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A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

Royal Guidebook of

## A.M.I.E. Heat &

Mass Transfer
(Chapter 01: Introduction to Heat & Mass Transfer)

## Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

Director, Royal Engineering Academy, Rajshahi
B.Sc. in Computer Science and Engineering (First Class First)
M.Sc. Engineering in CSE (1st Class 2nd), University of Rajshahi
Graduation in Electrical Engineering (A.M.I.E. - Pursuing)
The Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh
Email: s.m.talha.jubaed@gmail.com
Cell: +88 – 01712 – 53 58 13

## Meherchandi, Padma Residential Area, Boalia, Rajshahi. Cell: +88-01716-088627

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

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A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

Chapter 1
Introduction to Heat &
Mass Transfer
Basic Definition
Thermal Diffusivity:
Thermal diffusivity is the ratio of Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Capacity.

𝐓𝐡𝐞𝐫𝐦𝐚𝐥 𝐂𝐨𝐧𝐝𝐮𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐯𝐢𝐭𝐲
∝=
𝐓𝐡𝐞𝐫𝐦𝐚𝐥 𝐂𝐚𝐩𝐚𝐜𝐢𝐭𝐲

𝐤
∝=
𝛒. 𝐜
The larger the value of ∝, the faster will the heat diffuse through the material and
its temperature will change with time. This will result either due to a high value of
thermal conductivity 𝑘 or a low value of heat capacity ρ. c. a low value of heat
capacity means the less amount of heat entering the element, would be absorbed
and used to raise its temperature and more would be available for onward
transmission. Metals and gases have relatively high value of ∝ and their response
to temperature changes is quite rapid. The non-metallic solids and liquids respond
slowly to temperature changes because of their relatively small value of thermal
diffusivity.

Insulation:
A material which retards the flow of heat with reasonable effectiveness is known
as “Insulation”. Insulation serves the following two purposes:
1. It prevents the heat flow from the system to the surroundings.
2. It prevents the heat flow from the surroundings to the system.

Applications:
The fields of application of insulations are:
1. Boilers and steam pipes
2. Air-conditioning systems
3. Food preserving stores and refrigerators
4. Insulating bricks (employed in various types of furnaces)
5. Preservation of liquid gases etc.

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## Critical Thickness of Insulation:

The addition of insulation always increases the conductive thermal resistance. But
when, the total thermal resistance is made of conductive thermal resistance
(𝑅𝑡ℎ )𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 and convective thermal resistance (𝑅𝑡ℎ )𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 , the addition of
insulation in some cases may reduce the convective thermal resistance due to
increase in surface area, as in the case of a cylinder and sphere, and the total
thermal resistance may actually decrease resulting in increased heat flow. It may
be shown that the thermal resistance actually decreases and then increases in
some cases.

“The thickness upto which heat flow increases and after which heat flow decreases
is termed as Critical Thickness”. In case of cylinders and sphere it is called “Critical
Radius”.

𝑘
𝑟𝑐 =
ℎ0

## Critical Thickness of Insulation for sphere is,

2𝑘
𝑟𝑐 =
ℎ0

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## Critical Radius Of Insulation:

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Fin:
In the study of heat transfer, fins are surfaces that extend from an object to
increase the rate of heat transfer to or from the environment by increasing
convection. The amount of conduction, convection, or radiation of an object
determines the amount of heat it transfers. Increasing the temperature gradient
between the object and the environment, increasing the convection heat transfer
coefficient, or increasing the surface area of the object increases the heat transfer.
Sometimes it is not feasible or economical to change the first two options. Thus,
adding a fin to an object, increases the surface area and can sometimes be an
economical solution to heat transfer problems.

Assumptions are made for the Analysis of Heat flow through the fin:
The following assumptions are made for the analysis of heat flow though the fin:
1. Steady state heat conduction
2. No heat generation within the fin.
3. Uniform heat transfer coefficient (ℎ) over the entire surface of the fin.
4. Homogenous and isotropic fin material (𝑖. 𝑒. thermal conductivity of
material constant)
5. Negligible contact thermal resistance.
6. Heat conduction one-dimensional.
7. Negligible radiation.

## Thermal Contact Resistance:

When two microscopically rough surfaces are pressed against each other,
the peaks will form good material contact but the valleys will form voids filled with
air. As a result, an interface will contain numerous air gaps of varying sizes that act
as insulation because of the low thermal conductivity of air. Thus, an interface
offers some resistance to heat transfer, and this resistance per unit interface area
is called thermal contact resistance, 𝑅𝑐 .

## In physics, thermal contact conductance is the study of heat conduction between

solid bodies in thermal contact. The thermal contact conductance coefficient, ℎ𝑐 is
a property indicating the thermal conductivity, or ability to conduct heat, between
two bodies in contact. The inverse of this property is termed thermal contact
resistance.

When two solid bodies come in contact, such as A and B in Figure 1, heat flows
from the hotter body to the colder body. From experience, the temperature profile
along the two bodies varies, approximately, as shown in the figure. A temperature
drop is observed at the interface between the two surfaces in contact. This
phenomenon is said to be a result of a thermal contact resistance existing between
the contacting surfaces. Thermal contact resistance is defined as the ratio between
this temperature drop and the average heat flow across the interface.

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Fig. 1: Heat flow between two solids in contact and the temperature distribution.

Fin Efficiency:
The efficiency of a fin is defined as the ratio of the acutal heat transferred by the fin
to the maximum heat transfereable by fin, if entire fin area were at base
temperature.

## 𝑨𝒄𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒍 𝑯𝒆𝒂𝒕 𝒕𝒓𝒂𝒏𝒔𝒇𝒆𝒓𝒓𝒆𝒅 𝒃𝒚 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒇𝒊𝒏 (𝑸𝒇𝒊𝒏 )

𝜼𝒇𝒊𝒏 =
𝑴𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒎𝒖𝒎 𝑯𝒆𝒂𝒕 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒘𝒐𝒖𝒍𝒅 𝒃𝒆 𝒕𝒓𝒂𝒏𝒔𝒇𝒆𝒓𝒓𝒆𝒅 𝒊𝒇 𝒘𝒉𝒐𝒍𝒆
𝒔𝒖𝒓𝒇𝒂𝒄𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒇𝒊𝒏 𝒊𝒔 𝒎𝒂𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒂𝒊𝒏𝒆𝒅 𝒂𝒕 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒃𝒂𝒔𝒆 𝒕𝒆𝒎𝒑𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒖𝒓𝒆 (𝑸𝒎𝒂𝒙 )

## Efficiency of fin (ηfin):

The efficiency of a fin is defined as the ratio of the actual heat transfer from the fin
to that the heat that would be dissipated if whole surface of the fin is maintained
at base temperature.

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## ηfin=Actual heat transferred by the fin (Qfin)Maximum heat that would be

transferred if whole surface of the fin is maintained at the base temeratureQmax)

According to the definition, efficiency of the fin of infinite length is given as below
ηfin=h.P.K.Ac(ts-ta)h.As(ts-ta)

ηfin=h.P.K.Ach.As

## Effectiveness of fin (εfin):

It is defined as the ratio of the actual heat transfer that takes place from the fin to
the heat that would be dissipated from the same surface area without fin.

ta)

εfin=P.Kh.Ac

## Factors affecting fin effectiveness

1. P.Kh.Ac should be greater than unity if the rate of heat transfer from the
primary surface is to be improved.
2. If the ratio of P and Ac is increased , the effectiveness of fin is improved.
3. Use of fin will be more effective with materials of large thermal
conductivities.

## Transient Heat Conduction:

If the temperature of a body does not vary with time, it is said to be in a steady
state. But if there is an abrupt change in its surface temperature, it (body) attains
an equilibrium temperature or a steady state after some period. During this period
the temperature varies with time and the body is said to be in an unsteady or
transient state. The term transient or unsteady designates a phenomenon which is
time dependent. The steady state is thus the limit of transient temperature
distribution for large values of time.

Conduction of heat in unsteady state refers to the transient conditions wherein the
heat flow and the temperature distribution at any point of the system vary
continuously with time. Transient conditions occur in:
1. Cooling of I.C. Engines
2. Automobile engines
3. Heating and cooling of metal billets.
4. Cooling and freezing of food.
5. Heat treatment of metals by quenching
6. Starting and stopping of various heat exchange units in power installation.
7. Brick burning
8. Vulcanization of rubber etc.

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Semi-Infinite Body:
A body which extends itself infinitely in all directions of space is termed
as an infinite solid. If an infinite solid is split in the middle by a plane, each half is
known as semi-infinite body. In a semi-infinite body, at any instant of time, there is
always a point where the effect of heating (or cooling) at one of its boundaries is
not felt at all. At the point the temperature remains unaltered. The transient
temperature change in a plane infinitely thick wall is similar to that of a semi-
infinite body until enough time has passed for the surface temperature effect to
penetrate through it.

## Biot’s Number and Fourier’s Number:

𝒉𝑳
The non-dimensional factor 𝒄 is called the Biot number, 𝑩𝒊
𝒌
𝒉𝑳𝒄
𝒊. 𝒆. 𝑩𝒊 = = 𝑩𝒊𝒐𝒕 𝑵𝒖𝒎𝒃𝒆𝒓
𝒌
It gives an indication of the ratio of internal (conduction) resistance to surface
(convection) resistance. When the value of 𝐵𝑖 is small, it indicates that the system
has a small internal (conduction) resistance, i.e. relatively small temperature
gradient or the existence of practically uniform temperature within the system.
The convective resistance then predominates and the transient phenomenon is
controlled by the convective heat exchange.

If 𝐵𝑖 < 0.1, the lumped heat capacity approach can be used to advantage with
simple shapes such as plates, cylinders, spheres and cubes. The error associated is
around 5%.

## The Biot number (Bi) is a dimensionless quantity used in heat transfer

calculations. It is named after the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot (1774–
1862), and gives a simple index of the ratio of the heat transfer resistances inside
of and at the surface of a body. This ratio determines whether or not the
temperatures inside a body will vary significantly in space, while the body heats
or cools over time, from a thermal gradient applied to its surface.

In general, problems involving small Biot numbers (much smaller than 1) are
thermally simple, due to uniform temperature fields inside the body. Biot numbers
much larger than 1 signal more difficult problems due to non-uniformity of
temperature fields within the object. It should not be confused with Nusselt
number, which employs the thermal conductivity of the fluid and hence is a
comparative measure of conduction and convection, both in the fluid.

The Biot number has a variety of applications, including transient heat transfer
and use in extended surface heat transfer calculations.

Fourier Number:
∝𝜏
The non-dimensional factor 2 is called the Fourier number, 𝑭𝟎 .
𝐿𝑐

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∝𝜏
𝑭𝟎 =
𝐿2𝑐

In physics and engineering, the Fourier number (Fo) or Fourier modulus, named
after Joseph Fourier, is a dimensionless number that characterizes transient heat
conduction. Conceptually, it is the ratio of diffusive or conductive transport rate to
the quantity storage rate, where the quantity may be either heat (thermal energy)
or matter (particles). The number derives from non-dimensionalization of the
heat equation (also known as Fourier's Law) or Fick's second law and is used along
with the Biot number to analyze time dependent transport phenomena.

Heisler Charts:
Heisler charts are a graphical analysis tool for the evaluation of heat
transfer in thermal engineering. They are a set of two charts per included geometry
introduced in 1947 by M. P. Heisler which were supplemented by a third chart per
geometry in 1961 by H. Gröber. Heisler charts permit evaluation of the central
temperature for transient heat conduction through an infinitely long plane wall of
thickness 2L, an infinitely long cylinder of radius 𝑟0 , and a sphere of radius 𝑟0 .

## Although Heisler-Gröber charts are a faster and simpler alternative to

the exact solutions of these problems, there are some limitations. First, the body
must be at uniform temperature initially. Additionally, the temperature of the
surroundings and the convective heat transfer coefficient must remain constant
and uniform. Also, there must be no heat generation from the body itself.

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## Boundary Layer Thickness:

The velocity within the boundary layer increases from zero at the boundary
surface to the velocity of the main stream asymptotically. Therefore, the thickness
of the boundary layer is arbitrarily defined as that distance from the boundary in
which the velocity reaches 99 percent of the velocity of the free stream (𝑢 =
0.99𝑈). It is denoted by the symbol 𝛿. This definition, however, gives an
approximate value of the boundary layer thickness and hence 𝛿 is generally
termed as nominal thickness of the boundary layer.

The boundary layer thickness for greater accuracy is defined in terms of certain
mathematical expressions which are the measure of the boundary layer on the
flow. The commonly adopted definitions of the boundary layer thickness are:
1. Displacement Thickness (𝜹∗ )
2. Momentum Thickness (𝜽)
3. Energy Thickness (𝜹𝒆 )

Displacement Thickness:
The displacement thickness can be defined as follows:
“It is the distance measured perpendicular to the boundary, by which the
main/free stream is displaced on account of formation of boundary layer.”

Or

“It is an additional “wall thickness” that would have to be added to compensate for
the reduction in flow rate on account of boundary layer formation.”

## Displacement thickness is denoted by 𝜹∗ .

Momentum Thickness:
“Momentum Thickness” is defined as the distance through which the total loss of
momentum per second be equal to if it were passing a stationary plate. It is
denoted by 𝜃.

## It may also be defined as the distance, measured perpendicular to the boundary of

the solid body, by which the boundary should be displaced to compensate for
reduction in momentum of the flowing fluid on account of boundary layer
formation.

Energy Thickness:
“Energy Thickness” is defined as the distance, measured perpendicular to the
boundary of the solid body, by which the boundary should be displaced to
compensate for the reduction in K.E. of the flowing fluid on account of boundary
layer formation. It is denoted by 𝜹𝒆 .

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## Thermal Boundary Layer:

Whenever a flow of fluid takes place past a heated or cold surface, a temperature
field is set up in the field next to the surface. If the surface of the plate is hotter
than fluid, the temperature distribution will be as shown in the Figure 7.6. The
zone or this layer wherein the temperature field exists is called the thermal
boundary layer. Due to the exchange of heat between the plate and the fluid,
temperature gradient occurs/results.

The thermal boundary layer thickness, 𝛿𝑡ℎ , is arbitrarily defined as the distance 𝑦
from the plate surface at which
𝑡𝑠 − 𝑡
= 0.99
𝑡𝑠 − 𝑡∞

Laminar Flow:
A laminar flow is one which paths taken by the individual particles do
not cross one another and move along well defined paths. This type of flow is also
called stream-line flow or viscous flow. For Reynolds number 𝑅𝑒 < 2000---- Flow
in pipes is laminar and for𝑅𝑒 between 2000 and 4000 --- flow in pipes may be
laminar or turbulent.

## Ex: (i) Flow through a capillary tube.

(ii) Flow of blood in veins and arteries.
(iii) Ground water flow.

## Characteristics of Laminar Flow:

 No slip at the boundary.
 Due to viscosity, there is a shear stress between fluid layers, which is given
𝑑𝑢
by, 𝜏 = 𝜇 for flow in X-direction.
𝑑𝑦
 The flow is rotational.
 Due to viscous shear, there is continuous dissipation of energy and for
maintaining the flow energy must be supplied externally.
 Loss of energy is proportional to first power of velocity and first power of
viscosity.
 No mixing between different fluid layers (except by molecular motion,
which is very small)
𝜌𝑉𝐼
 The flow remains laminar as long as is less than critical value of Reynolds
𝜇
number.

Coquette flow:
The flow of viscous fluid between two plates-one stationary and the
𝜕𝑝
other moving is known as Couette flow. When the pressure gradient ( ) equals
𝜕𝑥
zero, there is no pressure gradient in the direction of flow then the velocity

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distribution is linear. This particular case is known as Couette flow or simple Shear
flow.

Laminar flow:
A laminar flow is one which paths taken by the individual particles do
not cross one another and move along well defined paths. This type of flow is also
called stream-line flow or viscous flow. For Reynolds number 𝑅𝑒 < 2000---- Flow
in pipes is laminar and for𝑅𝑒 between 2000 and 4000 --- flow in pipes may be
laminar or turbulent.

## Example: (i) Flow through a capillary tube.

(ii) Flow of blood in veins and arteries.
(iii) Ground water flow.

Turbulent flow:
A turbulent flow is that flow in which fluid particles move in a zigzag
way. For Reynolds number 𝑅𝑒 > 4000---- Flow in pipes is turbulent and
for𝑅𝑒 between 2000 and 4000 --- flow in pipes may be laminar or turbulent.

Example: High velocity flow in a conduit of large size. Nearly all fluid
flow problems encountered in engineering practice have a turbulent character.

Compressible flow:
It is that type of flow in which the density (𝜌) of the fluid changes
from point to point or in other words density is not constant for this flow. gases
are generally considered flowing compressibly. Mathematically,
𝜌 ≠ 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡.
Example: Flow of gases through orifices, nozzles, gas turbines, etc.

Incompressible flow:
It is that type of flow in which density is constant for the fluid
flow. Liquids are generally considered flowing incompressibly. Mathematically,
𝜌 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡.
Example: Subsonic aerodynamics.

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## Free or Natural Convection:

When a surface is maintained in still fluid at a temperature higher or lower than
that of the fluid, a layer of fluid adjacent to the surface gets heated or cooled. A
density difference is created between this layer and the still fluid surrounding it.
The density difference introduces a buoyant force causing flow of fluid near the
surface. Heat transfer under such conditions is known as free or natural
convection.

Thus, “Free or Natural convection is the process of heat transfer which occurs due
to movement of the fluid particles by density changes associated with temperature
differential in a fluid.”

This mode of heat transfer occurs very commonly, some examples are given below:
1. The cooling of transmission lines, electric transformers and rectifiers.
2. The heating of rooms by use of radiators.
3. The heat transfer from hot pipes and oven surrounded by cooler air.
4. Cooling the reactor core (in nuclear power plants) and carry out the heat
generated by nuclear fission etc.

Heat Exchanger:
Heat Exchanger may be defined as an equipment which transfers the energy from a hot
fluid to a cold fluid with maximum rate and minimum investment and running costs.

In heat exchangers the temperature of each fluid changes as it passes through the
exchangers, and hence the temperature of the dividing wall between the fluids also
changes along the length of the exchanger.

## Examples of Heat Exchanger:

1. Intercoolers and preheaters.
2. Condensers and boilers in steam plant.
3. Condensers and Evaporators in refrigeration units.
4. Regenerators.
5. Automobile Radiators.
6. Oil Coolers of heat engine.
7. Milk Chiller of a pasteurising Plant.
8. Several Other industrial processes.

## Classification of Heat Exchangers:

In order to meet the widely varying applications, several types of heat exchangers
have been developed which are classified on the basis of Nature of Heat Exchange
Process, Relative Direction of Fluid Motion, design and constructional features and
physical state of fluids.

## Nature of Heat Exchanger Process:

Heat exchangers on the basis of nature of heat exchange process, are classified as follows:
(i) Direct Contact (or open) Heat Exchangers.

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## Direct Contact Heat Exchangers:

In a direct contact or open heat exchanger the exchange of heat takes place by direct
mixing of hot and cold fluids and transfer of heat and mass takes place simultaneously.
The use of such units is made under conditions where mixing of two fluids is either
harmless or desirable.

Examples:
(i) Cooling Towers
(ii) Jet Condensers
(iii) Direct Contact Feed Heaters

Figure 10.1 shows a direct contact heat exchanger in which steam mixes with cold
water, gives its latent heat to water and gets condensed. Hot water and non-
condensable gases leave the container as shown in the figure.

## Indirect Contact Heat Exchangers:

In this type of heat exchanger, the heat transfer between two fluids could be carried out
by transmission through wall which separates the two fluids. This type includes the
following:
(a) Regenerators.
(b) Recuperator or Surface Exchangers.

(a) Regenerator:
In a regenerator type of heat exchanger, the hot and cold fluids pass alternatively
through a space containing solid particles (matrix), these particles providing
alternatively a sink and a source for heat flow.

Example:
(i) Open Hearth and glass melting furnaces
(ii) Air Heaters of Blast Furnaces.

## A regenerator generally operates periodically (the solid matrix alternately stores

heat extracted from the hot fluid and then delivers it to the cold fluid.). However,
in some regenerators the matrix is made to rotate through the fluid passages
arranged side by side which makes the heat exchange process continuous.

## The performance of these regenerators is affected by the following parameters:

(i) Heat Capacity of regenerating material.
(ii) The rate of absorption and
(iii) The release of heat.

Advantages:
1. Higher heat transfer coefficient
2. Less weight per 𝑘𝑊 of the plant
3. Minimum pressure loss
4. Quick response to load variation
5. Small bulk weight

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## 6. Efficiency Quite High.

Disadvantages:
1. Costlier compared to recuperative heat exchangers.
2. Leakage is the main trouble, therefore, perfect scaling is required.

(b) Recuperator:
“Recuperator” is the most important type of heat exchanger in which the flowing
fluids exchanging heat are on either side of dividing wall (in the form of pipes or
tubes generally). These heat exchangers are used when two fluids cannot be
allowed to mix 𝑖. 𝑒. when the mixing is undesirable.

Examples:
(i) Automobile radiators
(ii) Oil coolers, intercoolers, air preheaters, economisers, superheaters,
condensers and surface feed heaters of a steam power plant.
(iii) Milk chiller of pasteurising plant.
(iv) Evaporator of an ice plant.

Advantages:
1. Easy Construction
2. More economical
3. More surface area for heat transfer
4. Much suitable for stationary plant.

Disadvantages:
1. Less heat transfer coefficient
2. Less generating capacity
3. Soothing problems

The flow through direct heat exchangers and recuperator may be treated as steady
state while through regenerators the flow is essentially transient.

## Relative Direction of Fluid Motion:

According to the relative directions of two fluid streams the heat exchangers are classified
into the following three categories:
(a) Parallel Flow or Unidirectional Flow
(b) Counter Flow
(c) Cross Flow

## Parallel Flow Heat Exchangers:

In a parallel flow heat exchanger, as the name suggests, the two fluid streams (hot and
cold) travel in the same direction. The two streams enter at one end and leave at the other
end. The follow arrangement and variation of temperatures of the fluid stream in case of
parallel flow heat exchangers. Parallel Flow heat exchanger is shown in Figure 10.2. It is
evident from the Fig. 10.2 (b) that the temperature difference between the hot and cold
fluids goes on decreasing from inlet to outlet. Since this type of heat exchanger needs a
large area of heat transfer, therefore, it is rarely used in practice.

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Examples:
Oil coolers, oil heaters, water heaters etc.
As the two fluids are separated by a wall, this type of heat exchanger may be called
parallel flow recuperator or surface heat exchanger.

## Counter Flow Heat Exchanger:

In a Counter Flow Heat Exchanger, the two fluids in opposite directions. The hot and cold
fluids enter at the opposite ends. The flow arrangement and temperature distribution for
such a heat exchanger are shown schematically in Figure 10.3. The temperature
difference between the two fluids remains more or less nearly constant. This type of heat
exchanger, due to counter flow, gives maximum rate of heat transfer for a given surface
area. Hence such heat exchangers are most favoured for heating and cooling of fluids.

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## Figure (a): Flow Arrangement

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A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

## Cross Flow Heat Exchanger:

In cross Flow Heat Exchangers, the two fluids (hot and cold) cross one another in space,
usually at right angles. Figure 13.3 shows a schematic diagram of common arrangements
of cross-flow heat exchangers.

Refer Figure 13.3 (a): Hot fluid flows in the separate tubes and there is no mixing of the
fluid streams. The cold fluid is perfectly mixed as it flows through the exchanger. The
temperature of this mixed fluid will be uniform across any section and will vary only in
the direction of flow.

Examples:
The cooling unit of refrigeration system etc.

Refer Figure 13.3 (b): In this case, each of the fluids follows a prescribed path and is
unmixed as it flows through heat exchanger. Hence the temperature of the fluid leaving
the heater section is not uniform.

Examples:
Automobile radiator etc.

In yet another arrangement, both the fluids are mixed while they travel through the
exchanger, consequently the temperature of both the fluids is uniform across the section
and varies only in the direction in which flow takes place.

## Design and Constructional Features:

On the basis of design and constructional features, the heat exchangers are classified as
under:
(i) Concentric Tubes
(ii) Shell and Tube
(iii) Multiple Shell and Tube Passes
(iv) Compact Heat Exchangers

Concentric Tubes:
In this type, two concentric tubes are used, each carrying one of the fluids. The direction
of flow may be parallel or counter as depicted in Figure 10.2 (a). the effectiveness of the
heat exchanger is increased by using swirling flow.

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## Shell and Tube:

In this type of heat exchanger, one of the fluids flows through a bundle of tubes enclosed
by a shell. The other fluid is forced through the shell and it flows over the outside surface
of the tubes. Such an arrangement is employed where reliability and heat transfer
effectiveness are important. With the use of multiple tubes heat transfer rate is amply
improved due to increased surface area.

## Multiple Shell and Tube Passes:

Multiple shell and tube passes are used for enhancing the overall heat transfer. Multiple
shell pass is possible where the fluid flowing through the shell is re-routed. The shell side
fluid is forced to flow back and forth across the tubes by baffles. Multiple tube pass
exchangers are those which re-route the fluid through tubes in the opposite direction.

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Figure 13–5 Multipass flow arrangements in shell and- Tube heat exchangers.

## Compact Heat Exchangers:

There are special purpose heat exchangers and have a very large transfer surface area
per unit volume of the exchanger. They are generally employed when convective heat
transfer coefficient associated with one of the fluids is much smaller than that associated
with the other fluid.

Example:
Plate –fin, flattened fin tube exchangers etc.

## Physical State of Fluids:

Depending upon the physical state of fluids, the heat exchangers are classified as follows:
(i) Condensers and
(ii) Evaporators

Condensers:
In a condenser, the condensing fluid remains at constant temperature throughout the
exchanger while the temperature of the colder fluid gradually increases from inlet to
outlet. The hot fluid loses latent part of heat which is accepted by the cold fluid.

Evaporators:
In this case, the boiling fluid (cold fluid) remains at constant temperature while the
temperature of hot fluid gradually decreases from inlet to outlet.

Fouling Factor:

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In a heat exchanger , during normal operation the tube surface gets covered by
deposits of ash, soot, dirt and scale etc. this phenomenon of rust formation an d
deposition of fluid impurities is called fouling. Due to these surface deposits the
thermal resistance is increased and eventually the performance of the heat
exchanger lowers. Since it is difficult to ascertain the thickness and thermal
conductivity of the scale deposits, the effect of scale on heat flow is considered by
specifying an equivalent scale heat transfer coefficient ℎ𝑠 . If ℎ𝑠𝑖 and ℎ𝑖𝑜 be the heat
transfer coefficients for the scale deposited on the inside and outside surfaces
respectively, then the thermal resistances to scale formation on the inside surface
(𝑅𝑠𝑖 ) and outside surface (𝑅𝑠𝑜 ) are given by,
𝟏
𝑹𝒔𝒊 =
𝑨𝒊 𝒉𝒔𝒊
𝟏
𝑹𝒔𝒐 =
𝑨𝒐 𝒉𝒔𝒐
The reciprocal of scale heat transfer coefficient, 𝒉𝒔 is called the fouling factor, 𝑹𝒇 .
Thus
𝟏
𝑹𝒇 =
𝒉𝒔

Fouling factors are determined experimentally by testing the heat exchanger in both
the clean and dirty conditions. The fouling factor, 𝑹𝒇 is thus defined as:
𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
𝑹𝒇 ( ) = −
𝒉𝒔 𝑼𝒅𝒊𝒓𝒕𝒚 𝑼𝒄𝒍𝒆𝒂𝒏

Fouling Processes:
1. Precipitation or crystallization fouling.
2. Sedimentation or particulate fouling.
3. Chemical reaction fouling or polymerisation.
4. Corrosion fouling.
5. Biological fouling.
6. Freeze Fouling.

## Parameters Affecting Fouling:

 Velocity
 Temperature
 Water Chemistry
 Tube Material

LMTD:
“LMTD Stands for Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference. Logarithmic Mean
Temperature Difference is defined as that temperature difference which, if constant,
would give the same rate of heat transfer as actually occurs under variable
conditions of temperature difference.”

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In order to derive expression for LMTD for various types of heat exchangers, the
following assumptions are made:
1. The overall heat transfer coefficient 𝑼 is constant.
2. The flow conditions are steady.
3. The specific heats and mass flow rates of both fluids are constant.
4. There is no loss of heat to the surroundings, due to the heat exchanger
being perfectly insulated.
5. There is no change of phase either of the fluid during the heat transfer.
6. The changes in potential and kinetic energies are negligible.
7. Axial conduction along the tubes the heat exchanger is negligible.

Correction Factor:
The log mean temperature difference ∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 relation developed earlier is limited to
parallel-flow and counter-flow heat exchangers only. Similar relations are also
developed for cross-flow and multipass shell-and-tube heat exchangers, but the
resulting expressions are too complicated because of the complex flow conditions.

## In such cases, it is convenient to relate the equivalent temperature difference to

the log mean temperature difference relation for the counter-flow case as
∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 = 𝐹∆𝑇𝑙𝑚, 𝐶𝐹

where F is the Correction Factor, which depends on the geometry of the heat
exchanger and the inlet and outlet temperatures of the hot and cold fluid streams.
The ∆𝑇𝑙𝑚, 𝐶𝐹 is the log mean temperature difference for the case of a counter-flow
heat exchanger with the same inlet and outlet temperatures.

The correction factor is less than unity for a cross-flow and multipass shell and-
tube heat exchanger. That is, 𝐹 ≤ 1. The limiting value of 𝐹 ≤ 1corresponds to the
counter-flow heat exchanger. Thus, the correction factor F for a heat exchanger is
a measure of deviation of the ∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 from the corresponding values for the counter-
flow case.

## Effectiveness of Heat exchanger:

A Heat Exchanger can be designed by the LMTD (Logarithmic Mean Temperature
Difference) when inlet and outlet conditions are specified. However, when the problem
is to determine the inlet or exit temperatures for a particular heat exchanger, the analysis
is performed more easily, by using a method based on effectiveness of the heat exchanger
(concept first proposed by Nusselt) and Number of Transfer Units (NTU).

The Heat Exchanger Effectiveness (𝜀) is defined as the ratio of actual heat transfer to the
maximum possible heat transfer. Thus,
𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 𝑄
𝜀= =
𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑃𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 𝑄𝑚𝑎𝑥

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Mass Transfer:
“The Process of Transfer of Mass as a result of the species
concentration difference in a system/Mixture is called Mass Transfer”.

## “Mass Transfer is the movement of a chemical species from a high

concentration region toward a lower concentration one relative to the other
chemical species present in the medium.”

## In a system consisting of one or more components whose

concentrations vary from point to point, there is a natural tendency for the transport
of different species from the region of high to those of low concentration. This
process of transfer of mass as a result of the species concentration difference in a
system/mixture is called Mass Transfer. So long as there is concentration
difference, mass transfer will occur.

## Some examples of Mass Transfer are:

A. Examples of Industrial Importance:
1. Refrigeration by the evaporation of liquid ammonia in the atmosphere of 𝐻2
is Electrolux refrigerator.
2. Humidification of air in cooling tower.
3. Evaporation of petrol in the carburetor of an I.C. engine.
4. Neutron diffusion within nuclear reactors.
5. Estimation of depth to which carbon will penetrate in a mild steel specimen
during the act of carburizing.

## B. Examples of day-to-day life:

1. Dissolution of sugar added to a cup of coffee.
2. The separation of the components of a mixture by distillation or absorption.
3. The transfer of water vapor into dry air, drying and evaporation.
4. Diffusion of smoke through tall chimneys into the environment.

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## Different Modes of Mass Transfer:

The mechanism of mass transfer depends greatly on the dynamics of the system in
which it occurs. Like those of heat transfer, there are different modes of mass
transfer, which are:
1. Mass Transfer by Diffusion
2. Mass Transfer by Convection.
3. Mass Transfer by Change of Phase.

## Mass Transfer by Diffusion:

The transfer of water on a microscopic level as a result of diffusion
from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration in a
system/mixture of liquids or gases is called molecular diffusion. It occurs when a
substance diffuses through a layer of stagnant fluid and may be due to
concentration, temperature or pressure gradients. In a gaseous mixture, molecular
diffusion occurs due to random motion of the molecules. When one of the diffusing
fluids is in turbulent motion, the eddy diffusion, takes place. Mass transfer is more
rapid by eddy diffusion than by molecular diffusion. An example of an eddying
diffusion process is dissipation of smoke from a smoke stack. Turbulence causes
mixing and transfer of smoke to the ambient air.

## Mass Transfer by Convection:

Mass transfer by convection involves transfer between a moving fluid and a
surface, or between two relatively immiscible moving fluids. The convective mass
transfer depends on the transport properties ad on the dynamic (laminar or
turbulent) characteristics of the flowing fluid.

## Mass Transfer by Change of Phase:

Mass Transfer occurs whenever a change from one phase to another takes place.
The mass transfer in such a case occurs due to simultaneous action of convection
and diffusion. Some examples are:
(a) Hot gases escaping from the chimney rise by convection and then diffuse
into the air above the chimney.
(b)Mixing of water vapor with air during evaporation of water from the lake
surface (partly by convection and partly by diffusion)
(c) Boiling of water in open air – there is first transfer of mass from liquid to
vapour state and then vapor mass from the liquid interface is transferred to
the open air by convection as well as by diffusion.

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A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

## Fick’s Law of Diffusion:

Statement:
“The rate of mass diffusion of a chemical species in a stagnant medium in a specified
direction is a proportional to the local concentration gradient in that direction”.

## 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝐹𝑙𝑢𝑥 ∝ 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡

Consider a chamber in which two different gas species A and B, at the same
temperature and pressure are initially separated by a partition. The left
compartment has a high concentration (i.e. more molecules per unit volume) of
gas A (Open circles) whereas the right compartment is rich in gas B (dark circles).
When the partition wall is removed a driving potential comes into existence which
tends to equalize the concentration difference. Mass transfer by diffusion will be
in the direction of decreasing concentration and subsequently there will be a net
transport of species A to the right and of species B to the left. After a sufficiently
long period, equilibrium conditions prevail i.e. uniform concentrations of species
A and B are achieved and then the mass diffusion ceases.

## It has been observed through experiments that molecular diffusion is governed by

Fick’s law which is expressed as
𝑑𝐶𝐴
𝑁𝐴 ∝
𝑑𝑥

𝑚𝐴 𝑑𝐶𝐴
𝑁𝐴 = = −𝐷𝐴𝐵
𝐴 𝑑𝑥
Where,
𝑚𝐴 = Mass Flow rate of species A by diffusion.
𝐴 = Area through which mass is flowing
𝑚
𝑁𝐴 = 𝐴 = Mass flux of species A i.e. amount of species A that is transferred per
𝐴
unit time and per unit area perpendicular to the direction of transfer.
𝐷𝐴𝐵 = Diffusion coefficient or mass diffusivity for binary mixture of species A and
B.
𝐶𝐴 = Concentration or molecules per unit volume of species A.
𝑑𝐶𝐴
= Concentration of gradient for species A; This acts as driving potential.
𝑑𝑥

## Similarly, the diffusion rate for species B is given by,

𝑚𝐵 𝑑𝐶𝐵
𝑁𝐵 = = −𝐷𝐵𝐴
𝐵 𝑑𝑥

Sherwood Number:
The Sherwood number (Sh) (also called the mass transfer Nusselt number) is a
dimensionless number used in mass-transfer operation. It represents the ratio of
the total rate of mass transfer to the rate of diffusive mass transport alone, [1] and
is named in honor of Thomas Kilgore Sherwood.
It is defined as follows:

A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer Engr. Syed Mir Talha Zobaed

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A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

## 𝐾 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑓𝑒𝑟 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒

𝑆ℎ = =
𝐷/𝐿 𝐷𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑢𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒

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A.M.I.E. Heat And Mass Transfer

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