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Internet Architecture Classful Internet Addresses

Linda Wu (CMPT 471 • 2003-3)

Interconnection Goal of interconnection Hide the details of underlying network hardware Provide universal communication services Interconnection

Interconnection

Goal of interconnection

Hide the details of underlying network hardware

Provide universal communication services

Interconnection approaches

Application-level interconnection Network-level interconnection

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Content Interconnection scheme Internet architecture Classful IP addresses Special addresses References: chapter 3 & 4 Notes-3

Content

Interconnection scheme Internet architecture Classful IP addresses Special addresses

References: chapter 3 & 4

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Interconnection Scheme: Application-level Interconnection Features Application level program deals with the network connection for the computer,

Interconnection Scheme:

Application-level Interconnection

Features

Application level program deals with the network connection for the computer,

Interoperates with application program on other computers

Disadvantages

Add / modify functionality build a new application program on every computer

Add new network hardware modify existing program for each possible application

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Interconnection Scheme:

Network-level Interconnection Maps directly onto the underlying network hardware efficient Features Deliver small packets of data
Network-level Interconnection
Maps directly onto the underlying network
hardware efficient
Features
Deliver small packets of data without using
intermediate application programs
Advantages

Intermediate host handles network traffic without understanding the application

Keep the entire system flexible

When adding new network technologies, network level software will be modified instead of application programs

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Internet Architecture Internet router (internet gateway) Interconnect two networks and pass packets from one to the

Internet Architecture

Internet router (internet gateway)

Interconnect two networks and pass packets from one to the other

Usually are small computers with little disk storage and modest main memories

Know about the topology of the internet beyond the networks to which it connects

Packet forwarding is based on network: routers use the destination network, not destination computer, when forwarding a packet

Net 2 Net 3 Net 1 R 2 R 1
Net 2
Net 3
Net 1
R 2
R 1

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Interconnection Scheme: Internet

Desirable interconnection scheme

Computer uses underlying technology- dependent communication facilities

 

Between technology-dependent communication mechanisms and application programs, new software is inserted to hide the low-level details

== internet

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Internet Architecture (cont.)

Internet Architecture (cont.)

From the user point of view

Internet is a single, virtual network to which all machines connect despite their physical connections

From the internet point of view

 

Any communication system capable of transferring packets counts as a single network

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Internet Addressing

Universal host identifier

Make communication system universal

A global accepted method of identifying each computer that attaches to a communication system

Successively lower level representations of host identifier: name, address, route

Internet addressing

Help TCP/IP software to hide physical network details

Make resulting internet appear to be a single and uniform entity

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Internet Addressing (cont.)

Internet Addressing (cont.)

IP address notation example

0X800B031F, or 800B031F 16

0X 800B031F, or 800B031F
 

10000000 00001011 00000011 00011111

Internet Addressing Universal host identifier Make communication system universal A global accepted method of identifying each

128.11.3.31

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Internet Addressing (cont.)

IP address space

IPv4 uses 32-bit addresses Address space is 2 32 = 4,294,967,296

IP address notations

Binary notation

32-bits, or, 4 bytes

Dotted decimal notation

Decimal form with a decimal dot separating the bytes Each number in this notation is within 0 ~ 255

Hexadecimal notation

8 hexadecimal digits (one hexadecimal digit = 4 bits) Often used in network programming

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start 0 Class: C 0 2nd bits? Class: D 4th bits? 3rd bits? Class: E 1st
start
0
Class: C
0
2nd bits?
Class: D
4th bits?
3rd bits?
Class: E
1st bits?
Class: B
0
1
1
1
1
CMPT 471 • 2003-3
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Address classes: in binary notation
0
10
110
1110
1st byte
2nd byte
3rd byte
4th byte
1111
Classful Internet Addresses
Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D
Class E
Class: A
0

Classful Internet Addresses (cont.)

Address classes: in decimal notation

2nd byte 4th byte 3rd byte 1st byte 0~127 128~191 192~223 224~239 240~255 Class A Class
2nd byte
4th byte
3rd byte
1st byte
0~127
128~191
192~223
224~239
240~255
Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D
Class E

Each number is within the range 0~255

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Classful Internet Addresses (cont.) Multi-homed device Multi-homed host: a conventional computer that attaches to different networks

Classful Internet Addresses (cont.)

Multi-homed device

Multi-homed host: a conventional computer that attaches to different networks

Router: must be connected to more than one network in order to route

Multi-homed device requires multiple IP addresses

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Classful Internet Addresses (cont.) Netid & hostid Netid: identify a network Hostid: identify a host on
Classful Internet Addresses (cont.)
Netid & hostid
Netid: identify a network
Hostid: identify a host on that network
The boundary of netid and hostid can be
computed from the address, without reference
to external information
1st byte
2nd byte
3rd byte
4th byte
Class A
0
Netid
Hostid
Class B
10
Netid
Hostid
Class C
110
Netid
Hostid
Class D
1110
Multicast addresses
Class E
1111
Reserved for future use
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Classful Internet Addresses (cont.)
Occupation of the address space
A
B
C
D
E
Class
A
# of addresses
2 31 = 2,147,483,648
2 30 = 1,073,741,824
%
50%
B
25%
For large networks
For intermediate sized
networks
C
2 29 = 536,870,912
12.5%
For small networks
D
E
2 28 = 268,435,456
2 28 = 268,435,456
6.25%
6.25%
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Classful Internet Addresses (cont.)

Strengths

Easy to extract the hostid and netid of the address efficient routing

Weakness

IP address does not specify an individual computer, but a connection to a network: moving computer from one network to another will lead to IP address’ change

Address class puts limitation on network’s size

The path taken by packets traveling to a host with multiple IP addresses depends on the address used

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Special Address Conventions (cont.) Network address Netid Hostid Specific All 0s Class A 123.0.0.0 … ..

Special Address Conventions (cont.)

Network address

Netid

Hostid

Specific

All 0s

Special Address Conventions (cont.) Network address Netid Hostid Specific All 0s Class A 123.0.0.0 … ..

Class A

123.0.0.0

… ..

… ..

123.51.61.6

Class C 221.45.70.0 221.45.70.62 221.45.70.22 … ..
Class C
221.45.70.0
221.45.70.62
221.45.70.22
… ..

123.51.15.90

221.45.70.112

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Special Address Conventions

Special addresses

Netid

Hostid

Used in IP packet as

Network address

Specific

All 0s

None

Direct broadcast address

Specific

All 1s

Destination

Limited broadcast address

All 1s

All 1s

Destination

This host on this network

All 0s

All 0s

Source

Specific host on this network

All 0s

Specific

Destination

Loopback address

127

Any

Destination

Field consisting of 1s: “all” Field consisting of 0s: “this”

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Notes-3 Special Address Conventions (cont.) Directed broadcast address Used by a router to send a packet

Notes-3

Special Address Conventions (cont.)

Directed broadcast address

Used by a router to send a packet to every host in a local network

221.45.70.0 R …… 221.45.70.112 221.45.70.22 221.45.70.65 Netid Hostid Specific All 1s
221.45.70.0 R
……
221.45.70.112
221.45.70.22
221.45.70.65
Netid
Hostid
Specific
All 1s

CMPT 471 2003-3

Destination IP address:

221.45.70.255

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Special Address Conventions (cont.)

Limited (local network) broadcast address

Used by a host to send a message to every other host on the same network

Router will block a packet destined for this address to confine broadcasting to the local network

221.45.70.65 221.45.70.22 221.45.70.112 R 221.45.70.0 packet All 1s Netid & Hostid Router blocks the limited broadcast
221.45.70.65
221.45.70.22
221.45.70.112
R
221.45.70.0
packet
All 1s
Netid & Hostid
Router blocks the
limited broadcast

Notes-3

Destination IP address:

255.255.255.255

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Special Address Conventions (cont.) Specific host on this network Used by a host to send a

Special Address Conventions (cont.)

Specific host on this network

Used by a host to send a message to another host on the same network

Netid

Hostid

All 0s

Specific

Notes-3

221.45.70.22

221.45.70.112

221.45.70.65

221.45.70.0 ……
221.45.70.0
……
Special Address Conventions (cont.) Specific host on this network Used by a host to send a

221.45.70.81

Destination IP address:

0.0.0.112

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Special Address Conventions (cont.)

This host on this network (0.0.0.0)

Used by a host at bootstrap time when it does not know its IP address

Netid & Hostid

All 0s
All 0s
?.?.?.? 0.0.0.0 Source address: 221.45.70.0 221.45.70.65 Bootstrap server
?.?.?.?
0.0.0.0
Source address:
221.45.70.0
221.45.70.65
Bootstrap
server

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Notes-3 Special Address Conventions (cont.) Loopback address Used to test software on a machine The packet

Notes-3

Special Address Conventions (cont.)

Loopback address

Used to test software on a machine The packet never leaves the machine

Netid

Hostid

127

Any

221.45.70.12 221.45.70.0
221.45.70.12
221.45.70.0
Process 2 TCP or UDP Process 1 IP
Process 2
TCP or UDP
Process 1
IP

Destination address:

127.X.Y.Z

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