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A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

Royal Guidebook of

Mass Transfer

(Chapter 01: Introduction to Heat & Mass Transfer)

Director, Royal Engineering Academy, Rajshahi

B.Sc. in Computer Science and Engineering (First Class First)

M.Sc. Engineering in CSE (1st Class 2nd), University of Rajshahi

Graduation in Electrical Engineering (A.M.I.E. - Pursuing)

The Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh

Email: s.m.talha.jubaed@gmail.com

Cell: +88 – 01712 – 53 58 13

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

Page 1 of 28

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

Chapter 1

Introduction to Heat &

Mass Transfer

Basic Definition

Thermal Diffusivity:

Thermal diffusivity is the ratio of Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Capacity.

𝐓𝐡𝐞𝐫𝐦𝐚𝐥 𝐂𝐨𝐧𝐝𝐮𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐯𝐢𝐭𝐲

∝=

𝐓𝐡𝐞𝐫𝐦𝐚𝐥 𝐂𝐚𝐩𝐚𝐜𝐢𝐭𝐲

𝐤

∝=

𝛒. 𝐜

The larger the value of ∝, the faster will the heat diffuse through the material and

its temperature will change with time. This will result either due to a high value of

thermal conductivity 𝑘 or a low value of heat capacity ρ. c. a low value of heat

capacity means the less amount of heat entering the element, would be absorbed

and used to raise its temperature and more would be available for onward

transmission. Metals and gases have relatively high value of ∝ and their response

to temperature changes is quite rapid. The non-metallic solids and liquids respond

slowly to temperature changes because of their relatively small value of thermal

diffusivity.

Insulation:

A material which retards the flow of heat with reasonable effectiveness is known

as “Insulation”. Insulation serves the following two purposes:

1. It prevents the heat flow from the system to the surroundings.

2. It prevents the heat flow from the surroundings to the system.

Applications:

The fields of application of insulations are:

1. Boilers and steam pipes

2. Air-conditioning systems

3. Food preserving stores and refrigerators

4. Insulating bricks (employed in various types of furnaces)

5. Preservation of liquid gases etc.

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

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A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

The addition of insulation always increases the conductive thermal resistance. But

when, the total thermal resistance is made of conductive thermal resistance

(𝑅𝑡ℎ )𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 and convective thermal resistance (𝑅𝑡ℎ )𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 , the addition of

insulation in some cases may reduce the convective thermal resistance due to

increase in surface area, as in the case of a cylinder and sphere, and the total

thermal resistance may actually decrease resulting in increased heat flow. It may

be shown that the thermal resistance actually decreases and then increases in

some cases.

“The thickness upto which heat flow increases and after which heat flow decreases

is termed as Critical Thickness”. In case of cylinders and sphere it is called “Critical

Radius”.

𝑘

𝑟𝑐 =

ℎ0

2𝑘

𝑟𝑐 =

ℎ0

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

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A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

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A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

Fin:

In the study of heat transfer, fins are surfaces that extend from an object to

increase the rate of heat transfer to or from the environment by increasing

convection. The amount of conduction, convection, or radiation of an object

determines the amount of heat it transfers. Increasing the temperature gradient

between the object and the environment, increasing the convection heat transfer

coefficient, or increasing the surface area of the object increases the heat transfer.

Sometimes it is not feasible or economical to change the first two options. Thus,

adding a fin to an object, increases the surface area and can sometimes be an

economical solution to heat transfer problems.

Assumptions are made for the Analysis of Heat flow through the fin:

The following assumptions are made for the analysis of heat flow though the fin:

1. Steady state heat conduction

2. No heat generation within the fin.

3. Uniform heat transfer coefficient (ℎ) over the entire surface of the fin.

4. Homogenous and isotropic fin material (𝑖. 𝑒. thermal conductivity of

material constant)

5. Negligible contact thermal resistance.

6. Heat conduction one-dimensional.

7. Negligible radiation.

When two microscopically rough surfaces are pressed against each other,

the peaks will form good material contact but the valleys will form voids filled with

air. As a result, an interface will contain numerous air gaps of varying sizes that act

as insulation because of the low thermal conductivity of air. Thus, an interface

offers some resistance to heat transfer, and this resistance per unit interface area

is called thermal contact resistance, 𝑅𝑐 .

solid bodies in thermal contact. The thermal contact conductance coefficient, ℎ𝑐 is

a property indicating the thermal conductivity, or ability to conduct heat, between

two bodies in contact. The inverse of this property is termed thermal contact

resistance.

When two solid bodies come in contact, such as A and B in Figure 1, heat flows

from the hotter body to the colder body. From experience, the temperature profile

along the two bodies varies, approximately, as shown in the figure. A temperature

drop is observed at the interface between the two surfaces in contact. This

phenomenon is said to be a result of a thermal contact resistance existing between

the contacting surfaces. Thermal contact resistance is defined as the ratio between

this temperature drop and the average heat flow across the interface.

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

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A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

Fig. 1: Heat flow between two solids in contact and the temperature distribution.

Fin Efficiency:

The efficiency of a fin is defined as the ratio of the acutal heat transferred by the fin

to the maximum heat transfereable by fin, if entire fin area were at base

temperature.

𝜼𝒇𝒊𝒏 =

𝑴𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒎𝒖𝒎 𝑯𝒆𝒂𝒕 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒘𝒐𝒖𝒍𝒅 𝒃𝒆 𝒕𝒓𝒂𝒏𝒔𝒇𝒆𝒓𝒓𝒆𝒅 𝒊𝒇 𝒘𝒉𝒐𝒍𝒆

𝒔𝒖𝒓𝒇𝒂𝒄𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒇𝒊𝒏 𝒊𝒔 𝒎𝒂𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒂𝒊𝒏𝒆𝒅 𝒂𝒕 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒃𝒂𝒔𝒆 𝒕𝒆𝒎𝒑𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒖𝒓𝒆 (𝑸𝒎𝒂𝒙 )

The efficiency of a fin is defined as the ratio of the actual heat transfer from the fin

to that the heat that would be dissipated if whole surface of the fin is maintained

at base temperature.

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

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A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

transferred if whole surface of the fin is maintained at the base temeratureQmax)

According to the definition, efficiency of the fin of infinite length is given as below

ηfin=h.P.K.Ac(ts-ta)h.As(ts-ta)

ηfin=h.P.K.Ach.As

It is defined as the ratio of the actual heat transfer that takes place from the fin to

the heat that would be dissipated from the same surface area without fin.

ta)

εfin=P.Kh.Ac

1. P.Kh.Ac should be greater than unity if the rate of heat transfer from the

primary surface is to be improved.

2. If the ratio of P and Ac is increased , the effectiveness of fin is improved.

3. Use of fin will be more effective with materials of large thermal

conductivities.

If the temperature of a body does not vary with time, it is said to be in a steady

state. But if there is an abrupt change in its surface temperature, it (body) attains

an equilibrium temperature or a steady state after some period. During this period

the temperature varies with time and the body is said to be in an unsteady or

transient state. The term transient or unsteady designates a phenomenon which is

time dependent. The steady state is thus the limit of transient temperature

distribution for large values of time.

Conduction of heat in unsteady state refers to the transient conditions wherein the

heat flow and the temperature distribution at any point of the system vary

continuously with time. Transient conditions occur in:

1. Cooling of I.C. Engines

2. Automobile engines

3. Heating and cooling of metal billets.

4. Cooling and freezing of food.

5. Heat treatment of metals by quenching

6. Starting and stopping of various heat exchange units in power installation.

7. Brick burning

8. Vulcanization of rubber etc.

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

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A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

Semi-Infinite Body:

A body which extends itself infinitely in all directions of space is termed

as an infinite solid. If an infinite solid is split in the middle by a plane, each half is

known as semi-infinite body. In a semi-infinite body, at any instant of time, there is

always a point where the effect of heating (or cooling) at one of its boundaries is

not felt at all. At the point the temperature remains unaltered. The transient

temperature change in a plane infinitely thick wall is similar to that of a semi-

infinite body until enough time has passed for the surface temperature effect to

penetrate through it.

𝒉𝑳

The non-dimensional factor 𝒄 is called the Biot number, 𝑩𝒊

𝒌

𝒉𝑳𝒄

𝒊. 𝒆. 𝑩𝒊 = = 𝑩𝒊𝒐𝒕 𝑵𝒖𝒎𝒃𝒆𝒓

𝒌

It gives an indication of the ratio of internal (conduction) resistance to surface

(convection) resistance. When the value of 𝐵𝑖 is small, it indicates that the system

has a small internal (conduction) resistance, i.e. relatively small temperature

gradient or the existence of practically uniform temperature within the system.

The convective resistance then predominates and the transient phenomenon is

controlled by the convective heat exchange.

If 𝐵𝑖 < 0.1, the lumped heat capacity approach can be used to advantage with

simple shapes such as plates, cylinders, spheres and cubes. The error associated is

around 5%.

calculations. It is named after the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot (1774–

1862), and gives a simple index of the ratio of the heat transfer resistances inside

of and at the surface of a body. This ratio determines whether or not the

temperatures inside a body will vary significantly in space, while the body heats

or cools over time, from a thermal gradient applied to its surface.

In general, problems involving small Biot numbers (much smaller than 1) are

thermally simple, due to uniform temperature fields inside the body. Biot numbers

much larger than 1 signal more difficult problems due to non-uniformity of

temperature fields within the object. It should not be confused with Nusselt

number, which employs the thermal conductivity of the fluid and hence is a

comparative measure of conduction and convection, both in the fluid.

The Biot number has a variety of applications, including transient heat transfer

and use in extended surface heat transfer calculations.

Fourier Number:

∝𝜏

The non-dimensional factor 2 is called the Fourier number, 𝑭𝟎 .

𝐿𝑐

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

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A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

∝𝜏

𝑭𝟎 =

𝐿2𝑐

In physics and engineering, the Fourier number (Fo) or Fourier modulus, named

after Joseph Fourier, is a dimensionless number that characterizes transient heat

conduction. Conceptually, it is the ratio of diffusive or conductive transport rate to

the quantity storage rate, where the quantity may be either heat (thermal energy)

or matter (particles). The number derives from non-dimensionalization of the

heat equation (also known as Fourier's Law) or Fick's second law and is used along

with the Biot number to analyze time dependent transport phenomena.

Heisler Charts:

Heisler charts are a graphical analysis tool for the evaluation of heat

transfer in thermal engineering. They are a set of two charts per included geometry

introduced in 1947 by M. P. Heisler which were supplemented by a third chart per

geometry in 1961 by H. Gröber. Heisler charts permit evaluation of the central

temperature for transient heat conduction through an infinitely long plane wall of

thickness 2L, an infinitely long cylinder of radius 𝑟0 , and a sphere of radius 𝑟0 .

the exact solutions of these problems, there are some limitations. First, the body

must be at uniform temperature initially. Additionally, the temperature of the

surroundings and the convective heat transfer coefficient must remain constant

and uniform. Also, there must be no heat generation from the body itself.

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

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A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

The velocity within the boundary layer increases from zero at the boundary

surface to the velocity of the main stream asymptotically. Therefore, the thickness

of the boundary layer is arbitrarily defined as that distance from the boundary in

which the velocity reaches 99 percent of the velocity of the free stream (𝑢 =

0.99𝑈). It is denoted by the symbol 𝛿. This definition, however, gives an

approximate value of the boundary layer thickness and hence 𝛿 is generally

termed as nominal thickness of the boundary layer.

The boundary layer thickness for greater accuracy is defined in terms of certain

mathematical expressions which are the measure of the boundary layer on the

flow. The commonly adopted definitions of the boundary layer thickness are:

1. Displacement Thickness (𝜹∗ )

2. Momentum Thickness (𝜽)

3. Energy Thickness (𝜹𝒆 )

Displacement Thickness:

The displacement thickness can be defined as follows:

“It is the distance measured perpendicular to the boundary, by which the

main/free stream is displaced on account of formation of boundary layer.”

Or

“It is an additional “wall thickness” that would have to be added to compensate for

the reduction in flow rate on account of boundary layer formation.”

Momentum Thickness:

“Momentum Thickness” is defined as the distance through which the total loss of

momentum per second be equal to if it were passing a stationary plate. It is

denoted by 𝜃.

the solid body, by which the boundary should be displaced to compensate for

reduction in momentum of the flowing fluid on account of boundary layer

formation.

Energy Thickness:

“Energy Thickness” is defined as the distance, measured perpendicular to the

boundary of the solid body, by which the boundary should be displaced to

compensate for the reduction in K.E. of the flowing fluid on account of boundary

layer formation. It is denoted by 𝜹𝒆 .

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

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A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

Whenever a flow of fluid takes place past a heated or cold surface, a temperature

field is set up in the field next to the surface. If the surface of the plate is hotter

than fluid, the temperature distribution will be as shown in the Figure 7.6. The

zone or this layer wherein the temperature field exists is called the thermal

boundary layer. Due to the exchange of heat between the plate and the fluid,

temperature gradient occurs/results.

The thermal boundary layer thickness, 𝛿𝑡ℎ , is arbitrarily defined as the distance 𝑦

from the plate surface at which

𝑡𝑠 − 𝑡

= 0.99

𝑡𝑠 − 𝑡∞

Laminar Flow:

A laminar flow is one which paths taken by the individual particles do

not cross one another and move along well defined paths. This type of flow is also

called stream-line flow or viscous flow. For Reynolds number 𝑅𝑒 < 2000---- Flow

in pipes is laminar and for𝑅𝑒 between 2000 and 4000 --- flow in pipes may be

laminar or turbulent.

(ii) Flow of blood in veins and arteries.

(iii) Ground water flow.

No slip at the boundary.

Due to viscosity, there is a shear stress between fluid layers, which is given

𝑑𝑢

by, 𝜏 = 𝜇 for flow in X-direction.

𝑑𝑦

The flow is rotational.

Due to viscous shear, there is continuous dissipation of energy and for

maintaining the flow energy must be supplied externally.

Loss of energy is proportional to first power of velocity and first power of

viscosity.

No mixing between different fluid layers (except by molecular motion,

which is very small)

𝜌𝑉𝐼

The flow remains laminar as long as is less than critical value of Reynolds

𝜇

number.

Coquette flow:

The flow of viscous fluid between two plates-one stationary and the

𝜕𝑝

other moving is known as Couette flow. When the pressure gradient ( ) equals

𝜕𝑥

zero, there is no pressure gradient in the direction of flow then the velocity

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

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A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

distribution is linear. This particular case is known as Couette flow or simple Shear

flow.

Laminar flow:

A laminar flow is one which paths taken by the individual particles do

not cross one another and move along well defined paths. This type of flow is also

called stream-line flow or viscous flow. For Reynolds number 𝑅𝑒 < 2000---- Flow

in pipes is laminar and for𝑅𝑒 between 2000 and 4000 --- flow in pipes may be

laminar or turbulent.

(ii) Flow of blood in veins and arteries.

(iii) Ground water flow.

Turbulent flow:

A turbulent flow is that flow in which fluid particles move in a zigzag

way. For Reynolds number 𝑅𝑒 > 4000---- Flow in pipes is turbulent and

for𝑅𝑒 between 2000 and 4000 --- flow in pipes may be laminar or turbulent.

Example: High velocity flow in a conduit of large size. Nearly all fluid

flow problems encountered in engineering practice have a turbulent character.

Compressible flow:

It is that type of flow in which the density (𝜌) of the fluid changes

from point to point or in other words density is not constant for this flow. gases

are generally considered flowing compressibly. Mathematically,

𝜌 ≠ 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡.

Example: Flow of gases through orifices, nozzles, gas turbines, etc.

Incompressible flow:

It is that type of flow in which density is constant for the fluid

flow. Liquids are generally considered flowing incompressibly. Mathematically,

𝜌 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡.

Example: Subsonic aerodynamics.

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

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When a surface is maintained in still fluid at a temperature higher or lower than

that of the fluid, a layer of fluid adjacent to the surface gets heated or cooled. A

density difference is created between this layer and the still fluid surrounding it.

The density difference introduces a buoyant force causing flow of fluid near the

surface. Heat transfer under such conditions is known as free or natural

convection.

Thus, “Free or Natural convection is the process of heat transfer which occurs due

to movement of the fluid particles by density changes associated with temperature

differential in a fluid.”

This mode of heat transfer occurs very commonly, some examples are given below:

1. The cooling of transmission lines, electric transformers and rectifiers.

2. The heating of rooms by use of radiators.

3. The heat transfer from hot pipes and oven surrounded by cooler air.

4. Cooling the reactor core (in nuclear power plants) and carry out the heat

generated by nuclear fission etc.

Heat Exchanger:

Heat Exchanger may be defined as an equipment which transfers the energy from a hot

fluid to a cold fluid with maximum rate and minimum investment and running costs.

In heat exchangers the temperature of each fluid changes as it passes through the

exchangers, and hence the temperature of the dividing wall between the fluids also

changes along the length of the exchanger.

1. Intercoolers and preheaters.

2. Condensers and boilers in steam plant.

3. Condensers and Evaporators in refrigeration units.

4. Regenerators.

5. Automobile Radiators.

6. Oil Coolers of heat engine.

7. Milk Chiller of a pasteurising Plant.

8. Several Other industrial processes.

In order to meet the widely varying applications, several types of heat exchangers

have been developed which are classified on the basis of Nature of Heat Exchange

Process, Relative Direction of Fluid Motion, design and constructional features and

physical state of fluids.

Heat exchangers on the basis of nature of heat exchange process, are classified as follows:

(i) Direct Contact (or open) Heat Exchangers.

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In a direct contact or open heat exchanger the exchange of heat takes place by direct

mixing of hot and cold fluids and transfer of heat and mass takes place simultaneously.

The use of such units is made under conditions where mixing of two fluids is either

harmless or desirable.

Examples:

(i) Cooling Towers

(ii) Jet Condensers

(iii) Direct Contact Feed Heaters

Figure 10.1 shows a direct contact heat exchanger in which steam mixes with cold

water, gives its latent heat to water and gets condensed. Hot water and non-

condensable gases leave the container as shown in the figure.

In this type of heat exchanger, the heat transfer between two fluids could be carried out

by transmission through wall which separates the two fluids. This type includes the

following:

(a) Regenerators.

(b) Recuperator or Surface Exchangers.

(a) Regenerator:

In a regenerator type of heat exchanger, the hot and cold fluids pass alternatively

through a space containing solid particles (matrix), these particles providing

alternatively a sink and a source for heat flow.

Example:

(i) Open Hearth and glass melting furnaces

(ii) Air Heaters of Blast Furnaces.

heat extracted from the hot fluid and then delivers it to the cold fluid.). However,

in some regenerators the matrix is made to rotate through the fluid passages

arranged side by side which makes the heat exchange process continuous.

(i) Heat Capacity of regenerating material.

(ii) The rate of absorption and

(iii) The release of heat.

Advantages:

1. Higher heat transfer coefficient

2. Less weight per 𝑘𝑊 of the plant

3. Minimum pressure loss

4. Quick response to load variation

5. Small bulk weight

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

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Disadvantages:

1. Costlier compared to recuperative heat exchangers.

2. Leakage is the main trouble, therefore, perfect scaling is required.

(b) Recuperator:

“Recuperator” is the most important type of heat exchanger in which the flowing

fluids exchanging heat are on either side of dividing wall (in the form of pipes or

tubes generally). These heat exchangers are used when two fluids cannot be

allowed to mix 𝑖. 𝑒. when the mixing is undesirable.

Examples:

(i) Automobile radiators

(ii) Oil coolers, intercoolers, air preheaters, economisers, superheaters,

condensers and surface feed heaters of a steam power plant.

(iii) Milk chiller of pasteurising plant.

(iv) Evaporator of an ice plant.

Advantages:

1. Easy Construction

2. More economical

3. More surface area for heat transfer

4. Much suitable for stationary plant.

Disadvantages:

1. Less heat transfer coefficient

2. Less generating capacity

3. Soothing problems

The flow through direct heat exchangers and recuperator may be treated as steady

state while through regenerators the flow is essentially transient.

According to the relative directions of two fluid streams the heat exchangers are classified

into the following three categories:

(a) Parallel Flow or Unidirectional Flow

(b) Counter Flow

(c) Cross Flow

In a parallel flow heat exchanger, as the name suggests, the two fluid streams (hot and

cold) travel in the same direction. The two streams enter at one end and leave at the other

end. The follow arrangement and variation of temperatures of the fluid stream in case of

parallel flow heat exchangers. Parallel Flow heat exchanger is shown in Figure 10.2. It is

evident from the Fig. 10.2 (b) that the temperature difference between the hot and cold

fluids goes on decreasing from inlet to outlet. Since this type of heat exchanger needs a

large area of heat transfer, therefore, it is rarely used in practice.

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Examples:

Oil coolers, oil heaters, water heaters etc.

As the two fluids are separated by a wall, this type of heat exchanger may be called

parallel flow recuperator or surface heat exchanger.

In a Counter Flow Heat Exchanger, the two fluids in opposite directions. The hot and cold

fluids enter at the opposite ends. The flow arrangement and temperature distribution for

such a heat exchanger are shown schematically in Figure 10.3. The temperature

difference between the two fluids remains more or less nearly constant. This type of heat

exchanger, due to counter flow, gives maximum rate of heat transfer for a given surface

area. Hence such heat exchangers are most favoured for heating and cooling of fluids.

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A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

In cross Flow Heat Exchangers, the two fluids (hot and cold) cross one another in space,

usually at right angles. Figure 13.3 shows a schematic diagram of common arrangements

of cross-flow heat exchangers.

Refer Figure 13.3 (a): Hot fluid flows in the separate tubes and there is no mixing of the

fluid streams. The cold fluid is perfectly mixed as it flows through the exchanger. The

temperature of this mixed fluid will be uniform across any section and will vary only in

the direction of flow.

Examples:

The cooling unit of refrigeration system etc.

Refer Figure 13.3 (b): In this case, each of the fluids follows a prescribed path and is

unmixed as it flows through heat exchanger. Hence the temperature of the fluid leaving

the heater section is not uniform.

Examples:

Automobile radiator etc.

In yet another arrangement, both the fluids are mixed while they travel through the

exchanger, consequently the temperature of both the fluids is uniform across the section

and varies only in the direction in which flow takes place.

On the basis of design and constructional features, the heat exchangers are classified as

under:

(i) Concentric Tubes

(ii) Shell and Tube

(iii) Multiple Shell and Tube Passes

(iv) Compact Heat Exchangers

Concentric Tubes:

In this type, two concentric tubes are used, each carrying one of the fluids. The direction

of flow may be parallel or counter as depicted in Figure 10.2 (a). the effectiveness of the

heat exchanger is increased by using swirling flow.

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

Page 19 of 28

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

In this type of heat exchanger, one of the fluids flows through a bundle of tubes enclosed

by a shell. The other fluid is forced through the shell and it flows over the outside surface

of the tubes. Such an arrangement is employed where reliability and heat transfer

effectiveness are important. With the use of multiple tubes heat transfer rate is amply

improved due to increased surface area.

Multiple shell and tube passes are used for enhancing the overall heat transfer. Multiple

shell pass is possible where the fluid flowing through the shell is re-routed. The shell side

fluid is forced to flow back and forth across the tubes by baffles. Multiple tube pass

exchangers are those which re-route the fluid through tubes in the opposite direction.

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

Page 20 of 28

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

Figure 13–5 Multipass flow arrangements in shell and- Tube heat exchangers.

There are special purpose heat exchangers and have a very large transfer surface area

per unit volume of the exchanger. They are generally employed when convective heat

transfer coefficient associated with one of the fluids is much smaller than that associated

with the other fluid.

Example:

Plate –fin, flattened fin tube exchangers etc.

Depending upon the physical state of fluids, the heat exchangers are classified as follows:

(i) Condensers and

(ii) Evaporators

Condensers:

In a condenser, the condensing fluid remains at constant temperature throughout the

exchanger while the temperature of the colder fluid gradually increases from inlet to

outlet. The hot fluid loses latent part of heat which is accepted by the cold fluid.

Evaporators:

In this case, the boiling fluid (cold fluid) remains at constant temperature while the

temperature of hot fluid gradually decreases from inlet to outlet.

Fouling Factor:

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

Page 21 of 28

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

In a heat exchanger , during normal operation the tube surface gets covered by

deposits of ash, soot, dirt and scale etc. this phenomenon of rust formation an d

deposition of fluid impurities is called fouling. Due to these surface deposits the

thermal resistance is increased and eventually the performance of the heat

exchanger lowers. Since it is difficult to ascertain the thickness and thermal

conductivity of the scale deposits, the effect of scale on heat flow is considered by

specifying an equivalent scale heat transfer coefficient ℎ𝑠 . If ℎ𝑠𝑖 and ℎ𝑖𝑜 be the heat

transfer coefficients for the scale deposited on the inside and outside surfaces

respectively, then the thermal resistances to scale formation on the inside surface

(𝑅𝑠𝑖 ) and outside surface (𝑅𝑠𝑜 ) are given by,

𝟏

𝑹𝒔𝒊 =

𝑨𝒊 𝒉𝒔𝒊

𝟏

𝑹𝒔𝒐 =

𝑨𝒐 𝒉𝒔𝒐

The reciprocal of scale heat transfer coefficient, 𝒉𝒔 is called the fouling factor, 𝑹𝒇 .

Thus

𝟏

𝑹𝒇 =

𝒉𝒔

Fouling factors are determined experimentally by testing the heat exchanger in both

the clean and dirty conditions. The fouling factor, 𝑹𝒇 is thus defined as:

𝟏 𝟏 𝟏

𝑹𝒇 ( ) = −

𝒉𝒔 𝑼𝒅𝒊𝒓𝒕𝒚 𝑼𝒄𝒍𝒆𝒂𝒏

Fouling Processes:

1. Precipitation or crystallization fouling.

2. Sedimentation or particulate fouling.

3. Chemical reaction fouling or polymerisation.

4. Corrosion fouling.

5. Biological fouling.

6. Freeze Fouling.

Velocity

Temperature

Water Chemistry

Tube Material

LMTD:

“LMTD Stands for Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference. Logarithmic Mean

Temperature Difference is defined as that temperature difference which, if constant,

would give the same rate of heat transfer as actually occurs under variable

conditions of temperature difference.”

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

Page 22 of 28

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

In order to derive expression for LMTD for various types of heat exchangers, the

following assumptions are made:

1. The overall heat transfer coefficient 𝑼 is constant.

2. The flow conditions are steady.

3. The specific heats and mass flow rates of both fluids are constant.

4. There is no loss of heat to the surroundings, due to the heat exchanger

being perfectly insulated.

5. There is no change of phase either of the fluid during the heat transfer.

6. The changes in potential and kinetic energies are negligible.

7. Axial conduction along the tubes the heat exchanger is negligible.

Correction Factor:

The log mean temperature difference ∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 relation developed earlier is limited to

parallel-flow and counter-flow heat exchangers only. Similar relations are also

developed for cross-flow and multipass shell-and-tube heat exchangers, but the

resulting expressions are too complicated because of the complex flow conditions.

the log mean temperature difference relation for the counter-flow case as

∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 = 𝐹∆𝑇𝑙𝑚, 𝐶𝐹

where F is the Correction Factor, which depends on the geometry of the heat

exchanger and the inlet and outlet temperatures of the hot and cold fluid streams.

The ∆𝑇𝑙𝑚, 𝐶𝐹 is the log mean temperature difference for the case of a counter-flow

heat exchanger with the same inlet and outlet temperatures.

The correction factor is less than unity for a cross-flow and multipass shell and-

tube heat exchanger. That is, 𝐹 ≤ 1. The limiting value of 𝐹 ≤ 1corresponds to the

counter-flow heat exchanger. Thus, the correction factor F for a heat exchanger is

a measure of deviation of the ∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 from the corresponding values for the counter-

flow case.

A Heat Exchanger can be designed by the LMTD (Logarithmic Mean Temperature

Difference) when inlet and outlet conditions are specified. However, when the problem

is to determine the inlet or exit temperatures for a particular heat exchanger, the analysis

is performed more easily, by using a method based on effectiveness of the heat exchanger

(concept first proposed by Nusselt) and Number of Transfer Units (NTU).

The Heat Exchanger Effectiveness (𝜀) is defined as the ratio of actual heat transfer to the

maximum possible heat transfer. Thus,

𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 𝑄

𝜀= =

𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑃𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 𝑄𝑚𝑎𝑥

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

Page 23 of 28

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

Mass Transfer:

“The Process of Transfer of Mass as a result of the species

concentration difference in a system/Mixture is called Mass Transfer”.

concentration region toward a lower concentration one relative to the other

chemical species present in the medium.”

concentrations vary from point to point, there is a natural tendency for the transport

of different species from the region of high to those of low concentration. This

process of transfer of mass as a result of the species concentration difference in a

system/mixture is called Mass Transfer. So long as there is concentration

difference, mass transfer will occur.

A. Examples of Industrial Importance:

1. Refrigeration by the evaporation of liquid ammonia in the atmosphere of 𝐻2

is Electrolux refrigerator.

2. Humidification of air in cooling tower.

3. Evaporation of petrol in the carburetor of an I.C. engine.

4. Neutron diffusion within nuclear reactors.

5. Estimation of depth to which carbon will penetrate in a mild steel specimen

during the act of carburizing.

1. Dissolution of sugar added to a cup of coffee.

2. The separation of the components of a mixture by distillation or absorption.

3. The transfer of water vapor into dry air, drying and evaporation.

4. Diffusion of smoke through tall chimneys into the environment.

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

Page 24 of 28

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

The mechanism of mass transfer depends greatly on the dynamics of the system in

which it occurs. Like those of heat transfer, there are different modes of mass

transfer, which are:

1. Mass Transfer by Diffusion

2. Mass Transfer by Convection.

3. Mass Transfer by Change of Phase.

The transfer of water on a microscopic level as a result of diffusion

from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration in a

system/mixture of liquids or gases is called molecular diffusion. It occurs when a

substance diffuses through a layer of stagnant fluid and may be due to

concentration, temperature or pressure gradients. In a gaseous mixture, molecular

diffusion occurs due to random motion of the molecules. When one of the diffusing

fluids is in turbulent motion, the eddy diffusion, takes place. Mass transfer is more

rapid by eddy diffusion than by molecular diffusion. An example of an eddying

diffusion process is dissipation of smoke from a smoke stack. Turbulence causes

mixing and transfer of smoke to the ambient air.

Mass transfer by convection involves transfer between a moving fluid and a

surface, or between two relatively immiscible moving fluids. The convective mass

transfer depends on the transport properties ad on the dynamic (laminar or

turbulent) characteristics of the flowing fluid.

Mass Transfer occurs whenever a change from one phase to another takes place.

The mass transfer in such a case occurs due to simultaneous action of convection

and diffusion. Some examples are:

(a) Hot gases escaping from the chimney rise by convection and then diffuse

into the air above the chimney.

(b)Mixing of water vapor with air during evaporation of water from the lake

surface (partly by convection and partly by diffusion)

(c) Boiling of water in open air – there is first transfer of mass from liquid to

vapour state and then vapor mass from the liquid interface is transferred to

the open air by convection as well as by diffusion.

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

Page 25 of 28

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

Statement:

“The rate of mass diffusion of a chemical species in a stagnant medium in a specified

direction is a proportional to the local concentration gradient in that direction”.

Consider a chamber in which two different gas species A and B, at the same

temperature and pressure are initially separated by a partition. The left

compartment has a high concentration (i.e. more molecules per unit volume) of

gas A (Open circles) whereas the right compartment is rich in gas B (dark circles).

When the partition wall is removed a driving potential comes into existence which

tends to equalize the concentration difference. Mass transfer by diffusion will be

in the direction of decreasing concentration and subsequently there will be a net

transport of species A to the right and of species B to the left. After a sufficiently

long period, equilibrium conditions prevail i.e. uniform concentrations of species

A and B are achieved and then the mass diffusion ceases.

Fick’s law which is expressed as

𝑑𝐶𝐴

𝑁𝐴 ∝

𝑑𝑥

𝑚𝐴 𝑑𝐶𝐴

𝑁𝐴 = = −𝐷𝐴𝐵

𝐴 𝑑𝑥

Where,

𝑚𝐴 = Mass Flow rate of species A by diffusion.

𝐴 = Area through which mass is flowing

𝑚

𝑁𝐴 = 𝐴 = Mass flux of species A i.e. amount of species A that is transferred per

𝐴

unit time and per unit area perpendicular to the direction of transfer.

𝐷𝐴𝐵 = Diffusion coefficient or mass diffusivity for binary mixture of species A and

B.

𝐶𝐴 = Concentration or molecules per unit volume of species A.

𝑑𝐶𝐴

= Concentration of gradient for species A; This acts as driving potential.

𝑑𝑥

𝑚𝐵 𝑑𝐶𝐵

𝑁𝐵 = = −𝐷𝐵𝐴

𝐵 𝑑𝑥

Sherwood Number:

The Sherwood number (Sh) (also called the mass transfer Nusselt number) is a

dimensionless number used in mass-transfer operation. It represents the ratio of

the total rate of mass transfer to the rate of diffusive mass transport alone, [1] and

is named in honor of Thomas Kilgore Sherwood.

It is defined as follows:

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

Page 26 of 28

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

𝑆ℎ = =

𝐷/𝐿 𝐷𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑢𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

Page 27 of 28

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

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A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

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Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

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