Ch.

6 – OSPF Part 2 of 2: Multi-Area OSPF
CCNP version 3.0 Rick Graziani Cabrillo College * Updated by HoonJae Lee (Dongseo Univ.) 2006. 3. 3

Note
• •
Optional: This lab coincides with my Multi-area OSPF Lab handout, Rick's OSPF Scenarios (Word doc) Most of the slides in this presentation do not come directly from CCNP 1 version 3.0, OSPF, but slides which contain a little more detail and explanation of OSPF.

2

1

Optional: Rick’s OSPF Scenarios
Optional: We will be using the following handout for this presentation: Rick’s OSPF Handout: 1. OSPF Multi-Area - All Normal Areas 2. OSPF Multi-Area - Stub Area 3. OSPF Multi-Area - Totally Stubby Area This handouts can be downloaded from (Word doc): • http://www.cabrillo.cc.ca.us/ciscoacad/curriculum/presentations/semes ter5/OSPF_Scenario_Handout.doc

3

Part I - LSAs using all normal areas
Suggestion to Instructors: Draw this network on the white-board as it will be used for discussion throughout these slides.
Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32 .2 .1 ABR-1
Pri 200 11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Multi Area OSPF Normal Areas

10.1.0.0/24

ASBR .1

Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

.3
Pri 100

ABR-2 .5

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

172.16.1.0/24 172.16.51.0/24

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal .1 Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

Area 51

172.16.20.0/24

Area 1
4

2

Topics
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Areas LSAs show ip ospf database (summary of link state database) show ip route Stub Areas Totally Stubby Areas E1 and E2 routes Default Routes Route Summarization NSSA (Not So Stubby Areas) Multiple ABR Scenario Multiple ASBR Scenario Virtual Links Load Balancing show commands
5

Issues with large OSPF nets
• Large link-state table
– Each router maintains a LSDB for all links in the area – The LSDB requires the use of memory

• Frequent SPF calculations
– A topology change in an area causes each router to re-run SPF to rebuild the SPF tree and the routing table. – A flapping link will affect an entire area. – SPF re-calculations are done only for changes within that area.

• Large routing table
– Typically, the larger the area the larger the routing table. – A larger routing table requires more memory and takes more time to perform the route look-ups. Solution: Divide the network into multiple areas
6

3

OSPF uses “Areas”
• •
Hierarchical routing enables you to separate large internetworks (autonomous systems) into smaller internetworks that are called areas. With this technique, routing still occurs between the areas (called inter-area routing), but many of the smaller internal routing operations, such as recalculating the database – re-running the SPF algorithm, are restricted within an area.

7

An advantage of Multiple Areas

Question: I understand the routing table is recalculated every time the router receives an new version of an LSA. Does OSPF recalculate its routing table when their is a topology change in another area? show ip ospf displays no change in SPF execution, but show ip ospf database shows a change in the topology? Answer: Good question! OSPF areas are designed to keep issues like flapping links within an area. SPF is not recalculated if the topology change is in another area. The interesting thing is that OSPF distributes inter-area (between areas) topology information using a distance-vector method. OSPF uses linkstate principles only within an area. ABRs do not announce topological information between areas, instead, only routing information is injected into other areas. ABRs relay routing information between areas via distance vector technique similar to RIP or IGRP. This is why show ip ospf does not show a change in the number of times SPF has been executed when the topology change is in another area. Note: It is still a good idea to perform route summarization between areas, announcing multiple routes as a single inter-area route. This will hide any changes in one area from affecting routing tables in other areas.
8

4

OSPF uses “Areas”

9

OSPF Router Types

10

5

OSPF Router Types
Internal: Routers with all their interfaces within the same area Internal Backbone: Routers with at least one interface connected to area 0 Backbone ASBR (Autonomous System Boundary Router): Routers that have at least one interface connected to an external internetwork (another autonomous system) ABR (Area Border Router): Routers with interfaces attached to multiple areas.

11

OSPF Packet Types

Last week we discussed various OSPF packets, used for:
– – – – – Means for dynamic neighbor discovery Detect unreachable neighbors within a finite period of time Ensure two-way communications between neighbors Ensure correctness of basic interace parameters between neighbors Provide necessary information for the election of the Designated and Backup Designated routers on a LAN segement – Request link state information from another router – Sharing data base summary and detailed information – Acknowledge the receipt of an OSPF packet

OSPF Type-1 (Hello)

OSPF packet types

OSPF Type-2 (DBD)

OSPF Type-3 (LSR)

OSPF Type-4 (LSU)

OSPF Type-5 (LSAck)

12

6

OSPF Type 4 - Link State Advertisements

This week we will look at OSPF Type 4 packets more closely OSPF packet types

13

OSPF packet types (Extra)
OSPF Type-4 packets have 7 LSA packets (later)

14

7

LSA Types
LSAs used for discovering routes and reaching Full State, along with Maintain Routes

15

LSA Types
LSA Types 1 through 5 • We will look at these in detail as we discuss areas in this chapter. LSA Type 6 MOSPF (Multicast OSPF)

• Not supported by Cisco. • MOSPF enhances OSPF by letting routers use their link-state
databases to build multicast distribution trees for the forwarding of multicast traffic. LSA Type 7 NSSA External Link Entry

• Originated by an ASBR connected to an NSSA. • Type 7 messages can be flooded throughout NSSAs and translated • •
into LSA Type 5 messages by ABRs. Routes learned via Type-7 LSAs are denoted by either a “N1” or and “N2” in the routing table. (Compare to E1 and E2). We will discuss this more later when we look at NSSA areas.
16

8

Area Types

Standard or Normal Areas – Backbone – Non-Backbone Stub – Stub Area – Totally Stubby Area (TSA) – Not-so-stubby-area (NSSA)

17

Area Types

일반영역(Standard area): 링크 업데이트와 경로요약을 받아들이는 기본 영역 백본영역(Backbone area): 다중 영역들을 서로 연결할 때 연결된 다른 모든 영역에서 중간 매개자 역할 수행하며, 영역 0이다. 다른 모든 영역들은 반드시 백본 영역에 연결되어 경로 정보를 교환해야 하며, OSPF 백본은 일반 OSPF 영역들의 성질을 모두 갖고 있다. 스터비 영역(Stubby area): 비 OSPF 구역에서 보내오는 정보와 같은 OSPF 인터네트워크 외부 경로에 대한 정보를 받아들이지 않으며, 라우터가 AS 외부 네트워크로 향하는 경로 정보를 필요로 할 경우 default route(0.0.0.0/0) 를 이용한다. 완전 스터비 영역(TSA, Totally Stubby area): 다른 영역 내부에서 AS로 향하는 외부 AS 경로나 요약 경로를 수신하지 않는다. 영역 외부의 네트워크로 패킷을 전송할 필요가 있을 경우, 대신에 0.0.0.0/0의 기본 경로를 이용하여 전송한다. 이 영역은 시스코 고유의 영역이다. NSSA(Not-So-Stubby area): 스터비 영역과 유사하지만 유형 7 LSA에 해당하는 외부 경로의 유입을 허락하며, 특정 유형 7 LSA경로를 유형 5 LSA로 변환시킨다.
18

9

Part I - LSAs using all normal areas
Multi Area OSPF Normal Areas

19

Part I - LSAs using all normal areas
Routes Received on all OSPF Routers
Overview of Normal Areas – This will all be explained! Receives all routes from within A.S.: • Within the local area – LSA 1 and LSA 2 • From other areas (Inter-Area) – LSA 3, LSA 4, LSA 5 Receives all routes from External A.S.’s (External AS means routes not from this OSPF routing domain): • From external AS’s – LSA 5 • As long as routes are being redistributed by the ASBR (more later) Default Routes • Received only if default-information-originate command was used (later) • If default-information-originate command is not used, then the default route is not received
20

10

Part I - LSAs using all normal areas
• • •
Your Turn - In groups, examine running-configs Look at the running-configs for “1. OSPF Multi-Areas - All Normal Areas” Look at the OSPF network statements!

21

1. OSPF Multi-Areas - All Normal Areas
ASBR
router ospf 1 redistribute static network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 ! ip classless ip route 11.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0 ip route 12.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0 ip route 13.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0

ABR-2
interface FastEthernet0 ip address 172.16.1.3 255.255.255.0 ip ospf priority 100 ! router ospf 1 network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.10.4 0.0.0.3 area 1

Internal

ABR-1
interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.16.1.2 255.255.255.0 ip ospf priority 200 router ospf 1 network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.51.0 0.0.0.255 area 51

router ospf 1 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 1

ABR contains network statements for each area it belongs to, using the proper area value.

22

11

Understanding LSAs

show ip ospf database – This is not the link state database, only a summary. – It is a tool to help determine what routes are included in the routing table. – We will look at this output to learn the tool as well as become familiar with the different types of LSAs. – To view the link state database use: show ip ospf database [router|network|…]

LSA Header
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | LS age | Options | LS type | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Link State ID | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Advertising Router | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | LS sequence number | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | LS checksum | length | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
23

LSA 1 - Router Link States
• • •
LSA 1 – Router LSA Generated by each router for each area it belongs to. Describes the states of the links in the area to which this router belongs.
B

“Leaf” network
A

15

2
5

C

Router A’s LSA 1s which are flooded to all other routers in this area.

D

• • • •

Tells the other routers in the area about itself and its links to adjacent OSPF routers, and “leaf networks.” Flooded only within the area. On multi-access networks, sent to the DR. Denoted by just an “O” in the routing table or “C” if the network is directly connected. ABR will include a set of LSA 1’s for each area it belongs to.
24

12

LSA 1 - Router Link States
• When a new LSA 1 is received and installed in the LSDB, the router
forwards that LSA, using hop-by-hop or asynchronous flooding.

• The LSA is sent out all OSPF interfaces that are in the Exchange State
or a higher state.

• For interfaces in Exstart or lesser state, the router will wait until it is out
of Exstart.

25

LSA 1 - Router Link States
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | LS age | Options | 1 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Link State ID | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Advertising Router | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | LS sequence number | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | LS checksum | length | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 0 |V|E|B| 0 | # links | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Link ID | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Link Data | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Type | # TOS | metric | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | ... | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | TOS | 0 | TOS metric | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Link ID | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Link Data | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | ... | 26

13

LSA 1 - Router Link States
LSA 1’s being sent within Area 0
11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Multi Area OSPF Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

LSA 1
.2
Pri 200

ASBR .1 LSA

1
.3

LSA 1
ABR-2 .5 Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

.1

ABR-1

Pri 100

172.16.1.0/24 172.16.51.0/24

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal .1 Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

Area 51

172.16.20.0/24

Area 1
27

LSA 1 - Router Link States
LSA 1’s being sent within other areas
11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Multi Area OSPF Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

ASBR .1 .2

LSA 1
.1 ABR-1

.3
Pri 100

Pri 200

ABR-2 .5

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

172.16.1.0/24 172.16.51.0/24

LSA 1 LSA 1
.1

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

LSA 1

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

Area 51

172.16.20.0/24

Area 1
28

14

LSA 1 - Router Link States
LSA 1’s are flooded out other interfaces within the same area.
Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32 .2 .1 ABR-1
Pri 200 11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Multi Area OSPF Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

ASBR .1

.3
Pri 100

ABR-2 .5

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

172.16.1.0/24 172.16.51.0/24

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal .1

LSA 1 Originated
Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

Area 51

172.16.20.0/24

LSA 1 flooded
29

Area 1

LSA 1 - Router Link States For Router Links: • The Link State ID is always the same as the Advertising Router • Advertising Router is the Router ID of the router that created this LSA 1

Internal#show ip ospf data OSPF Router with ID (192.168.4.1) (Process ID 1) Router Link States (Area 1) <- Note the Area! (LSA 1 - Links in the area to which this router belongs.) Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Link count 192.168.3.1 192.168.3.1 898 0x80000003 0xCE56 2 192.168.4.1 192.168.4.1 937 0x80000003 0xFD44 3

• Bottom line: Router Link States (LSA1’s) should display all the •
RouterIDs of routers in that area, including its own. Rick’s reminder: LSA 1 -> “my one area”
30

15

LSA 1 - Router Link States
ABR-2#show ip ospf data OSPF Router with ID (192.168.3.1) (Process ID 1) Router Link States (Area 1) <- Note the Area! (LSA 1 - Links in the area to which this router belongs.) Link ID 192.168.3.1 192.168.4.1 ADV Router 192.168.3.1 192.168.4.1 Age 786 828 Seq# Checksum Link count 0x80000003 0xCE56 2 0x80000003 0xFD44 3

• Bottom line: Router Link States (LSA1’s) should display all the •
RouterIDs of routers in that area, including its own. Rick’s reminder: LSA 1 -> “my one area”
31

LSA 1 - Router Link States
ABR-2 - show ip route
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 3 masks 172.16.51.1/32 [110/2] via 172.16.1.2, 00:11:44, FastEthernet0 172.16.20.0/24 [110/782] via 172.16.10.6, 00:12:29, Serial0 172.16.10.4/30 is directly connected, Serial0 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0 E2 11.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.1.1, 00:11:44, FastEthernet0 E2 12.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.1.1, 00:11:44, FastEthernet0 E2 13.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.1.1, 00:11:44, FastEthernet0 192.168.3.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 192.168.3.1 is directly connected, Loopback1 O O C C O O O IA

• Denoted by just an “O” in the routing table, or a “C” • Why is there only just an”O” for this network and not the other
networks? – Directly connected or via another area.
32

16

Your Turn -Discuss in groups (LSA 1s)
• Using the Multi-area OSPF Lab Handout: “Lab 1. – OSPF • • • • •
Normal Areas” verify these results. Look at the link state database summary (show ip ospf database) commands and the Router Links States (LSA1s) for each router. Look at the routing tables (show ip route) and notice the routes within that router’s area. Why do some routers have more than one set of Router Links States? Where does “show ip ospf database” tell you the RouterID. Where does “show ip ospf database” tell you the Area.

33

LSA 2 - Network Link States
• • • • • •
LSA 2 – Network LSA Generated by the DR on every multi-access network Denoted by just an “O” in the routing table or “C” if the network is directly connected. Flooded only within the originating area. LSA 2’s are in link state database for all routers within area, even those routers on not on multi-access networks or DRs on other multi-access networks in the same area. ABR may include a set of LSA 2s for each area it belongs to.

34

17

LSA 2 - Network Link States
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | LS age | Options | 2 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Link State ID | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Advertising Router | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | LS sequence number | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | LS checksum | length | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Network Mask | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Attached Router | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | ... |

35

LSA 2 - Network Link States
No LSA 2’s for ABR-1 in Area 51, or for Internal because no other routers on multiaccess segment.
Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32
11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Multi Area OSPF Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

ASBR .1 LSA .2

2
.3 Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

DR
.1 ABR-1
Pri 200

LSA 2
Pri 100

LSA 2 flooded
172.16.1.0/24

ABR-2 .5

LSA 2

172.16.51.0/24

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

LSA 2 flooded DR

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal .1 Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

Area 51

172.16.20.0/24

Area 1
36

18

LSA 2 - Network Link States
ASBR#show ip ospf data OSPF Router with ID (192.168.1.1) (Process ID 1) Net Link States (Area 0) (LSA 2 - Generated by the DR) Link ID 172.16.1.2 ADV Router 192.168.2.1 Age 201 Seq# Checksum 0x8000000D 0xCFE8

• Link ID 172.16.1.2 = IP address of DR on MultiAccess Network • ADV Router 192.168.2.1 = Router ID of DR • Bottom line: Net Link States (LSA2’s) should display the RouterIDs of •
the DRs on all multi-access networks in the area and their IP addresses. Rick’s reminder: LSA 2 -> “Ethernet = Layer 2 or D R” 1 2
37

Your Turn -Discuss in groups (LSA 2s)
• Using the Multi-area OSPF Lab Handout: “Lab 1. – OSPF
Normal Areas” verify these results.

• Look at the link state database summary (show ip ospf • • •
database) commands and the Net Links States (LSA2s) for each router. Look at the routing tables (show ip route) and notice the multiaccess routes within that router’s area. Could a router have more than one entry in its listing of Net Links States? Could an area with a broadcast segment, still have no LSA 2’s?

38

19

LSA 3 – Summary Net Link States
• • • • • •
LSA 3 – Summary LSA Originated by the ABR. Describes links between ABR and Internal Routers of the Local Area ABR will include a set of LSA 3’s for each area it belongs to. LSA 3s are flooded throughout the backbone (Area 0) and to other ABRs. Routes learned via LSA type 3s are denoted by an “IA” (Inter-area) in the routing table.

39

LSA 3 – Summary Net Link States
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | LS age | Options | 3 or 4 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Link State ID | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Advertising Router | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | LS sequence number | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | LS checksum | length | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Network Mask | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 0 | metric | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | TOS | TOS metric | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | ... |
40

20

LSA 3 – Summary Net Link States

41

LSA 3 – Summary Net Link States
LSA 1’s are sent as LSA 3’s into other areas by the ABRs.
11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Multi Area OSPF Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

LSA 1
.2
Pri 200

ASBR .1 LSA

1
.3

LSA 1
ABR-2 .5 Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

.1

ABR-1

Pri 100

LSA 3
172.16.51.0/24

172.16.1.0/24

LSA 3

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal .1 Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

Area 51

172.16.20.0/24

Area 1
42

21

LSA 3 – Summary Net Link States
LSA 1’s are sent as LSA 3’s into other areas by the ABRs.
Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32
11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Multi Area OSPF Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

LSA 3
.2
Pri 200

ASBR .1 LSA

3
.3

LSA 3
ABR-2 .5 Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

LSA 1

.1

ABR-1

Pri 100

LSA 3
172.16.51.0/24

LSA 3 172.16.1.0/24
Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

LSA 1 LSA 1
Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

LSA 1 LSA 3

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal .1

Area 51

172.16.20.0/24

Area 1
43

LSA 1’s are sent as LSA 3’s into other areas by the ABRs.
Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Multi Area OSPF Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

LSA 3
.2
Pri 200

ASBR .1 LSA

3
.3

LSA 3
ABR-2 .5 Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

LSA 1

.1

ABR-1

Pri 100

LSA 3
172.16.51.0/24

LSA 3 172.16.1.0/24
Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

LSA 1 LSA 1
Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

LSA 1 LSA 3

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal .1

Area 51

172.16.20.0/24

Area 1

• • • •

Routers only see the topology of the area they belong to. When a link in one area changes, the adjacent routers originate in LSA 1’s and Area 1 flood them within the area, causing intra-area (internal) routers to re-run the SPF and recalculating the routing table. ABRs do not announce topological information between areas. ABRs only inject routing information into other areas, which is basically a distance-vector technique. 44

22

LSA 1’s are sent as LSA 3’s into other areas by the ABRs.
Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Multi Area OSPF Normal Areas

10.1.0.0/24

LSA 3
.2
Pri 200

ASBR .1 LSA

Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

3
.3

LSA 3
ABR-2 .5 Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

LSA 1

.1

ABR-1

Pri 100

LSA 3
172.16.51.0/24

172.16.1.0/24

LSA 3 LSA 1

LSA 1 LSA 1
Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal .1

Area 51

LSA 3

172.16.20.0/24

Area 1

• • • •

ABRs calculate intra-area routes for directly attached areas and announce them to all other areas as inter-area routes, using LSA 3’s. Area 1 OSPF ABRs will only announce inter-area routes that were learned from the backbone area, area 0. The backbone area serves as a repository for inter-area routes. This keeps OSPF safe from routing loops.
45

LSA 3 – Summary Net Link States
Don’t forget about the LSA 1’s from Area 0.
11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Multi Area OSPF Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

LSA 1
.2
Pri 200

ASBR .1 LSA

1
.3

LSA 3
.1 ABR-1

LSA 1
ABR-2 .5 Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

Pri 100

172.16.1.0/24 172.16.51.0/24

LSA 3

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal .1 Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

Area 51

172.16.20.0/24

Area 1
46

23

Area 0 Backbone Area

Normal Areas
RTB

LSA 1’s
RTA

LSA 3
Area 1 RTC

LSA 3
Area 51

• • • • •

Not ABR ABRs calculate intra-area routes for directly attached areas and announce them to all other areas as inter-area routes, using LSA 3’s. In normal operation, OSPF ABRs will only announce inter-area routes that were learned from the backbone area, area 0. RTC does not forward LSA 3’s from Area 1 to Area 51, and does not forward LSA 3’s from Area 51 to Area 1. The backbone area serves as a repository for inter-area routes. This keeps OSPF safe from routing loops.
47

Normal Areas
Area 0 Backbone Area

LSA 3
RTA RTB

LSA 1’s
Area 1 RTC

LSA 3
Area 51

Not ABR

• Example of an LSA 1 originated in Area 1, sent to Area 0 as an LSA 3,
and the sent to Area 51 as an LSA 3.

• RTC does not forward the LSA 3’s back into Area 1, or routing
loops may develop.

• Again, in normal operations, OSPF ABRs will only announce inter-area
routes that were learned from the backbone area, area 0.

• Note: RTC will create LSA 1’s and flood them within the appropriate
area.
48

24

Normal Areas
Area 0 Backbone Area

LSA 3
RTA

LSA 3
RTB

LSA 3 LSA 1’s Area 1
RTC

LSA 3
Area 51 LSA 1’s

Not ABR

• • • •

RTC does not forward LSA 1’s from Area 1 as LSA 3’s into Area 51. RTC does not forward LSA 1’s from Area 51 as LSA 3’s into Area 1. Any LSA 3’s from RTC are not forwarded into Area 0 by RTA or RTB. OSPF specification states that ABRs are restricted to considering LSA 3’s only from the backbone area to avoid routing information loops.

49

Update is sent to Area 0 and Area 51 routers using a “distance vector update technique.” SPF not re-run, but routers update routing table. Area 1 routers re-run SPF, creates new SPF tree and updates routing table.

Normal Areas
Area 0 Backbone Area

LSA 3
RTA RTB

LSA 1’s
Area 1 RTC

LSA 3
Area 51

X

Topology Change: Down Link • When a router detects a topology change it immediately sends out LSA 1’s (Router LSAs) with the change. • In the case of a down link, the age of the LSA is set to MaxAge (3,600 seconds) – Routers that receive LSAs with the age equal to MaxAge remove this entry from their LSDB (Link State Data Base). • Routers that receive the LSA 1’s, within the area of the change, re-run their SPF algorithm, to build a new SPF tree and then make the changes to their IP routing tables. (Continued next slide)
50

25

Update is sent to Area 0 and Area 51 routers using a “distance vector update technique.” SPF not re-run, but routers update routing table. Area 1 routers re-run SPF, creates new SPF tree and updates routing table.

Normal Areas
Area 0 Backbone Area

LSA 3
RTA RTB

LSA 1’s
Area 1 RTC

LSA 3
Area 51

X

Topology Change: Down Link • ABR RTA receives the LSA 1 and recalculate their SPF for that area, Area 1. • RTA floods the change as a LSA 3 within its other area, Area 0. • RTB receives the LSA 3 and floods it within Area 51. • Area 0 and Area 51 routers do not recalculate their SPFs, but inject the change into their routing tables. Note: LSA 3’s (and other Inter-Area routes) are viewed as “leaf nodes” in the SPF tree.
51

LSA 3 – Summary Net Link States
11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Multi Area OSPF Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32 .2 .1 ABR-1
Pri 200

ASBR .1

.3
Pri 100

ABR-2 .5

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

172.16.1.0/24 172.16.51.0/24

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal .1 Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

Area 51

172.16.20.0/24

Area 1
52

26

LSA 3 – Summary Net Link States
ASBR
ASBR# show ip ospf database Summary Net Link States (Area 0) Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# (Area 1 networks - Advertising Router ABR-2) 172.16.10.4 192.168.3.1 278 172.16.20.0 192.168.3.1 278 (Area 51 networks - Advertising Router ABR-1) 172.16.51.1 192.168.2.1 206 0x80000005 0xA832 Checksum

0x80000001 0xD126 0x80000001 0xA746

• • • • •

Link ID = IP network addresses of networks in other areas ADV Router = ABR Router ID sending the LSA-3 Divided by ABR Bottom line: Should see networks in other areas and the ABR advertising that route. Rick’s reminder: LSA 3 -> “networks sent by the A B R” 1 2 3 53

LSA 3 – Summary Net Link States
ASBR
ASBR# show ip route 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 3 masks O IA 172.16.51.1/32 [110/2] via 172.16.1.2, 00:02:54, FastEthernet0/0 O IA 172.16.20.0/24 [110/783] via 172.16.1.3, 00:02:54, FastEthernet0/0 O IA 172.16.10.4/30 [110/782] via 172.16.1.3, 00:02:54, FastEthernet0/0 C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 10.1.0.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1 S 11.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Null0 S 12.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Null0 192.168.1.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 192.168.1.1 is directly connected, Loopback0 S 13.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Null0

• Routes learned via LSA type 3s are denoted by an “IA” (Inter-Area
Routes) in the routing table.

54

27

Another example: non-area 0 router, Internal
Internal# show ip ospf database
LSA 3 - Generated by the ABR. Describes links between ABR and Internal Routers of the Local Area (Area 51 networks - Advertising Router ABR-2) Summary Net Link States (Area 1) Link ID 172.16.1.0 172.16.51.1 ADV Router 192.168.3.1 192.168.3.1 Age 848 843 Seq# Checksum 0x80000005 0xD339 0x80000001 0xB329

Internal# show ip route
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 3 masks 172.16.51.1/32 [110/783] via 172.16.10.5, 00:13:48, Serial0 172.16.20.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0 172.16.10.4/30 is directly connected, Serial0 172.16.1.0/24 [110/782] via 172.16.10.5, 00:13:53, Serial0 192.168.4.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 192.168.4.1 is directly connected, Loopback0 O E2 11.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.10.5, 00:14:41, Serial0 O E2 12.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.10.5, 00:14:41, Serial0 O E2 13.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.10.5, 00:14:42, Serial0 O IA C C O IA

55

Your Turn -Discuss in groups (LSA 3s)
• • • •
Using the Multi-area OSPF Lab Handout: “Lab 1. – OSPF Normal Areas” verify these results. Look at the link state database summary (show ip ospf database) commands and the Summary Net Links States (LSA3s) for each router. Look at the routing tables (show ip route) and notice the Interarea (IA) routes. Why do some routers have more than one set of Summary Net Links States?

56

28

LSA 4 – ASBR Summary Link States
• • • • • • •
LSA 4 – ASBR Summary LSA Originated by the ABR. Flooded throughout the backbone area to the other ABRs. Describes the reachability to the ASBRs Advertises an ASBR (Router ID) not a network Included in routing table as an “IA” route. Same format as a LSA 3 - Summary LSA, except LSA 4 ASBR Summary LSA the Network Mask field is always 0

Exceptions • Not flooded to Stub and Totally Stubby networks. • More on this later
57

LSA 4 – ASBR Summary Link States
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | LS age | Options | 3 or 4 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Link State ID | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Advertising Router | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | LS sequence number | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | LS checksum | length | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Network Mask | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 0 | metric | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | TOS | TOS metric | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | ... |

58

29

11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

LSA 5’s flooded
.2 .3
Pri 100 Pri 200

ASBR .1

LSA 4
.1 ABR-1

172.16.1.0/24 172.16.51.0/24

LSA 4

ABR-2 .5

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16 LSA 4

172.16.10.4/30 .6

LSA 4
.1

Area 51

Internal

Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

172.16.20.0/24

Area 1

• Flooded throughout the backbone area to the other ABRs. • Describes the reachability to the ASBRs Area 1 • How do the ABRs know about the ASBR? I am still researching this,
but I believe when routers receive an LSA 5 (AS External LSA) with external route information, the routers denote the Router ID being the ASBR.
59

LSA 4 – ASBR Summary Link States
ABR-2
ABR-2# show ip ospf database Summary ASB Link States (Area 1) LSA 4 - Reachability to ASBR. Not flooded to Stub and Totally Stubby networks. Link ID 192.168.1.1 ADV Router 192.168.3.1 Age 801 Seq# Checksum 0x80000003 0x93CC

• Link ID 192.168.1.1 = Router ID of ASBR • ADV Router 192.168.3.1 = Router ID ABR advertising route • Bottom line: Routers in non-area 0, should see Router ID of ASBR •
and its ABR to get there . Rick’s reminder: LSA 4 -> “Reachability to the A S B R” 1 2 3 4
60

30

LSA 4 – ASBR Summary Link States
Internal
Internal# show ip ospf database Summary ASB Link States (Area 1) LSA 4 - Reachability to ASBR. Not flooded to Stub and Totally Stubby networks. Link ID 192.168.1.1 ADV Router 192.168.3.1 Age 912 Seq# Checksum 0x80000003 0x93CC

• Link ID 192.168.1.1 = Router ID of ASBR • ADV Router 192.168.3.1 = Router ID ABR advertising route • Note: No LSA 4s for Area 0 on Router B

61

Your Turn -Discuss in groups (LSA 4s)
• Using the Multi-area OSPF Lab Handout: “Lab 1. – OSPF
Normal Areas” verify these results.

• Look at the link state database summary (show ip ospf
database) commands and the Summary Net Links States (LSA4s) for each router.

• Why do some routers have more than one set of Summary ASB • •
Links States and others may not (like RouterA and ASBR)? Which Area 0 routers have LSA 4’s in their LSDB? Why don’t some Area 0 routers have LSA 4’s in their LSDB?

62

31

LSA 5 - AS External Link States
• LSA 5 – AS External LSA • Originated by the ASBR. • Describes destination networks external to the Autonomous
System (This OSPF Routing Domain)

• Flooded throughout the OSPF AS except to stub and totally stubby • • •
areas Denoted in routing table as E1 or E2 (default) route (soon) We will discuss default routes later. ASBR – Router which “redistributes” routes into the OSPF domain.

Exceptions • Not flooded to Stub and Totally Stubby networks. • More on this later

63

LSA 5 - AS External Link States
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | LS age | Options | 5 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Link State ID | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Advertising Router | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | LS sequence number | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | LS checksum | length | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Network Mask | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |E| 0 | metric | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Forwarding address | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | External Route Tag | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |E| TOS | TOS metric | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Forwarding address | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | External Route Tag | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | ... | 64

32

11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32 .2 .1 ABR-1
Pri 200

ASBR .1

.3
Pri 100

ABR-2 .5

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

172.16.1.0/24 172.16.51.0/24

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal .1 Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

Area 51

ASBR router ospf 1 redistribute static network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 ip route 11.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0 ip route 12.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0 ip route 13.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0

172.16.20.0/24

Area 1

65

ASBR router ospf 1 redistribute static network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 ip route 11.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0 ip route 12.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0 ip route 13.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0

11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

ASBR .1 .2

LSA 5’s flooded
.3
Pri 100

LSA 5
.1

LSA 5
ABR-1
Pri 200

172.16.1.0/24 172.16.51.0/24

LSA 5

ABR-2 .5

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

172.16.10.4/30 .6

LSA 5
.1

LSA 5

Area 51

Internal

Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

172.16.20.0/24

• • • •

“Redistribute” command creates an ASBR router. Area 1 Originated by the ASBR. Describes destination networks external to the OSPF Routing Domain Flooded throughout the OSPF AS except to stub and totally stubby areas
66

33

LSA 5 - AS External Link States ABR-2
ABR-2# show ip ospf database

AS External Link States

<- Note, NO Area!

LSA 5 - External Networks originated by the ASBR, Flooded throughout A.S. except to Stub and Totally Stubby
Link ID 11.0.0.0 12.0.0.0 13.0.0.0 ADV Router 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.1 Age 1191 1191 1191 Seq# 0x80000001 0x80000001 0x80000001 Checksum 0x3FEA 0x32F6 0x2503 Tag 0 0 0

• • • • •

Link ID = External Networks ADV Router = Router ID of ASBR Note: For ABRs: There is only one set of “AS External Link States” in database summary. In other words, an ABR router will only show one set of “AS External Link States,” not one per area. Bottom line: All Routers should see External networks and the Router ID of ASBR to get there . Rick’s reminder: LSA 5 -> O T H E R networks 1 2 345
67

LSA 5 - AS External Link States
ABR-2
ABR-2# show ip route
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 3 masks IA 172.16.51.1/32 [110/2] via 172.16.1.2, 00:11:44, FastEthernet0 172.16.20.0/24 [110/782] via 172.16.10.6, 00:12:29, Serial0 172.16.10.4/30 is directly connected, Serial0 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0 E2 11.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.1.1, 00:11:44, FastEthernet0 E2 12.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.1.1, 00:11:44, FastEthernet0 E2 13.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.1.1, 00:11:44, FastEthernet0 192.168.3.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 192.168.3.1 is directly connected, Loopback1 O O C C O O O

• • •

Designated by “E2” Notice that the cost is 20 for all three routes, we will see why later. It has to do with E2 routes and where the default cost is 20. – Redistribute command (Route Optimization chapter): If a value is not specified for the metric option, and no value is specified using the defaultmetric command, the default metric value is 0, except for OSPF where the default cost is 20.
68

34

LSA 5 - AS External Link States
Internal# show ip ospf database Type-5 AS External Link States LSA 5 - External Networks originated by the ASBR, Flooded throughout A.S. except to Stub and Totally Stubby
Link ID 11.0.0.0 12.0.0.0 13.0.0.0 ADV Router 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.1 Age 1191 1191 1191 Seq# 0x80000001 0x80000001 0x80000001 Checksum 0x3FEA 0x32F6 0x2503 Tag 0 0 0

Internal# show ip route
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 3 masks O IA 172.16.51.1/32 [110/783] via 172.16.10.5, 00:13:48, Serial0 C 172.16.20.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0 C 172.16.10.4/30 is directly connected, Serial0 O IA 172.16.1.0/24 [110/782] via 172.16.10.5, 00:13:53, Serial0 192.168.4.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 192.168.4.1 is directly connected, Loopback0 O E2 11.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.10.5, 00:14:41, Serial0 O E2 12.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.10.5, 00:14:41, Serial0 O E2 13.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.10.5, 00:14:42, Serial0

69

LSA 5 - AS External Link States
E1 vs. E2 External Routes

• External routes fall under two categories:
– external type 1 – external type 2 (default)

• The difference between the two is in the way the cost (metric) of the
route is being calculated.

• The cost of a type 2 route is always the external cost, irrespective of
the interior cost to reach that route.

• A type 1 cost is the addition of the external cost and the internal cost
used to reach that route.

• A type 1 route is always preferred over a type 2 route for the same
destination.

• More later…

70

35

Your Turn -Discuss in groups (LSA 5s)
• Using the Multi-area OSPF Lab Handout: “Lab 1. – OSPF • •
Normal Areas” verify these results. Look at the link state database summary (show ip ospf database) commands and the AS External Links States (LSA5s) for each router. Also, look at the routing tables for each router.

• How many sets of LSA 5s does the ABRs have in their link state
summary database? Notice the ASBRs entries.

71

Stub Areas
Considerations for both Stub and Totally Stubby Areas

• An area could be qualified a stub when:
– There is a single exit point (a single ABR) from that area. More than one ABR can be used, but be ready to “accept non-optimal routing paths.” – If routing to outside of the area does not have to take an optimal path.

• • • •

The area is not needed as a transit area for virtual links (later). The ASBR is not within the stub area The area is not the backbone area (area 0) Stub areas will result in memory and processing savings depending upon the size of the network.

72

36

11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

10.1.0.0/24 Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32 .2 .1 ABR-1
Pri 200

ASBR .1

.3
Pri 100

ABR-2 .5

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

172.16.1.0/24 172.16.51.0/24

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal .1 Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

Area 51

172.16.20.0/24

Stub Area
Area 1

73

Stub Areas
Receives all routes from within A.S.: • Within the local area - LSA 1s and LSA 2s (if appropriate) • From other areas (Inter-Area) - LSA 3s Does not receive routes from External A.S. (External Routes). ABR: • ABR blocks all LSA 4s and LSA 5s. • ‘If LSA 5s are not known inside an area, LSA 4s are not necessary.’ • LSA 3s are propagated by the ABR. Note: Default route is automatically injected into stub area by ABR – External Routes: Once the ABR gets a packet headed to a default route, it must have a default route, either static or propagated by the ASBR via default information originate (coming!) Configuration: • All routers in the area must be configured as “stub”
74

37

Stub Areas
ABR-2 router ospf 1 network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.10.4 0.0.0.3 area 1 area 1 stub << Command: area area stub Internal router ospf 1 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 1 area 1 stub << Command: area area stub

All routers in the area must be configured as “stub” including the ABR
75

11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

10.1.0.0/24 Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

ASBR .1 .2
Pri 200

LSA 3

LSA 4
.1 ABR-1

.3
Pri 100

LSA 5
172.16.51.0/24

ABR-2 LSA 4 .5 LSA 5 LSA 3 172.16.1.0/24 Blocked X X Blocked 172.16.10.4/30

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

Area 0

Area 51

172.16.0.0/16

Default Lo route to - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32 Internal .1 ABR Stub Area 172.16.20.0/24 injected Area 1

.6

• • • •

LSA 3s (Inter-Area routes) are propagated by the ABR. ABR blocks all LSA 4s (reachabilitly to ASBR) and Area 1 (External routes) LSA 5s The ABR injects a default route into the stub area, pointing to the ABR. (This does not mean the ABR has a default route of its own.) Essentially, internal routers in a Stub Area only see Inter-Area OSPF routes and the default route to the ABR – No External routes.
76

38

11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

10.1.0.0/24 Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

ASBR .1 .2
Pri 200

LSA 3

LSA 4
.1 ABR-1

.3

LSA 5
172.16.51.0/24

Pri 100 ABR-2 LSA 4 .5 LSA 5 LSA 3 172.16.1.0/24 Blocked X X Blocked 172.16.10.4/30

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

Area 0

Area 51

Default Lo route to - RouterID 172.16.0.0/16 192.168.4.1/32 Internal .1 ABR Stub Area 172.16.20.0/24 injected
Area 1

.6

• Changes in External routes no longer affect Stub Area routing tables.
77

Stub Areas
Internal
Internal# show ip ospf database Summary Net Link States (Area 1) LSA 3 - Generated by the ABR. Describes links between ABR and Internal Routers of the Local Area Link ID ADV Router Age Default Route – Advertised by ABR-1 0.0.0.0 192.168.3.1 243 Area 0 networks - Advertised by ABR-1 172.16.1.0 192.168.3.1 243 Area 51 networks - Advertised by ABR-1 172.16.51.1 192.168.3.1 243 Seq# Checksum

0x80000001 0x8A46 0x80000006 0xEF1E 0x80000002 0xCF0E

• Notice that there are no LSA 4s or LSA 5s for stub area routers. • Default Route injected by ABR (LSA 3)

78

39

Stub Areas
Internal
Internal# show ip route Gateway of last resort is 172.16.10.5 to network 0.0.0.0 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 3 masks 172.16.51.1/32 [110/783] via 172.16.10.5, 00:03:08, Serial0 172.16.20.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0 172.16.10.4/30 is directly connected, Serial0 172.16.1.0/24 [110/782] via 172.16.10.5, 00:03:08, Serial0 192.168.4.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 192.168.4.1 is directly connected, Loopback0 O*IA 0.0.0.0/0 [110/782] via 172.16.10.5, 00:03:08, Serial0 O IA C C O IA

NOTE on default route: • ABR will advertise a default route with a cost of 1 • cost of 65 = 1 + 64 (serial link) • Using bandwidth of 128K, not 64K: 782 = (100,000,000/128,000) + 1
79

Stub Areas
ABR-2
ABR-2# show ip route Gateway of last resort is not set 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 3 masks O IA 172.16.51.1/32 [110/2] via 172.16.1.2, 00:01:59,FastEthernet0 O 172.16.20.0/24 [110/782] via 172.16.10.6, 00:01:59, Serial0 C 172.16.10.4/30 is directly connected, Serial0 C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0 O E2 11.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.1.1, 00:01:59, FastEthernet0 O E2 12.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.1.1, 00:01:59, FastEthernet0 O E2 13.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.1.1, 00:01:59, FastEthernet0 192.168.3.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 192.168.3.1 is directly connected, Loopback1

• Notice, there is no automatic default route on ABR, as there are with the
internal stub routers.

80

40

Your Turn -Discuss in groups (Stub)
• Using the Multi-area OSPF Lab Handout: “Lab 2. – OSPF Stub •
Area. Look at the link state database summary (show ip ospf database) commands and the Summary Net Links States (LSA 3s).

Note: A Stub area may have more than one ABR, but because of the default route, the internal routers will not be able to determine which router is the optimal gateway outside the AS and end up load balancing between the multiple ABRs.

81

Totally Stubby Areas
“Cisco proprietary”, however the RFC does make some provisions for this as an optional feature.. Same considerations as with Stub areas: • An area could be qualified a stub when there is a single exit point (a single ABR) from that area or if routing to outside of the area does not have to take an optimal path.

• • • •

The area is not needed as a transit area for virtual links (later). The ASBR is not within the stub area The area is not the backbone area (area 0) Stub areas will result in memory and processing savings depending upon the size of the network. - This is even more true with Totally Stubby areas

82

41

11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

10.1.0.0/24 Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32 .2 .1 ABR-1
Pri 200

ASBR .1

.3
Pri 100

ABR-2 .5

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

172.16.1.0/24 172.16.51.0/24

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal .1 Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

Area 51

172.16.20.0/24

Totally Stubby Area
Area 1

83

Totally Stubby Areas
Receives routes from within A.S.: • Only from within the local area - LSA 1s and LSA 2s (if appropriate) • Does not receive routes from other areas (Inter-Area) - LSA 3s Does not receive routes from External A.S. (External Routes) ABR: • ABR blocks all LSA 4s and LSA 5s. • ABR blocks all LSA 3s, except propagating a default route. • Default route is injected into totally stubby area by ABR. Configuring: • All routers must be configured as “stub” • ABR must be configured as “stub no-summary”

84

42

Totally Stubby Areas
ABR-2 router ospf 1 network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.10.4 0.0.0.3 area 1 area 1 stub no-summary ^^ Command: area area stub no-summary

Internal router ospf 1 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 1 area 1 stub ^^ Command: area area stub

85

11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

10.1.0.0/24 Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

ASBR .1 .2
Pri 200

LSA 3

LSA 4
.1 ABR-1

.3
Pri 100

LSA 5
172.16.51.0/24

ABR-2 LSA 4 .5 LSA 5 LSA 3 172.16.1.0/24 Blocked X X 172.16.10.4/30 X Blocked

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

Area 0

Area 51

Default Lo route to - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32 Internal .1 ABR Totally Stubby Area 172.16.20.0/24 injected Area 1
172.16.0.0/16

.6

• • • •

LSA 3s (Inter-Area routes) are blocked by the ABR. Area 1 ABR blocks all LSA 4s (reachability to ASBR) and LSA 5s (External routes) The ABR injects a default route (LSA 3) into the stub area, pointing to the ABR. (This does not mean the ABR has a default route of its own.) Essentially, internal routers in a Totally Stubby Area only see the default route to the ABR.
86

43

11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

10.1.0.0/24 Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

ASBR .1 .2
Pri 200

LSA 3

LSA 4
.1 ABR-1

.3

LSA 5
172.16.51.0/24

Pri 100 ABR-2 LSA 4 .5 LSA 5 LSA 3 172.16.1.0/24 Blocked X X 172.16.10.4/30 X Blocked

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

Area 0

Area 51

Default Lo route to - RouterID 172.16.0.0/16 192.168.4.1/32 Internal .1 ABR Totally Stubby Area 172.16.20.0/24 injected Area 1
Area 1

.6

• Changes in any networks outside the Totally Stubby Area no longer
affects the Totally Stubby routing tables.
87

Totally Stubby Areas
Internal
Internal# show ip ospf database Summary Net Link States (Area 1) LSA 3 - Generated by the ABR. Describes links between ABR and Internal Routers of the Local Area Link ID ADV Router Age Default Route – Advertised by ABR-2 0.0.0.0 192.168.3.1 205 Seq# Checksum

0x80000003 0x8648

Default Route injected by ABR (LSA 3)

• • •

Default route is injected into totally stubby area by ABR for all other networks (inter-area and external routes) Does not receive routes from other areas (Inter-Area) Does not receive routes from External A.S. (External Routes)

88

44

Totally Stubby Areas
Internal
Internal# show ip route Gateway of last resort is 172.16.10.5 to network 0.0.0.0 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks 172.16.20.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0 172.16.10.4/30 is directly connected, Serial0 192.168.4.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 192.168.4.1 is directly connected, Loopback0 O*IA 0.0.0.0/0 [110/782] via 172.16.10.5, 00:03:09, Serial0 C C

• • •

Default route is injected into totally stubby area by ABR for all other networks (inter-area and external routes) Does not receive routes from other areas (Inter-Area) Does not receive routes from External A.S. (External Routes)

89

Totally Stubby Areas
ABR-2
ABR-2# show ip route Gateway of last resort is not set 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 3 masks O IA 172.16.51.1/32 [110/2] via 172.16.1.2, 00:02:35,FastEthernet0 O 172.16.20.0/24 [110/782] via 172.16.10.6, 00:02:35, Serial0 C 172.16.10.4/30 is directly connected, Serial0 C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0 O E2 11.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.1.1, 00:02:35, FastEthernet0 O E2 12.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.1.1, 00:02:35, FastEthernet0 O E2 13.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.1.1, 00:02:35, FastEthernet0 192.168.3.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 192.168.3.1 is directly connected, Loopback1

• ABR will forward Intra-Area routes (to other areas within AS) • Notice, there is not an automatic default route in the ABR’s routing
table like there is with the internal Totally Stubby routers.

90

45

OSPF design considerations
OSPF Design Tips

• Different people have different approaches to designing OSPF
networks.

• The important thing to remember is that any protocol can fail
under pressure.

• “The idea is not to challenge the protocol but rather to work with
it in order to get the best behavior.” CCO

91

OSPF design considerations
Number of Routers per Area The maximum number of routers per area depends on several factors, including the following:

• • • • • • •

What kind of area do you have? What kind of CPU power do you have in that area? What kind of media? Will you be running OSPF in NBMA mode? Is your NBMA network meshed? Do you have a lot of external LSAs in the network? Are other areas well summarized?

For this reason, it's difficult to specify a maximum number of routers per area.

92

46

OSPF design considerations
Stub and Totally Stubby Areas: • An area could be qualified a stub when there is a single exit point (a single ABR) from that area or if routing to outside of the area does not have to take an optimal path.

• • • •

The area is not needed as a transit area for virtual links (later). The ASBR is not within the stub area The area is not the backbone area (area 0) Stub areas will result in memory and processing savings depending upon the size of the network. - This is even more true with Totally Stubby areas

• Totally Stubby areas is a Cisco enhancement.

93

Quick Review
• • • •
Areas LSAs Stub Area Totally Stubby Area

94

47

LSA-1 - Router LSA

95

LSA 1 - Router Link States
LSA 1’s being sent within Area 0
11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Multi Area OSPF Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

LSA 1
.2
Pri 200

ASBR .1 LSA

1
.3

LSA 1
ABR-2 .5 Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

.1

ABR-1

Pri 100

172.16.1.0/24 172.16.51.0/24

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal .1 Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

Area 51

172.16.20.0/24

Area 1
96

48

LSA 1 - Router Link States
LSA 1’s being sent within other areas
11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Multi Area OSPF Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

ASBR .1 .2

LSA 1
.1 ABR-1

.3
Pri 100

Pri 200

ABR-2 .5

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

172.16.1.0/24 172.16.51.0/24

LSA 1 LSA 1
.1

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

LSA 1

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

Area 51

172.16.20.0/24

Area 1
97

LSA 1 - Router Link States
LSA 1’s are flooded out other interfaces within the same area.
Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32 .2 .1 ABR-1
Pri 200 11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Multi Area OSPF Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

ASBR .1

.3
Pri 100

ABR-2 .5

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

172.16.1.0/24 172.16.51.0/24

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal .1

LSA 1 Originated
Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

Area 51

172.16.20.0/24

LSA 1 flooded
98

Area 1

49

LSA-2 - Network LSA

99

LSA 2 - Network Link States
No LSA 2’s for ABR-1 in Area 51, or for Internal because no other routers on multiaccess segment.
Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32
11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Multi Area OSPF Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

ASBR .1 LSA .2

2
.3 Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

DR
.1 ABR-1
Pri 200

LSA 2
Pri 100

LSA 2 flooded
172.16.1.0/24

ABR-2 .5

LSA 2

172.16.51.0/24

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

LSA 2 flooded DR

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal .1 Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

Area 51

172.16.20.0/24

Area 1
100

50

LSA-3 - Summary LSA

101

LSA 3 – Summary Net Link States
LSA 1’s are sent as LSA 3’s into other areas by the ABRs.
11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Multi Area OSPF Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

LSA 1
.2
Pri 200

ASBR .1 LSA

1
.3

LSA 1
ABR-2 .5 Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

.1

ABR-1

Pri 100

LSA 3
172.16.51.0/24

172.16.1.0/24

LSA 3

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal .1 Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

Area 51

172.16.20.0/24

Area 1
102

51

LSA 3 – Summary Net Link States
LSA 1’s are sent as LSA 3’s into other areas by the ABRs.
Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32
11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Multi Area OSPF Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

LSA 3
.2
Pri 200

ASBR .1 LSA

3
.3

LSA 3
ABR-2 .5 Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

LSA 1

.1

ABR-1

Pri 100

LSA 3
172.16.51.0/24

LSA 3 172.16.1.0/24
Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

LSA 1 LSA 1
Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

LSA 1 LSA 3

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal .1

Area 51

172.16.20.0/24

Area 1
103

LSA 3 – Summary Net Link States
Don’t forget about the LSA 1’s from Area 0.
11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Multi Area OSPF Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

LSA 1
.2
Pri 200

ASBR .1 LSA

1
.3

LSA 3
.1 ABR-1

LSA 1
ABR-2 .5 Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

Pri 100

172.16.1.0/24 172.16.51.0/24

LSA 3

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal .1 Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

Area 51

172.16.20.0/24

Area 1
104

52

LSA-4 – ASBR Summary LSA

105

11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

LSA 5’s flooded
.2 .3
Pri 100 Pri 200

ASBR .1

LSA 4
.1 ABR-1

172.16.1.0/24 172.16.51.0/24

LSA 4

ABR-2 .5

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

172.16.10.4/30 .6

LSA 4
.1

LSA 4

Area 51

Internal

Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

172.16.20.0/24

Area 1

• Flooded throughout the backbone area to the other ABRs. • Describes the reachability to the ASBRs Area 1

106

53

LSA-5 - External LSA

107

11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32 .2 .1 ABR-1
Pri 200

ASBR .1

.3
Pri 100

ABR-2 .5

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

172.16.1.0/24 172.16.51.0/24

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Internal .1 Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

Area 51

ASBR router ospf 1 redistribute static network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 ip route 11.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0 ip route 12.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0 ip route 13.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0

172.16.20.0/24

Area 1

108

54

ASBR router ospf 1 redistribute static network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 ip route 11.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0 ip route 12.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0 ip route 13.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Null0

11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

Normal Areas
Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

10.1.0.0/24

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

ASBR .1 .2

LSA 5’s flooded
.3
Pri 100

LSA 5
.1

LSA 5
ABR-1
Pri 200

172.16.1.0/24 172.16.51.0/24

LSA 5

ABR-2 .5

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

Area 0 172.16.0.0/16 LSA 5

172.16.10.4/30 .6

LSA 5
.1

Area 51

Internal

Lo - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32

172.16.20.0/24

• • • •

“Redistribute” command creates an ASBR router. Area 1 Originated by the ASBR. Describes destination networks external to the OSPF Routing Domain Flooded throughout the OSPF AS except to stub and totally stubby areas
109

Stub Area

110

55

11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

10.1.0.0/24 Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

ASBR .1 .2
Pri 200

LSA 3

LSA 4
.1 ABR-1

.3

LSA 5
172.16.51.0/24

Pri 100 ABR-2 LSA 4 .5 LSA 5 LSA 3 172.16.1.0/24 Blocked X X Blocked 172.16.10.4/30

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

Area 0

Area 51

Default Lo route to - RouterID 172.16.0.0/16 192.168.4.1/32 Internal .1 ABR Stub Area 172.16.20.0/24 injected
Area 1

.6

111

Totally Stubby Area

112

56

11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

10.1.0.0/24 Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

ASBR .1 .2
Pri 200

LSA 3

LSA 4
.1 ABR-1

.3

LSA 5
172.16.51.0/24

Pri 100 ABR-2 LSA 4 .5 LSA 5 LSA 3 172.16.1.0/24 Blocked X X 172.16.10.4/30 X Blocked

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

Area 0

Area 51

Default Lo route to - RouterID 172.16.0.0/16 192.168.4.1/32 Internal .1 ABR Totally Stubby Area 172.16.20.0/24 injected Area 1
Area 1

.6

113

Next
• • • • • • • • •
E1 and E2 routes Default Routes Route Summarization NSSA (Not So Stubby Areas) Multiple ABR Scenario Multiple ASBR Scenario Virtual Links Load Balancing show commands

114

57

NSSA (Not So Stubby Area)
NSSA Area 2 RTH Backbone Area Area 0

RIP
RTE

RTG ASBR

RTD RTB ABR RTF RTC RTA (Possible ASBR)

115

NSSA (Not So Stubby Area)
• Relatively new, standards based OSPF enhancement, RFC 1587. • NSSA allows an area to remain a stub area, but carry external routing • • • • •
information (Type 7 LSAs) from its stubby end back towards the OSPF backbone. ASBR in NSSA injects external routing information into the backbone and the NSSA area, but rejects external routing information coming from the ABR. The ABR does not inject a default route into the NSSA. – This is true for a NSSA Stub, but a default route is injected for a NSSA Totally Stubby area. Note: RFC 1587, “A default route must not be injected into the NSSA as a summary (type-3) LSA as in the stub area case.” What??? Following scenario is only example of how NSSA works. For the purposes of learning about NSSAs, don’t get hung up on the why’s and what if’s.
116

58

Default route via RTG
RTH

NSSA Area 2

Backbone Area Area 0

RIP
RTE

RTG ASBR

RTD RTB ABR RTF RTC RTA (Possible ASBR)

NSSA Stub Area

• • • • •

Area 2 would like to be a stub network. RTH only supports RIP, so RTG will run RIP and redistribute those routes in OSPF. Unfortunately, this makes the area 2 router, RTG, an ASBR and therefore area 2 can no longer be a stub area. RTH does not need to learn routes from OSPF, a default route to RTG is all it needs. But all OSPF routers must know about the networks attached to the RIP router, RTH, to route packets to them.
117

Default route via RTG
RTH

NSSA Area 2

Backbone Area Area 0

RIP
RTE

LSA 7 LSA 7

RTG ASBR

RTD

LSA 5
RTB ABR RTA (Possible ASBR)

LSA 7 LSA 7
RTF RTC

LSA 7

LSA 7

LSA 7s Blocked

NSSA Stub Area (cont.) • NSSA allow external routes to be advertised into the OSPF AS while retaining
• • •
the characteristics of a stub area to the rest of the OSPF AS. ASBR RTG will originate Type-7 LSAs to advertise the external destinations. These LSA 7s are flooded through the NSSA but are blocked by the NSSA ABR. The NSSA ABR translates LSA 7s into LSA 5s and flood other areas.
118

59

Default route via RTG
RTH

NSSA Area 2

Backbone Area Area 0

RIP
RTE

LSA 7 LSA 7

RTG ASBR

RTD

LSA 5
RTB ABR RTA (Possible ASBR)

LSA 7 LSA 7
RTF RTC

LSA 7

LSA 7

LSA 7s Blocked

Type 7 LSA NSSA External Link Entry • Originated by an ASBR connected to an NSSA. • Type 7 messages can be flooded throughout NSSAs and translated into LSA Type 5 messages by ABRs. • Routes learned via Type-7 LSAs are denoted by either a default “N1” or an “N2” in the routing table. (Relative to E1 and E2).
119

NSSA Generic
Default route via RTG
RTH NSSA Area 2 Backbone Area Area 0

RIP
RTE

LSA 7 LSA 7

RTG ASBR

RTD

LSA 5
RTB ABR RTA (Possible ASBR)

LSA 7 LSA 7
RTF RTC

LSA 7

LSA 7

LSA 7s Blocked

Configuring NSSA Stub Area
Configured for all routers in Area 2: router ospf 1 network 172.16.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 2 area 2 nssa
120

60

NSSA (Not So Stubby Area)
NSSA Stub and NSSA Totally Stubby

There are two flavors in NSSA:

– Stub – Totally Stubby

• •

Area 2 routers may or may not receive Inter-area routes from RTA, depending upon NSSA configuration NSSA areas have take on the same characteristics as stub and totally stubby areas, along with the characteristics of NSSA areas.

121

NSSA –Stub
NSSA stub areas:

• NSSAs that block type 4 and 5, but allow type 3. • To make a stub area into an NSSA, use the following command under
the OSPF configuration.

• This command must be configured on all routers in area 2.
router ospf 1 area 2 nssa

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61

NSSA Stub Areas
Default route via RTG
RTH

NSSA Area 2

Backbone Area Area 0

LSA 3s
RTH routes:N1/N2

RIP
RTE

LSA 4s & LSA 5s
LSA 7

0.0.0.0/0
LSA 7 LSA 5
RTB ABR

X X

RTH routes: E1/E2

RTG ASBR

RTD

LSA 7 LSA 7
RTF RTC

LSA 7

LSA 7

LSA 7s Blocked

RTA (Possible ASBR)

NSSA Stub Area Routing Tables:

• • • • •

RTG: Area 2 routes, Area 0 routes (IA), RTH RIP routes

– No 0.0.0.0/0 (IA) route from RTB (ABR), despite documentation
Area 2 Internal Routers: Area 2 routes, RTH routes (N1/N2), Area 0 routes (IA)

– No 0.0.0.0/0 (IA) route from RTB (ABR), despite documentation
RTB: Area 2 routes, Area 0 routes, RTH routes (N1/N2), External routes if redistributed from RTA ASBR (E1/E2) RTA: Area 0 routes, Area 2 routes, RTH routes (E1/E2), External routes if redistributed from RTA (E1/E2) Note: Area 2 routers may or may not receive E1/E2 routes from RTA, depending upon NSSA configuration (next).
123

NSSA Stub Areas
Default route via RTG
RTH NSSA Area 2 Backbone Area Area 0

LSA 3s
RTH routes:N1/N2

RIP
RTE

LSA 4s & LSA 5s
LSA 7

0.0.0.0/0
LSA 7 LSA 5
RTB ABR

X X

RTH routes: E1/E2

RTG ASBR

RTD

LSA 7 LSA 7
RTF RTC

LSA 7

LSA 7

LSA 7s Blocked

RTA (Possible ASBR)

Area 2 routers: router ospf 1 network 172.16.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 2 area 2 nssa

124

62

NSSA – Totally Stubby
NSSA Totally Stubby Area

• •

NSSA totally stub areas: Allow only summary default routes and filters everything else. To configure an NSSA totally stub area, use the following command under the OSPF configuration on the NSSA ABR:

router ospf 1 area 2 nssa no-summary • •
Configure this command on NSSA ABRs only. All other routers in area 2 (internal area 2 routers):

router ospf 1 area 2 nssa •
After defining the NSSA totally stub area, area 2 has the following characteristics (in addition to the above NSSA characteristics):

• •

No type 3 or 4 summary LSAs are allowed in area 2. This means no inter-area routes are allowed in area 2. A default route is injected into the NSSA totally stub area as a type 3 summary LSA by the ABR.
125

NSSA Totally Stubby Areas
Default route via RTG
RTH NSSA Area 2 Backbone Area Area 0

LSA 3s
RTH routes: N1/N2

RIP
RTE

LSA 7

X X 0.0.0.0/0
LSA 7
RTB ABR

LSA 4s & LSA 5s
RTH routes: E1/E2 LSA 5
RTA (Possible ASBR)

RTG ASBR

RTD

LSA 7 LSA 7
RTF RTC

LSA 7

LSA 7

LSA 7s Blocked

RTB (ABR): router ospf 1 network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 2 ... area 2 nssa no-summary Area 2 routers: router ospf 1 network 172.16.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 2 area 2 nssa
126

63

NSSA Totally Stubby Areas
Default route via RTG
RTH NSSA Area 2 Backbone Area Area 0

LSA 3s
RTH routes: N1/N2

RIP
RTE

LSA 7

X X 0.0.0.0/0
LSA 7
RTB ABR

LSA 4s & LSA 5s
RTH routes: E1/E2 LSA 5
RTA (Possible ASBR)

RTG ASBR

RTD

LSA 7 LSA 7
RTF RTC

LSA 7

LSA 7

LSA 7s Blocked

NSSA Totally Stubby Area Routing Tables:

• • • •

RTG: Area 2 routes, RTH RIP routes, 0.0.0.0/0 (IA) route from RTB (ABR)

– Totally Stubby: No Area 0 routes or external routes from RTA
Area 2 Internal Routers: Area 2 routes, RTH routes (N1/N2), 0.0.0.0/0 (IA) route from RTB (ABR)

– Totally Stubby: No Area 0 routes or external routes from RTA
RTB: Area 2 routes, Area 0 routes, RTH routes (N1/N2), External routes from RTA ASBR (E1/E2) if redistributed by ASBR RTA: Area 0 routes, Area 2 routes, RTH routes (E1/E2), External routes (E1/E2)
127

For More on NSSA
For more examples • See NSSA document on my web site for more info.

200.200.200.0/24

RTE RIP Default Route
10.0.0.0/8

Area 2 NSSA

Area 0

RTD
172.16.3.0/24

RTC
172.16.2.0/24

RTB
172.16.1.0/24

RTA
222.222.222.0/24

128

64

Virtual Links

129

Virtual Links

• All areas in an OSPF autonomous system must be physically
connected to the backbone area (area 0).

• In some cases where this is not possible, you can use a virtual link to
connect to the backbone through a non-backbone area.

• As mentioned above, you can also use virtual links to connect two
parts of a partitioned backbone through a non-backbone area.

• The area through which you configure the virtual link, known as a
transit area, must have full routing information.

• Must be configured between two ABRs. • The transit area cannot be a stub area.
130

65

Virtual Links

• A virtual link has the following two requirements:
– It must be established between two routers that share a common area and are both ABRs. – One of these two routers must be connected to the backbone. Doyle, “should be used only as a temporary fix to an unavoidable topology problem.”

131

Virtual Links

The command to configure a virtual link is as follows:
area <area-id> virtual-link <remote-router-id>
RTA(config)#router ospf 1 RTA(config-router)#network 192.168.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 51 RTA(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 3 RTA(config-router)#area 3 virtual-link 10.0.0.1 ... RTB(config)#router ospf 1 RTB(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 3 RTB(config-router)#network 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 RTB(config-router)#area 3 virtual-link 10.0.0.2
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66

Virtual Links

• OSPF allows for linking discontinuous parts of the backbone using a
virtual link.

• In some cases, different area 0s need to be linked together. This can
occur if, for example, a company is trying to merge two separate OSPF networks into one network with a common area 0.

• In other instances, virtual-links are added for redundancy in case
some router failure causes the backbone to be split into two. (CCO)

• Whatever the reason may be, a virtual link can be configured between
separate ABRs that touch area 0 from each side and having a common area.
133

Virtual Links – Another Example

134

67

Route Summarization
Inter-Area Route Summarization - Area Range

• • • • •

By default ABRs do not summarize routes between areas. Route summarization is the consolidation of advertised addresses. This feature causes a single summary route to be advertised to other areas by an ABR. In OSPF, an ABR will advertise networks in one area into another area. If the network numbers in an area are assigned in a way such that they are contiguous, you can configure the ABR to advertise a summary route that covers all the individual networks within the area that fall into the specified range.

On the ABR (Summarizes routes before injecting them into different area) Router(config-router)# area area-id range networkaddress subnet-mask • area-id - Identifier of the area about which routes are to be summarized. (From area)

135

Route Summarization

• •

RTB is summarizing the range of subnets from 128.213.64.0 to 128.213.95.0 into one range: 128.213.64.0 255.255.224.0. This is achieved by masking the first three left most bits of 64 using a mask of 255.255.224.0.

128.213.64.0/24 - 010 00000 128.213.95.0/24 – 010 11111 ----------------------------------------128.213.64.0/19 - 01000000
136

68

Route Summarization

• •

In the same way, RTC is generating the summary address 128.213.96.0 255.255.224.0 into the backbone. Note that this summarization was successful because we have two distinct ranges of subnets, 64-95 and 96-127.

128.213.96.0/24 - 011 00000 128.213.127.0/24 – 011 11111 ----------------------------------------128.213.96.0/19 - 01100000
137

Route Summarization

128.213.64.0/24 - 010 00000 128.213.95.0/24 – 010 11111 ----------------------------------------128.213.64.0/19 - 01000000

RTB router ospf 100 area 1 range 128.213.64.0 255.255.224.0
138

69

Route Summarization

128.213.96.0/24 - 011 00000 128.213.127.0/24 – 011 11111 ----------------------------------------128.213.96.0/19 - 01100000

RTC router ospf 100 area 2 range 128.213.96.0 255.255.224.0
139

Route Summarization
External Route Summarization - summary-address

• • •

When redistributing routes from other protocols into OSPF (later), each route is advertised individually in an external link state advertisement (LSA). However, you can configure the Cisco IOS software to advertise a single route for all the redistributed routes that are covered by a specified network address and mask. Doing so helps decrease the size of the OSPF link state database.

On the ASBR only (Summarizes external routes before injecting them into the OSPF domain.) Router(config-router)# subnet-mask summary-address network-address

140

70

Route Summarization

RTA router ospf 100 summary-address 128.213.64.0 255.255.224.0 redistribute bgp 50 metric 1000 subnets (later) RTD router ospf 100 summary-address 128.213.96.0 255.255.224.0 redistribute bgp 20 metric 1000 subnets (later)
141

Injecting Default Routes into OSPF
• By default, 0.0.0.0/0 route is not propagated from the ASBR to other
routers.

• An autonomous system boundary router (ASBR) can be forced to
generate a default route into the OSPF domain.

• As discussed earlier, a router becomes an ASBR whenever routes are
redistributed into an OSPF domain.

• However, an ASBR does not, by default, generate a default route into
the OSPF routing domain.

142

71

Injecting Default Routes into OSPF
The way that OSPF generates default routes (0.0.0.0) varies depending on the type of area the default route is being injected into. Stub and Totally Stubby Areas

• For stub and totally stubby areas, the area border router (ABR) to the
stub area generates a summary link-state advertisement (LSA) with the link-state ID 0.0.0.0.

• This is true even if the ABR doesn't have a default route. • In this scenario, you don't need to use the default-information
originate command.

143

Stub Area

11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

10.1.0.0/24 Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

ASBR .1 .2
Pri 200

LSA 3

LSA 4
.1 ABR-1

.3
Pri 100

LSA 5
172.16.51.0/24

ABR-2 LSA 4 .5 LSA 5 LSA 3 172.16.1.0/24 Blocked X X Blocked 172.16.10.4/30

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

Area 0

Area 51

172.16.0.0/16

Default Lo route to - RouterID 192.168.4.1/32 Internal .1 ABR Stub Area 172.16.20.0/24 injected Area 1
Area 1

.6

All routers in the area must be configured as “stub” including the ABR:
router ospf 1 area 1 stub
144

72

Totally Stubby Area

11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

10.1.0.0/24 Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

ASBR .1 .2
Pri 200

LSA 3

LSA 4
.1 ABR-1

.3

LSA 5
172.16.51.0/24

Pri 100 ABR-2 LSA 4 .5 LSA 5 LSA 3 172.16.1.0/24 Blocked X X 172.16.10.4/30 X Blocked

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

Area 0

Area 51

Default Lo route to - RouterID 172.16.0.0/16 192.168.4.1/32 Internal .1 ABR Totally Stubby Area 172.16.20.0/24 injected Area 1
Area 1

.6

All routers in the area must be configured as “stub” except the ABR “stub no summary”: ABR: router ospf 1 Other: router ospf 1 area 1 stub no-summary area 1 stub
145

Injecting Default Routes into OSPF
Normal Areas

• By default, in normal areas routers don't generate default routes. • To have an OSPF router generate a default route, use the defaultinformation originate command.

• This generates an external type-2 link with link-state ID 0.0.0.0 and
network mask 0.0.0.0.

• This command should only be used on the ASBR.
– Some documentation states this command works only on an ASBR while other documentation states this command turns a router into an ASBR.

146

73

Injecting Default Routes into OSPF
To have OSPF generate a default route use the following: router ospf 10 default-information originate [always] [metric metricvalue] [metric-type type-value] [route-map map-name]

147

Injecting Default Routes into OSPF
There are two ways to generate a default. 1) default-information originate

• If the ASBR already has the default route (ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0),
you can advertise 0.0.0.0 into the area. 2) default-information originate always

• If the ASBR doesn't have the route (ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0), you can
add the keyword always to the default-information originate command, and then advertise 0.0.0.0.

• You should be careful when using the always keyword. If your router
advertises a default (0.0.0.0) inside the domain and does not have a default itself or a path to reach the destinations, routing will be broken.

148

74

Injecting Default Routes into OSPF
11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

0.0.0.0/0
Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

10.1.0.0/24 Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

ASBR .1 .2

0.0.0.0/0

0.0.0.0/0
.1 ABR-1
Pri 200

0.0.0.0/0
.3
Pri 100

172.16.1.0/24 172.16.51.0/24

0.0.0.0/0

ABR-2 .5

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

Area 0

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Lo - RouterID

ASBR

Area 51

172.16.0.0/160.0.0.0/0 Internal .1 192.168.4.1/32 0.0.0.0/0
172.16.20.0/24

router ospf 1 redistribute static network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 default-information originate ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.0.0.2

Area 1

149

Injecting Default Routes into OSPF
11.0.0.0/8 12.0.0.0/8 13.0.0.0/8

10.1.0.0/24

No 0.0.0.0/0 route, but propagated anyway or “always”

Lo - RouterID 192.168.2.1/32

ASBR .1 .2

Lo - RouterID 192.168.1.1/32

0.0.0.0/0

0.0.0.0/0
.1 ABR-1
Pri 200

0.0.0.0/0
.3
Pri 100

ABR-2 0.0.0.0/0 .5 172.16.1.0/24

Lo - RouterID 192.168.3.1/32

172.16.51.0/24

Area 0

172.16.10.4/30 .6 Lo - RouterID

ASBR

Area 51

172.16.0.0/160.0.0.0/0 Internal .1 192.168.4.1/32 0.0.0.0/0
172.16.20.0/24

router ospf 1 redistribute static network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 default-information originate always ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.0.0.2

Area 1

150

75

Redistributing External Routes
E1 vs. E2 External Routes

• External routes fall under two categories, external type 1 and
external type 2.

• The difference between the two is in the way the cost (metric) of the
route is being calculated.

• A type 1 (E1) cost is the addition of the external cost and the internal
cost used to reach that route.

• The cost of a type 2 (E2) route is always the external cost,
irrespective of the interior cost to reach that route.

• Type 2 (E2) is the default!

151

Redistributing External Routes
router ospf 1 redistribute routing-protocol metric-type [1|2]

• metric-type 1 - A type 1 cost is the addition of the external cost and
the internal cost used to reach that route. redistribute rip [metric value] metric-type 1

• metric-type 2 - The cost of a type 2 route is always the external cost,
irrespective of the interior cost to reach that route. redistribute rip [metric value] metric-type 2

• We will look at this command, along with internal/external costs, later
in the chapter discussion route redistribution.

152

76

Redistributing External Routes
metric-type 2 - The cost of a type 2 route is always the external cost, irrespective of the interior cost to reach that route. redistribute rip [metric value] metric-type 2

More later, but here is a taste of the metric value option … • If a value is not specified for the metric value option, and no value is specified using the default-metric command, the default metric value is 0, except for OSPF where the default cost is 20. • 0 is only understood by IS-IS and not by RIP, IGRP and EIGRP. • RIP, IGRP and EIGRP must have the appropriate metrics assigned to any redistributed routes, or redistribution will not work. • Use a value consistent with the destination protocol.

153

Redistributing External Routes
Loop 162.10.5.1/16 RIP AS-Remote
10 .0. 0.0 /

.2 RIP

8

OSPF Area 51

0.0 0.1 .1 2.1 19 /24

574 510
.4

OSPF Area 0

ASBR Loop 1.5.202.206/24

metric-type 1 RIP routes redistributed with a metric (cost) of 500 plus the .1 outgoing cost of the interface .3 510 and a metric-type 1
206.202.0.0/24

.2 .1 RouterF Loop 2.10.202.206/24

RouterE Loop 1.10.202.206/24

574

510 .1

Switch .2

192.10.5.0/24

RouterA Loop 1.0.202.206/24

510 .1 RouterB Loop 574 2.0.202.206/24
206.202.1.0/24

OSPF Area 1

Switch 206.202.2.0/24

574 ASBR

.2

584

.1 RouterC Loop 1.2.202.206/24

584

.2

RouterD Loop 2.2.202.206

router ospf 1 redistribute rip metric 500 metric-type 1 network 206.202.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
154

77

Redistributing External Routes
Loop 162.10.5.1/16 RIP AS-Remote
10 .0. 0.0 /

.2 RIP .1

metric-type 2 RIP routes redistributed with a metric (cost) of 500 and a metric-type 2 (default)

8

OSPF Area 51

0. 0.1 .1 2.1 19 /24

500 0

OSPF Area 0 .4

ASBR .3 Loop 1.5.202.206/24

500
206.202.0.0/24

.2 RouterF Loop 2.10.202.206/24 .1

RouterE Loop 1.10.202.206/24

500

500 .1

Switch .2 .1 RouterB Loop 2.0.202.206/24 OSPF Area 1

192.10.5.0/24

RouterA Loop 1.0.202.206/24

500

206.202.1.0/24 .2 .1

Switch 206.202.2.0/24

500 ASBR

500

.2

RouterC Loop 1.2.202.206/24

RouterD Loop 2.2.202.206

router ospf 1 redistribute rip metric 500 metric-type 2 network 206.202.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
155

Redistributing External Routes
So when should you redistribute a Type-1 (E1) External route?

• If there is more than one ABR for the area and the area is not a stub or
totally stubby area.

– In this case one of the ABRs may provide a shorter path for certain non-area 0 internal routers, than other ABRs. – E1 routes will include all internal costs from the internal router to the ABR and to the ASBR, allowing each router to choose which ABR provides the shorter path.

• Multiple ASBRs redistributing the same networks. – In this case the routers’ cost to each ASBR can be used to choose the shortest path to the destination.
156

78

Know your outputs
• • • • • •
show ip route show ip ospf show ip ospf neighbor show ip ospf border-router show ip database show ip interface

157

show ip route
Internal#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP <text omitted> Gateway of last resort is not set 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 3 masks 172.16.51.1/32 [110/783] via 172.16.10.5, 00:13:48, Serial0 172.16.20.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0 172.16.10.4/30 is directly connected, Serial0 172.16.1.0/24 [110/782] via 172.16.10.5, 00:13:53, Serial0 192.168.4.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 192.168.4.1 is directly connected, Loopback0 O E2 11.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.10.5, 00:14:41, Serial0 • LSA and LSA Serial0 O E2 12.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.10.5, 100:14:41, 2: Denoted by “O” or “C” • LSA 00:14:42, by “IA” O E2 13.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 172.16.10.5, 3: Denoted Serial0 Internal# • LSA 5: Denoted by “E1” or “E2” (default) O IA C C O IA
158

79

show ip ospf
ABR-2#show ip ospf Routing Process "ospf 1" with ID 192.168.3.1 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes It is an area border router SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs Number of external LSA 3. Checksum Sum 0x97E3 Number of DCbitless external LSA 0 Number of DoNotAge external LSA 0 Number of areas in this router is 2. 2 normal 0 stub 0 nssa External flood list length 0 Area BACKBONE(0) Number of interfaces in this area is 1 Area has no authentication SPF algorithm executed 8 times <text omitted> Area 1 Number of interfaces in this area is 1 Area has no authentication SPF algorithm executed 5 times <text omitted>

159

show ip ospf neighbor
ASBR#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID 192.168.3.1 192.168.2.1 Pri 100 200 State FULL/BDR FULL/DR Dead Time 00:00:37 00:00:33 Address 172.16.1.3 172.16.1.2 Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0

• Displays a list of neighbors and their link state status

160

80

show ip ospf border-router • To display the internal OSPF routing table entries to an Area Border Router (ABR) and •
Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR), use the show ip ospf border-routers privileged EXEC command. LSA 4’s (routes to ASBRs) are not installed in the main IP routing table but in the special internal OSPF routing table.

This command will displays any ABRs in the area or any ASBRs in the OSPF routing domain.

• • • • • • •

Destination - Router ID of the destination. Next Hop - Next hop toward the destination. Cost - Cost of using this route. Type - The router type of the destination; it is either an ABR or ASBR or both. Rte Type - The type of this route; it is either an intra-area or interarea route. Area - The area ID of the area from which this route is learned. SPF No - The internal number of the shortest path first (SPF) calculation that installs this route.

ABR-1#show ip ospf border OSPF Process 1 internal Routing Table Codes: i - Intra-area route, I - Inter-area route i 192.168.1.1 [1] via 172.16.1.1, FastEthernet0/0, ASBR, Area 0, SPF 38 i 192.168.3.1 [1] via 172.16.1.3, FastEthernet0/0, ABR, Area 0, SPF 38 ABR-1#
161

show ip ospf database
Internal#show ip ospf data OSPF Router with ID (192.168.4.1) (Process ID 1) Router Link ID 192.168.3.1 192.168.4.1 Link States (Area 1) ADV Router Age 192.168.3.1 898 192.168.4.1 937

Seq# Checksum Link count 0x80000003 0xCE56 2 0x80000003 0xFD44 3

Summary Net Link States (Area 1) Link ID ADV Router Age 172.16.1.0 192.168.3.1 848 172.16.51.1 192.168.3.1 843 Summary ASB Link States (Area 1) Link ID ADV Router Age 192.168.1.1 192.168.3.1 912 Type-5 AS External Link States ADV Router Age 192.168.1.1 1302 192.168.1.1 1303 192.168.1.1 1303

Seq# Checksum 0x80000005 0xD339 0x80000001 0xB329

Seq# Checksum 0x80000003 0x93CC

Link ID 11.0.0.0 12.0.0.0 13.0.0.0

Seq# 0x80000001 0x80000001 0x80000001

Checksum 0x3FEA 0x32F6 0x2503

Tag 0 0 0
162

81

Router Link States (LSA 1) • Router Link States (LSA1’s) should display all the RouterIDs of routers in that area, including its own. • Link State ID is always the same as the Advertising Router. • ADV Router is the Router ID of the router that created this LSA 1. Net Link States (LSA 2) Net Link States (LSA2’s) should display the RouterIDs of the DRs on all multi-access networks in the area and their IP addresses. • Link ID is the IP address of DR on MultiAccess Network. • ADV Router is the Router ID of the DR.

• • •

Summary Link States (LSA 3) Should see networks in other areas and the ABR advertising that route. Link ID is the IP network addresses of networks in other areas. ADV Router is the ABR Router ID sending the LSA-3.

Summary ASB Link States (LSA 4) • Routers in non-area 0, should see Router ID of ASBR and its ABR to get there. • Link ID is the Router ID of ASBR • ADV Router is the Router ID of the ABR advertising route Type-5 AS External Link States (LSA 5) All Routers should see External networks and the Router ID of ASBR to get there Link ID is the External Network ADV Router is the Router ID of ASBR advertising the LSA 5.
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• • •

show ip ospf interface
SanJose3#show ip ospf interface fa 0 FastEthernet0 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 192.168.1.3/24, Area 0 Process ID 1, Router ID 192.168.31.33, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 1 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DR, Priority 1 Designated Router (ID) 192.168.31.33, Interface address 192.168.1.3 Backup Designated router (ID) 192.168.31.22, Interface address 192.168.1.2 Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:08 Index 1/1, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 2 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 2, Adjacent neighbor count is 2 Adjacent with neighbor 192.168.31.11 Adjacent with neighbor 192.168.31.22 (Backup Designated Router) Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) SanJose3#

Do you know these?
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부록. OSPF Extra’s, FAQs, and FYIs
• The following sections contain information to help you understand •
OSPF. This information is not necessarily on the CCNP Advanced Routing Exam.

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Extra: OSPF over ISDN

• •

OSPF Hello traffic can keep an ISDN link up indefinitely. By entering the command “ip ospf demand-circuit” on one side of a BRI, adjacencies will be formed and: – Ongoing OSPF Hellos will be suppressed – The DNA (Do-Not-Age) bit is set in the LSA so that this entry is not aged in the router’s LSDB. • LSA is not flooded when reaching LSRefresh • LSA is not flooded if there is a new version but the contents are the same

• •

show ip ospf interface bri 0 “Run as demand circuit” “(Hello Suppressed)”

show ip ospf neighbor • Dead Time: “-”
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Extra: OSPF over ISDN

Router1 interface BRI1/1 ip address 192.158.254.13 {/30} ip ospf demand-circuit router ospf 20 network 192.158.254.0 0.0.0.255 area 0

Router2 interface BRI1/0 ip address 192.158.254.14 {/30} router ospf 20 network 192.158.254.0 0.0.0.255 area 0

Note: You need to configure the demand circuit at one end of the link only. However, if you configure this command on both ends it does not cause any harm. Suggestion: To reduce the affect of link flaps on the demand circuit, configure the area that contains the demand circuit as totally stub. • In this case configure Area 1 to be a totally stubby area. • Summarizing routes on Router 1 can also help if the flapping link is within the summarized range.
167

Extra: OSPF and Load Balancing
• OSPF only supports equal-cost load balancing. • By default, four equally good routes to the same destination are • •
kept in the routing table for load balancing. This can be increased up to six with the maximum-paths command. The bandwidth and/or ip ospf cost (or in the case of serial links [1.544 Mbps] the lack of) commands can be used to make unequal-cost links look like equal-cost links to OSPF for load balancing. – This should be done with caution, as it may burden slower links and/or not make efficient use of faster links.

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Extra: OSPF and DNS Lookups
• Loopback interfaces simplify the management and • •
troubleshooting of OSPF routing domains by providing predictable Router Ids. This can be taken one step further by recording the Router Ids in a Domain Name Service (DNS) database. The router can then be configured to consult the server addressto-name mappings, or Reverse DNS lookups, and then display the routers by name instead of by Router ID.

169

Extra: OSPF and DNS Lookups
ASBR#show ip ospf data OSPF Router with ID (192.168.1.1) (Process ID 1) Router Link States (Area 0) Link ID 172.16.10.5 192.168.1.1 192.168.2.1 192.168.3.1 ADV Router ABR-1 ABR-2 ABR-2 ABR-2 Age 412 201 205 205 Seq# 0x8000000F 0x80000012 0x80000016 0x80000005 Checksum 0x6F9C 0x8D3D 0x7E46 0x9C36 Link count 1 1 1 1

ASBR was configured to perform DNS lookups as follows: ip name-server 172.16.1.100 ip ospf name-lookup

• • •

The first command specifies the DNS server. The second command enables the OSPF process to perform DNS lookups. This can also be used for identifying router interfaces such as ABR-1 and ABR-2
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Extra: IOS 12.01(T) – router-id
router-id

• To use a fixed router ID, use the router-id router configuration
command.

• To force OSPF to use the previous OSPF router ID behavior, use the
no form of this command.

• Takes precedence over Loopback address
router ospf 1 router-id ip-address

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OSPF and Redistribution (later)

“Before Cisco IOS Software Release 12.1.3, when redistributing connected routes into OSPF, connected networks included in the network statements under router OSPF advertised in Type-1, Type-2, or Type-3 link-state advertisements (LSAs) were also announced in Type-5 LSAs.” In other words, if you are using the redistributed connected command, any connected networks included using the OSPF network command, were not only advertised as normal using LSA Type 1, 2, or 3, but also as an external LSA Type-5. “Memory is required to store those Type-5 LSAs. The storage also requires a CPU to process the LSAs during full or partial Shortest Path First (SPF) runs and to flood them when some instability occurs.” “In Cisco IOS Software Release 12.1(3) and later, the Type-5 LSAs are no longer created for connected networks included in the network statements under router OSPF.”

• •

Redistributing Connected Networks into OSPF • http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/104/redist-conn.html

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Question from another instructor (later)…

I was teaching redistribution of RIP into OSPF and couldn't explain the Baypoint output on p. 132 of the lab manual. Since both 172.16.8.0 and 172.16.7.0 are being redistributed into OSPF with a default metric of 10, why does the .7.0 network have a metric of 20? The reason for the difference is that when using the redistribute connected command, those connected networks are not affected by the default-metric command. So once the ospf, 'redistribute connected subnets' command is entered on SJ1, those directly connected networks, being redistributed into rip, are no longer affected by the default-metric value. For more info see: http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios122/122cgcr/fiprrp_r/ind_r/1rfindp2.htm "You cannot use the 'default-metric' command to affect the metric used to advertise 'connected' routes." Usually, it is not advisable to redistribute connected networks into area 0, but thats another story.

In other words, if you are using the redistributed connected command, any connected networks included using the OSPF network command, were not only advertised as normal using LSA Type 1, 2, or 3, but also as an external LSA Type-5. We saw this in our multi-area OSPF labs when some students were using 12.0.5 and others were using 12.2. With 12.0.5 an internal OSPF route, LSA Type-1, was also being advertised as a LSA Type-5, when they used the "redistribute connected" command.

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OSPF FAQs and FYIs
Q: Why are loopbacks advertised as /32 host routes in OSPF? A: Loopbacks are considered host routes in OSPF, and they're advertised as /32. For more information, see section 9.1 of RFC 2328. In Cisco IOS ® version 11.3T and 12.0, if the ip ospf network point-to-point command is configured under loopbacks, then OSPF advertises the loopback subnet as the actual subnet configured on loopbacks. http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/104/9.html Q: Can a virtual link cross more than one area. A: No.

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OSPF FAQs and FYIs
Q: What happens within OSPF if there is more than one route to a destination? What is the preference of OSPF in choosing a best route? A: Here is the OSPF preference rules: • Intra-area routes area always most preferred. • Inter-area routes are preferred over AS or NSSA external routes. • AS-external routes and NSSA-external routes are of equal preference. Within these routes, preferences are as follows: – External Type-1 routes are always preferred • If equal, route-metric (cost) is the tie-breaker – External Type-2 routes • If equal, route metric and distance to the originating router are used as tie-breakers. – If still a tie (Type-1 or Type-2), AS-external (LSA 5) routes are preferred over NSSA external (LSA 7) routes. • If these rules do not solve the tie, routes are installed as parallel routes.
175

OSPF FAQs and FYIs
OSPF Packet Pacing • Introduced in Cisco IOS 11.3 • Helps avoid packet drops at the receiving side, caused by uncontrolled bursts of link-state updates. • The receiving router may not be able to queue and process all of the packets so some packets are dropped. • To make matters worse, when the sending router does not receive LSAcks for all of the LSAs sent, so retransmits along with other LSAs needed to be sent. • Currently Cisco IOS Packet Pacing, every 33 milliseconds (nonconfigurable) the router builds a link-state update and sends it to its neighbors. • The next group of LSAs is transmitted after another 33 milliseconds. • This speeds up convergence and decreases the length of the transition period.
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OSPF FAQs and FYIs
OSPF Group Pacing • Introduced in Cisco IOS 11.3 • Every LSA is aged whiled stored in the LSDB. • ALL LSAs are aged independently of one another. • When an LSA reaches LSRefreshTime (30 minutes) the router that originated the it floods the LSA. • When an LSA reaches MaxAge (60 minutes) the router floods the LSA, even if it did not originate the LSA. • If a router has a lot of LSAs, maintaining a separate timer can be expensive. • With Cisco OSPF Group Pacing, LSAs are collected into groups by their ages, with ages within 4 minutes by default (can be configured). • The router maintains timers for LSA groups instead of individual LSAs. • This is used for all LSA operations including LSA aging and LSA refreshing.
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OSPF FAQs and FYIs (Know this!)
Cisco SPF Scheduling (Review) • SPF algorithm is CPU intensive and takes some time depending upon the size of the area (coming next week), the number of routers, the size of the link state database. • A flapping link can cause an OSPF router to keep on recomputing a new routing table, and never converge. • To minimize this problem: – SPF calculations are delayed by 5 seconds after receiving an LSU (Link State Update) – Delay between consecutive SPF calculations is 10 seconds • You can configure the delay time between when OSPF receives a topology change and when it starts a shortest path first (SPF) calculation (spf-delay).

• You can also configure the hold time between two consecutive SPF
calculations (spf-holdtime).
Router(config-router)#timers spf spf-delay spf-holdtime
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OSPF Design Issues – Some extra info!
• • • • •
Number of Routers per Area Number of Neighbors Number of Areas per ABR Full Mesh vs. Partial Mesh Memory Issues

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OSPF Design Issues
• • • • • • •
The following information is taken from Cisco CCO. http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/104/3.html The OSPF RFC (1583) did not specify any guidelines for the number of routers in an area or number the of neighbors per segment or what is the best way to architect a network. Different people have different approaches to designing OSPF networks. The important thing to remember is that any protocol can fail under pressure. The idea is not to challenge the protocol but rather to work with it in order to get the best behavior. The following are a list of things to consider. – Number of Routers per Area – Number of Neighbors – Number of Areas per ABR – Full Mesh vs. Partial Mesh – Memory Issues

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OSPF Design Issues
Number of Routers per Area The maximum number of routers per area depends on several factors, including the following: • What kind of area do you have? • What kind of CPU power do you have in that area? • What kind of media? • Will you be running OSPF in NBMA mode? • Is your NBMA network meshed? • Do you have a lot of external LSAs in the network? • Are other areas well summarized? • For this reason, it's difficult to specify a maximum number of routers per area.

181

OSPF Design Issues
Number of Neighbors • The number of routers connected to the same LAN is also important. • Each LAN has a DR and BDR that build adjacencies with all other routers. • The fewer neighbors that exist on the LAN, the smaller the number of adjacencies a DR or BDR have to build. • That depends on how much power your router has. You could always change the OSPF priority to select your DR. • Also if possible, try to avoid having the same router be the DR on more than one segment. • If DR selection is based on the highest RID, then one router could accidentally become a DR over all segments it is connected to. • This router would be doing extra effort while other routers are idle.

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OSPF Design Issues
Number of Areas per ABR • ABRs will keep a copy of the database for all areas they service. • If a router is connected to five areas for example, it will have to keep a list of five different databases. • The number of areas per ABR is a number that is dependent on many factors, including type of area (normal, stub, NSSA), ABR CPU power, number of routes per area, and number of external routes per area. • For this reason, a specific number of areas per ABR cannot be recommended. • Of course, it's better not to overload an ABR when you can always spread the areas over other routers. • The following diagram shows the difference between one ABR holding five different databases (including area 0) and two ABRs holding three databases each. • Again, these are just guidelines, the more areas you configure per ABR the lower performance you get. In some cases, the lower performance can be tolerated.
183

OSPF Design Issues
Full Mesh vs. Partial Mesh • Non Broadcast Multi-Access (NBMA) clouds such as Frame Relay or X.25, are always a challenge. • The combination of low bandwidth and too many link-states is a recipe for problems. • A partial mesh topology has proven to behave much better than a full mesh. • A carefully laid out point-to-point or point-to-multipoint network works much better than multipoint networks that have to deal with DR issues.

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OSPF Design Issues
Memory Issues • It is not easy to figure out the memory needed for a particular OSPF configuration. Memory issues usually come up when too many external routes are injected in the OSPF domain. A backbone area with 40 routers and a default route to the outside world would have less memory issues compared with a backbone area with 4 routers and 33,000 external routes injected into OSPF. • Memory could also be conserved by using a good OSPF design. Summarization at the area border routers and use of stub areas could further minimize the number of routes exchanged. • The total memory used by OSPF is the sum of the memory used in the routing table (show ip route summary) and the memory used in the link-state database. The following numbers are a rule of thumb estimate. Each entry in the routing table will consume between approximately 200 and 280 bytes plus 44 bytes per extra path. Each LSA will consume a 100 byte overhead plus the size of the actual link state advertisement, possibly another 60 to 100 bytes (for router links, this depends on the number of interfaces on the router). This should be added to memory used by other processes and by the IOS itself. If you really want to know the exact number, you can do a show memory with and without OSPF being turned on. The difference in the processor memory used would be the answer (keep a backup copy of the configs). • Normally, a routing table with less than 500K bytes could be accommodated with 2 to 4 MB RAM; Large networks with greater than 500K may need 8 to 16 MB, or 32 to 64 MB if full routes are injected from the Internet.
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Whew!

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Ch.6 – OSPF Part 2 of 2: Multi-Area OSPF
CCNP version 3.0 Rick Graziani Cabrillo College

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