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Energy 148 (2018) 1087e1102

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Energy
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Energy, exergy and economic analysis of a hybrid renewable energy


with hydrogen storage system
A. Khosravi*, R.N.N. Koury, L. Machado, J.J.G. Pabon
Post-graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Brazil

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The goal of this study is to define and assess an off-grid hybrid renewable energy with hydrogen storage
Received 10 November 2017 system. The system combines solar and wind energy, hydrogen production unit and fuel cell. This
Received in revised form photovoltaic/wind hydrogen energy system focuses on a large scale system with constant electrical load
2 January 2018
and especially suitable for remote area applications. Energy, exergy and economic analysis are conducted
Accepted 4 February 2018
for this system. The pattern of the produced power for the photovoltaic (PV) system and wind turbine
Available online 7 February 2018
with a dynamic model of solar and wind energy are determined. Also, components sizing of the proposed
system is determined. Energy and exergy analysis of the PV system was reported the average of 12% and
Keywords:
Wind energy
16% for energy and exergy efficiencies, respectively. The average energy and exergy efficiencies of the
Photovoltaic wind turbine were obtained approximately 32% and 25%, respectively. The maximum exergy destruction
Fuel cell for the PV system was obtained around 65%. Also, based on economic analysis, energy storage system was
Hydrogen storage system included 50% of the total investment.
Energy and exergy analysis © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Economic investigation

1. Introduction great variation in available power which occurs from season to


season, day to day, hour to hour. This would not be a problem if
The fossil fuel energy resource is gradually being replaced by the load was well correlated to the energy availability, but un-
renewable energy in the world. The sources of fossil fuel energy fortunately, this is not often the case. Efficient storage is essential
are limited and use of these resources cause the environmental for large-scale exploitation of intermittent renewable sources.
pollution and depletion of ozone layer [1]. Although Iran is rich in Today most renewable electricity systems use battery as storage
oil and natural gas, analysis of renewable energy resources stated system [7]. This type of storage is expensive and large per unit of
that this country is a suitable place for using renewable energy stored energy but has the advantage of high efficiency. Batteries
systems like solar and wind energies. Between the renewable can be used for short-term storage, but in order to keep the solar/
energy sources, wind energy is more accessible and fairly cheaper wind power system dependable, a relatively large number of
[2]. Wind energy is a clean resource and doesn't pollute the air like batteries will generally be needed [8]. This can result in high
fossil fuel power stations. Solar energy is a kind of the renewable costs. Until now, one of the key factors constraining the advan-
energies that is obtained from the sun [3]. The energy of the sun is tage of renewable power sources has been the inability of bat-
converted to the thermal or electrical form the energy [4]. Solar teries to store enough electricity to provide user needs during
energy is distributed over a wide geographical region and the cost extended periods of calm or cloudy days. The introduction of
of this energy is stable for the long-term in the future with low hydrogen will help to overcome the storage difficulty of renew-
maintenance costs [5]. The studies have shown that Iran is able energy. Hydrogen can be easily produced by electricity via
potentially one of the best regions to use PV systems with 300 electrolysis and reconverted to electricity by fuel cell power
clear sunny days and average of 2200 kWh/m2/year solar radia- plants [9].
tion [6]. In recent years several studies have been conducted on
The main problem to utilize the solar and wind energies is the hydrogen energy storage system for renewable energies. Energy
and exergy analysis of a solar system with hydrogen storage unit
was done by Ozcan et al. [10]. Kotowicz et al. [11] developed a
methodology to obtain the efficiency of a hydrogen generator as a
* Corresponding author.
system for storage of renewable-generated energy. Uyar et al. [12]
E-mail address: Alikhosravii@yahoo.com (A. Khosravi).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.02.008
0360-5442/© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1088 A. Khosravi et al. / Energy 148 (2018) 1087e1102

investigated a model of renewable energy system integrated to a investigations about the systems based on energy and exergy
hydrogen storage unit for better design of 100% renewable energy analysis. Maybe a system will be an ideal system from a ther-
communities. They showed the role of hydrogen and fuel cell for modynamic point of view, but it might not be able to pass the
supplying the required energy in transportation sectors as a clean economic and environmental criteria. In addition, this system
energy system. Calderon et al. [13] proposed a PV/wind system with can be the cheapest energy production approach by considering
hydrogen storage performance to provide the electrical energy in the economic criterion, but may not be a well-designed system
Badajoz, Spain. The proposed system was evaluated based on an from the energy and environmental points of views. Thus, none
exergy analysis. They obtained a low exergy efficiency for the PV of these systems are acceptable from a comprehensive engi-
modules (8.39%) in Badajoz. neering point of view and it needs that a simultaneous consid-
Kalinci et al. [14] evaluated energy and exergy analysis of a eration of all or some of these criteria might provide a better
hybrid hydrogen energy system and applied it for Bozccada, option for engineers. The main contribution of this study is a
Turkey. Marchenko et al. [15] investigated a PV/wind energy dynamic model of the hybrid renewable energy system by
system on the Baikal Lake. They proposed a system using PV considering the economic and thermodynamic analysis simulta-
panels and wind turbine for supplying the electric power and neously. Also, most of the before mentioned studies in the
electrolyzer, hydrogen tank and fuel cell as energy storage system. literature are in small-scale applications and the current study
Khalid et al. [16] analyzed a renewable energy based integrated concentrates on a hybrid renewable energy system in real con-
photovoltaic system (PVS) and wind turbine system (WTS) to ditions for large-scale hydrogen storage system. In addition, this
provide electrical energy for residential applications. They used analysis for the first time is done for the south of Iran and the
the excess electricity generated to produce hydrogen through energy storage pattern is found for this area. In the south of Iran,
electrolyzer and using hydrogen generated by fuel cell during there are a lot of remote areas and several islands that the pro-
peak demand periods. The overall energy and exergy efficiencies posed system can be applied to these regions.
of this system were reported as 26% and 26.8%, respectively. Also, The hydrogen energy storage system is especially attractive
Caliskan et al. [17] investigated a hybrid renewable energy based for remote communities which are not connected to a utility
hydrogen energy storage. Energy and exergy analysis of this sys- grid. In this study, a hybrid renewable energy with hydrogen
tem has been evaluated by them. It is found the average energy storage system for supplying the electrical energy for Unit 132
efficiency for WT, PV array, electrolyzer and fuel cell by 26.15%, of the second refinery of South Pars in Bushehr (Iran) is pro-
9.06%, 53.55% and 33.06%, respectively. posed. PV panel, wind turbine, electrolyzer, fuel cell, hydrogen
In the areas which are connected to the grid, it is certainly not tank and converter are considered for this system. The goals of
worthwhile to use the renewable hydrogen system nowadays. It is this study are: to find the pattern of produced power for PVS
an environmentally friendly system but too costly. However in the and WTS in the study zone with dynamical modeling of solar
more areas where no connection to utility grid, the renewable radiation and wind energy; energy and exergy analysis of PVS
hydrogen system is an attractive solution. Gonzalez et al. [18] and WTS in this zone and determining the energy and exergy
evaluated a solar hydrogen storage system and compared it with efficiencies of solar collectors and WTs; monthly optimum
other electrical energy storage technologies. In their study, slope and azimuth angles for solar collectors for the study
hydrogen energy storage system was classified between 100 kW region; energy, exergy and economic analysis of the proposed
and 100 MW power rating. A solar electricity supply system with system.
seasonal hydrogen storage to supply a constant load was proposed
by Andrews et al. [19]. Finding a more efficient energy storage 2. Hybrid renewable energy system
system for a long-time is essential because throughout the world
there are hundreds of thousands of villages, remote communities Despite Iran's vast reserves of hydrocarbons, but by looking to
and islands which do not have power or are supplied on an indi- Fig. 1 it can be found that this country is potentially one of the
vidual basis by small gas or diesel generator sets, small WTs and PV best regions for solar radiation and wind energy [25]. The Unit
systems. Smaoui et al. [20] presented optimal sizing of stand-alone 132 of the second refinery is located in the south of Iran (the
PV/wind/hydrogen hybrid system in a desalination unit. It is pro- rectangle on the map, Fig. 1). The total area of Bushehr is around
posed a methodology to find the optimal technical-economic 22,743 km2 and analysis of the data (Fig. 1 (a)) illustrated that
configuration among a set of systems components. Also, for a this area receives an average of 7 kWh/m2 solar radiation for one
desalination unit in stand-alone region in Iran a cost-effective day. By considering only 1% of this area with average of 12%
wind/PV/hydrogen energy system was proposed by Maleki et al. energy efficiency, can be obtained around 200 ðMWh=dayÞ
[21]. This system was designed for increasing the freshwater electrical energy. Also, in recent years, Iran had an impressive
availability and to provide the load demand. growth in wind generation. In 2010, Iran provided 203 MW of
The barrier of the applications of hydrogen system is its high electricity from the wind power [26]. Fig. 1 (b) illustrates the
costs in its early development stage. Economically this system average wind speed data in Iran that are provided by renewable
cannot compete with traditional energy systems in most cases. energy organization of Iran [27]. Analysis of potential wind en-
Hence, some researchers are working to improve the hydrogen ergy only in 26 stations of Iran shows these stations with
energy storage systems. Singh et al. [22] proposed a techno- approximately 33% energy efficiency can produce around
economic feasibility analysis for a hydrogen fuel cell and PV 6500 MW electrical power [27].
hybrid renewable energy system. The proposed system was applied Hybrid PV/wind energy that has been proposed for supplying
for the academic research building, in India. Nguyen et al. [23] the electrical energy for Unit 132 is shown in Fig. 2. The input en-
developed an optimal capacity design of battery and hydrogen ergy will be provided by WTS and PVS and whenever there are no
storage system for a PV renewable energy system. A technical solar or wind energies, demanding energy will be supplied by en-
feasibility and financial analysis for PV/wind hydrogen system were ergy storage system. If the total energy produced by renewable
done by Shakya et al. [24]. This system was evaluated with PV% of 0, energy sources is greater than the energy demand of the unit, the
12, 60, and 100 configurations in which the lowest levelized energy excess electric energy is used by the electrolyzer to produce
cost was obtained for 100% PV. hydrogen and it is stored in the hydrogen tanks. The fuel cell will
As can be seen from the literature, there are lots of use stored hydrogen for supplying the electrical energy as the
A. Khosravi et al. / Energy 148 (2018) 1087e1102 1089

a) b)

Fig. 1. Average annual solar radiation (a) and wind speed (b) [27].

Hydrogen

Hydrogen
Tank

Oxygen
Electrolyzer

Hydrogen

AC DC PV Array
Wind Turbine
DC

PMU

Fuel Cell

Unit 132
H2O

Fig. 2. Schematic of the hybrid renewable energy with hydrogen storage system.

secondary power source in Unit 132. 3. Energy and exergy analysis


Table 1 illustrates the technical specification of the PV panel,
wind turbine, electrolyzer, fuel cell, hydrogen tank and converter 3.1. PVS
that are the components of the proposed system. It should be noted
that for the converter and fuel cell that have less life than 20 years, Klein and Theilacker [28] developed a method for determining
the additional cost and cost of replacement are considered. As can the monthly slope and azimuth angles. The total monthly average
be seen in the table, the number of solar PV panels (5200) and wind daily radiation is defined by:
turbines (2) are determined based on the unit required power
(7600 kW/day) and produced power by the hybrid PV/WT system. HT ¼ HR (1)
Indeed, the produced power of each PV module and WT (in the case
study region) will determine the number of PV panels and WTs. In which, H is the monthly average daily radiation on a hori-
Also, the size of the electrolyzer depends on its input power that is zontal surface that is:
obtained from the renewable energy system. The capacity of the
fuel cell is related on the required energy of the unit. A converter is H ¼ K T Ho (2)
considered aiming to convert the electric current from DC to AC.
Moreover, components efficiency are considered in order to select where H o is the monthly average daily extraterrestrial radiation and
their size. K T is the monthly average clearness index. H o is defined by Eq. (3)
[29].
1090 A. Khosravi et al. / Energy 148 (2018) 1087e1102

Table 1
Technical specification of the proposed system.

Parameters Value Converter

Project life time (np ) 20 years Initial cost 700 $/kW


Load power of the Unit 132 320 kW Life time 10 years
Air density (ra ) 1.22 kg/m3 Efficiency 95%
LHV (H2) 141,764 kJ/kg Nominal power 320 kW
Ta 25  C Technical specifications of
wind turbine (E44)
Characteristics of the PV panel Rated power: 900 kW
STC NOCT Rotor diameter: 44 m
Maximum power (Pmax ) 240 Wp 181.7 Wp Hub height in meter: 45/55
Voltage at maximum power (Vmpp ) 29.7 V 27.1 V WEC concept: Gearless, variable speed, single
blade adjustment
Current at maximum power (Impp ) 8.08 A 6.71 A Rotor type: Upwind rotor with active
pitch control
Open circuit voltage (Voc ) 37.3 V 33.9 V Rotational direction: Clockwise
Short circuit current (Isc ) 8.6 A 7.37 A No. of blades: 3
Temperature 45 ± 2 C Rotational speed: Variable, 16e34.5 rpm
Temperature coefficient of Pmax 0.442 %/ C Annual maintenance costs of 84 $/kW-year
wind turbine (C Mnt-WT)
Temperature coefficient of Voc 0.352 %/ C Life time 20 years
Temperature coefficient of Isc 0.088 %/ C Initial cost 3000 $/kW
Panel dimension (H/W/D) 1655  992  45 mm Number of turbines 2
Cell type Polycrystalline Electrolyzer
Initial cost 3300 $/kW Initial cost 1500 $/kW
Annual maintenance costs 44 $/kW-year Annual maintenance costs 5% of initial cost-year
Life time 20 to 25 years Nominal electrolyzer power 1500 kW
Number of PV panels 5200 Electrolyzer efficiency 74%
Hydrogen tank Fuel cell
Life time 20 years Initial cost 2000 $/kW
Initial cost 500 $/kg Annual maintenance costs 5% of the initial cost
Capacity 7500 kg Nominal fuel cell power 450 kW
Annual maintenance costs 5% of initial cost-year Replacement cost of fuel cell $1400

 
   1 bA p
24  3600  Gsc 360 n Gðu1 ; u2 Þ ¼  a0 B ðu1  u2 Þ þ ða0 A  bBÞðsinu1
Ho ¼ 1 þ 0:033cos 2d 2 180
p 365  
  bA
pðu2  u1 Þ  sinu2 Þ  a0 Cðcosu1  cosu2 Þ þ ðsinu1 cosu1
 cos∅cos dðsin u2  sin u1 Þ þ sin∅sin d 2
180  
bC 
(3)  sinu2 cos u2 Þ þ sin2w1  sin2w2
2
in which Gsc is the energy from the sun per unit time received on a (7)
unit area of surface perpendicular to the direction of propagation of
the radiation at mean earth-sun distance outside the atmosphere in which, a0 is:
that is equal to 1367W=m2. Also, n, ∅, d and u are number of the ith
day of month, latitude, declination angle, and hour angle. Hd
d is given by: a0 ¼ a  (8)
H
  Also, usr and uss are introduced by Eqs. (9)e(12).
284 þ n
d ¼ 23:45sin 360 (4) " pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi#
365
1 AB þC A2  B2 þ C 2
jusr j ¼ min us ; cos (9)
Also, R is the ratio of monthly mean daily global solar radiation A2 þ C 2
on an inclined plate to that on a horizontal plate:

    jusr jif ðA > 0 and B > 0ÞorðA  BÞ
H 1 þ cosb 1  cosb usr ¼ (10)
R¼Dþ d þ rg (5) þjusr jotherwise
H 2 2
" pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi#
where b is slope angle, and D is calculated by: 1 AB C A2  B2 þ C 2
juss j ¼ min us ; cos (11)
A þ C2
2

maxð0; Gðuss ; usr ÞÞif uss  usr
D¼ (6) 
maxð0; ½Gðuss ; us Þ þ Gðus ; usr ÞÞif usr > uss þjuss jif ðA > 0 and B > 0ÞorðA  BÞ
uss ¼ (12)
juss jotherwise
in which uss and usr are the sunset and sunrise hour angles for
beam radiation on a tilted surface, respectively. Where Gðu1 ; u2 Þ In which A, B, and C are functions of solar geometry and position
can be determined by: of the solar surface that are given by:
A. Khosravi et al. / Energy 148 (2018) 1087e1102 1091

A ¼ cosb þ tanfcosg sin b (13) Q ¼ UAðTm  Ta Þ (27)


In which U is the overall heat loss coefficient and is composed of
B ¼ cosus cosb þ tand sinb cosg (14) the convection and radiation heat transfer coefficient that are given
by the Eqs. (28) and (29). Convection heat transfer coefficient is:
sin bsing
C¼ (15) hconv ¼ 2:8 þ 3vm (28)
cosf
And radiation heat transfer coefficient is proposed by Ref. [30]:
As well as a, b and d are constant coefficients that are given by
the following equations:   
hrad ¼ εs Tsky þ Tm Tsky
2 2
þ Tm (29)
a ¼ 0:4090 þ 0:5016sinðus  60Þ (16)
In which effective temperature of the sky is Tsky ¼ Ta  6.
The temperature of the module based on the normal operating
b ¼ 0:6609  0:4767sinðus  60Þ (17) cell temperature is:

p GT
d ¼ sinðus Þ  cosðus Þ (18) Tm ¼ Ta þ ðNOCT  20Þ (30)
180 800
Monthly average diffuse fraction correlations are defined by Finally, the electrical exergy of the system that has been defined
Ref. [29]: by Ref. [31] is:

For us  81:4 and 0:3  K T  0:8
Exelectrical ¼ Voc  Isc  FF (31)
Hd 2 3 In which, FF is the fill factor and is equal to:
¼ 1:391  3:560K T þ 4:189K T  2:137K T (19)
H
Vmp Imp

And also for us > 81:4 and 0:3  K T  0:8 FF ¼ (32)
Voc Isc
Hd 2 3 The exergy efficiency based on the second law of thermody-
¼ 1:311  3:022 K T þ 3:427 K T  1:821K T (20) namics is expressed by Ref. [32]:
H
The output power of the PV array for the ith hour of the day is: Exergy output
j¼ (33)
Exergy input
Pi ¼ Ac GT;i hmp he (21)

In which Ac , GT;i , hmp and he are the array area, incident solar
radiation, the maximum power point efficiency of the array and the
efficiency of any power-conditioning equipment, respectively. The 3.2. WTS
maximum power point efficiency is:
The energy analysis for a WT is defined by the following
"  #
mmp   mmp GT ta hmp equation:
hmp ¼ hmp;ref 1 þ Ta  Tref þ 1
mmp;ref mmp;ref UL ta ke1 ¼ wout þ ke2 (34)
(22)
In which ke and wout are the kinetic energy of the wind-flow and
The term hmp =ta is always small compared to unity and thus can the output work that extracted by rotor blades, respectively. Eq.
be approximated by hmp;ref without introducing significant error. (35) defines the kinetic energy of the wind:
Based on the first law of thermodynamics the energy efficiency
is: 1
ke ¼ rAtv3 (35)
2
energy output
h¼ (23) For any design of WT the theoretical maximum power efficiency
energy input (Cpmax ) is around 59%. Since WT cannot work in the Cpmax , the
The input exergy of the PV system is: actual generated power for each WT is:

"     # 1
4 Ta 1 Ta 4 Pm ¼ rCpAv3 (36)
Exin ¼ AGT 1  þ (24) 2
3 Ts 3 Ts
Fig. 3 shows a schematic of three main sections of a WTS. The
Also, the exergy output of the PV system is defined by consid- mechanical power of the rotor is calculated by Eq. (36). It must be
eration of the thermal and electrical exergy that is: determined how much of this power will be transferred to the
electrical grid. For this target, according to Fig. 3, it is necessary to
Exout ¼ Exthermal þ Exelectrical (25) calculate the efficiencies of the gearbox, generator and power
electronics. The amount of the actual generated power is:
In which, thermal exergy of the system is:
  Pe ¼ hgb hgn hp Pm (37)
Ta
Exthermal ¼Q 1 (26)
Tm The efficiencies of the gearbox, generator and power electronics
device were assumed to be hgb ¼ 0.95, hgn ¼ 0.97 and hp ¼ 0.98,
where Q is the heat emitted to the surround which is defined by: respectively [33].
1092 A. Khosravi et al. / Energy 148 (2018) 1087e1102

Pm Power Pe
Gearbox Generator
Electronics

Fig. 3. Three main sections of a wind turbine.

Exergy analysis for WT is given by the following equation:


Q_ loss ¼ m_ a cpa ðT2  T1 Þ (47)
_ _ _ _
Ex flow1 ¼ W out þ Exflow2 þ Exdest (38) And entropy generation is:
_      
In which Ex flow1 is the exergy rate of the flow in the inlet of WT,
_ out is the rate of the output work and Ex _ T P _
mcpðTa  Tave Þ
W dest is defined as the rate I_ ¼ T0 cpln 2  Rln 2  (48)
of the exergy destruction of the WT. The Ex _ T1 P1 Ta
flow1 is:


The specific exergy destruction can be defined by:
Exflow ¼ Exk þ Exp þ DH  Ta DS þ Exch (39)
T0 DS
Where Exk , Exp , DH, Ta , DS and Exch are kinetic energy, potential Exdes ¼ (49)
rAv
energy (is considered to be zero), change in enthalpy, ambient
temperature, change in entropy and chemical energy. The kinetic Finally, the energy and exergy efficiencies of the WT are:
exergy is:
w_ out
h¼ (50)
Exk ¼ Egenerated (40) P

the enthalpy difference is calculated by: w_


j ¼ _ out (51)
Exflow
_ a ðT2  T1 Þ
DH ¼ mcp (41)

_ cpa , T1 and T2 are the mass flow rate of the air, the air
in which, m,
specific heat and the wind chill temperature at the inlet and outlet
of the WT, respectively. The wind chill temperature is [34]: 3.3. Electrolyzer and fuel cell

Ti;windchi ¼ 13:12 þ 0:6215Ta  11:37v0:16


i þ 0:3965Ta v0:16
i
Based on the following formula, electrolyzer splits water into
hydrogen and oxygen using the excess electrical energy from PVS
(42)
and WTS.
The wind speed and Ti;windchi are at 10-m elevation and  C,
respectively. The amount of the wind speed after the WT is defined H2 O þ Power/H2 þ 1=2O2 (52)
by Sahin et al. [34] correlation.
The energy efficiency of the electrolyzer is defined by the lower
vffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi heating value of hydrogen produced and power consumed by the
u  
u
potential  Egenerated
3 2 E
t process and is given by:
v2 ¼ (43)
rAt m_ H2 LHVH2
h¼ (53)
Physical exergy of the air is given by an equation that has been Power input
developed by Bejan et al. [35].
The exergy efficiency of the electrolyzer is given by consider-
   ation of physical and chemical exergy of the hydrogen and is
T T
Exph ¼ ðcpa þ Ucpv ÞT0  1  ln defined by Eq. (54).
T0 T0
   
P _ H m_ H2 exph þ exch
þ ð1 þ 1:6078UÞRT0 ln (44) Ex H2
P0 ε¼ 2
¼ (54)
Power input Power input
In which cpa , cpv , U, R and P0 are the air specific heat, vapor
Physical exergy of the hydrogen is:
specific heat, humidity ratio, gas constant and reference pressure.
The pressure in the inlet and outlet of the WT is:
exph ¼ ðh  h0 Þ  T0 ðs  s0 Þ (55)
r
Pi ¼ Pa ± v2i (45) And for an ideal gas it can be written as:
2
"    k1 #
The chemical exergy is: T T P k
exph ¼ cp T0  1  ln þ ln (56)
T0 T0 P0
Exch ¼ RT0 ½ð1 þ 1:6078UÞln½ð1 þ 1:6078U0 Þ=ð1 þ 1:6078UÞ þ 1
þ 1:6078UlnðU=U0 Þ in which cp , T0 , P0 and k are the heat capacity at the constant
pressure, ambient temperature, ambient pressure and the adiabatic
(46)
exponent.
Also, heat loss of the WT is: Also, physical exergy is given by:
A. Khosravi et al. / Energy 148 (2018) 1087e1102 1093

X X 15
exch ¼ xH2 ex0;H2 þ RH2 T0 xH2 ln xH2 (57)

Wind speed (m/s)


4. Economic analysis 10
The life cycle cost (LCC) is used of hybrid system that was
considered in this study. It is defined by consideration of the annual
capital cost (CC), the annual maintenance cost (MC), the cost of
installation (IC) and the cost of replacement (RC) of the 5
components.

LCC ¼ CC þ MC þ IC þ RC (58)

0
4.1. LCC of PVS 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Days of the year
The initial capital cost of the PVS is determined as:
Fig. 4. Wind speed (m/s) for Bushehr in 2016.
 
ir ð1 þ ir Þnp
CCPV ¼ APV CPV (59) 4.4. LCC of hydrogen tank (H2)
ð1 þ ir Þnp  1

in which APV , CPV , ir and np are area of PV array, unit cost of the PV The capital cost of the hydrogen tank is determined by the
panels, interest rate of the system and the life span, consecutively. following equation:
Also, the annual maintenance cost is defined by:  
ir ð1 þ ir Þnp
CCHT ¼ NH2 :CH2 np (65)
MCPV ¼ CMntPV APV (60) ð1 þ ir Þ  1

where CMntPV is annual maintenance cost of each PV panel. in which NH2 and CH2 are number of hydrogen tank and the initial
cost of an electrolyzer.

4.2. LCC of WTS


5. Result and discussion

The annual capital cost for WTS according to the swept area of
5.1. Solar/wind energy potential
the blades (AWT ) is:
  Fig. 4 demonstrates the variation of the wind speed for the case
ir ð1 þ ir Þnp
CCWT ¼ AWT CWT (61) study region in 2016. The hub center for the considered wind tur-
ð1 þ ir Þnp  1
bine (E44) is 55 m. The average wind speed for this region
measured at the hub center (measured by Duffie and Beckman [29]
in which CWT is the unit cost of the WTS that is defined by the initial
correlation) is around 7 m/s (also, it can be seen in Fig. 1 (b)). Wind
cost of each WT and the cost of installation of WT.
speed in the hub center is the main parameter to calculate the
The annual maintenance cost for WTS can be evaluated as
mechanical power of the rotor (based on Eq. (36)). Fig. 5 illustrates
following equation:

MCPV ¼ CMntPV APV (62)

4.3. LCC of fuel cell and electrolyzer

As well as the capital cost of the fuel cell is expressible as:


 
ir ð1 þ ir Þnp
CCFC ¼ PWFC $ (63)
ð1 þ ir Þnp  1
In which PWFC is the single payment present worth factor. It
should be noted that the life time of fuel cell and electrolyzer are
considered five years [21].

X 1
PWFC ¼ CFC (64)
k¼0;5;10;15 ð1 þ ir Þk

where CFC is the fuel cell cost.


Also, LCC of electrolyzer is obtained as a same way as before
explained for the fuel cell. Fig. 5. Variation of the temperature ð CÞ between 2000 and 2016 in Bushehr.
1094 A. Khosravi et al. / Energy 148 (2018) 1087e1102

Fig. 6. Solar radiation on top of atmosphere (a) and on the collectors (b) based on kWh/m2/day.

30 8

Average solar radiation(kW/m /day)


7
Total Solar Radiation (MJ/m )
2

25
2

6
January
20 February
5
March
April
May 4
15 June
July 3
August
10 September
October 2
Average solar radiation on a horizontal surface
November
Average solar radiation with optimum slope angle
December 1
5 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
-20 0 20 40 60 80 100
Days of the year
Slope Angle(Degree)
Fig. 8. Average solar radiation on the horizontal and tilted surfaces.
Fig. 7. Monthly optimum slope angle of solar collectors.

amounts of the solar radiation with optimum slope angle is


the average temperature for the study zone between 2000 and approximately 50% more than the horizontal collectors.
2016. As can be observed in the figure, the average temperature for Liu and Jordan [37] proposed azimuth angle for the northern
6 months (from April to October) is above 28  C. This value of 
hemisphere and southern hemisphere to be 0 and 180 , respec-


temperature shows that the energy efficiency for PV modules will tively. In this investigation, the azimuth angle for the study region

be decreased in these months. Because the energy efficiency of PV is determined to be 30 (is shown in Fig. 9). The proposed azimuth
modules is in relation to the ambient temperature (based on Eqs. angle was calculated by using the yearly slope angle (regarding Eqs.
(22) and (23)). Solar radiation on top of atmosphere (a) and over the (1)e(20)).
collectors (b) from 2000 to 2016 are shown in Fig. 6. The maximum
solar radiation on the PV collectors (horizontal) in May, June, July
and August is approximately 8 kWh/m2/day. The solar data were 5.2. Produced power
provided by NASA [36].
Sun tracker system due to having the moving part is more The proposed system is a stand-alone system with all the energy
expensive compared to stationary collectors. Also, in this system coming from sun and wind. Fig. 10 shows the amount of the pro-
ongoing maintenance is generally required. Hence, determining the vided energy by the PV, WT and fuel cell systems for an annual
optimum slope angle is important for receiving the more solar ra- period for the unit. According to the pie chart, PVS accounts for 43%
diation on flat-plate collectors. The amount of the monthly tilt of the total. A third of the required energy is provided by WTS. Also,
angle of the collectors for the study zone is shown in Fig. 7. the fuel cell by using the stored hydrogen supplies 26% of the total
The effect of the monthly optimum slope angle for the solar energy.
collectors is reported in Fig. 8. The results show, with monthly Fig. 11 demonstrates the curves of the power coefficient and
optimum tilt angle, the amount of the solar radiation is increased electric power produced of the WT that have been obtained in the
about 20% for an annual period. But in March, April, May and June study region. As can be seen in Fig. 11 (a), from 0 to 2 m/s, the power
the values of the solar radiation with monthly slope angle is close to coefficient is zero; from 2 to 7 m/s, it increases and reaches to the
the values of horizontal collectors. In January and December, the maximum value; between 7 and 14 m/s, there is a moderate
A. Khosravi et al. / Energy 148 (2018) 1087e1102 1095

28 decrease. Moreover, Fig. 11 (b) shows the curve of generated power


versus the wind speed. Regarding the graph, between 0 and 4 m/s,
cannot be seen an impressive produced power. Also, between 4 and
Total Solar Radiation (MJ/m )
2

26 14 m/s, the trend is obviously upwards and reaches to around


700 kW.
Fig. 12 represents a dynamic model of the generated power for
an annual period for the PV and WT systems. Power produced by
24
PVS (Fig. 12 (a)) for six months is more than 1000 kW from 6:00 to
14:00. The generated power decreases for June, July, August and
April September and reaches to 600 kW. Power generated by WTS
22 May (Fig. 12 (b)) has different values for each time series but the
June maximum power is shown in May, June and July for the study zone.
July Also, from 5:00 to 16:00 the obtained power of WTS is above
20 August 800 kW. Fig. 13 demonstrates the productive power of the PVS (a)
September and WTS (b) in 12, 13 and 14 of June 2016. WTS produces more
October power in these days. Average daily wind power that has been
18 produced by WTS is almost 170 kW and this power for PVS is
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
roughly 233 kW.
Azimuth Angle(Degree)
Fig. 14 shows the model of the stored power by the energy
Fig. 9. Optimum azimuth angle for solar collectors in Bushehr. storage system for one year in the study zone. To provide the de-
mand energy rate of the unit, the storage system is considered with
the 50 MW at the start of the system. It is clear that during January
to May, the stored power rises gradually; between April and July,
the stored power reaches to the maximum value that is approxi-
mately 280 MW; then from June to December, this power will be
consumed. The amount of the stored power at the end of the period
will be reached to the start point.
Fig. 15 (a) illustrates the excess power that was transferred to

26% the electrolyzer for one year. This excess power can be used to
produce the hydrogen in the electrolyzer. Between 5:00 and 15:00
the required energy rate is provided by the PVS and WTS. Fig. 17 (b)
43% exhibits all the times that the required energy rate of the unit is
provided by the fuel cell.
The produced hydrogen by the electrolyzer is shown in Fig. 16.
Hydrogen tank that was considered for this system can save around
7500 kg hydrogen by own. This value of hydrogen can generate
approximately 300 MWh electrical energy for this system. Fig. 17

31% demonstrates depleted hydrogen by the fuel cell in each hour of


January. This hydrogen is consumed to provide the required energy
of the system.

5.3. Energy, exergy and economic analysis

Energy and exergy analysis based on the first and second laws of
thermodynamics carried out for the PVS, WTS and energy storage
system. Energy and exergy analysis of the PVS is shown in Fig. 18. As
before mentioned, the ambient temperature for the study zone
PV WT FC between April and October is above 25  C. This value of the tem-
perature can decrease the efficiency of the PV modules (as can be
Fig. 10. Percentage of the provided energy by PVS, WTS and ful cell. observed in Fig. 18). The average energy and exergy efficiencies in

Fig. 11. Power coefficient (a) and electric power produced (kW) (b) versus wind speed (m/s) for the WT.
1096 A. Khosravi et al. / Energy 148 (2018) 1087e1102

(a) (b)

1500

1500

Power (kW)
Power (kW)

1000
1000
500
500
0
0
12 20
10 12
20 10
15 8 10 8
10 6 6
4 Months Hours of the day 4
5 2 0 2 Months
Hours of the day 0

Fig. 12. Produced power by the PVS (a) and WTS (b).

Fig. 13. Produced power (kW) by PVS (a) and WTS (b) for June 12th, 13th and 14th.

300 to the wind speed and due to oscillating nature of wind, exergy
efficiency has different values for each time. The exergy efficiency is
changed between 0 and 37% at different measured wind speed data.
250
Also, the mean exergy efficiency for the WTS is 25.41% for one year.
Fig. 21 shows the input and output exergy of the electrolyzer for
Stored Power(MW)

200 one year (2016), one month (January) and one week (first week of
February). By considering the physical and chemical exergy of the
electrolysis process and based on Eq. (57) the rate of exergy has
150 been calculated. Hydrogen will be obtained from water by elec-
trolysis, using excess generated energy rate that is more between
100 6:00 and 14:00.
The rate of exergy input, output and destruction for three days
in February is shown in Fig. 22. In Unit 132, fuel cell does not work
50 continuously and completely relates to the required energy of the
unit which changes during the day. The rate of exergy destruction
0 changes between 0 and 100 kW.
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Finally, a comprehensive exergy investigation for the proposed
Days of the year
system is shown in Fig. 23. This exergy graph focuses on exergy
Fig. 14. Stored power and consumed power by the energy storage system. destruction for each component of the system. At first glance, it is
clear that the main part of input exergy is belonged to PVS with
around 80%. Low efficiency of the PV collectors causes the
this region are obtained 12% and 16%, respectively. maximum exergy destruction of this system by around 65%. The
Energy efficiency of the WTS for the study zone in two weeks of maximum energy efficiency for each WTS was reported to be 59.3%
January, December and March is shown in Fig. 19. The average by Betz [38]. In this study, the average energy and exergy effi-
energy efficiency for the WTS is around 32% for one year. One of the ciencies for the WT are determined to be 32% and 25%, respectively.
best methods for evaluating the wind energy technology is the The amount of the exergy destruction for the WTS is around 13.52%.
exergy analysis. It gives better comprehension of performance than Also, the values of the exergy destruction for the electrolyzer, fuel
the energy efficiency. Fig. 20 presents exergy analysis based on the cell and converter are 2.3%, 3.5% and 1.4%, respectively.
second law of thermodynamics for the WTS in Bushehr. It is clear Fig. 24 indicates the initial cost of the components that have
that the inlet and outlet exergy of the system are mainly attributed been considered for the proposed system in this study. The WTs
A. Khosravi et al. / Energy 148 (2018) 1087e1102 1097

Fig. 15. Input power (MW) to the electrolyzer (a) and produced power (MW) by the fuel cell (b).

0.4
Energy efficiency
30 0.35 Exergy efficiency

25 0.3
Mass of hydrogen(kg)

Efficiency 0.25
20
0.2
15
0.15
10
0.1

5 0.05
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
0
Days of the year
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
Fig. 18. Energy and exergy efficiency of the PVS.
Hours of the year
Fig. 16. Hydrogen produced (kg) by the electrolyzer.
made up the maximum value of the cost with 28% of the total. It is
clear the energy storage system that contains electrolyzer, fuel cell
and hydrogen tank accounts for approximately 50% of the total.
Also, PV array and converter have the 20% and 1% of the total in-
12 vestment, respectively.
The costs of the system include the installation cost as well as
operation and maintenance costs. The initial investment of the
Mass of hydrogen (kg)

10 hybrid renewable energy system is extremely high but the oper-


ating and maintenance costs are low. All these costs have been
decreasing with the constant striving for cost-effectiveness,
8 thereby lowering the cost of energy. Fig. 25 (a) demonstrates the
cost of the maintenance for the project lifetime (20 years). Also, the
total cost of the system contains the initial cost, the cost of main-
6
tenance, the cost of the installation and replacement of the com-
ponents is shown in Fig. 25 (b). Total cost in the first year is around
4 20 million dollars. The trend is obviously upwards and reaches to
2.65 million dollars. The costs of operation and maintenance by
considering the rate of inflation and replacement of the compo-
2 nents change from 0.4 to 7 million dollars.
The required electrical power for Unit 132 is 320 kW. Since the
initial investment was calculated for the first year, the amount of
0 cost per kWh is approximately 7 $/kWh. In the second year, there
100 200 300 400 500 600 700
are only the operation and maintenance costs in which the cost of
Hours the system is decreased to 0.0461 $/kWh. Thereafter, for the next
Fig. 17. Consumed hydrogen by the fuel cell in January. years, the cost of produced electrical power will be decreased and
January December March
0.5

0.45

0.4

0.35

Energy efficiency
0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Days

Fig. 19. Energy efficiency of the WT.

the proposed system can compensate the initial system


investment.
The payback period of the hybrid hydrogen system that has been
proposed for supplying the electrical energy in Unit 132 is shown in
Fig. 26. The initial cost of the system is approximately 20 million
dollars. This initial cost will be increased by the operation and
maintenance costs of each year and the rate of the inflation that is
considered to be 20% for Iran [39]. The lifetime of the PV panels,
wind turbines, electrolyzer and hydrogen tanks was considered to
be 20 years, and fuel cells have relatively shorter lifetime which is
around 5 years. The price of the electrical energy generated was
considered around 0.28 $/kWh [27] for the first year of the energy
production. Also, the rate of inflation is also considered for the
generated energy by the system. The payback period for the hybrid
hydrogen energy system is around 11 years.
Many investigations have proposed PV/wind system with
hydrogen storage system. These studies have been applied to
supply the electrical energy in different regions around the world.
To the best of the authors' knowledge, most of these investigations
are based on energy analysis. Table 1 demonstrates the average
Fig. 20. Exergy efficiency of the WT. energy efficiency for each system component. As it was mentioned

January 1st week of February


1500 1500
Exergy rate(kW)

Exergy rate(kW)

1000 1000

500 500

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Days of the month Exergy input rate Hours of the week
Exergy output rate
1500
Exergy rate(kW)

1000

500

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Days of the year
Fig. 21. Input and output exergy of the electrolyzer.
A. Khosravi et al. / Energy 148 (2018) 1087e1102 1099

400
Exergy input rate
350 Exergy output rate
Exergy destruction rate
300
Exergy rate(kW)

250

200

150

100

50

0
0 20 40 60 80 100
Fig. 24. The initial cost of the components.
Local Time
Fig. 22. The rate of exergy input, exergy output and exergy destruction of the fuel cell
for three days.
6 7
x 10 x 10
before, maximum energy efficiency for each wind turbine is 53%. 8 2.7
According to Table 2, maximum energy efficiency for wind turbine a) b)
in different case studies was reported around 40%. In this study, it is 7 2.6
shown that the energy efficiency for WT, in the case study region, is
around 32% for an annual period. This value of energy efficiency 6 2.5
makes it a region with high potential for wind energy. An average
5

Cost($)
2.4
Cost($)

energy efficiency between 8 and 15% have been reported by the


studies for PVS. In this investigation, an average of 12% is obtained
4 2.3
for the energy efficiency of PV panels in the case study region. Also,
the range of energy efficiency changes for electrolyzer, fuel cell, 3 2.2
hydrogen tank and inverter are shown in Table 2. Kalinci et al. [14]
investigated hybrid hydrogen energy system for Bozcada, Turkey. 2 2.1
They have reported the daily average exergy efficiency for the PV
array and the percentage of the system exergy rate as 14.26 and 1 2
13.54%, respectively. In another study, Caliskan et al. [17] obtained
an average of 9.74% exergy efficiency for the solar PV panels. In this 0 1.9
0 10 20 0 10 20
study, the exergy efficiency for the PV panels and the percentage of
the exergy rate for the system were reported around 16% and
Years Years
14.204%, respectively. Fig. 25. Cost of the maintenance (a) and total cost of the system (b).

Unit 132
Output exergy
14.204 %
PV
Input exergy
79.4084 %
PV array
exergy destruction
65.0985 %
WT
Input exergy
20.5916 %
Wind turbines
exergy destruction
13.5228 %
Electrolyzer
exergy destruction
2.310316 %
Fuel cell
exergy destruction
3.462061 %

Converter
exergy destruction
1.4023 %

Fig. 23. Exergy graph of the proposed system.


1100 A. Khosravi et al. / Energy 148 (2018) 1087e1102

40000000
30000000
20000000
10000000
Cost ($)
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
-10000000
Years
-20000000
-30000000

Fig. 26. Payback period for the proposed system.

Table 2 this power is less than 600 kW. Also, for 00:00 to 5:00 and 16:00 to
The range of the energy efficiency for each component. 24:00 the generated power is around 800 kW in this region. Despite
Studies Energy Lifetime, the energy efficiency for the WTS in some days is close to 50%, the
efficiency (%) years average energy efficiency in this region for the WT was reported
PV Refs. [14] [17], [15] [13], 8e15 20e25 around 32%. Exergy analysis using the second law of thermody-
[40] [41] [42] namics for evaluating the quality of energy was done in this station.
WT Refs. [14] [17], [15] [43], 25e40 20e25 Exergy efficiency of the WTS was changed between 0 and 37% and
[44] [45] [46]
the average value of it was obtained around 26%. Investigation of
Electrolyzer Refs. [14] [17], [15] [47], 53e82 10e20
[45] [41] exergy destruction of the system illustrated that the PVS has the
Fuel cell Refs. [47] [15], [17] [48], 30e70 5e20 maximum exergy destruction with 65% of the total. The portion of
[43] [44] exergy destroyed of the WTs is 13.52%. Also, the less role of exergy
Hydrogen tank Refs. [47] [15] [45] 95e100 10e20 destruction belongs to the electrolyzer, fuel cell and converter with
Inverter Refs. [47] [15] 90e95 10e20
2.3%, 3.5% and 1.4%, respectively. Between January and June excess
energy was transferred to the electrolyzer and hydrogen was pro-
6. Conclusion duced and stored in the hydrogen tanks. In June to December this
energy was consumed by the unit. Economic analysis illustrated
Utilizing solar and wind energy with hydrogen will have strong that the PVS, WTS and energy storage system were included around
environmental effect, to promote the concept of using renewable 20%, 28% and 50% of the total investment, respectively. In addition,
and clean resources and protect the environment. Hydrogen is the the payback period for the hybrid renewable energy was obtained
suitable energy carrier to store solar and wind energy and trans- around 11 years.
form them to electrical energy. If there is a need to store a large
amount of energy for a long time, hydrogen storage system is today Nomenclature
often cheaper and more compact than battery storage. So hydrogen
is preferred as media in a long-term storage. The solar/wind energy A area (m2)
with hydrogen energy storage system for supplying the constant CC Capital cost
electrical load in a large scale in the south of Iran was proposed. The Cp power efficiency
results demonstrated that although Iran is rich in fossil fuel re- cpa air specific heat (kJ/kg K)
sources, analysis of the solar and wind energy stated that this cpv vapor specific heat (kJ/kg K)
country is a suitable place for applying the solar and wind energy _
Ex exergy flow rate (kW)
systems. The monthly optimum slope angle for solar collectors was
FF fill factor
determined with the minimum value in June as 9 and the
GT incident solar radiation (kWh/m2)
maximum value in December as 57. Also, the optimum azimuth
angle was found as 30 for the study zone. The solar radiation with H monthly average solar radiation (MJ/m2)
the monthly optimum tilt angle was found around 20% more than Ho monthly average daily extraterrestrial radiation (MJ/m2)
the horizontal collectors. It is found that the amount of the ab- Hd monthly average daily defuse radiation (MJ/m2)
sorption radiation with the optimum slope angle in such months of ir interest rate
the year allows producing more power. The energy and exergy Isc short-circuit current (A)
analysis of the PVS have been reported by average of 12% energy Imp current at maximum power point (A)
efficiency and 16% exergy efficiency. Analysis the ambient tem- KT monthly average clearness index
perature of the Bushehr demonstrated that the temperature for LCC life cycle cost
June, July, August and September is more than 28  C and this m mass
temperature can be decreased the efficiency of the PVS. Therefore, m_ mass flow rate (kg/s)
in these months authors suggest using a cooling system for PV np life span
modules. Investigation on power generation of WTs illustrated that NOCT normal operating cell temperature
between April and August and from 9:00 to 14:00 the power pro- P power (kW)
duced by wind farm is above 800 kW. In other months of the year, p pressure (hPa)
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