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Function of Endocrine System

The foundations of the endocrine system are the hormones and glands. As the body's chemical messengers, hormones transfer information and instructions from one set of cells to another. Although many different hormones circulate throughout the bloodstream, each one affects only the cells that are genetically programmed to receive and respond to its message. Hormone levels can be influenced by factors such as stress, infection, and changes in the balance of fluid and minerals in blood. A gland is a group of cells that produces and secretes, or gives off, chemicals. A gland selects and removes materials from the blood, processes them, and secretes the finished chemical product for use somewhere in the body. Some types of glands release their secretions in specific areas. For instance, exocrine glands, such as the sweat and salivary glands, release secretions in the skin or inside of the mouth. Endocrine glands, on the other hand, release more than 20 major hormones directly into the bloodstream where they can be transported to cells in other parts of the body. Once a hormone is secreted, it travels from the endocrine gland through the bloodstream to target cells designed to receive its message. Along the way to the target cells, special proteins bind to some of the hormones. The special proteins act as carriers that control the amount of hormone that is available to interact with and affect the target cells. Also, the target cells have receptors that latch onto only specific hormones, and each hormone has its own receptor, so that each hormone will communicate only with specific target cells that possess receptors for that hormone. When the hormone reaches its target cell, it locks onto the cell's specific receptors and these hormonereceptor combinations transmit chemical instructions to the inner workings of the cell. When hormone levels reach a certain normal or necessary amount, further secretion is controlled by important body mechanisms to maintain that level of hormone in the blood. This regulation of hormone secretion may involve the hormone itself or another substance in the blood related to the hormone.

Another example is parathyroid hormone. the parathyroid glands sense the change and decrease their secretion of parathyroid hormone. and are longer-acting than ACTH. myopathy psychosis and serious infections due to its immunosuppressive properties. which can be directly administered without the use of ACTH. prednisolone. dexame thasone). the pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. catabolize proteins. These do not not have any effect on the overall course of the disease either and also carry similar serious side-effects to ACTH. are more potent. the pituitary gland senses the normal levels of thyroid hormone in the bloodstream and adjusts its release of thyrotropin. . prednisone. When the blood calcium level rises. vascular necrosis.For example.g. Functions of the Hormones  Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) is a peptide hormone that is produced by the anterior pituitary gland and the outer cortex of the adrenal glands. if the thyroid gland has secreted adequate amounts of thyroid hormones into the blood. It shortens the duration of relapses and reduces their severity but it does not have any effect on the overall course of the disease. cause less sodium retention and less potassium loss. which increases the level of calcium in the blood. It is occasionally used in short-term symptom management during multiple sclerosis relapses due to its anti-inflammatory and immuno-suppressive properties. which help cells synthesise glucose.betamethasone. It stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoid hormones. methylprednisolone. mobilise free fatty acids and inhibit inflammation in allergic responses. glaucoma. osteoporosis. The main function of ACTH is the regulation of the steroid hormone cortisol. This turnoff process is called a negative feedback system. Its long-term use is counter-indicated because it can cause a number of serious side-effects including cataracts. which is secreted by the adrenal cortex. cortisone. Medicinal ACTH extracted from the glands of mammals or manufactured synthetically.. It's use has been largely superceded by synthetically produced glucocorticoid hormones (e.

In other words. in the placental hormone chorionic gonadotropin. and. The most important controller of TSH secretion is thyroidreleasing hormone. Its basic sequence is glutamic acid-histidine-proline. and TSH associates only with its own receptor.follicle-stimulating luteinizing hormone. finds its receptors on thyrotrophs in the anterior pituitary and stimulates secretion of TSH. Thyroid-releasing hormone is secreted by hypothalamic neurons into hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal blood. Free alpha and beta subunits have essentially no biological activity. and hence. in primates. TSH. The alpha subunit of TSH is also present in two other pituitary glycoprotein hormone and hormones. . TSH is a glycoprotein hormone composed of two subunits which are non-covalently bound to one another. TSH is composed of alpha subunit bound to the TSH beta subunit. also known as thyrotropin. although both ends of the peptide are modified. Secretion of thyroid-releasing hormone. which provides receptor specificity. Additional information about TSH and its effects and control are presented in the section on the thyroid gland. is inhibited by high blood levels of thyroid hormones in a classical negative feedback loop. One interesting aspect of thyroid-releasing hormone is that it is only three amino acids long. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (Thyrotropin) Thyroid-stimulating hormone. is secreted from cells in the anterior pituitary called thyrotrophs. and stimulates that gland to synthesize and release thyroid hormones. finds its receptors on epithelial cells in the thyroid gland. Each of these hormones also has a unique beta subunit.

The major role of growth hormone in stimulating body growth is to stimulate the liver and other tissues to secrete IGF-I. Keeping this distinction in mind. Physiologic Effects of Growth Hormone A critical concept in understanding growth hormone activity is that it has two distinct types of effects: y y Direct effects are the result of growth hormone binding its receptor on target cells. we can discuss two major roles of growth hormone and its minion IGF-I in physiology. a hormone that is secreted from the liver and other tissues in response to growth hormone. Growth hormone does seem to have a direct effect on bone growth in stimulating differentiation of chondrocytes. IGF-I stimulates proliferation of chondrocytes (cartilage cells). and growth hormone stimulates them to break down triglyceride and supresses their ability to take up and accumulate circulating lipids. including growth and metabolism. have growth hormone receptors. It is a major participant in control of several complex physiologic processes. It also stimulates amino acid uptake and protein synthesis in muscle and other tissues. Growth Hormone (Somatotropin) Growth hormone is a protein hormone of about 190 amino acids that is synthesized and secreted by cells called somatotrophs in the anterior pituitary. IGF-I also appears to be the key player in muscle growth. Growth hormone is also of considerable interest as a drug used in both humans and animals. resulting in bone growth. . Effects on Growth Growth is a very complex process. for example. and requires the coordinated action of several hormones. It stimulates both the differentiation and proliferation of myoblasts. Indirect effects are mediated primarily by ainsulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). A majority of the growth promoting effects of growth hormone is actually due to IGF-I acting on its target cells. Fat cells (adipocytes).

in males. As describef for thyroid-simulating hormone. Carbohydrate metabolism: Growth hormone is one of a battery of hormones that serves to maintain blood glucose within a normal range. The alpha subunit is identical in all three of these anterior pituitary hormones. They are not necessary for life.  Gonadotropins: Luteinizing and Follicle Stimulating Hormones Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are calledgonadotropins because stimulate the gonads . then regulate many aspects of gonadal function in both males and females. This effect reflects increased amino acid uptake.Metabolic Effects Growth hormone has important effects on protein. Fat metabolism: Growth hormone enhances the utilization of fat by stimulating triglyceride breakdown and oxidation in adipocytes. Growth hormone is often said to have anti-insulin activity. because it supresses the abilities of insulin to stimulate uptake of glucose in peripheral tissues and enhance glucose synthesis in the liver. Together. These two hormones are secreted from cells in the anterior pituitary called gonadotrophs. growth hormone stimulates protein anabolism in many tissues. LH and FSH are large glycoproteins composed of alpha and beta subunits. lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. In some cases. increased protein synthesis and decreased oxidation of proteins. the testes. a direct effect of growth hormone has been clearly demonstrated. IGF-I is thought to be the critical mediator. in others. Somewhat paradoxically. while the beta subunit is unique and endows each hormone with the ability to bind its own receptor. but some appear to secrete both hormones. . leading to hyperinsulinemia. the ovaries. and in females. and some cases it appears that both direct and indirect effects are at play. Most gonadotrophs secrete only LH or FSH. but are essential for reproduction. y y y Protein metabolism: In general. Physiologic Effects of Gonadotropins Physiologic effects of the gonadotrophins are known only in the ovaries and testes. administration of growth hormone stimulates insulin secretion.

which is converted into estrogen by adjacent granulosa cells. cranial injury. LH binds to receptors on Leydig cells. which secrete the steroid hormones progesterone and estradiol. that alter the production of ADH that results in excessive urination (polyuria). and. ovulation of mature follicles on the ovary is induced by a large burst of LH secretion known as the preovulatory LH surge. In females. an increased number of mature gametes. stimulating synthesis and secretion of testosterone. FSH stimulates the maturation of ovarian follicles. The name luteinizing hormone derives from this effect of inducing luteinization of ovarian follicles. which in turn support many aspects of sperm cell maturation. Difference of Diabetes Insipidus to the Symptoms of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Diabetes Insipidus there is a problem in pituitary gland either pituitary tumor. in most mammals. Luteinizing Hormone In both sexes. Progesterone is necessary for maintenance of pregnancy. In the testes. Administration of FSH to humans and animals induces "superovulation". or development of more than the usual number of mature follicles and hence. when the body detect that there is a deficiency in volume it will send to the kidney and the trigger the RAAS (rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system) to balance the body fluid . LH stimulates secretion of sex steroids from the gonads. FSH is also critical for sperm production. Residual cells within ovulated follicles proliferate to form corpora lutea. while in Inappropriate ADH production there is less ADH in the circulation and there is excessive urination and as a result the body compensate. LH is required for continued development and function of corpora lutea. It supports the function of Sertoli cells.  Follicle-Stimulating Hormone As its name implies. Theca cells in the ovary respond to LH stimulation by secretion of testosterone.

Endocrine System Medical-Surgical Submitted by: Ceelin T. Robles Nr-32 Submitted to: Kristopher Calma. RN MSN .