INTRODUCTION The process of mitosis consists of five phases that occur throughout the cell cycle of a single cell

. Interphase, which is sometimes listed as a separate phase apart from mitosis, is the longest of the phases and is broken into three distinct portions. In the G1 phase the cell gathers material required to duplicate the strands of DNA making up the cell’s genetic material. In the S phase the actual. This ensures that each new cell formed will have the normal amount. Finally, during the G2 phase the cell prepares for the actual stages involved in the division of the nucleus as it stores energy and produces needed material. Throughout interphase the cell’s appearance does not change as the genetic material, called chromatin remains diffuse and virtually invisible. However, as the prophase stage begins these strands of DNA begin to coil and twist to form the chromosomes which are easily visible. During this stage the nuclear membrane also disappear. As the mitosis procedes, the now visible genetic material, now arranged as chromosomes, moves towards the equator of the cell during the phase known a metaphase. This is perhaps the easiest stage to identify due to the distinct line of chromosomes along the center of the cell. As anaphase begins, these chromosomes are pulled apart so that the centromere is broken. The two chromatids are pulled apart and begin moving towards opposite poles. The separation is caused by the contraction of spindle fibers which are attached to each chromatid. Finally, as the two groups of genetic material, now called chromosomes again, reach the poles new nuclear membranes form around them and the DNA strands unwind and become chromatin again. At some point in this process the actual division of the cell, cytokinesis occurs either through the formation of a cell plate in a plant cell or through a process known as furrowing. The latter occurs in animal cell and involves an inward movement of the cell membrane from each side of the cell along the equator.

OBJECTIVES The objective in this experiment is to learn the stages of mitotic cell division.

METHODS Glass slide containing a stained preparation of root tips of onion was taken. The mitotic stage in the root tips of onion was observed under the microscope. Then, the stage of

dividing cell was identified with the help of figure given in the laboratory manual.

DATA AND RESULT Stages Observation

Interphase

Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

DISCUSSION Eukaryotic cells are more complex and generally much larger than prokaryotic cells, and they have many more genes. Almost the genes in the cells of human and in all other eukaryotes are found in the cell nucleus, grouped into multiple chromosomes. Most of the time, chromosomes exist as a diffuse mass of long, thin fibers that called chromatin, is a combination of DNA and protein molecules. The eukaryotic chromosome includes many more protein molecules which help maintain the chromosome structure and control the activity of its genes. Before cell division occurs, the cell first has to replicate the chromosomes so each daughter cell can have a set. When the chromosomes are replicated and getting ready to divide, they consist of two, identical halves called sister chromatids which are joined by a central region, the centromere. Each chromosome is one long molecule of DNA and special proteins. Cell division is controlled by DNA, but exact copies of the DNA must be given to the daughter cells (note use of “mother” and “daughter”). Bacteria reproduce by a simple process called binary fission. Somatic cells are general body cells. These have the same number of chromosomes as each other within the body of an organism. The number of chromosomes in somatic cells is consistent among organisms of the same species, but varies from species to species. These chromosomes come in pairs, where one chromosome in each pair is from the mother and one is from the father. In humans only, the somatic cells have 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs, while gametes have 23 individual chromosomes (= one set). Geneticists use the term “-ploid” to refer to one set of chromosomes in an organism, and that term is typically combined with another wordstem that describes the number of sets of chromosomes present. For example, a cell with one set of chromosomes is called haploid, a cell with two sets of chromosomes is diploid, and a cell with four sets of chromosomes is tetraploid. The cell cycle consists of two broad stages, a growing stage that called interphase during which the cell roughly double everything in its cytoplasm and precisely duplicates its chromosomal DNA and the actual cell division that called the mitotic phase. The mitotic phase is divided into two stages that called mitosis and cytokinesis. Mitosis is specifically the process of division of the chromosomes, while cytokinesis is officially the process of division of the cytoplasm to form two cells. In most cells, cytokinesis follows or occurs along with the last part of mitosis. The stages in mitosis include interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Interphase may appears to be a “resting” stage, but cell growth, replication of the chromosomes, and many other activities are taking place during this time. During late interphase, the nucleus is well defined and surrounded by the nuclear envelope. It contains one or more nucleoli. Just outside the nucleus are two centrosomes, formed

duirng early interphase by replication of a single centrosome. Microtubules extend from the centrosomes in a radial array called asters. The chromosomes have already duplicated but are still in the form of loosely packed chromatin fiber. During the prophase the nucleoli in the nucleus disappear. The chromatin fibers become tightly ccoiled and condense into chromosomes. Chromosomes line up in pairs and are joined at the centromere. In the cytoplasm, the spindle fibers begin to form and are made of microtubules. The centrosomes move away from each other, propelled by the lengthening microtubules, or spindle fibers, between them. In metaphase, the centrosomes are at opposite ends of the cell poles. The chromosomes are lined up at the 'metaphase plate', an imaginary line equidistant between the two poles. The centromeres of the chromosomes are all aligned with one another. The chromatids are of each chromosomes are attached to a microtubule which form the spindle. While in anaphase, the paired chromosomes separate. They move along the microtubules toward opposite poles of the cell. The poles move farther apart. By the end of anaphase, the two poles of the cell each have a complete set of chromosomes. During the last phase in mitosis which is telophase, the microtubules become even longer, and daughter nuclei begin to form at the two poles of the cell. Nuclear envelopes are formed, the nucleoli reappear, the chromatin of the chromosomes uncoils. Mitosis is now complete: one nucleus has divided into two genetically identical nuclei. Cytokinesis follows and involves the formation of a cleavage furrow, which pinches the cells in two.

CONCLUSION

From this experiment, student are able to learn and know the process of the cell cycle or cell division that consisting intrephase and mitotic phase.

REFERENCES

1. http://teachertech.rice.edu/Participants/dawsonm/cells/Stages_of_Mitosis.htm 2. http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/mitosis.htm 3. Biology Concepts and Connection, Ftifth Edition, Pearson Education, Neil A. Campbell, Jane b. Reece, Martha R. Taylor, Eric J. Simon, 2008

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