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Mechanical and thermal buckling analysis of functionally graded plates

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Mechanical and thermal buckling analysis of functionally graded plates

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Composite Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruct

X. Zhao, Y.Y. Lee *, K.M. Liew

Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong, Tatchee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The mechanical and thermal buckling analysis of functionally graded ceramic–metal plates is presented

Available online 13 March 2009 in this study. The ﬁrst-order shear deformation plate theory, in conjunction with the element-free kp-Ritz

method, is employed in the current formulation. It is assumed that the material property of each plate

Keywords: varies exponentially through the thickness. The displacement ﬁeld is approximated in terms of a set of

Functionally graded materials mesh-free kernel particle functions. The bending stiffness is evaluated using a stabilized conforming

Thermal and buckling analysis nodal integration technique, and the shear and membrane terms are computed using a direct nodal inte-

Functionally graded plates

gration method to eliminate the shear locking effects of very thin plates. The mechanical and thermal

Element-free Ritz method

buckling behaviour of functionally graded plates with arbitrary geometry, including plates that contain

square and circular holes at the centre, are investigated, as are the inﬂuence of the volume fraction

exponent, boundary conditions, hole geometry, and hole size on the buckling strengths of these plates.

Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

behaviour of FGPs has also attracted research interest. Feldman

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are made of advanced and Aboudi [8] carried out elastic buckling analysis of FGPs sub-

composites in which the material properties vary continuously jected to axial load and also investigated the optimal spatial distri-

and smoothly in a structure. FGMs, which are usually made of bution of the volume fraction to improve buckling resistance.

metal and ceramic, possess two main properties: toughness and Birman [9] provided buckling analysis of functionally graded hy-

a high degree of temperature-resistance. These special characteris- brid composite plates, and Javaheri and Eslami [10] analyzed the

tics make them preferable to conventional composite materials, thermal buckling of FGPs based on higher order theory. Liew

which are subject to delamination, for engineering applications. et al. [11,12] performed postbuckling analysis of FGPs subjected

Noda [1] carried out an extensive review of broad research topics to thermo-electro-mechanical loading and also considered the

related to FGMs, including thermoelastic and thermoinelastic thermal postbuckling of these plates. Yang and Shen [13] examined

problems, and corresponding parametric studies. Reddy and Chin the nonlinear bending and postbuckling behaviour of FGPs sub-

[2] developed a ﬁnite element formulation for the dynamic ther- jected to combined transverse and in-plane loads using a semi-

moelastic responses of functionally graded cylinders and plates analytical approach, and Woo et al. [14] presented an analytical

using the ﬁrst-order shear deformation plate theory, and He et al. solution for the postbuckling behaviour of moderately thick FGM

[3] investigated the vibration control of functionally graded plates plates and shells under thermal and mechanical loading.

(FGPs) mounted with integrated piezoelectric sensors and actua- Recently, mesh-free methods have been widely applied to a

tors. Liew et al. [4] carried out static and dynamic piezothermo- variety of engineering analyses due to their ﬂexibility. Studies in-

elastic analysis for the active control of FGPs bonded with clude thin shell analysis [15,16], the large deformation analysis

integrated piezoelectric sensors and actuators in thermal gradient of nonlinear structures [17] and the static and vibration analysis

environments. Reddy [5] proposed a ﬁnite element model based on of FGMs [18–20]. In this paper, the buckling behaviour of FGPs un-

the third-order deformation theory to investigate the static and dy- der mechanical and thermal loading is investigated using the ele-

namic responses of FGPs under mechanical and thermal loading, ment-free kp-Ritz method [21–24]. The formulation is based on

and Efraim and Eisenberger [6] investigated the vibrations of thick the ﬁrst-order shear deformation plate theory, and the material

annular FGPs with variable thicknesses. Vel and Batra [7] reported properties of the FGPs are assumed to vary continuously and

a three-dimensional exact solution for the vibration of functionally smoothly through the thickness according to the power-law distri-

graded rectangular plates. bution of the volume fraction of the constituents. In the thermal

buckling analysis of a FGP, the temperature is considered to vary

only through the thickness direction and to be constant over any

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +852 2788 9847; fax: +852 2788 7612. plane. A stabilized conforming nodal integration approach is em-

E-mail address: bcraylee@cityu.edu.hk (Y.Y. Lee). ployed to evaluate the plate bending stiffness, and the shear and

0263-8223/$ - see front matter Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2009.03.005

162 X. Zhao et al. / Composite Structures 90 (2009) 161–171

method. When compared with Gauss integration, the proposed

0.4

integration scheme shows better computational efﬁciency without n = 10

shear locking for very thin plates. Moreover, this method is more 0.3

effective for dealing with plates with complex geometry, especially n=5

0.2

plates with cutouts. The buckling behaviour of a variety of FGPs, n=3

including solid plates and plates with holes, is discussed, and the 0.1

inﬂuence of the volume fraction exponent, hole size, and boundary

0.0

z/h

condition on the buckling strength of these plates is also examined. n=1

-0.1

n = 0.5

2. Functionally graded plates -0.2

n = 0.3

Fig. 1 shows a FGP that measures a b h. A coordinate system -0.3

n = 0.1

(x, y, z) is established on the middle plane of the plate, and the -0.4

material properties are assumed to vary through the thickness

according to the power law: -0.5

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

PðzÞ ¼ ðP c Pm ÞV c þ Pm ; ð1aÞ Vc

n

1 z

Vc ¼ þ ðn P 0Þ; ð1bÞ Fig. 2. Volume fraction versus thickness.

2 h

where P represents one of the effective material properties, such as uðx; y; zÞ ¼ u0 ðx; yÞ þ z/x ðx; yÞ;

Young’s modulus E, density q, Poisson’s ratio m, thermal conductiv- v ðx; y; zÞ ¼ v 0 ðx; yÞ þ z/y ðx; yÞ; ð3Þ

ity k, or thermal expansion a; the subscripts c and m represent the wðx; y; zÞ ¼ w0 ðx; yÞ;

ceramic and metal, respectively; Vc is the volume fraction of the

ceramic; and n is the volume fraction exponent. Fig. 2 illustrates where u0, v0, and w0 denote the displacements at the mid-plane of

the variation of the volume fraction through the thickness with dif- the plate along the x, y, and z directions, and /x and /y represent the

ferent volume fraction exponents. For temperature-dependent transverse normal rotations about the y and x axes, respectively.

materials, the corresponding properties are given by [25] The linear strain–displacement relationship is given by

8 9

P ¼ P0 ðP 1 T 1 þ 1 þ P1 T þ P2 T 2 þ P3 T 3 Þ; ð2Þ < exx >

> =

cyz

eyy ¼ e0 þ zj; ¼ c0 ; ð4Þ

where P0, P1, P1, P2, and P3 are the temperature coefﬁcients. The :c >

> ; cxz

xy

material properties are computed at standard room temperature

(T = 300K) unless otherwise speciﬁed. where

8 @u 9 8 @/x 9

>

>

0

>

> >

> @x >

> ( )

3. Theoretical formulation < @x = < @/ = /y þ @w 0

@v 0 y @y

e0 ¼ @y ; j¼ @y ; c0 ¼ : ð5Þ

> > > > /x þ @w

: @u0 þ @ v 0 >

> > @/y >

0

@y @x @y

þ @x

According to the ﬁrst-order shear deformation plate theory [26], Thus, the constitutive relations are expressed as

8 9 2 308 9 8 9 1

the displacement ﬁeld can be expressed as >

> rxx >

> Q 11 Q 12 0 0 0 >

> exx >

> >

> 1>>

>

> >

> 6 7B>> >

> >

> >

> C

> > 0 7B> > eyy > >1>

< ryy >

> = 6 Q 12

6

Q 11 0 0

7B< = >

> < > = C

C

rxy ¼ 6

60 0 Q 66 0 0 7 B C

7B> cxy > > 0 >aDT C;

>

> >

> > > >> >

> r > 6 7B> >

cyz > > C

>

> yz >

> 40 0 0 Q 44 0 5@> > > >0>

> > A

> > > ; >

> : > ;

b :

rxz ; 0 0 0 0 Q 55

:

cxz 0

ð6Þ

where

E

Q 11 ¼ ; Q 12 ¼ mQ 11 ; Q 22 ¼ Q 11 ;

1 m2

E

Q 44 ¼ Q 55 ¼ Q 66 ¼ ; ð7Þ

2ð1 mÞ

and DT is the temperature change from a stress-free state (T = 0 °C).

a Note that the effective properties of the plate vary along the thick-

ness direction according to Eq. (1), and thus elastic coefﬁcient Qij is

a function of z. The total in-plane force resultants, total moment

resultants, and transverse force resultants are given by

8 9 8 9

h/2 < N xx >

> < rxx >

= Z h=2 > =

N ¼ Nyy ¼ ryy dz;

>

: >

; h=2 >

: >

h/2 Nxy rxy ;

8 9 8 9

< M xx >

> = Z h=2 >< rxx >

=

M ¼ M yy ¼ ryy zdz; and ð8a;bÞ

>

: >

; >

h=2 : >

Fig. 1. Functionally graded plate.

M xy rxy ;

X. Zhao et al. / Composite Structures 90 (2009) 161–171 163

Z

Qy h=2

ryz X

NP

Qs ¼ ¼ dz: ð9Þ uh ¼ wI ðxÞuI ; ð20Þ

Qx h=2 rxz I¼1

In matrix form, the relation between the stress resultants and the where wI(x) and uI are the shape function and the nodal value. The

strains can be written as subscript I represents the node number. A two-dimensional shape

" # ( ) function is deﬁned as

N A B e0 NT

¼ ; Q s ¼ As c0 ; ð10a;bÞ

M B D j MT wI ðxÞ ¼ CðxÞUa ðx xI Þ; ð21Þ

where Ua(x xI) is termed the kernel function and C(x) is termed

where

the correction function and used to satisfy reproducing condition

Z h=2

X

NP

NT ¼ ½1 1 0T ðQ 11 þ Q 12 ÞaDTdz; ð11aÞ wI ðxÞxm n m n

h=2 I yI ¼ x y for m þ n ¼ 0; 1; 2: ð22Þ

Z h=2

I¼1

h=2

second-order monomial functions

2 3 2 3

A11 A12 A16 B11 B12 B16 CðxÞ ¼ HT ðx xI ÞbðxÞ; ð23Þ

6 7 6 7

A ¼ 4 A12 A22 A26 5; B ¼ 4 B12 B22 B26 5; ð12a;bÞ

A16 A26 A66 B16 B26 B66 bðxÞ ¼ ½b0 ðx; yÞ; b1 ðx; yÞ; b2 ðx; yÞ; b3 ðx; yÞ; b4 ðx; yÞ; b5 ðx; yÞT ; and

2 3 ð24aÞ

D11 D12 D16

6 7 A44 A45

D ¼ 4 D12 D22 D26 5; As ¼ ; ð13c;dÞ HT ðx xI Þ ¼ ½1; x xI ; y yI ; ðx xI Þðy yI Þ; ðx xI Þ2 ; ðy yI Þ2 ;

A45 A55

D16 D26 D66 ð24bÞ

where H is a vector of quadratic basis and b(x) is a coefﬁcient vector

and NT and MT represent the thermal force and moment resultant,

to be determined. The shape function can now be written as

respectively. Aij, Bij, Dij, and Asij are given by

Z Z T

h=2 h=2 wI ðxÞ ¼ b ðxÞHðx xI ÞUa ðx xI Þ: ð25Þ

ðAij ; Bij ; Dij Þ ¼ 2

Q ij ð1; z; z Þdz; Asij ¼K Q ij dz; ð14a;bÞ

h=2 h=2 The coefﬁcient b(x) can be solved by substituting Eq. (25) into Eq.

(22), as follows:

where Aij, Bij, and Dij are deﬁned for i, j = 1, 2, 6, and is deﬁned for Asij

i, j = 4, 5. K denotes the transverse shear correction coefﬁcient and is bðxÞ ¼ M1 ðxÞHð0Þ; ð26Þ

given by [6]

where M is termed a moment matrix and H(0) is a constant vector.

5 The expressions for M and H(0) are given by

K¼ ; ð15Þ

6 ðv 1 V 1 þ v 2 V 2 Þ

X

NP

where V1 and V2 represent the volume fractions of two different MðxÞ ¼ Hðx xI ÞHT ðx xI ÞUa ðx xI Þ and ð27aÞ

I¼1

components, and m1 and m2 are the Poisson ratios of the two

constituents. Hð0Þ ¼ ½1; 0; 0; 0; 0; 0T : ð27bÞ

The strain energy of the plate is expressed as

The kernel function Ua(x xI) is deﬁned as

Z

1 ~T

Ue ¼ N edX; ð16Þ Ua ðx xI Þ ¼ Ua ðxÞ Ua ðyÞ; ð28Þ

2 X

in which

~ and e are deﬁned as

where N x x

I

8 9 8 9 Ua ðxÞ ¼ u ; ð29Þ

<N >

> = < e0 >

> = a

~¼ M ;

N e¼ j : ð17a;bÞ where u(x) is a weight function and given by

>

: >

; : >

> ; 8 9

Qs c0 2 2 3

0 6 jzI j 6 12 >

< 3 4zI þ 4zI

> for =

The potential energy due to in-plane loading is given by uz ðzI Þ ¼ 3 4zI þ 4zI 43 z3I

4 2

for 1

< jzI j 6 1 ; ð30Þ

>

:

2 >

;

Z " # 0 otherwise

@w @w Nx Nxy @w

@x

Wg ¼ @w dX: ð18Þ where zI ¼ ðxx IÞ

; dI is the size of the support and given by

X @x @y Nxy Ny @y

dI

dI ¼ dmax cI ; ð31Þ

The total potential energy functional for the plate can therefore be

expressed as where dmax is a scaling factor, and the distance cI is chosen so that

there are sufﬁcient nodes to avoid any singularity in matrix M.

Ps ¼ U e W g : ð19Þ

Finally, the shape function is written as

3.2. Two-dimensional kernel particle shape functions

In this section, based on the kernel particle concept [17,27], the As the shape function wI(x) possesses no Kronecker delta properties,

shape functions are developed and brieﬂy introduced. Consider a the boundary conditions cannot be directly imposed. Several meth-

domain X that is discretized by a set of scattered nodes xI, ods, such as the transformation method [17] Lagrange multipliers

I = 1, . . . , NP, and the approximation of the function u(x) is denoted [28], and the penalty method, can be used to enforce the essential

by uh and expressed in the discrete form boundary conditions.

164 X. Zhao et al. / Composite Structures 90 (2009) 161–171

3.3. Nodal integration atives of the shape functions are required in this integration. As

two-dimensional domain integration can be simply transferred to

Similar to ﬁnite element methods, mesh-free methods require one-dimensional line integration, the computational cost is signiﬁ-

an integration procedure to evaluate the stiffness matrix. The sta- cantly reduced.

bilized conforming (SC) nodal integration method [29] is employed

instead of Gauss integration to compute the stiffness matrix. This is 3.4. Discrete system equations

because the latter leads to higher computational cost and may in-

duce errors, especially for cases in which there are signiﬁcant dis- The approximations for the displacements and rotations of the

parities between the quadrature cells and the shape function middle plane of a plate are expressed as

supports. The efﬁciency and accuracy of the SC integration scheme 0 1 0 1

uh0 uI

for solving solid mechanics problems has been demonstrated [29– B hC

B v0 C B C

32]. A brief review of this integration method is given here. B C XNP B vI C X NP

B h C B C

Consider a domain X that is discretized by a set of nodes. The uh0 ¼ B w0 C ¼ wI B

B wI CC ¼ wI ðxÞuI : ð38Þ

representative domain of node xL is denoted by XL, which can be

B h C I¼1 B C

B/ C @ /xI A I¼1

@ x A

generated from the Voronoi diagram or Delaunay triangulation

/hy /yI

shown in Fig. 3. The strain smoothing at node xL is deﬁned as

Z

1 Substituting Eq. (38) into Eq. (19) and performing the Ritz minimi-

~eij ðxL Þ ¼ eij ðxÞdX; ð33Þ

AL zation procedure yields the eigenvalue equations of plate buckling,

X

as follows:

where eij is the strain and AL is the area of the representative domain

XL. According to the divergence theorem, this strain smoothing can ðK þ kKg Þu ¼ 0; ð39Þ

be expressed as where K and Kg represent the linear stiffness matrix and geometric

Z stiffness matrix, respectively, and k is the critical buckling load. The

1

~eij ðxL Þ ¼ ðuhi nj þ uhj ni Þd C; ð34Þ matrix expressions of K and Kg are given by

2AL CL

and n is the outward normal (Fig. 3). For a two-dimensional T

u ¼ ½u1 u2 un ; ð41Þ

problem, Z

T

X KbIJ ¼ BbI DBbJ dX; ð42Þ

~eh ðxL Þ ¼ ~ I ðxL ÞuI ;

B ð35Þ ZX Z Z

I2SL T T T

m m

2 3 KIJ ¼ Bm I ABJ dX þ Bm b

I BBJ dX þ BbI BBm

J dX; ð43Þ

~I1 ðxL Þ

b 0

6 7 ZX X X

T

~ I ðxL Þ ¼ 6

B ~I2 ðxL Þ 7; and ð36Þ Ksh BsI As BsJ dX; and

4 0 b 5 IJ ¼ ð44Þ

X

b~I2 ðxL Þ b

~I1 ðxL Þ Z

Z KgIJ ¼ GI T NGJ dX: ð45Þ

~ ðx Þ ¼ 1

b w ðxL Þni ðxL ÞdC ði ¼ 1; 2Þ ð37Þ X

Ii L

AL CL I

The stiffness matrix in Eq. (42) is evaluated using the stabilized no-

where SL represents a group of nodes whose shape function sup- dal integration technique, and Eqs. (43)–(45) are computed via di-

ports cover node L. An evaluation of Eq. (37) can be carried out rect nodal integration. The approximations for the terms in Eqs.

using Gauss integration or the trapezoidal rule. Note that no deriv- (43)–(45) are given as follows:

X

NP

KbIJ ¼ ~ bT ðxL ÞDB

B ~ b ðxL ÞAL ; ð46Þ

I J

5 L¼1

NP h

X i

T m mT bT

Km

IJ ¼ Bm b m

I ðxL ÞABJ ðxL Þ þ BI ðxL ÞBBJ ðxL Þ þ BI ðxL ÞBBJ ðxL Þ AL ;

4

L¼1

ð47Þ

3

X

NP

T

Ksh

IJ ¼ BsI ðxL ÞAs BsJ ðxL ÞAL ; and ð48Þ

2

L¼1

X

NP

1 KgIJ ¼ GI T ðxL ÞNGJ ðxL ÞAL ; ð49Þ

L¼1

0

ΓL where xL and AL are the node coordinate and nodal representative

~ b ðxL Þ; Bb ðxL Þ; Bm ðxL Þ; Bs ðxL Þ; N, and G are

area, respectively. Here, B I I I I

-1

n given by

L 2 3

-2 0 0 0 ~Ix ðxL Þ

b 0

ΩL 6 7

~ b ðxL Þ ¼ 6 0 0 0

B ~Iy ðxL Þ 7;

b 0 ð50Þ

-3

I 4 5

~Iy ðxL Þ b

0 0 0 b ~Ix ðxL Þ

2 3

-4 I ðxL Þ

0 0 0 @w@x 0

6 @wI ðxL Þ 7

BbI ðxL Þ ¼ 6

40 0 0 0 @y 5;

7 ð51Þ

-5

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 I ðxL Þ @wI ðxL Þ

0 0 0 @w@y @x

Fig. 3. Nodal representative domain obtained from Voronoi diagram.

X. Zhao et al. / Composite Structures 90 (2009) 161–171 165

Z Z

~Ix ðxL Þ ¼ 1

b wI ðxÞnx ðxÞdC; ~Iy ðxL Þ ¼ 1

b wI ðxÞny ðxÞdC;

Table 2

AL AL Buckling coefﬁcient for a simply-supported isotropic square plate under uniaxial

CL CL

compressive pressure (h = 0.1 in., a = b = 10 in., E = 3.0 106 psi, m = 0.316).

ð52a; bÞ

Mode Present Analytical [33]

2 @wI ðxL Þ 3 12 12 14 14 16 16 18 18

@x

0 0 0 0

6 @wI ðxL Þ 7 1 39.4891 39.3462 39.2387 39.2040 39.4761

Bm 6 0 0 0 07

I ðxL Þ ¼ 4 @y 5; ð53Þ

2 59.6310 59.9668 60.1913 60.3722 61.6814

@wI ðxL Þ @wI ðxL Þ 3 100.310 103.006 103.887 103.963 109.656

@y @x

0 0 0

" # 4 147.678 149.481 150.572 151.987 157.904

@wI ðxL Þ

0 0 wI ðxL Þ 0

BsI ðxL Þ

@x

¼ @wI ðxL Þ

; ð54Þ

0 0 @y

0 wI ðxL Þ the convergent solution. Table 3 presents the solutions of buckling

" @wI ðxL Þ

# coefﬁcient kf = kh/ks obtained from the proposed method, as well as

0 0 0 0

G¼

@x

; and ð55Þ those produced from the analytical [34,35] and ﬁnite element

@wI ðxL Þ

0 0 @y

0 0 methods [36,37] reported in the literature [38]. It can be seen that

" # the proposed solution agrees well with the analytical solutions

N xx Nxy

N¼ : ð56Þ presented by Ritche and Rhodes [34] for all of the different hole

N xy Nyy sizes and that it is also close to the ﬁnite element results for hole

sizes ranging from 0 to 0.4. For a plate with a hole size of 0.6,

the proposed solution is slightly smaller than that produced by

4. Numerical results and discussion

the ﬁnite element method. Finally, the thermal buckling of a sim-

ply supported square isotropic plate that is subject to a uniform

In this section, several numerical examples of the buckling

temperature rise is investigated. Three thickness ratios, a/

behaviour of FGPs under mechanical and thermal loading are pre-

h = 10,20,100, are considered. The material properties are Young’s

sented. All of the plates considered here are subjected to uniaxial

modulus E = 1.0 106 N/m2, Poisson ratio v = 0.3, and thermal

compressive pressure or uniform temperature load. Two types of

expansion coefﬁcient a = 1.0 106/K. Table 4 presents the con-

FGPs that consist of aluminium and zirconia, aluminium, and alu-

vergence characteristics of the proposed solution at minimum crit-

mina are considered. The properties of each constituent, including

ical temperature aT, as well as the corresponding results given by

the Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, thermal expansion coefﬁ-

Noor and Burton [39] and Matsunaga [40]. Good agreement is ob-

cient, and conductivity are given in Table 1. Unless otherwise spec-

tained between the results of the method presented here and those

iﬁed, the properties of the constituents are given at room

from the references.

temperature: T = 300K. The kernel particle function is employed

to construct the shape functions for the two-dimensional displace-

ment approximations. A scaling factor of 3.2 is used to represent 4.2. FGM plates

the size of the support, and the stiffness matrices are evaluated

using the nodal integration method. The transformation method In this section, the buckling responses of FGM plates under uni-

is adopted to impose the essential boundary conditions. axial compressive pressure are investigated. These plates consist of

aluminium (Al) and zirconia (ZrO2), the properties of which are

4.1. Isotropic plate listed in Table 1. The length and thickness of these plates are

a = b = 0.2 m and h = 0.01 m. A nodal distribution of 21 21 is

In the veriﬁcation of the buckling solutions obtained from the used. Table 5 shows buckling load parameter N cr ¼ N cr a2 =D0 for a

proposed method, a simply supported isotropic plate under simply supported square Al/ZrO2 plate under uniaxial compres-

uniaxial compressive pressure is ﬁrst considered. This square plate sion. The volume fraction exponent n ranges from 0 to 5, and the

measures 10 in. 10 in. 0.2 in. (a b h), and its material prop- values of the buckling load parameter for the ﬁrst four modes are

erties are Young’s modulus E = 3.0 106psi and Poisson ratio computed. The corresponding mode shapes are plotted in Fig. 4.

v = 0.3. The number of nodes used ranges from 12 12 to It can be seen that the buckling load parameter decreases when

18 18, and the buckling coefﬁcient N cr ¼ N cr a2 =D0 (D0 = Eh3/ the volume fraction exponent increases. This is because the plate

12(1 m2)) for the ﬁrst four modes is given in Table 2. For compar- stiffness becomes weak with a rise in this exponent. A similar

ison purposes, the analytical solution given by Timoshenko and observation can also be discerned from Table 6, which presents

Geer [33] is also provided. It can be seen that good agreement be- the buckling load parameter for a clamped Al/ZrO2 plate. The cor-

tween the two solutions can be reached for all modes. The buckling responding buckling mode shapes are depicted in Figs. 5 and 6. It

strength of a simply supported isotropic plate with circular holes at can be seen that the buckling mode shapes of the simply supported

the centre is also investigated. The geometric properties of this plate are similar to those of the clamped plate.

plate are length = width = a = b = 1 m and thickness=h = 0.001 m. Table 7 reveals the variation of buckling load parameter N cr

Its material properties are Young’s modulus E = 7.06 1011 N/m2 with the volume fraction exponent for a simply supported rectan-

and Poisson ratio v = 0.3. The hole radius to length ratio 2r/a gular plate. The length to width ratio is a/b = 2, and the thickness is

changes from 0 to 0.6. A total of 22 22 nodes are used to attain h = 0.01 m. It can be seen that the variation of the buckling load in

Table 7 is similar to that in Table 5, although the buckling load va-

lue is much larger. The corresponding mode shapes, however, are

Table 1 different from those for the square plate shown in Fig. 4. This dem-

Properties of the FGM components. onstrates that the aspect ratio has a signiﬁcant inﬂuence on buck-

ling behaviour. Table 8 shows the buckling characteristics for a

Material Properties

clamped plate, and the corresponding mode shapes are illustrated

E (N/m2) m a (/°C) j (W/Mk) in Fig. 7. It can be seen that the buckling mode shapes of this plate

Aluminium (Al) 70.0 109 0.30 23.0 106 204 are different from those of the simply supported pate. Thus, it is

Zirconia (ZrO2) 151 109 0.30 10.0 106 2.09

concluded that both the aspect ratio and the boundary conditions

Alumina 380 109 0.30 7.4 106 10.4

can signiﬁcantly inﬂuence the buckling behaviour of a FGM plate.

166 X. Zhao et al. / Composite Structures 90 (2009) 161–171

Table 3

Buckling coefﬁcient kf = kh/ks of the simply supported isotropic plate with a circular hole (a = b = 1 m, h = 0.001 m, E = 7.06 1011/m2, m = 0.3).

Ritche and Rhodes [34] Kawai and Ohtsubo [35] Robot [36] Czmochowski [37]

0.0 0.993 1.00 1.00 0.998 0.90

0.2 0.919 0.92 0.95 0.892 0.82

0.4 0.758 0.76 0.84 0.770 0.76

0.6 0.669 0.64 0.77 0.711 0.74

Table 4

Minimum critical temperature parameter aT of the simply supported isotropic plate (a/b = 1, a0 = 1.0 10 6

/K, E = 1.0 106 N/m2, m = 0.3).

16 16 18 18 20 20

10 0.1181 101 0.1182 101 0.1183 101 0.1183 101 0.1183 101

20 0.3.82 102 0.3085 102 0.3089 102 0.3109 102 0.3109 102

100 0.1284 103 0.1273 103 0.1271 103 0.1264 103 0.1264 103

Table 5 Table 6

Buckling load parameter N cr ¼ N cr a2 =D0 of the simply supported square Al/ZrO2 plate Buckling load parameter N cr ¼ N cr a2 =D0 of a clamped square Al/ZrO2 plate under

under uniaxial compression (a = b = 0.2 m, h = 0.01 m). uniaxial compression (a = b = 0.2 m,h = 0.01 m).

Mode N cr Mode N cr

n=0 n = 0.2 n = 0.5 n=1 n=2 n=5 n=0 n = 0.2 n = 0.5 n=1 n=2 n=5

1 82.827 73.321 64.814 57.901 53.022 49.173 1 195.913 173.588 153.559 137.203 125.498 116.055

2 125.989 111.579 98.652 88.105 80.606 74.670 2 219.879 194.922 172.489 154.108 140.855 130.079

3 213.385 189.108 167.217 149.201 136.214 126.061 3 349.552 310.141 274.576 245.238 223.813 206.227

4 309.849 274.502 242.494 215.495 192.971 182.606 4 442.115 392.311 347.296 310.104 282.900 260.581

The thermal buckling of a square aluminium/alumina plate sub- change is observed. It is thus concluded that a plate with a large

jected to a uniform temperature rise is also investigated. Both sim- thickness ratio undergoes a large critical buckling temperature rise

ply supported and clamped boundary conditions are considered and that the buckling temperature rise of a clamped plate is much

here. Plate thickness ratios of a/h = 50,100 are adopted, and the greater than that of a simply supported plate.

volume fraction exponent ranges from 0 to 5. The solution is ob-

tained using 21 21 nodes. The variation of the critical buckling 4.3. FGM plates with holes

temperature rise DTcr with the volume fraction exponent is illus-

trated in Table 9. It can seen that, in both the simply supported The buckling responses of FGM plates with a circular or square

and clamped cases, the critical buckling temperature rise initially hole, as shown in Fig. 8, are investigated in this section. The buck-

decreases for a volume fraction exponent n ranging from 0 to 2; ling of an isotropic plate with a hole is usually considered using

when n escalates further to 5, however, only a small temperature analytical or ﬁnite element methods. Theoretical analysis methods,

0 0.05

-0.05 0

-0.1 -0.05

0.1 0.1

0.2 0.2

0 0.1 0 0.1

-0.1 0 -0.1 0

0.05 0.05

0 0

-0.05 -0.05

0.1 0.1

0.2 0.2

0 0.1 0 0.1

-0.1 0 -0.1 0

Fig. 4. Buckling mode shapes of the simply supported square Al/ZrO2 plate.

X. Zhao et al. / Composite Structures 90 (2009) 161–171 167

0.1 0.05

0 0

-0.1 -0.05

0.1 0.1

0.2 0.2

0 0.1 0 0.1

-0.1 0 -0.1 0

0.05 0.05

0 0

-0.05 -0.05

0.1 0.1

0.2 0.2

0 0.1 0 0.1

-0.1 0 -0.1 0

0.05 0.05

0 0

-0.05 -0.05

0.05 0.05

0.2 0.2

0 0.1 0 0.1

-0.05 0 -0.05 0

0.02 0

0 -0.02

-0.02 -0.04

0.05 0.05

0.2 0.2

0 0.1 0 0.1

-0.05 0 -0.05 0

Fig. 6. Buckling mode shapes of the simply supported rectangular Al/ZrO2 plate.

Table 7 Table 8

Buckling load parameter N cr ¼ N cr a2 =D0 of a simply supported rectangular Al/ZrO2 Buckling load parameter N cr ¼ N cr a2 =D0 of a clamped rectangular Al/ZrO2 plate under

plate under uniaxial compression (a/b = 2, h = 0.01 m). uniaxial compression (a/b = 2, h = 0.01 m).

Mode N cr Mode N cr

n=0 n = 0.2 n = 0.5 n=1 n=2 n=5 n=0 n = 0.2 n = 0.5 n=1 n=2 n=5

1 313.647 277.953 245.809 220.105 200.826 185.641 1 530.124 471.002 417.356 372.671 339.379 311.534

2 352.578 312.679 276.698 247.214 225.603 208.157 2 543.326 482.776 427.781 381.920 347.709 319.109

3 442.457 392.741 347.711 310.497 283.026 260.503 3 665.423 591.590 524.376 468.102 425.793 390.183

4 500.849 443.673 392.070 350.204 320.533 296.606 4 688.574 612.591 543.072 484.487 440.425 402.552

however, are unable to handle cases of complex boundary condi- The buckling behaviour of a simply supported square Al/ZrO2

tions and large hole sizes. This is because the stress distributions plate with a circular hole at the centre is ﬁrst considered. The geo-

of inﬁnite perforated plates are used as the prebuckling stress solu- metric properties of this plate are aspect ratio a/b = 1 and thickness

tions for ﬁnite perforated plates. In this study, the proposed kp-Ritz ratio a/h = 100. The circular hole size 2r/avaries from 0.1 to 0.6, and

mesh-free method is used, as it is more powerful in handling ﬁnite the volume fraction exponent chosen is n = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10.

plates of any geometry and hole size. Table 10 shows the buckling load parameter N ^ cr ¼ N cr a2 =p2 D0 of

168 X. Zhao et al. / Composite Structures 90 (2009) 161–171

0.05 0.05

0 0

-0.05 -0.05

0.05 0.05

0.2 0.2

0 0.1 0 0.1

-0.05 0 -0.05 0

0.05 0.02

0 0

-0.05 -0.02

0.05 0.05

0.2 0.2

0 0.1 0 0.1

-0.05 0 -0.05 0

Table 9 9

Critical buckling temperature rise for square aluminium/alumina plates (a/b = 1).

n=0

Boundary condition a/h DTcr 8 n = 0.2

n = 0.5

n=0 n = 0.5 n=1 n=2 n=5

n=1

Buckling coefficient

100 17.361 9.805 7.944 6.925 7.423 n=5

CCCC 50 175.817 99.162 82.357 71.013 74.591 6 n = 10

100 44.171 24.899 20.771 18.489 19.150

the simply supported square Al/ZrO2 plate with a circular hole un- 4

der uniaxial compression. A nodal distribution of 23 23 is used,

and the buckling load for the ﬁrst four modes is provided. It can

3

be seen that, for a certain hole size, the buckling load decreases

when the volume fraction exponent ascends; for a certain volume

2

fraction exponent, the critical buckling load for mode 1 falls when 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

the hole size rises. This trend can be clearly seen in Fig. 9. For the Hole size

second to the fourth modes, however, the buckling load shows no

uniform change. The variation of the buckling load parameter N ^ cr of Fig. 9. Buckling coefﬁcient with hole size (simply supported square Al/ZrO2 plate,

circular hole, uniaxial compression).

the clamped square Al/ZrO2 plate with a circular hole under uniax-

ial compression is shown in Table 11. It can be seen that, for a cer-

tain hole size, the buckling load drops when the volume fraction critical buckling load for the ﬁrst mode initially declines with a

exponent increases; for a certain volume fraction exponent, the broadening hole size; and when the hole size increases further,

X. Zhao et al. / Composite Structures 90 (2009) 161–171 169

Table 10

^ cr ¼ N cr a2 =p2 D0 of the simply supported square Al/ZrO2 plate with a circular hole under uniaxial compression (a/b = 1, a/h = 100).

Buckling load parameter N

N

n=0 n = 0.2 n = 0.5 n=1 n=2 n=5 n = 10

0.1 1 8.0873 7.1895 6.4749 5.5973 5.1270 4.6325 4.5963

2 13.2583 11.5995 10.8585 9.8259 7.1952 4.8229 7.0933

3 18.9230 19.4422 17.0456 12.9703 8.9218 7.5683 11.6476

4 32.1658 27.1443 26.7493 23.4755 13.2478 13.3838 13.2156

0.2 1 6.9711 6.1617 5.4112 4.6858 4.0808 4.0609 3.8709

2 14.5847 12.8902 11.3224 9.8610 8.8054 8.5160 8.1032

3 19.7749 17.4054 15.0063 10.8332 9.4942 10.8944 10.7886

4 32.7135 28.9285 25.4593 14.4103 14.7323 19.1022 18.1890

0.4 1 5.2611 4.6564 4.1152 3.6761 3.3672 3.1238 2.9366

2 14.1991 12.5647 11.0995 9.9093 9.0743 8.4249 7.9241

3 23.8348 21.0907 18.6336 16.6394 15.2406 14.1504 13.3073

4 23.9770 21.2123 18.7308 16.7140 15.3042 14.2206 13.3813

0.6 1 4.6812 4.1439 3.6632 3.2730 2.9976 2.7792 2.6120

2 8.9158 7.8904 6.9716 6.2256 5.7016 5.2908 4.9751

3 18.2511 16.1495 14.2649 12.7349 11.6622 10.8276 10.1845

4 27.4243 24.2656 21.4285 19.1216 17.5051 16.2568 15.2963

24 Tables 12 and 13 show the buckling load parameters of clamped

n=0 n=1 and simply supported square Al/ZrO2 plates with square holes.

22 n = 0.2 n=2

The corresponding variations of the minimum buckling load (ﬁrst

n = 0.5 n=5

20 n = 10

mode) are depicted in Figs. 11 and 12, respectively. The volume

fraction exponent varies from 0 to 5, and the width of the square

Buckling coefficient

18 hole size a0/a ranges from 0.1 to 0.6. Observations similar to those

in Tables 9 and 10 and Figs. 9 and 10 are attained.

16

14 5. Conclusions

axial mechanical and thermal loading are investigated using the

10

element-free kp-Ritz method. The effective material properties

8 are computed using the power law equation of the volume fraction

of the plate constituents. The formulation is based on the ﬁrst-or-

6 der shear deformation plate theory, and the displacement ﬁelds are

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

expressed in terms of the mesh-free kernel particle shape func-

Hole size tions. The stabilized conforming nodal integration method is used

Fig. 10. Buckling coefﬁcient with hole size (clamped square Al/ZrO2 plate, circular to evaluate the bending stiffness, and the membrane and shear

hole, uniaxial compression). stiffness are calculated using the direct nodal integration approach

to avoid shear locking. The buckling responses of solid plates and

the buckling load begins to escalate again. This trend can be dis- plates with holes under uniaxial and thermal loading are investi-

cerned in Fig. 10. The reason for these phenomena is that the buck- gated. Finally, it is concluded that the volume fraction exponent

Table 11

^ cr ¼ N cr a2 =p2 D0 of the clamped square Al/ZrO2 plate with a circular hole under uniaxial compression (a/b = 1, a/h = 100).

Buckling load parameter N

N

n=0 n = 0.2 n = 0.5 n=1 n=2 n=5 n = 10

0.1 1 18.3518 15.9115 14.3866 14.2659 11.4694 10.1226 10.0794

2 24.5311 21.3349 16.6857 18.3632 16.5966 15.9330 15.3364

3 35.7579 29.5475 24.2759 24.2618 22.4022 19.5702 19.0456

4 46.9709 40.4260 28.0422 30.1556 30.4962 29.1208 20.4970

0.2 1 15.1882 13.3663 11.5212 9.2438 7.3533 8.3753 8.2917

2 27.8024 24.5507 21.4811 17.0835 16.0139 16.0546 15.4069

3 35.6688 31.4017 27.0854 18.6818 17.1758 19.5807 19.4517

4 43.3816 38.2114 32.8834 23.6005 20.7677 23.0624 23.6562

0.4 1 15.5582 13.7665 12.1661 10.8710 9.9633 9.2479 8.6932

2 24.0461 21.2751 18.7919 16.7772 15.3672 14.2714 13.4238

3 32.6971 28.9279 25.5451 22.7962 20.8735 19.3923 18.2466

4 41.0906 36.3519 32.0973 28.6391 26.2217 24.3654 22.9295

0.6 1 21.3413 18.8841 16.6881 14.9102 13.6638 12.6826 11.9225

2 22.2647 19.7011 17.4080 15.505 14.2483 13.2257 12.4347

3 38.4242 33.9925 30.0132 26.7808 24.5218 22.7831 21.4398

4 39.2706 34.7404 30.6679 27.3572 25.0444 23.2716 21.9042

170 X. Zhao et al. / Composite Structures 90 (2009) 161–171

Table 12

^ cr ¼ N cr a2 =p2 D0 of the clamped square Al/ZrO2 plate with a square hole under uniaxial compression (a/b = 1, a/h = 100).

Buckling load parameter N

N

n=0 n = 0.5 n=1 n=2 n=5

0.1 1 17.3798 13.1274 10.8931 4.1186 1.6860

2 24.9947 17.8204 20.9675 9.2877 9.6489

3 33.6721 18.3552 21.5537 16.7151 18.7528

4 42.5928 25.4187 22.6978 18.3053 20.6413

0.2 1 15.2566 11.8608 10.4858 9.5211 8.9606

2 28.1513 21.9677 19.5745 17.9066 16.6647

3 38.8975 30.2495 26.7438 24.2635 22.8502

4 43.6826 33.9191 30.0124 27.3140 25.5747

0.4 1 15.3135 11.9734 10.6974 9.8032 9.0993

2 18.2757 14.2801 12.7483 11.6767 10.8439

3 38.4305 30.0333 26.8157 24.5636 22.8084

4 39.6332 30.9513 27.6154 25.2866 23.4952

0.6 1 19.3464 15.1311 13.5194 12.3876 11.4939

2 19.3772 15.1557 13.5421 12.4088 11.5131

3 38.8656 30.3636 27.0942 24.8057 23.0366

4 39.5031 30.8589 27.5328 25.2049 23.4088

Table 13

^ cr ¼ N cr a2 =p2 D0 of the simply supported square Al/ZrO2 plate with a square hole under uniaxial compression (a/b = 1, a/h = 100).

Buckling load parameter N

N

n=0 n = 0.5 n=1 n=2 n=5

0.1 1 8.0186 6.2410 5.5031 4.9665 4.7236

2 13.7295 10.3154 10.5992 9.3471 11.0894

3 20.2125 15.2465 12.7330 10.9626 11.6224

4 33.2177 17.9340 21.8584 16.8478 19.2263

0.2 1 6.6873 5.2212 4.6465 4.2415 3.9557

2 14.8569 11.6097 10.3603 9.4845 8.8103

3 20.8858 16.2534 14.3941 13.0868 12.2846

4 32.5803 25.4849 22.7645 20.8498 19.3451

0.4 1 4.7551 3.7341 3.3344 3.0533 2.8329

2 11.0719 8.6500 7.7186 7.0664 6.5629

3 24.1890 18.8998 16.8712 15.4523 14.3511

4 26.8087 20.9695 18.7371 17.1685 15.9291

0.6 1 3.9912 3.1236 2.7895 2.5528 2.3658

2 5.7786 4.5180 4.0323 3.6903 3.4238

3 18.3681 14.3629 12.8208 11.7349 10.8869

4 22.2404 17.3809 15.5077 14.1922 13.1745

10 24

n=0 n=2

n = 0.5 n=5

20 n=1

8 n=0 n=2

Buckling coefficient

Buckling coefficient

n = 0.5 n=5

16

n=1

6 12

8

4

2

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Hole size Hole size

Fig. 11. Buckling coefﬁcient with hole size (simply supported square Al/ZrO2 plate, Fig. 12. Buckling coefﬁcient with hole size (clamped square Al/ZrO2 plate, square

square hole, uniaxial compression). hole, uniaxial compression).

X. Zhao et al. / Composite Structures 90 (2009) 161–171 171

and the hole size signiﬁcantly inﬂuence the buckling load and plate theory and MLPG method with radial basis functions. Compos Struct

2007;80:539–52.

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