 1

are determined as follows: The

[M] s [A] 1

[M] s

consists of the diagonal . The other columns in

terms of the system mass matrix

[M] s [A] 1

are unit vectors each with unit entries at the position

where

terms of the system stiffness and mass matrices respectively.

of the smallest ratio

K ii

M ii

K ii

and

M ii

are the diagonal

3. Perform the following operations:

(i)

For i = 1, 2, equation

solve for the reduced matrix

ˆ

[ K

]

s

[

A r

] i + 1

=

[M] s [A] i

[

A r

] i + 1

from

(23)

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 18
S-Frame Theory Manual
Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 18

Above system of equations is solved using the skyline solver described in Implementation details on page 14.

(ii) Calculate the reduced stiffness and mass matrices

[

[

K r

M r

] i + 1

] i + 1

=

=

[

[

A

r

A r

] T

i + 1

ˆ

[ K

]

s

[

] T i + 1 [M] s

A r

] i + 1

[

A r

] i + 1

(24)

(25)

(iii)Solve the reduced general eigenvalue problem

[

K r

] i + 1 [Φ] i + 1

=

[

M

r

]Φ[

]

i + 1

[Λ]

(26)

For numnatfrq eigenvalues

[Λ] i + 1

and eigenvectors

[Φ] i + 1

. This reduced eigenvalue problem may be solved

by any of the many methods available for the solution of the general eigenvalue problem. Noting that the reduced

, diagonal form as the number of subspace iterations increases, the generalized Jacobi method is the most effective choice.

stiffness and mass matrices (

[

K r

]

[

M

r

]

) tend toward a

(iv)Calculate an improved approximation to the eigenvectors of the original system using

[A] i + i

=

[

A

r

] i + 1 [Φ] i + 1

(27)

The eigenvalues

to the lowest eigenvalues and eigenvectors of Eq. 19 as

[Λ] i + 1

and eigenvectors

[Φ] i + 1

converge

i → ∞

. Convergency is achieved and this process is

terminated when the user-specified tolerance is met for all numnatfrq eigenvalues. It should be noted that the tolerance with which the lower eigenvalues are extracted is smaller than the tolerance with which the higher eigenvalues are extracted. A user-specified tolerance of 0.001 is generally recommended. If convergence is not achieved within the user-specified maximum number of iterations, the solver will issue the SI001 exception. The recommended user-specified number of iterations is around 12.

4. Use the Sturm Sequence check (Jennings (1977)) to verify that no eigenvalues have been missed.

Shifting Procedure

Above procedure for extracting the natural frequencies and mode shapes of vibration will fail if the system stiffness matrix

ˆ

[ K

]

s

is singular. This case arises with not-fully-supported

19 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual
19 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures
S-Frame Theory Manual

)

)

structures commonly found in space applications. In order to allow the user to perform a free-vibration analysis of such structures, S-Frame uses the shifting procedure (Bathe (1982)).

In the solution of Eq. 19, S-Frame performs a shift calculating

λ

on

[

ˆ

K

]

s

by

[

K

] s

=

[

ˆ

K

]

s

λ[M] s

(28)

and then it considers the eigenvalue problem

(

[ K ]

s

ϖ

2

i

[M]

s

{

i

}

=

0

(29)

which yields the same eigenvectors

eigenvalue problem of Eq. 19 with its eigenvalues related to those of Eq. 19 by

{

φ

i

}

as the original

ϖ

2

i

=

ω

2

i

λ

(30)

The shift factor entered by the user, is used to calculate the amount of shifting using the following relation

λ

=

shift

factor

ˆ

K

RMS

(

---------------------------

)

RMS

[

]

s

)

(

[M]

s

(31)

where RMS([ ]) is the root-mean-square of the diagonal components of the corresponding matrix. Typically, a shift factor of magnitude around unity is recommended for problems with rigid-body motion.

Closely packed

eigenvalues

Mode shape

normalization

When the user suspects that the eigenvalues of a system are closely packed, then he/she should run several analyses using progressively smaller tolerance and larger number of iterations to ensure that no eigenvalues have been missed. In addition, shifting may be used to accelerate the convergence of closely packed eigenvalues.

If the value of one of the elements of a mode shape vector assigned a specified value, then the remaining elements are determined uniquely. The process of scaling a natural mode so

{

φ

i

}

is

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 20
S-Frame Theory Manual
Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 20

that each of its elements has a unique value is called normalization, and the resulting modal vectors are called normal modes (Craig (1981)).

Denoting by

amplitude unique, and assuming

is, an arbitrary modal vector corresponding to in the form

{

ψ

i

}

a mode that has been scaled to make its

{

ψ

i

}

ω i

to be “dimensionless”, that

can be written

{φ} i

=

λ i {ψ} i

where

λ i

is a scaling factor whose units are such that

{ψ} i T [M] s {ψ} i

has the dimensions of mass. (a)

(32)

S-Frame scales mode shapes so that the generalized mass defined by

m

i

=

{ψ} i T [M] s {ψ} i

has the value of unity. (b)

(33)

The generalized stiffness for the i th mode is defined as

k

i

=

{ψ} i T [M] s {ψ} i

(34)

In the case where the mode shapes are normalized with respect to the mass matrix (Eq. 33), generalized stiffnesses are given by

k i

=

2

ω i

(35)

(a)

{ψ} i

The reason for this particular definition of dimensionless is that vectors may

contain a mixture of types of coordinates, for example, translations and rotations.

Thus, it would not be possible to simultaneously make all components of

{ψ} i

dimensionless in the usual sense of the word.

(b)

{ψ} i

As previously noted, it is convenient to scale , so that the product

{ψ} i T [M] s {ψ} i

has the units of mass, therefore,

m i

=

1Kg (or 1 Slug).

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In addition to the natural frequencies and mode shapes of vibration, S-Frame computes for each mode i the modal

participation factors(

global directions ( j = X, Y, Z ) defined, respectively, as

j µ i ) and modal masses (

j

ˆ

m i ) in the three

j µ {ψ} T [M] {I}

= -----------------------------------

j

i

{ψ} T [M]ψ{

}

j ˆ

m

i

2

(

{ψ}

T

j

[M] {I}

)

= ---------------------------------------

{ψ} T [M]ψ{

}

(36)

(37)

where

expanded to the system dimension. For instance

j

{I}

is a unit vector in the j th global direction which is

Y

{I}

is given by

j t h global direction which is Y { I } is given by 010000 010000

010000

010000

…

010000

(38)

Since S-Frame scales the mode shapes with respect to the mass matrix, the expressions for the modal participation factors and modal masses simplify to

j

j

µ

i

=

j

{ψ} T [M] {I}

ˆ T

m

i

=

( {ψ}

[M] j

{I}

) 2

(39)

(40)

Using the modal masses, S-Frame also computes the percentage of the mass in each of the three global directions (j = X, Y, Z) using the following expression

j

% M

numnatfrq

=

i

1

j

ˆ

m

i

= ------------------------------

j

[M] {I}

(41)

Stressed free- vibration analysis

The purpose of the stressed free-vibration analysis is to determine the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of vibration while taking into consideration membrane effects due to time-independent loads under the following assumptions:

1. Stiffness and inertial effects of the structure are constant.

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 22
S-Frame Theory Manual
Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 22

2. Damping effects are ignored.

3. No time-dependent forces, displacements, pressures, or temperature effects are applied to the structure.

4. Time-independent forces, displacements, pressures, or temperature effects may be applied to the structure.

Analysis description

The stressed free-vibration analysis requires a two phase analysis procedure. In the first phase, the system equilibrium equations

for the linear static analysis (Eq. 7) are used to solve for the for the user-selected load case or load combination. Once the

nodal displacements are obtained, the element membrane forces are calculated and used to form the element geometric stiffness

matrices

to reduce the stiffness of an element, while tensile membrane forces cause a corresponding increase of stiffness. In the second phase of the analysis, the equilibrium equations for the stressed free-vibration analysis are considered, namely

{X} s

[

K g

]

e

. In general, compressive membrane forces tend

[M] s { X ··

}

s

+ [

[K]

s

+ [

K g

]

s

]{X} s = {0}

(42)

where the system geometric stiffness matrix

assembly of the element geometric stiffness matrices

standard matrix procedures. The geometric stiffness matrix represents the effect of membrane forces on the stiffness of the elements. Hence, by including it in the equilibrium equations 42, we are in essence including the effects of the membrane forces on the stiffness of the structure. Following the same procedure as in Analysis description on page 15, it can be shown that the frequency equation of the stressed system is

[

K g

]

s

is obtained by

[

K g

]

e

using

[

[K]

s

+ [

K g

]]ω

2

i

[M]

s

=

0

(43)

and its solution, after applying the necessary boundary conditions (see Application of boundary conditions on page 52 for a discussion on the application of boundary conditions), corresponds to the solution of the general eigenvalue problem

(

[

[

ˆ

K

]

s +

[

K g

]

s

i

2

[M]

s

{

i }

=

0

(44)

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S-Frame Theory Manual

Implementation

details

for the numdof eigenpairs

ω i ,

{

φ

i

}

(45)

In general, the eigenvalues

oscillation) decrease in the presence of compressive membrane forces, whereas they increase in the presence of tensile membrane forces. In the case where the structure is critically loaded, the lowest eigenvalue becomes zero. This is due to the singularity of the stiffness matrix induced by the geometric stiffness matrix. This is in fact one of the methods used to predict buckling loads by frequency measurements for varying membrane loads. Further details are provided on the methods for determining buckling loads in Linear buckling analysis on page 31.

ω i

(hence the natural frequencies of

The implementation of the stressed free-vibration analysis is a combination of the descriptions in Implementation details on page 14 and Implementation details on page 16. In the current

version of S-Frame, the geometric stiffness matrices

beams and shells are formed.

[

K g

] e

of

Linear dynamic analysis

The purpose of the linear dynamic analysis is to determine the response of a structure to arbitrarily time-varying loads under the following assumptions:

1. Stiffness and inertial effects of the structure do not depend on time.

2. Initial conditions are known.

3. No gyroscopic or Coriolis effects are included

Analysis description

The system equilibrium equations for the linear dynamic analysis are

[M] s { X ··

} s

+

[C]

s

{

·

X

}

s

+ [K] s {X} s

=

{R} s

(46)

The above system of equations is a system of linear second order differential equations with constant coefficients. Three categories of methods exist for the solution of such system of equations:

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 24
S-Frame Theory Manual
Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 24

direct explicit, direct implicit, and indirect. Direct methods do not require any transformation of the system equilibrium equations prior to solution. Indirect methods require the transformation of the system equilibrium equations to a more convenient form prior to solution (Modal Analysis). Direct methods enforce equilibrium which includes the external forces,

inertia forces ( ) and damping forces ( ) at discreet

[C] s { X

}

s

[M] s { X ·· } s

·

time intervals. Methods that consider equilibrium at time

classified as explicit (Central Difference), whereas methods that

t are

t + t

consider equilibrium at time

(Newmark, Wilson, Linear Acceleration). S-Frame uses the Newmark time integration method for the solution of Eq. 46. The cost of dynamic analysis is proportional to the number of steps in the analysis. Therefore, the choice of the step size becomes very important. This point will be discussed further in the following sections. Dropping the subscript s from all system vectors for brevity, the difference equations suggested by Newmark may be expressed as

are classified as implicit

and

·

{ X

} t + t

=

{X}

t

+

t

(

(1 δ)

{

X ··

}

t

+

δ

{

X ··

}

t + t

)

(47)

{X} t + t

=

{X}

t

+

t

{

·

X

}

t

+ t 2  

1

-- – α

2

{

··

X

}

t

+

α

{

X ··

}

t + t

(48)

If the values of 1/2 and 1/6 are used for

then above equations reduce to the equations used in the linear- acceleration method. First we consider the system of second- order differential equations at time t = t+t

δ

and

α

, respectively,

[M] s { X ··

} t + t

+

[C]

s

{

·

X

}

t + t

+ [K] s {X} t + t

=

{R} t + t

(49)

from which we intent to solve for the displacement

so, we must first obtain expressions for

terms of quantities at time t and obtain

{X} t + t

{

·

X

} t + t

. To do

in

{ X ··

} t + t

and

{X} t + t

only. From Eq. 48 we

{ X ··

} t + t

=

------------ (

α∆t 2

1

{X}

t + t

{X}

t

1

) – ---------- {

α∆t

·

X }

t

1

------- – 1

2α

{ X ··

} t

(50)

25 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual
25 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures
S-Frame Theory Manual

which upon substitution in Eq. 47 yields

·

{ X

} t + t

=

{

·

X

}

t

+

t

(

(1 δ)

{

X ··

}

t

+

δ

{

X ··

}

t + t

)

(51)

Substituting Eqs. 50 and 51 into the system of equations 49 and rearranging, we obtain

where

and

{

R eq

} t

=

[

[

K eq

] s {Y} t + t

=

K eq

] s

=

1

------------[M]

α∆t

2

{R}

t

+ t

+ {

s

+

δ

----------[C]

α∆t

s

R eq

} t

+ [K] s

[M]

s

------------{X}

α∆t

2

1

t

[C] s

δ

----------{X}

α∆t

t

+

+

---------- {

α∆t

1

·

X

}

δ

--- – 1

α

t

{

+

·

X

1

------- – 1

2α

}

t

+ t

{

··

X

}

t

δ

------- – 1

2α

+

{

··

X

}

t

(52)

(53)

(54)

The system of equations in 52 can then be solved to obtain the displacements at t = t+t. Having done that, Eqs. 50 and 51 may be used to obtain the velocities and accelerations at time t = t+t. Since equilibrium is considered at t = t+t, the Newmark method is an implicit time-integration method.

Implementation details of Newmark algorithm

Preliminary

calculations

This section describes the Newmark algorithm as implemented in S-Frame.

1. Form the system matrices and apply appropriate boundary

 

ˆ

ˆ

conditions to obtain

[ M

] s

and

[ K

] s

.

2. Select values for the Rayleigh damping parameters

α

and

β

(see Damping effects on page 57 for more details), and form

the system damping matrix

ˆ

[ C

] s

=

α

[

ˆ

M

]

s

+ β

[

ˆ

K

] s

(55)

Damping effects on page 57 gives details on how to select the

damping parameters

.

α

and

β

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 26
S-Frame Theory Manual
Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 26

3. Select values for the Newmark parameters α and δ. If no physical damping is present in the structure (i.e. Rayleigh

damping parameters

0.5050 should be used respectively. Otherwise, the values 0.25 and 0.50 should be used instead.

α

and

β

are zero) the values 0.2525 and

4. Select a small enough time-step t. In general the value 0.00001 s should be used for the initial time-step size of the variable time-step algorithm. In the case of the constant time-step algorithm, the time-step size should be selected using the guidelines given in Selection of constant time-step size on page 28.

5. For the variable time-step algorithm, select a value for the J cr parameter. A description of this parameter is given in Implementation details of adaptive time-step size algorithm on page 27.

6. For the variable time-step algorithm, select values for the minimum and maximum time-step sizes using the guidelines of Selection of minimum and maximum time-step sizes on page 29.

7. Using the initial displacement and velocity vectors, determine the initial accelerations using equilibrium at time

For each time-step

1.

t o

Form

[

ˆ

[ M

K eq

] s

] s

{ X ··

}

t o

2. Factorize

[

[

K eq

K eq

] s

] s

=

=

{R}

t

o

1

------------ [

α∆t

2

ˆ

M

[

K eq

] s

=

]

[

s

ˆ

K

]

+

s

{X}

t

δ

---------- [

α∆t

[

o

ˆ

C

]

s

ˆ

C

] s

·

{ X

ˆ

+ [ K

] s

[L][D][L] T

}

t o

(56)

(57)

(58)

27 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual
27 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures
S-Frame Theory Manual

3.

Form

{ R eq

{

} t

R eq

=

} t

[

ˆ

M ]

s

1

------------{X}

α∆t

2

t

ˆ

[ C

] s

δ

----------{X}

α∆t

+

1

---------- {

α∆t

·

X }

t +

1

------- – 1

2α

t +

--- δ 1

α

{

·

X }

t + t

{

··

X

t

}

------- δ 1

2α

+

{

··

X }

t

(59)

4. Back-substitute and forward reduce for the displacements at t = t+t

[L][D][L] T {X} t + t

=

{

ˆ

R

}

t + t

+ {

R eq

} t

(60)

5. Solve for the accelerations and velocities at t = t+t using Eqs. 50 and 51 respectively.

6. For the variable time-step size algorithm, adapt the time-step size according to the procedure described in Implementation details of