State Faraday¶s law of electromagnetic induction [2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008].

Faraday¶s law of Electromagnetic Induction: These are the following laws which are known as the faradays laws of electromagnetic induction. 1st law: According to the first law of electromagnetic induction,.¶ when ever the flux linking with a coil or circuit changes, an emf. Induced in it.¶¶ This linkage can be obtained either by rotating the conductor in the magnetic field or by rotating magnetic field keeping the conductor stationary. 2nd law: According to the second law of electromagnetic induction,¶ the magnitude of the induced emf. In coil is directly proportional to the rate of changed of flux linkage.¶¶ ew rate of change of flux linkage. Let there be a coil having µN¶ the initial flux being J1 and the final flux value after timeµt¶ is J2. The net change in flux = J2 - J1 And the rate of change of linkage NJ 2 - NJ 1 = t Now according to faradays laws of electromagnetic induction. The emf w rate of change of flux linkage.
NJ 2 - NJ 1 (J 2 - J1) !k x N volts t t where k is the constant of proportionality and here being unity


volts t Induced emf.. = rate of change of flux x no. of conductors and it can be otherwise stated as



J 2 - J 1 x

e = dJ/dt x N volts Q2. Define Fleming¶s right hand rule [2002, 2004, 2005, 2007].

Fleming¶s Right Hand Rule: The direction of induced electromagnetic e.m.f. in a coil can be found out by applying Fleming's Right Hand rule. As shown in Fig. "Stretch first finger, second finger and thumb of right hand mutually perpendicular to each other. If first finger indicates the direction of main magnetic field, thumb indicates the direction of motion of conductor, then 2nd finger will indicate the direction of induced e.m.f. in the conductor.


State Lenz¶s law [2002, 2004, 2005, 2008].

Lenz¶s law: The e.mf. induced, according to the faradays laws of electromagnetic induction, has got only the strength of the magnitude and is silent over the direction. The direction was stated by Lenz¶s laws in 1835.

m. induced = rate of change of flux . in volts.rpm.p. 2006.g. 2004.m. e = dJ/dt V Now here in case of D. EMF Equation of DC Generator: According to faradays laws of electromagnetic induction. the equation can be given as e = -dJ/dt x N volts. i.e. because of the electromagnetic induction is such a way as to the oppose the caused which is responsible for the production of this e.g. can be given as. this e.m. The minus sign indicates the direction of the induced e. having the following data: J = the flux per pole in Wb Z = number of conductors N = speed in r.f.m. 2005. Q4. the direction of induced e.f.f.g. P = number of poles a = number of parallel paths and E = the induced e. an e. if a conductor cuts the magnetic flux or it experience a rate of change of flux. and 2008].According to Lenz¶s laws.C. = 1/N min = 60/N sec Now e. Derive emf equation of DC generator [2002. opposing.m. is generated in that conductor.f. Now the total flux produced = (P x J) Wb Now the time required in one revolution when running at N. generator. 2007.

m. 2007. The voltage taken out will be the voltage induced per parallel path.C. generator which remains stationary during the working of the generator. armature winding the closed type winding is done so the total armature conductors (Z) are divided into the number of parallel paths depend upon the type of winding. Parts of a DC Machine: The parts of D. = JZNP/60 V In D.m. 2008]. be the parallel paths. Q5. are known as rotating parts. brushes.f. side cover. bearings and legs and bed sheet.= JP/60/N V = JPN/60 V It is the voltage induced per conductor. generators which rotates during the working of d. body yoke. poles.f.f equation of the generator.C. 2005. generated can be given as E = JZNP/60a V The above equation is said the e. These are followings: Eye bolt.m. and rocker. These are as follows: . Rotating parts: The parts of D. Enlist essential parts of a DC machine and explain [2004.c generators. so the e. But there are Z conductors so the e.C. 2006. Here let µa.C. generator can be broadly divided into the followings: (a) Stationary parts (b) Rotating parts Stationary parts: The parts of D. are known as stationary parts.

fan and shaft. In some construction the pole faces are separate and attached to the . The brief description of these parts is as follows: Stationary parts: (a) Eye bolt: It is a stationary part and fixed on the top of the body or yoke. These are one of two depending upon the frame size of the machine.Armature. 12.1. The cast steel is used for the machines of large capacity because of the good magnetic properties. It is used for lifting the machine. (3) Poles: The main magnetic field is produced by the poles excited by the Field coils. It accommodates all parts of the generator. (fig. and has hence the weight. In small machines the poles are casted with the body. The yoke provides the magnetic path for the magnetic flux. generator). Some times the body and yoke of the machine are different but in most of the cases these are same. because the flux passing diverts into the paths causing half the flux through the yoke. cast steel requires half the size. It is made of forged steel or cast steel or cast iron. parts of D. (b) Body or yoke: It is the outer frames of the machine. commentator. Nowadays the yokes of large machines are almost invariably fabricated steel because this material has good magnetic properties. The cast iron frames are used for the machines of low capacity: because the magnetic properties are not so good It is experienced that the frames size of cast iron or cast steel differ for the same capacity.C. for example the permeability is twice that the cast iron. The poles are made either of the cast iron or soft steel or the laminations of silicone steel. The flux in yoke is half than that of the flux pear pole.

the brush position can be changed. The bearings also help in keeping the armature in the centre for smooth running.e.the armature is made of laminations of silicone steel to reduce the eddy current and hysteresis loss. 4.mountings. so as to have minimum friction between the rotating and stationary portions (shaft and side cover). The poles are always in pair. in such away so that it may not come out. i.less number of turns thick conductor) are place over the poles. Rotating or rotary part: The part which revolves during operation is called the rotating part. The assembly is called brush holder. The poles are attached with the yoke or body by means of bolts etc. generally made a brass. These are housed in rectangular chamber. (1) Armature: The armature rotates in the magnetic field. These brush holders are mounted over the round construction known as the ³rocker´ by the displacement of rocker over the commentator. The brushes are provided with a spring as to offer some pressure which could easily be adjusted by the spring loading finger. are housed in the slots of the armature . 2.having more number of turns of thin conductors series field coil. (4) Brushes and brush gears: The main function of brushes is to collect the current from the commutate and supply to the external load circuit.f is induced. 6 and 8 etc. The conductors in which the e.m. Nowadays the complete poles are made by laminations of silicone steel which are pressed hydraulically and riveted together. The laminations are assemble and riveted under hydraulic . (5) Bearings: The bearings are fitted in the cover. The field coils are wound with the different number off conductors (shunt field coil. The pole faces are made circular as to provide uniform air gap around the armature and uniform flux density also.

e. It is round in shape to facilitate the collection of current (in case of generator) from the armature. Every segment is properly insulated from every side i. groove on both the sides to protect the segment from coming out because of the centrifugal forces.4 to 0. the lamination instead of solid block. thus produced. These Is a space provided to solder the conductor with the riser or segment as shown in fig 12. some ventilating ducts are provided. In order to dissipate the heat. The copper segments are tapered and there is a rises on one side of each segment. from segment to shaft from segment to the sleeve and µv¶ checks nuts by means of mica or minacity.. The lamination are insulted from each other by means of the varnish or sometimes thin insulating paper.pressure to avoid any air gap between the laminations. The construction of the segment is such as.3. caused the further reduction in current and ultimately reducing both the eddy current and hysteresis losses. . from segment to segment.6 mm. the resistance is increased and thus decreases the eddy currents which in other words decrease the eddy current losses. (3) Fan and shaft: a fan is mounted over the shaft in opposite direction of commentator. Generally the thickness off each lamination is 0. The air circulation through these ducts increases the heat dissipation and keeps the machine temperature under space limits. to keep the temperature down. It is mounted on the shaft of the machine. (2) Commutator: It is made of the hard drawn copper segments which are insulated from each other and from shaft by means of mica or minacity. that it has ³v. It circulates the air through armature. armature winding etc. It is made of cast iron or thick mild steel sheets. By adding the silicone in steel.

f generated is directly proportional to the rate of change of flux i. an e. is generated in that conductor.m.f. The pulley is also mounted on the shaft after the side cover to enable the mechanical energy to the load.f.m. The e.f. the angle of flux linkage. commentator. 2006. Q6. 2009]. when ever the conductor cuts the magnetic lines of force.m. The e. 2008. The total . According to that ³principal´. which carries the armature. Working Principle of a DC Generator: The D. generator works on the principal of faraday¶s law of electromagnetic induction and that to the dynamic induction. 2004. Explain the working principle of a DC generator [2002. thus induction or produced is known as the dynamically induced e.C.e.m. fan and bearings.A shaft generally of mild steel is used.

2008. . and (2) Constant losses. Losses in DC Generator: The losses in d.c. 2007.C. 1. 2009]. 2009]. 2006. machines may be divided into two groups: (1) Variable losses. Variable losses are proportional to the square of the load current in the armature and the series and interpole windings when employed.C. Q7. Due to the contact resistance between the brushes and the commutator. 2006.f generated in the armature is also proportional to the number off conductors. generator are given below: Iron and friction losses = A-B Copper losses = B .m. State the different losses of a DC generator [2002. Power Stages in D. there is amore variable loss.C Q8. Generator The various power stages in case of a D. Draw a block diagram showing a power stages of DC generator [2002. 2004.e. 2007.

The above two groups of losses are discussed below: (i) Armature losses: thee losses are of two types: (a) I2 R loss in the windings of the armature. It is a function of frequency f and approximately proportionate to the square of the flux (J2). Moreover the eddy current loss is proportional to the square of the thickness of the laminations. Commutator losses: Commutator losses occur due to the contact resistance and friction between the brushes and the commutator segments. (b) The frictional losses in the commutator segments and brushes depend upon the brush pressure on the segments. The above losses can be calculated or obtained separately from test results. (ii) . and (b) Iron loss in the core of the armature. and (c) Shunt field excitation loss. The eddy currents losses due to change in flux with load are additional to above losses and known as stray losses. Hysteresis loss depends upon the quality of iron. Constant losses are assumed to be constant over the load range and comprise: (a) Iron loss (due to hysteresis and eddy currents) (b) Windage and friction loss. The eddy current losses are proportional to the square of frequency and the square of flux.2. due to the hysteresis and eddy currents. (a) Contact resistance losses are dependent upon the quality of the brushes. the coefficient of friction and the peripheral speed of the commutator.

and compensating windings (if used). Hence the iron loss depends upon the square of the flux density. In a shuntwound generator. . this loss varies between no-load and full-load. 2005. and in that case. 2006. they function together to supply power to a common load and they are completely stable whether or not their exact voltage versus current characteristics are identical. Windage loss is ordinarily very small unless the generator is fitted with a cooling fan device. Hence the iron loss is increased due to armature reaction. Losses due to stray load: The effect of armature reaction to distort to flux. The flux densities in certain regions of the armature are increased and in certain other regions they are decreased. Losses due to bearing friction and windage: The losses due to bearing friction are roughly proportional to the speed. Excitation losses also occur in commutating poles or interpoles series. Such losses are known as stray losses. windage loss is proportional to the cube of the speed. 2009]. whereas in a level compound generator it is almost constant. Explain in detail the parallel operation of DC Shunt generator with the help of diagram [2002. This is because of the drooping voltage-current characteristics of shunt generators.(iii) Excitation losses: These include the loss in a shunt circuit (if so used) which is equal to the product of the shunt current and the terminal voltage. Parallel Operation of Shunt Generators: When two shunt generators are connected in parallel. and are proportional to the square of the armature current. 2004. (iv) (v) Q8.

3. cutting in resistance in the field circuit of A and at the same time cutting out resistance in the field circuit of B. With adjustment made and precautions taken as indicated. i. assuring of course that all conditions for build up are satisfied. Second generator B is brought up to rated speed by its prime mover. floating. The procedure for connection of two shunt generators in parallel is as follows: 1. Any desired load shifting may be readily accomplished in this way.. The field switch SB2 is closed whereupon the voltage will build. i. 5. the plus and minus terminals of the linking machine must be traced to the corresponding bus polarities across open switch SB.e. special care should be taken that polarity of B is exactly same as that for A with respect to the load. shows the circuit diagram for the operation of two shunt generators in parallel. in fact the entire load may be transferred to B. Assume that generator A is in operation with switch SA closed and that the load it is delivering is about to be increased sufficiently to require the use of a machine of larger rating than A or the connection of a second generator to operate in parallel with A. this places generator B in parallel with A but the later still supplying the entire load and machine B running idle. The voltage of generator B2 is adjusted until it is equal to a slightly higher than that of generator A. the field rheostat of the incoming machine being manipulated for this purpose. main switch SB is closed.e.Fig. To shift the load from A to B it is merely necessary to adjust the field rheostat of two generators simultaneously. after which . 2. 4.

These generators have identical voltages and the characteristic curves of both the generators can be plotted back to back with terminal voltage in common on the vertical axis. When it is necessary to shunt down any of the generators. the sum of their line current must equal the current supplied to the load on the system. Now let us designate generator A and generator B as generator 1 and generator 2 respectively and these are connected in parallel.the main switch SA can be opened to disconnect generator A from the line. Then its main switch can be safely opened and its prime mover can be shut down. This would cause severe sparking at the contacts and would cause a sudden increase in the loads on the other machine. When generators of this sort are connected in parallel. it is not convenient to open its main switch suddenly. Instead it is better to decrease its field current till the current supplied by this generator becomes almost zero. .

those carry currents in the other direction. the entire characteristic curve of generator 1 moves upward and the voltage at which the sum of two machine¶ currents adds up to equal the load current rises.C. the field magnets on excitation become alternate N and S poles and develop magnetic field which extends from North Pole to South Pole. In addition. motor tends to rotate in the anti-clockwise direction as shown. Similar adjustment of either generator 1 or generator 2 can permit the system voltage and the power sharing between the generators to be freely adjusted. All the conductors under South Pole carry currents in one direction while under North Pole. Explain the working principle of DC motor with diagram [2002].C. generator 1 now assumes a large fraction of the total load on the system. If the speed or field current of generator 1 is increased in the system. the mechanical force acts on the conductors (placed in the slots)and the armature of the D. The direction of motion of the motor is determined by the Fleming¶s left hand rule.C.IL1 + IL2 = Iload The terminal voltage at which the power system operates will be exactly the line voltage required to make the sum of the two generator's currents equal to the current required for the loads. Working Principle of DC Motor: In a D. when the terminals are connected to external D. . motor. As explained. Q10. supply. Also the armature conductors of the motor carry currents.

It is thus a matter of convention we use.It is the arrangement of placing the conductors under the poles such that the direction of the current flowing through these armature conductors is as shown in Fig. . If the direction of current in the conductors is otherwise reversed from that shown in Fig. The motor will run in the clockwise direction. The direction of motion of the motor is always determined by the Fleming's left hand rule. or vice-versa. The force on conductors gives a combined effect to produce a driving torque which makes the armature to continue rotating.

(b) shows a generator action where a mechanical force moves a conductor in upward direction inducing an e.f. so that an e.f. of course. in the direction shown by Fleming's Right hand rule. 'That this is so can be deduced by Lenz's law.m. When a current flows as a result of this e.m.m.m. to the applied voltage. 2005]. motor when the armature rotates. therefore. the conductors on it cut the lines of force of magnetic field in which they revolve.C. is induced in the armature as in a generator.f. there is a current carrying conductor existing in a magnetic field: hence motor action takes place shown as a dotted line in Fig. Q11.f. is such as to oppose the change causing it.To understand the difference between motor and generator action let we discuss there two separately Fig. The induced e. which states that the direction of an induced e.m. Back EMF: In a D. which is. . the applied voltage. acts in opposition to the current in the machine and.f. (a) the force developed as a result of motor action opposes the motion which produced it. so that it is customary to refer to this voltage as the "back e. State back emf of DC motor [2002.. 2004.f.m.

the back e.m.f.The magnitude of the back or counter e. although difference is small when the machine is running under normal conditions. and it is important in the case of the motor. The value of back e. where k is a number depending on nature of armature winding. It is the difference between these two quantities which actually drives current through the resistance of the armature circuit. can be calculated by using formula for the induced e. J the flux and N the speed.. If this resistance is represented by Ra. then we have V = Eb + IaRa . by Eb and the applied voltage by V.m. we may write.f. in a generator.f.f.f.m.m.m. Thus if Eb denotes the back e. (Eb) is always less than the applied voltage. to appreciate that this is proportional to the product of the flux and the speed.

2005]. 5. Differentiate between secondary cell and primary cell [2002. Secondary cell is heavy weight. Primary cells have short life. List parts of DC generator [2004]. Secondary cells have long life. 6. 2. 3. Difference between Primary & Secondary Cells 1. Draw block diagram showing the power stages of dc motor [2002. Primary Cells Primary cells cannot be recharged. Plates cannot be changed they to be thrown out. Q14.Where Ia is the current in the armature circuit. 2004]. Secondary cells can be used for high energy applications. Primary cell is light weight. Block Diagram of Power Stages IN D. Secondary cell has low internal resistance. Primary cell has high internal resistance. 4. Primary cells can be used for low energy applications. . Motor Q13.C. Secondary Cells Secondary cells can be recharged. One may change the parts of the cells. Q12.

g. Explain types of DC generator [2004. boosters.. Types of DC Generator: When the field coils are excited by the exciting current supplied by the generator itself. 2006. ( i ) shows the connections of a series wound generator where as Fig. 2008].Parts of DC generator: The basic essential parts of a DC generator are: (i) A magnetic field (ii) A conductor which can so move to cut the flux Q15. Fig. Before the machine will excite. Series generators are scarcely ever used except for special purposes e. . (ii) shows its conventional diagram. the field coils may be connected in series with the armature coils (series) or in parallel with the armature coils (shunt) or partly in series and partly in parallel with armature coils (compound). it has a few turns of wire of large cross-sectional area having low resistance. (ii) Compound wound generator. it is said to be self-excited generator. Since the field coils carries the full load current therefore. In a self-excited generator. (ii) Shunt wound generator. (i) Series Wound Generator: Fig. the external circuit must be closed. According to the type of connections of the field coils with the armature coils the self-excited generators may be classified in to: (i) Series wound generator. shows a series excited generator in which the field coils are in series with the armature and carry the total current of the generator. 2007.

the larger proportion of current being taken by the smaller machines. ( i ) & ( i i ) shows compound wound generators in which there are both shunt and series field coils on each pole-One is in series and the . This exciting current varies from about 0-5 percent of the full load current of the machine to about 5 percent. ( i ) & ( i i ) shows the connections and conventional diagrams of a shunt wound generator. depending chiefly on the size of the machine. high resistance and carry a current IF or Ish = (iii) Compound Wound Generators: Fig. Fig.(i) Shunt Wound Generator: In a shunt wound generator the field coils are connected in parallel (or shunt) across the armature terminals as shown in Fig. the terminal Rsh voltage divided by the resistance of the field coil circuit. ( i) & (ii). These coils have many turns of relatively small wire having .

. (ii). When the shunt coils are connected outside the series coils. thus the compound wound generator may be: (a) Short shunt. (ii) It makes no appreciable difference in the operating characteristics which way the shunt is connected and the choice is determined by mechanical considerations of connections or reversing switches.other in parallel with the armature . the machine is said to have a longshunt connection as shown in Fig. In which the shunt coils are connected inside the series coils or in which the shunt field coils are only in parallel with armature. (i) (b) Long shunt. the connection is said to be short shunt as shown in Fig. (i).

(b) . Armature Reaction: The armature reaction is basically the effect of the flux produced by the current carrying armature conductors on the main magnetic flux. When ever load is not connected on the armature so no current is flowing through the armature conductors. 2009]. 2005. Explain the process of armature reaction with diagram in a DC generator [2002. 2007. the magnetic field produced is merely because of the main magnetic field as shown in the following fig. 2008. According to Fleming¶s right hand ruler the conductors under North Pole are carrying current in such a direction as shown. 2004. Now consider an armature rotating in the magnetic field produced by the two poles machine.´ the armature reaction is defined as the effect of the magnetic field produced by the armature conductors on the distribution of the flux under the main poles. Now the magnetic field produced by armature conductors is shown in fig. because of main magnetic field and because of the armature conductors are working at right angle to each other when these .Q16.the magnetic flux will contribute the magnetic belt in the both sides of MNA and hence the direction of armature flux is upwards. Now two magnetic fluxes. So.

load values. The demagnetizing the main flux and the crossmagnetizing component is at right angle to the main magnetic flux. a heavy current will flow through the armature conductors because from the emf equation for armature circuit (Eb= V. . Heavy inrush of current at the stating instant may cause (i) Heavy sparking at the commutator and even flashover¶s.e. The resultant armature flux as shown in fig. the applied voltage V is opposed by the induced back emf and. When running.are energized as shown in fig. the main flux will be distorted and the flux will be strong and TPT and weak at LPT. a much smaller current flows. Necessity of a starter: When the motor is at rest the speed of the motor is zero. For example consider a 400 V. If switched directly on to the supply.5 times the full.12. has two components: the Jd = the demagnetizing component and Jc = the cross-magnetizing component. The starting current thus would be i. It is observed that the flux through the armature is no longer uniform and symmetrical about the poles axis. 20 kW dc motor having a total resistance of 0. Q17. i. more angle and vice versa. it would draw a current of a while the full-load current would probably be about 64 ampere. which is at right angle to the resultant magnetic field.5 . there fore. As a result.e. Explain the necessity of starter for DC motor [2004].IaRa) armature current Ia is given as and armature resistance Ra is very small. Hence the brushes are to be given the forward lead in the direction of motion of the armature. there fore back emf Eb is zero and if a dc motor is connected directly tot eh supply mains. the new neutral axis. of course. (c). The angle lead depends upon the load on the armature more load.

(ii) Q18. Damage to the rotating parts of the motor and load to development of large starting torque an quick acceleration and Large dip in the supply voltage. either by the heat developed in the windings. there by minimizing the detrimental effects that might otherwise result from the excessive sustained current. This results in the field current having approximately the same range. it is necessary that a high resistance be connected in series with the armature of the motor at the instant of starting and gradually cut in steps as the motor gains speed. the additional resistance from the armature circuit it totally disconnected. Hence for the protection of the motor against the flow of excessive current during starting period (say 5 to 10 seconds). The reasons for it are given below.magnetic action. Such motors normally have a speed variation of 5 to 1. a very small motor (frictional kW motor) may be started simply by closing the switch which connects it to the supply mains. or by the mechanical forces set up by electro. 4-Point Starter: The three point starter cannot be used to advantage on variable-speed motors having field control. The . However. The inertia of a small armature is generally so low that it comes upto speed very quickly. Define the operation and protection offered by 4 point starter [2004. (i) The resistance and inductance of the armature winding in case of small motors are generally sufficiently large to limit the initial of current to values that are not particularly serious.(ii) (iii) (iv) Damaged to the armature winding. 2009]. If this additional loss of energy resulting in reduced operating efficiency and (ii) reduction in operating speed of the motor.

m. the hold up coil becomes de-energized and allows the arm to spring back to the starting position. This difficulty can be overcome by a four point starter as shown in Fig.f. the field circuit is broken at the last contact button. Owing to the inductive nature of the field. since the motor develops a counter e. The only difference in the connection is that the "line" terminal must be connected to the side of the line which runs directly to the common armature and field terminals. a small finger can be introduced to break the arc. To prevent the contact from being burned. therefore. at the higher values of field current and too weak at the lower values. With shunt motors the line switch can be opened with no appreciable arc.. if the starting arm is thrown back. except that the hold up coil is of high resistance and is connected directly across the line. In stopping a motor. this results in a hot arc which burns the contact. (b). The electro-magnetic energy stored in the field does not appear at the switch but is discharged gradually through the armature. the line switch should always be opened rather than throwing back the starting arm. . When the supply voltage is shut down. On the other-hand. nearly equal to the line voltage and the net voltage across the switch contacts is small.hold up magnet may be too strong.

their field and armature windings are connected. Eb = V-I(Ra + Rse) . In a dc series motor. Connection diagram is shown in fig. 2005]. Series Wound Motor: A series motor is one in which the field winding consisting of few turns of thick wire is connected in series with the armature so that the whole current drawn by the motor passes through the field winding as well as armature. therefore. State types of DC motors [2004. however. and so according to the field arrangement there are three types of dc motors namely: (i) series wound (ii) shunt wound and (iii) compound wound. Types of DC motors: A dc motor must receive their excitations from an outside source. la = Series field current. Armature current.Q19. in one of the three different ways employed for self-excited dc generators. lse = Line current. 1. they are separately excited. IL = I( say) Back emf developed.

Power developed = Power input-losses in armature and field = VI ± I2 (Ra + Rse) = I [V ± I (Ra + Rse)] = Eb I watts. i. The current supplied to the motor is divided into two paths.Power drawn from supply mains = VI watts where V is the supply voltage and I is the input current..e. input line current. Ish = ¡ Back emf developed. Shunt Wound Motor: A shunt wound motor is one in which the field winding consisting of large number of turns of comparatively fine wire is connected in parallel with armature. 2. IL = Ia + Ish where Ia is the armature current and Ish is the shunt field current given by the expression Rsh voltage. Eb Power input Power developed armature and shunt field   Rsh being the shunt fiend resistance and V the supply = ± Ia Ra = VIL = Power input .losses in . as illustrated in fig. one through the shunt field winding and second through the armature.

as illustrated in fig:.. In this type of motor the flux due to series field winding weakens the field due to shunt field winding.= V IL ±VIsh .Ia2 Ra = V (IL ±Ish ) . Cumulative compound wound motor is one in which the field windings are connected in such a way that the direction of flow of current is same in both of the field windings. Compound Wound Motors: Compound wound motors are of two types namely cumulative compound wound and differential compound wound.Ia2 Ra = V Ia ± Ia2 Ra = Ia (V. In the motor of this type the flux due to series field winding strengthens the field due to the shunt field winding. as illustrated in fig. .Ia Ra) = Eb la 3. Differential compound wound motor is one in which the field windings are connected in such a way that the direction of flow of current is opposite to each other in the two field windings.

Q20. The commutator (just as in a generator) serves to reverse the current in each armature coil at the instant it passes through the neutral axis. how the torque is developed in a DC motor [2004]. so the above relation is always maintained as the armature rotates. all the armature conductors lying under the North Pole carry currents in a given direction. When the brushes are on the neutral axis. Explain with diagram. All conductors under the North Pole carry inward-flowing currents which react with the air gap flux to produce downward acting forces and a counter clockwise torque. illustrates production of torque in a motor. while those lying under South Pole carry currents in the reverse direction. the current in the armature winding reacts with the air-gap flux to produce a turning moment or torque which tends to cause the armature to revolve. Fig. TORQUE DEVELOPED IN A MOTOR: When the field of a machine (of the type described as generator) is excited and a potential difference is impressed upon the machine terminals. Similarly .

If the air-gap flux is assumed to be radially directed at all points. the total torque developed by the armature Ta = BllrZ Nm Where B = gap density.the conductors under the South Pole carry outward-flowing currents which produce upward-acting forces. These forces also give rise to counter clockwise torques. m Z = total number of armature conductors. each of the force acts tangentially and produces a turning moment equal to the force multiplied by its lever arm ² the radial distance from the centre of the conductor to the centre of the shaft. A I = active length of each conductor. T (Wb/m2) I = armature current in a conductor. . Magnitude of torque developed by each conductor = Bllr Nm If the motor contains Z conductors. m r = average lever arm of a conductor or the average radius at which conductors are placed.

2T a Q21. A= Then B= = 2T rl p JlIar x 2T rl JIap Nm 2T a Ia a p a Ta = 0. Shunt motors: The characteristics of a shunt motor reveal that it is an approximately constant speed motor. total flux per pole J and number of poles p.It is more convenient to express Ta in terms of armature current Ia. I= And B= Ia a J Where a = number of parallel paths. and A = the cross-sectional area of flux path at radius r. (i) ¢ . State the applications of DC motors depending upon their characteristics [2004]. It is therefore. Applications of motor depending upon their characteristic 1.159 J p x Or Ta = k J la Nm Where k = p is a constant for any machine. used: Where the speed is required to remain almost constant from no load to full load.

The motor has a high starting torque. Commutation: Commutation means the process of current collection by the brush or the changes which take place in a coil during the period of short circuit by a brush. used: Where large starting torque is required e. in elevators and electric traction.g. The period during which this happens is called the commutation period. Define commutation [2004. . Compound motors: Differential compound motors are rarely used because of their poor torque characteristics. Q22. However. the motor tends to attain dangerously high speed. It is therefore. reciprocating machines etc. Industrial Use: Presses. 2. shears. hair dry. cumulative compound motors are used where a fairly constant speed is required with irregular loads or suddenly applied heavy loads. boring mills.e. (i) (ii) Industrial Use: Electric traction. Where the load is subjected to heavy fluctuations and the speed is automatically required to reduce at high torques and vice versa. However. shapers. drills. cranes. sewing machines etc. vacuum cleaners. spinning and weaving machines etc. Series motors: It is variable speed motors i. elevators. 2006]. speed is low at high torque and vice versa. 3. air compressors. at light or no load. Industrial Use: Lathes.(ii) Where the load has to be driven at a number of speeds and any one of which is required to remain nearly constant.

6 volts. mechanical and electrical. State function of lead acid battery [2004. One of the main tasks in the analysis of commutation process is to find the causes of sparking between the brush and the commutator. 6 cells and 12 cells. i. commutation is considered to be poor if there is sparking at the brushes and appreciable damage to the commutator surface hindering reliable operation of the machine. The sparking may be called forth by causes differing in their physical nature. Lead acid battery: Lead acid battery cells are used where large currents and energy storage is needed. 2007. because it contains six cells. Conversely. action and characteristics of. A lead acid cell produces about 2. Lead acid cells the most commonly used secondary cell and it is the power source for the electric system of the most cars. trucks and tractors. and the surface of the latter remains clean and undamaged during continuous operation of the machine.e. A lead acid battery consists of 3 cells. . 2005. Q23.Commutation is considered to be good when the changes of the current in the coil sections are not accompanied by sparking between the brushes and the commutator. 2008. Now we are going to study in detail construction. Higher voltages are obtained by connecting cells together to form batteries. It can provide large current needed to crank internal combustion engine. 2009]. A 12 V automobile battery actually has a nominal voltage of 12. lead acid battery one by one.1V.

The latter method is mostly used. series motors can be obtained by (i) Flux control method (ii) Armature resistance control method. diverter is open).c. a variable resistance (called field diverter) is connected in parallel with series field winding as shown in figure. the lowest speed obtainable is the normal speed of the motor. 2009].C.e. The variation of flux can be achieved in the following ways: Field Diverters: In this method. The lowest speed obtainable is that corresponding to zero current in the diverter (i. Obviously. Flux Control Method: In this method.Q24. Its effect is to shunt some portion of the line current from the series field winding. I. Speed control of d. 2007. State the different methods of speed control of DC motor and explain any one in brief [2004. the flux produced by the series motor is varied and hence the speed. (i) . series motor: The speed control of D. thus weakening the field and increasing the speed (N = 1/J).

The series field diverter method is often employed in traction work. N w 1/J. Since. By adjusting the armature diverter any speed lower than the normal speed can be obtained. the flux J must increase (T = J Ia). a variable resistance (called armature diverter) is connected in parallel with the armature as shown in figure. the motor speed is decreased. if Ia is decreased. thus reducing the armature current. (iii) Tapped Field Control: In this method.Consequently. this method can only provide speeds above the normal speed. Now for a given load. the flux is reduced (and hence speed is increased) by decreasing . (ii) Armature Diverter: In order to obtain speeds below the normal speed. The diverter shunts some of the lien current.

The switches can short circuit any part of the field winding. This is the most common method employed to control the speed of d. .the number of turns of the series field winding as shown in figure. series motors. The loss of power in the series resistance for many applications of series motors is not too serious since in these applications. any speed below the normal speed can be obtained.c. This reduces the voltage available across the armature and hence the speed falls. By changing the value of variable resistance. II. speeds higher than normal speed are achieved. Although this method has poor speed regulation. Armature Resistance Control: In this method. this has no significance for series motors because they are used in varying speed applications. the motor runs at normal speed and as the field turns are cut out. the control is utilized for a large portion of the time for reducing the speed under light load conditions and is only used intermittently when the motor is carrying full load. a variable resistance is directly connected in series with the supply to the complete motor as shown in figure.

In a secondary cell it is possible to reverse the chemical action to bring the material into their original condition. 2007]. Types of cells 1. This is called charging. The lead acid nickel cadmium. mercuric oxide silver oxide and alkaline cells are the most common examples of primary cell. This emf will produced until the chemical action has changed all of the electrolyte or electrode in some other chemical form. Explain working of nickel iron battery [2004. In a primary cell it is not possible to reverse the chemical action to bring the material into their original condition. Enumerate types of cell. silver Zinc and Edison cells are the most common examples of secondary cell. 2006. A secondary cell is one which can be charged. Secondary Cell: Secondary cells work on the same principles as primary cells but differ in the process in which they may be renewed. Primary Cell: The basic working principle of cell is . A primary cell is one which cannot be recharged. The carbon-Zinc. 2. Difference between a . then the cell is said to the discharged.that an emf can be obtained by two dissimilar metal when acted upon by an electrolyte. In a secondary cell the chemical reaction which takes between the electrolyte and electrode on discharge can be completely reversed by sending a current through the cell in the opposite direction from an external source of emf.Q25.

primarv cell and a secondary, cell is that the primary cell and a secondary cell is that the primary cell cannot be recharged after use while the secondary cell can be recharged after use. Nickel iron battery (Edison cell): The nickel-iron battery is a storage battery having a nickel (III) oxide-hydroxide cathode and an iron anode, with an electrolyte of potassium hydroxide. The active materials are held in nickel-plated steel tubes or perforated pockets. The nominal cell voltage is 1.2V. It is a very robust -battery which is tolerant of abuse, (overcharge, over-discharge, short-circuiting and thermal shock) and can have very long life even if so treated. It is often used in backup situations where it can be continuously charged and can last for more than 20 years. Its limitations, namely, low specific energy, poor charge retention, and poor low-temperature performance, and its high cost of manufacture compared with the lead-acid battery led to a decline in usage along with it having the lowest energy-to-weight ratio. The ability of these batteries to survive frequent cycling is due to the low solubility, of the reactants in the electrolyte. The formation of metallic iron during charge is slow because of the low solubility of the Fe3O4 which is good and bad. It is good because the slow formation of iron .crystals preserves the electrodes; bad because it limits the high rate performance: these cells charge slowly, and are only able to discharge slowly. Nickel-iron batteries have long been used in European, mining operations because of their ability to withstand vibrations, high temperatures and other physical stress. They are being examined again for use in wind and solar power systems and for modern electric vehicle applications. In many respects the Nickel/Iron battery was almost ''too good". A battery that lasts for decades in many cases can outlast the equipment that is was originally designed to power.

So from an economic standpoint lead acid, NiCd and other technologies have been deemed "good enough" and are the predominant technologies in use today even though they do not last as long as a Nickel/Iron counterpart.

Q26. Define preparation of electrolyte of a required specific gravity [2004, 2006, 2007, 2009]. Method of preparation of electrolyte for a given specific gravity Electrolyte: A substance through which an electric current can pass in solution form or in molten form is called electrolyte. Example: Nacl, KBr, H2SO4, NaOH, etc. Types of Electrolyte: There are three types of electrolytes: (i) Strong electrolytes

(ii) (iii) (i)

Weak electrolyte Non-electrolytes Strong Electrolytes: The compounds which ionize to a large extent in dilute solution and conduct electric current to a large extent are called strong electrolytes.

Examples: HCl, NaOH, NaCl, etc. Weak Electrolytes: The compound which ionize to a small extent in dilute aqueous solution and conduct electric current to small extent are called weak electrolytes. Examples: CH3COOH, benzoic acid, carbonic acid, etc. (ii) Non-Electrolytes: The compounds, which do not ionize in aqueous solution and do not conduct electric current, are called non-electrolytes. Examples: Sugar, urea, glucose, etc. (iii) An electrolyte can be prepared by adding pure distilled water in dilute sulphuric acid at specific gravity. During charging process the amount of H2SO4 increased while water content increased during discharging. The value of specific gravity is never constant in electrolyte during charging and discharging. Battery condition can be easily understand by given specific gravity charge with the help of this chart we can understand the battery condition and relevant specific gravity of electrolyte. Battery condition Fully charged About ¾ charged Half charged About ¼ charged Discharged Relevant Specific gravity 1.26 to 1.30 1.23 to 1.26 1.20 to 1.23 1.17 to 1.2 1.11 to 1.14

It should be noted that amount of heat is produced when acid and water are mixed further if water added into acid it is harmful for worker so first acid is added drop by drop into distilled water for dilution. The winding is done with thick conductor.The another factor for charging of specific gravity is temperature of battery. Explain purpose of interpoles [2004. Purpose of inter-poles: These are the poles mounded in between the main poles. These are small in size than the main poles. It is connected in series with the armature. Q27. 2005. Generally these are 1/3 to 3/4 th of the main poles as shown in Fig. . 2006. At high temperature battery is fully charged at comparatively low specific gravity as compared to low temperature. The magnetic field produced by these poles is proportional to the load current. 2009].

but reduces to the very minimum the wastage of energy that ay take place at starting and stopping. Q28. .C. Fig shows the schematic arrangement of Ward Leonard method. Ward Leonard System: This method of control not only gives a wide range of operating speeds. the polarity of inter-poles will be opposite to the main poles ahead in the direction of rotation of the armature.In case of D. motor. Explain with neat diagram the Ward Leonard system of DC motor speed control [2006].

y When the sliding contact of R is at extreme right. The voltage fed to motor M can be controlled by varying the setting of R. To decrease the speed the sliding contact is moved to the . A change in voltage applied to motor M changes its speed. the motor is running at full speed in one direction. The speed can be adjusted to any value from zero to maximum in either direction by means of a rheostat R and switch S.M = main motor whose speed is to be controlled G = separately excited generator which feeds the armature of the motor M E = an exciter (a small shunt generator) which provides field excitation to the generator G and motor M M¶ = driving motor ± a constant speed motor which drives G and E R = a potentiometer rheostat S = a double throw switch The working of this system is as follows: y The motor M¶ drives the generator G and excitor E at constant speed.

In order to reverse the speed of the motor. the speed of motor M is zero. The speed of motor M increases until its back emf exceeds the applied voltage motor M then runs as generator and feeds the machine G which now works as a generator and feeds electrical energy back into the trolley wire. fitted with this system. the switch S is reversed and the sliding contact shifted to right again. Q29. When Ilgner system is driven by means of an AC motor (whether induction or synchronous) another refinement in the form of a slip regulator can be usefully employed thus giving an additional control. One important feature of the Ward Leonard system is its regenerative action. Requirements for Parallel Operation of DC Generator: The following are the principle types of situations where paralleling of DC generators is required: . A modification of the Ward Leonard system is known as Ward Leonard Ilgner system. When a locomotive. the sliding contact is shifted to the extreme left. when the load is suddenly thrown off the main motor M. the driving motor M¶ slows down. When the sliding contact is at the left extreme position. which uses a small motor generator set with the addition of a flywheel whose function is to reduce fluctuations in the power demand from the supply circuit. then M¶ speeds up thereby again storing energy in the flywheel. What are the necessary requirements for parallel operation of DC generator [2008]. When the main motor M becomes suddenly overloaded. Such an action in known as regenerative braking. is descending a slope. This results in salvaging of considerable amount of energy and a superior and smooth braking action.y y left. However. its speeds up due to the action of gravity. thus allowing the inertia of the flywheel to supply a part of the overload.

y . (iii) If the setting of the generator is so made that it develops less internal Eg than voltage at the paralleling terminal. and they are paralleled: (i) If a generator is developing an internally generated voltage Eg that is appreciably above the voltage at the paralleling point. as any parallel circuit must be.Paralleling shunt generators of the same or varying sizes y Paralleling compound generators of the same or varying sizes There are certain requirements that must be met for successful electrical paralleling in all different situations. it will draw current from the paralleling point and will be operating as motor. The above three situations are in entire agreement with Kirchhoff¶s current law. It is neither contributing nor drawing current and is still being rotated by its own prime mover. A parallel circuit is defined as one in which the same voltage exists across each unit as the paralleling point. The generator is said to the floating on the line. The following are the requirements or conditions of paralleling DC generators: (i) The polarities of the generators must be the same or the connections must be interchanged until they are. The following three conditions may be met if the generated voltages of the individual generators are not all the same. (ii) When a generator is producing the same voltage as that existing at the paralleling point. no effective generating action is taking place and no current is flowing to the load. This is absolutely required by Kirchhoff¶s voltage law. generator action is taking place and the unit is delivering current to the load.

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 3. Shunt and Compound motors [2008]. State the applications of DC Series. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) DC Shunt Motor Drills and milling machines Line shaft drives Boring mills Grinders and shapers Spinning and weaving machines Wood working machines Small printing presses Light machine tools generally DC Series Motor Traction drives generally Tram cars and railway cars Cranes.(ii) (iii) (iv) The voltages should be nearly if not exactly identical so that each machine will contribute. derricks. hoists. hair driers. stamping presses and large printing presses . The prime mover that drive the generators should have similar and stable rotational speed characteristics. Applications of DC Motors 1. Q30. haulage gears and mine hoists Pumps and power fans Rolling mills. shearing and planning machines Lifts. sewing machines Universal machines generally Cumulative Compound Motor Punching. The change of voltage with change of load should be of the same character. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) 2. elevators and winches Fans and air compressors Vacuum cleaners.

Direct method: In direct test the generator or motor is put on full-load and whole of the power developed by it is wasted. The determination of efficiency curve. The load characteristics. (i) (ii) Trolley buses Differential Compound Motor Battery boosters Experimental and research work Q31. Testing of d. 2.(v) 4. machines The following important performance conducted on D. 4. Brake test is a typical example of direct test. What is the importance of DC machine testing? Why it is necessary [2008.c. 3. y .C. The direct tests can be used only on small machines. y tests are The procedure to conduct the magnetization or open circuit test and load characteristic (external characteristic) tests The methods for determining efficiency can be divided into following three methods: (i) Direct method (ii) Indirect method (iii) Regenerative method. The magnetization or open circuit test. but involves complication in the measurement of mechanical power input in the case of a generator and output in case of a motor. machines: 1. The temperature rise test. Though this method is simple in looking. 2009].

The simplest of the indirect tests is Swinburne test. so there is no difficulty in applying this method even to very large machines. the brake must be tight before the motor is started. 2009]. Regenerative method: This method requires two identical machines. machines. Hopkinson test is a regenerative test for determining efficiency of D. Indirect method: This method consists in measuring the losses and then calculating the efficiency. The other machine works as a generator and feed back power into the supply.If brake is to be applied to a series motor. Explain the Hopkinson¶s test [2004. The disadvantage of this method is that machine is run light during the test which gives no indication as to the temperature rise on load or to the commutating qualities of the machine. Hopkinson test The back to back test for dc machines was devised in its original form by Hopkinson and is similar to the Sumpner's test for transformers. Thus the total power drawn from the supply is only for supplying internal losses of the two machines. In practice the modification of the original . 2008. otherwise the armature may get damaged and fly to pieces. one of them works as a motor and drives the other. The power is required to supply the losses only.C. Thus even very large machines may be tested as the power required is small. This method enables the determination of losses without actually loading the machine. Q32. which is mechanically coupled to it.

The machine with lower field current will act as motor and the other will work as generator. The power supplied from the mains is only the power required to supply the losses of the two machines. Since both the machines M and G are mechanically coupled. this in turn can be accomplished either by increasing the generator exciting current or by decreasing the exciting current of the motor or both adjustments may be made. Armature current of generator is . At the end of the test. The field current of the machine G is adjusted till the voltmeter VI reads zero and the switch is then closed. Under this condition the generator will float neither taking nor giving current to supply. Any desired load can be put on the generator by increasing the value of its induced emf. Two dc shunt machines are mechanically coupled and losses are supplied electrically. The total current 11 is supplied from the mains to two dc machines M and G.. Machine M is started with the help of a starter as a dc shunt motor and brought to speed with switch SW open.Hopkinson test by Kapp is employed and it is usually called the Hopkinson test. The connection diagram for the Hopkinson test is shown in Fig. the resistances ra1 and ra2 of the armature circuit are measured by passing full load current through them and measuring voltage drops with field circuit open. both the machines run at the same speed.

(I2mra1+ I2g ra2 + VI3 + VI4)) Total iron + friction loss per machines P0 = 0.I4 + I2 Armature copper loss of generator = I2g ra2 Armature copper loss of motor = I2mra1 Field copper loss of generator = VI4 Armature copper loss of motor = VI3 Total iron + friction losses for the two machines = Vl1= .P11 Motor efficiency is given by Efficiency = 1 1 11 V(I1  V2 ) .(I2mra1+ I2g ra2 + VI3 + VI4)) Motor power loss P11 = P0 + I2mra1+ VI3 Motor input power P1 = V (I1 + I2) Motor output power = P1 .( 0  I 2 m ra1  Vl3 ) ! V (I1  12) Generator power loss P12 = P0 + I2gra2+ VI4 Generator output power P2 = VI2 Generator input power P2 = P12 .lg = I 2 + I 4 Armature current of motor is lm = I1 .5 (Vl1.

At Negative plate: PbSO4 + H2SO4 (Lead sulphate) (Sulphuric acid) 2H+ (Hydrogen) = Pb (Lead) + At Positive plate: PbO2 + SO-4 2H2SO4 (Lead sulphate) (Sulphate) (Sulphuric acid) + 2H2O = (Water) PBO2 + (Lead peroxide) The changes occurs during charging is as below: (i) The positive plate changes to lead peroxide (PbO2). 2004. The care should be taken that positive terminal of battery should be connected to positive terminal of supply and negative plate to negative terminal of supply. The current passes from positive plate to the negative plate inside the cell the chemical reaction is an follows. (ii) The negative plate changes to spongy lead which is slate grey in colour.c.Generator efficiency is given by Efficiency = 2 2  ! 12 12 I 2  0  I 2 m ra2  l 4 Q33. which is dark chocolate brown in colour. 2008]. Charging of battery: For charging a battery a d. . Explain the methods of charging of battery and explain in brief any one of them [2001. supply of voltage little higher than the battery voltage is applied across the battery.

(iv) The specific gravity of each cell rises from 1. illustrate charging of battery.(iii) The voltage per cell increases from 1. Q34.Fe (OH)2 (Iron) (Hydroxide of potassium) (Ferrous hydroxide) At Positive plate: . When load is connected to the terminal of the cell. Discharging of Battery: When the cell is fully charged the positive plate is of nickel hydroxide [(Ni (OH4)] and the negative plate. The current through the electrodes breaks it into potassium ions (K+) and hydroxide ions (OH-). How the battery is discharged.8 volt to 2.280.180 to 1. 2008]. The cell stores electrical energy in form of chemical energy. The K+ moves toward the anode and OH.1 volt. give its process in brief [2004. is of iron (Fe).towards cathode the chemical reactions is as given below: At Negative plate: Fe++ + 2OH . Fig. current flow from positive plate outside the cell and from negative to positive inside cell.

In the case of shunt motor. In this method the iron and friction losses are determined by measuring the input to the machine on no-load. A small and normally negligible portion of these losses consists of ohmic losses in the armature. Copper losses are calculated from measured values of the various resistances. + (Nickel hydroxide) 2KOH Potassium (Nickel of lower oxide) (Potassium hydroxide) The following-changes occur during discharging: (i) The negative plate turns into ferrous oxide. The armature copper loss is I2a0 ra where ra . (iii) The strength of electrolyte remains constant. let I0 = the total current on no-load.Ni (OH)4 + 2K+ = Ni (OH). Then the total losses on no load are Vlo. Explain Swinburn¶s and Dynamometer test [2009]. This test is carried out for shunt machines. brush contacts and inter-pole endings. Swinburne's test: This is an indirect method of determining the efficiency of a motor by measuring the losses. Q35. The connection diagram for Swinburne's test is shown in Fig. the machine being run as a motor at normal voltage and speed. (ii) The positive plate turns into the lower hydroxide of nickel. V being the supply voltage.

It must be able to drive the equipment at any speed and develop any level of torque that the test requires. If the dynamometer has a speed regulator. . Dynamometers can be equipped with a variety of control systems. and load the prime mover to any level of torque that the test requires.I 2 a VI r2 . If the dynamometer has a torque regulator.P0 .is the armature resistance and the armature current is Ia0 = I0 If. The total iron. friction and windage losses are Po=VI0-I2a0 ra For an input current I.P0 . the efficiency of the dc machine as a motor is given by VI . A dynamometer is usually equipped with some means of measuring the operating torque and speed.VI f Efficiency = VI Knowing the losses the efficiency of the machine as a generator can be determined from the relation Efficiency = VI .I 2 a r2 .VI f The armature resistance is measured by a dc test by passing a rated current from a battery supply. A motoring dynamometer acts as a motor that drives the equipment under test. Dynamometer test: The dyno must be able to operate at any speed. it develops whatever torque is necessary to force the prime mover to operate at the set speed. Ia = I. it operates at a set torque while the prime mover operates at whatever speed it can attain while developing the torque that has been set.If and line voltage V.

) Detailed dynamometer description .Only torque and speed can be measured. rpm the numerical values of torque and power are always equal when the rpm value is equal to the constant. Power must be calculated from the torque and speed figures according to the formula: Where K is determined by the units of measure used as can be seen below: To calculate power in horsepower (hp) use: where: Torque is in pound-feet (lbf·ft) Rotational speed is in revolutions per minute (rpm) To calculate power in kilowatts use: where: Torque is in newton-metres (N·m) Rotational speed is in revolutions per minute (rpm) (On graphs of torque vs. Fig. The numerical values of horsepower and lbf·ft of torque are always equal at 5252 rpm because 5252 rpm in the numerator cancels out the constant. K. 5252 in the denominator leaving only the torque figure equal to the power.

The housing can be made free to rotate by using trunnions connected to each end of the housing to support the dyno in pedestal mounted trunnion bearings.Electrical dynamometer setup showing measurement arrangement and tachometer engine. One means for measuring torque is to mount the dynamometer housing so that it is free to turn except that it is restrained by a torque arm. Some means is provided to develop a braking torque between dynamometer's rotor and housing. and usually includes a means for measuring torque and rotational speed. hydraulic. The means for developing torque can be frictional. The rotor is coupled to the engine or other equipment under test and is free to rotate at whatever speed is required for the test. A load cell . The torque is the force indicated by the scales multiplied by the length of the torque arm measured from the center of the dynamometer. The torque arm is connected to the dyno housing and a weighing scale is positioned so that it measures the force exerted by the dyno housing in attempting to rotate. according to the type of absorption/driver unit. An absorption unit consists of some type of rotor in a housing. electromagnetic etc. torque A dynamometer consists of an absorption (or absorber/driver) unit.

. Parallel Operation of Compound Generator: Since these machines possess winding in series with the armature and usually having a rising characteristics. an accidental increase in the generated voltage of one machine causes it to supply more load current which in time strengthens its series field. with still further increase in its load current. two series field coil windings are connected in parallel and this cumulative action can not take place. Explain parallel operation of DC Compound Generator [2009]. This increases the generated emf further. This is usually affected by means of an auxiliary bar on the main switch board. the bar being called the "equalizer bus bar".transducer can be substituted for the scales in order to provide an electrical signal that is proportional to torque. An increase in generated emf of one machine increases its armature current but series field is not strengthened so that successful parallel operation is possible. Essential connections for parallel operation of compound generators are shown in Fig. When the equalizing conductor is used. it is again necessary to equalize their field currents. Q36. In absence of the equalizing bar.

MnO2. 2007. NH4C1 and H2O. A vent plug is provided to escape the NH3 gas. It is a mixture of FeSO4.The equalizer should be connected at the junction of inter-pole and series field windings. Q37. The paste is surrounding the carbon rod in a muslin bag which works as the porous pot. Dry Cell: It is a portable cell. 2008. In this cell the electrolyte in the paste shape. 2006. A Zn cylinder is used to house all the chemicals and other components. 2005. H2O etc. 2004. The field has been permanently connected to the first stud of the resistance and the risk of opening the shunt field circuit is thus . it works as negative terminal. is of more practical arrangement. The depolarizer is a mixture of crystals of carbon. For satisfactory operation. the resistance of the equalizing connector should be very small in comparison with that of the field coils. Figure shows the simple construction of the dry cell. 3-Point DC Motor Starter: The starter shown in Fig. This is a shunt motor starter. This is necessary so that the interpole winding carries the armature current. Dry cell is a modification of Lachlanche cell. 2009]. 7H2O. Write short notes on the following [2002. A carbon rod is placed in centre and it works as positive terminal of the cell.

known as "no-volt release" is arranged to hold the arm in "on" position against the pull of the spring provided in the starter arm.avoided. provides an overload protection. When the current is high enough to attract the armature of the overload release. When the supply fails then the arm is released and is pulled back by the spring to the 'off position. An 'over load release' shown in Fig. thus such an instantaneous 'overload release' is sometimes suitable. Voltage Build up in DC Generator: One of the simplest forms of self-excited generator is the shunt wound machine. These contacts are connected to the ends of the coil of the no-volt release which. In practice overloads of large magnitude but of short duration usually occur. consequently is released and return to the "off position. This overload release is instantaneous in action. An electromagnet. the . then a pair of contacts is bridged.

The process continues until that point where the field resistance line crosses the magnetization curve in . is also small. At rated speed. is zero. the generated e. primemover speed is zero. the current which flows in the field circuit I1. voltage across its armature is described with reference to figure in the following steps: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Assume that the generator starts from rest. which aids the residual magnetism in increasing the induced voltage to E2 as shown in figure. Voltage E2 is now impressed across the field. producing E4.C. E.. Thus. But this voltage is also across the field circuit whose resistance is Rf. As the prime-mover rotates the generator armature and the speed approaches rated speed. i. the voltage due to residual magnetism and speed increases.e. Despite a residual magnetism. and so on. When I1 flows in the field circuit of the generator an increases in mmf results due to IfTf. the maximum value. the voltage across the armature due to residual magnetism is small. The manner in which a self-excited generator manages to excite its own field and build a D. I2Tf is an increased mmf which produces generated voltage E3. up to E8. causing a large current I2 to flow in the field circuit. E1 as shown in the figure. E3 yields I3 in the field circuit. But E4 causes I4 to flow in the field producing E5. Tf being field turns.connection diagram (without load) of which is shown in figure.f.m.

E8. Consider a charged lead acid cell with anode of PbO2 and cathode of Pb. The sulphate ions move towards the cathode and hydrogen ions move towards the anode causing the following chemical actions: . Chemical Action during Charging and Discharging of Lead Acid Battery: Chemical Process during Discharging: By discharging of a cell we mean that it is delivering current to the external circuit. the electrolyte being dilute H2SO4 (See figure).figure. Sulphuric acid splits up into hydrogen ions (H+H+) and sulphate ions (SO4--). as shown in the figure. produces a current flow that in turn produces an induced voltage of the same magnitude. Here the process stops. The induced voltage produced. when impressed across the field circuit.

a sulphate ion (SO4--) gives up its two extra electrons to become sulphate radical.. These electrons given up at the cathode move through the external circuit to the anode where they are available to neutralize the positive ions (H+H+) arriving there.2e SO4 (radical) Pb + SO4 PbSO4 At anode: On reaching the anode. each hydrogen ion takes one electron from it to become hydrogen gas. This electron is given by the sulphate ion at the cathode and has come to the anode via the external circuit.At cathode: On reaching the cathode. it enters into chemical action with cathode material (Pb) to form lead sulphate (PbSO4). SO4-. Since sulphate radical cannot exist. PbO2 + 2H PbO + H2O Sulphuric acid reacts with PbO to form PbSO4 PbO + H2SO4 PbSO4 + H2O . H+H+ + 2e 2H The hydrogen gas liberated at the anode acts chemically on the anode material (PbO2) and reduces it to lead oxide (PbO).

The chemical changes that take place during discharging can be summed up as under: (i) Both the plates are converted into lead sulphate (PbSO4) which is whitish in colour. specific gravity of the electrolyte (H2SO4) is used to know the .f. When the cell is fully discharged. falls to about 1. of the cell provides little indication to the state of discharge of the cell since it remains close to 2V for 90% of the discharge period.f. It is important to note that e.m. In practice.f. The lead acid cell should not be discharged beyond the point where its e. (ii) Water is formed which lowers the specific gravity of the electrolyte (H2SO4). of the cell falls.8 volts. (iv) The chemical energy stored in the cell is converted into electrical energy.m. the specific gravity of H2SO4 falls to about 1.m.18. (iii) The e.

To do so.c. it enters into chemical reaction with water as under: SO4-. Hydrogen ions move towards cathode and sulphate ions move towards anode causing the following chemical reactions: At anode: On reaching the anode. The electrolyte (H2SO4) breaks up into hydrogen ions (H+H+) and sulphate ions (SO4--). PbSO4 + O + H2O PbO2 + H2SO4 . These electrons given up at the anode move through the external circuit to the cathode where they are available to neutralize the positive ions (H+H+) arriving there. Chemical Process during Charging Consider a discharged lead acid cell having both the plates converted to lead sulphate (PbSO4).e. source and cathode to the negative terminal of the source as shown in figure.2e SO4 (radical) SO4 + H2O H2SO4 + O The oxygen in the atomic state (i. the anode is connected to the positive terminal of d.state of discharge.18. O) is very active and reacts chemically with anode material (PbSO4) to produce the following chemical change. The cell should be recharged when specific gravity of H2SO4 falls to 1. direct current is passed through the cell in the reverse direction to that in which the cell provided current.. Since sulphate radical cannot exist. a sulphate ion (SO4--) gives up its two extra electrons to become sulphate radical. In order to recharge the cell.

Therefore. H2SO4 is formed in the reactions.At cathode: On reaching the cathode. . the specific gravity of the electrolyte (H2SO4) is raised. the anode is converted into PbO2 and cathode into Pb. each hydrogen ion (H+) takes one electron from it to become hydrogen gas. This electron is given up by the sulphate ion at anode and has come to the cathode via the external circuit. The H2SO4 produced in the chemical reactions above increases the specific gravity of the electrolyte. The chemical changes that occur during recharging can be summed up as under: (i) (ii) The positive plate (anode) is converted into PbO2 and the negative plate (cathode) into Pb. H+H+ + 2e 2H The hydrogen gas liberated at the cathode reacts with cathode material (PbSO4) to reduce it to lead (Pb) as under: PbSO4 + 2H Pb + H2SO4 As the charging process goes on.

m.ions move to anode. the specific gravity of H2SO4 rises to about 1. The e. When current passes through the cell.f. Nickel Cadmium Battery: Active material used for positive plate and the electrolyte used in nickel cadmium cells are the same as that used for nickel iron cell. of the cell rises.ions move to cathode.m. K+ ions move to cathode and OH. For negative plate a mixture of cadmium and iron is used. During discharging the K+ ions move to anode and OH.ions. At Anode: And at Cathode: Ni (OH)2 + 2OH Ni (OH)4 Cd + 2OH Cd (OH)2 When the cell is charged by connecting the anode to the positive terminal of supply and cathode with the negative terminal of supply the direction of current flow is opposite to that during discharging.28. The number of positive plates used in nickel-cadmium cell is one more than the number of negative plates.(iii) (iv) When the cell is fully charged.f. At Anode: Ni (OH)2 + 2OH Ni (OH)4 At Cathode: Cd (OH)2 + 2K Cd + 2KOH Nickel cadmium batteries are more suitable than nickel iron batteries for floating duties in conjunction with charging . Therefore. of a fully charged lead acid cell is about 2 volts. the electrolyte KOH breaks up into K+ and OH. Following chemical reactions take place during charging. The e. Following chemical changes take place when the cell is supplying current to the external circuit. The working of nickel-cadmium cell is almost similar to nickel iron cell. Electrical energy supplied is converted into chemical energy which is stored in the cell.

Electrical efficiency: Generatoro u output in watts P m= lect . Mechanical efficiency: Elect . Open circuit losses in these batteries are also low as compared to nickel iron batteries. Efficiencies of DC Generator 1. power developed in armature in watts .dynamo. P m= Mechanical power input £ ¤ . power developed in ar ature = B Ish = V IL E g Ia 2.

5 B.e.P.m. (metric) = @ Tsh x 2 TN 735 .H. power input Unless otherwise told. Pc= Mech.(5. (metric) x 735.5 2 TN 60 § ¥ . .H . B.6) = B .5 3.P.Tsh is known as lost torque (i.5 Tsh = Where N = speed of armature in r. Shaft Torque: The torque developed by the armature is the gross torque. The torque which is available for useful work is known as shaft torque Tsh. The horse power obtained by using shaft torque is called brake horse power (B. It is so called because it is available at the shaft.P. x735 . x 735.. commercial efficiency is always understood. Overall or Commercial efficiency: Generator out put . The difference Ta . Whole of this torque is not available at the pulley. torque lost in iron and friction losses) ¦ = = VI B.p. .= Eg Ia B. since certain percentage of torque developed by the armature is lost to overcome the iron and friction losses.H .).H.P.

y .C.) y If the generator is run at constant speed with the main switch open. although in some special cases it is purposely increased to 10 per cent or more. This is called residual magnetism and is usually sufficient to produce 2 or 3 per cent of normal terminal voltage. but after a certain point. this being due to a small amount of permanent magnetism in the field poles. the amount of magnetic flux. and the terminal voltage is noted at various values of exciting or field current then the O. shown in Fig. The first part of the curve is approximately straight and shows that the flux produced is proportional to the exciting current. can be plotted. to a suitably chosen scale.C.C.159 x iron and riction losses Nm N 60 No-Load Saturation Characteristic (or O. y It will be noticed that a small voltage is produced when the field current is zero.= 0. there being a constant relationship (depending upon speed of rotation) between flux and induced voltage. This is also referred to as the 'magnetization curve' since the same graph shows.C.

saturation of the iron becomes perceptible as the curve departs from straight line form. Find the speed in rpm. P=6 A=2 Z = 640 J = 0.06 wb E = 256 Volts N=? E= N= J ZN P × 60 A E × 60 × A J×Z×P .06 wb. Q1) NUMERICALS A six pole wave wound armature has 640 conductors the flux / pole is 0. Emf generated as 256 V.

A=P=8 Z = 960 N = 500 rpm E = 320 J=? E= J= J= J ZN P 60 A E × 60 × A Z×N×P 320 × 60 × 8 = 0.016 weber. for flux / pole. emf = ? emf = J ZN P × A 60 .p.04 wb 960 × 500 × 8 Q3) Calculate the e. the emf is 320 V.f. P=4 A=2 Z = 45 × 18 N = 1200 J = 0.m.33 rpm Q2) A eight pole wound armature has 960 conductors and it runs at a speed of 800 rpm.m. The flux per pole is 0.016 wb.06 × 640 × 6 N = 133.N= 256 × 60 × 2 0. generated by a 4-pole wave wound armature having 45 slots with 18 conductor per slot when driven at 1200 r.

m. B = 5 wb/m2 l=3m U = 60° Y = 45 m/sc emf = ? emf = YBL SinU emf = 45 × 5 × 3 × Sin 60° emf = Q5) In a 4 pole dynams.= 0.m. induced in it.016 × 45 × 18 × 1200 4 × 60 2 = 518. Q4) A conductor of length 3 meter moves at 60 degrees to a uniform magnetic field of flux density 5 web/m2 with a velocity of 45 m/sec. induced in one of the armature conductor if the armature is driven at 600 r.4 volts. the flux per pole is 30 m web.p.f. Calculate the average e.m.f. Calculate the e. J = 30 mwb N = 600 rpm P=4 A=2 emf = ? emf = JZN P × 60 A JN 4 × 60 2 emf /Z = .

30 × 10±3 × 600 4 = × 60 2 emf /Z = 0. Calculate the e. induced in it. webers.f.5 × 10 × 25 × Si 45° e= Q7) A coil is would with 500 turns. a current of 5 Amperes flowing in the coil. Find the inductance of the coil. Produces a flux of 60 micro.5 wb/m2 with a velocity of 25 m/s.5 wb/m2 Y = 25 m/s emf = ? e = BlY Si U e = 1.m.6 volts Q6) A conductor of length 10 meter moves at an angle of 45° to uniform magnetic field of flux density 1. L=? e=±N e=±L ±L dJ dt di dt di dJ =±N dt dt dJ di L=N . L = 10 m U = 45° B = 1. N = 500 tonnes dJ = 60 Qwb di = 5 Amp.

= L dt = 75 × 10±3 × = 5000 1 @ 75 5000 × 1000 1 (b) = 375 Volts Current charges by 200 Amp. Calculate the self induced e. in 0.m.02 = 5000 Amp.m. di Self induced e.m. 200 Average rate of charge of current = 0.02 seconds L = 75 mH I = 100 A Self induced e. / sec di Self induced e. / sec.m. 100 Average rate of change of current = 0.02 sec.500 × 60 × 10±6 L= 5 L = 6 × 10±3 H Q8) A coil having an inductance of 75 milli Henries is carrying a current of 100 A.02 sec.02 = 10000 Amp.f.02 seconds (ii) Reversed in 0.f. when the current is (i) Reduced to zero in 0.f. = ? (a) When current charges by 100 Amps in 0. = L dt 75 10000 × = 1000 1 @ .f.

Find: (a) E.02 ohms. Iron and Friction loss = 1600 watt.f. . (c) Commercial and electrical efficiencies.m.02) = 4 volts Generated e. a) Emf generated = ? b) Copper loss = ? c) Commercial efficiency = ? V Rsn 220 44 a) Isn = Isn = b) Isn = 5A Ia = 195 + 5 Ia = 200 A Armature drop = Ia Ra = 200 (0.02) = 800 watt. Armature resistance 0.Q1) A shunt generator supplies 195 Ampere at 220 volt. generated. shunt field resistance 44 ohm. Rsn = 44 _‰_.f. = 220 + 4 = 224 volts Cu loss Armature Cu loss = Ia2 Ra = (200)2 (0. IL = 195 A V = 220 volts Ra = 0.m.02 _‰_. If the Iron and Friction loss 1600 watt. (b) copper loss. Shunt Cu loss = V Ish.

generator is required to generate an e. of 600 volts on open circuit when revolving at a speed of 900 r.100 watt Total Cu loss = 800 + 1. P = 16 A=2 Emf = 600 volts N = 900 rpm Z = 144 × 2 J=? e= J= J ZN P × 60 A e × 60 × A Z×N×P . The armature is wave wound.f.100 = 1800 watt Commercial efficiency: Total loss = 1900 + Iron & Friction = 1900 + 1600 = 3500 watt Output Qc = × 100% Input Qc = 220 × 195 × 100% (220 × 195) + 3500 Qc = 92.p.m.c) = 220 × 5 = 1.45% Q2) The armature of a 16 pole d. Calculate the magnetic flux per pole required if the armature has 144 slots with 2 conductors per slot.c.m.

f.f. generated. Rsh = 50 _‰_ Rsn = 0. Calculate the generated e.m.04 _‰_.04 _‰_ Rs = 0. IL = 450 A V = 230 volts. What is the e.m.0173611 wb.J= 600 × 60 × 2 144 × 2 × 900 × 16 J = 0.03 _‰_ General emf = ? 230 Ish = = 4.6) (0.6 A General emf = V + Ia Ra = 230 + (454.03 _‰_. series field resistance .638 volts Q4) A short shunt compound generator supplies a load of 15 kW at 300 volts through a pair of feeders of total resistance 0.03 _‰_ Rsh = 80 _‰_ Eg = ? . Q3) A shunt generator delivers 450 A at 230 volts and the resistances of the shunt field and armature are 50 _‰_ and 0.03) = 243.6 A 50 Ia = 450 + 4.6 = 454. P = 15 kW Vl = 300 volts Ra = 0. shunt field resistance 80 _‰_.03 _‰_ respectively.1 _‰_ armature resistance .

of series winding is 0.5 V 301.15075 V Generated emf = 300 + 1.000 / 300 = 50 A Voltage drop in series winding = 50 × 0.15075 = 303.03 = 1.04 = 2.7 × 10±3 × 25 × 51 × 1500 4 × 60 2 E = 427.Load current = 15.5 Ish = 80 Isn = 3.025 .125 volts. The resistance of the shunt field is 50 ohms. P=4 A=2 Z = 25 × 51 N = 1500 rpm J = 6.5 V Voltage drop in series shunt winding = 300 + 1.76875 Ia = 53.5 + 2.5 = 301.76875 × 0. each with 25 conductors. 76875 A Ia Ra = 53.7 × 10±3 wb E=? E= E= J ZN P × A 60 6.65075 volts Q5) A 4 pole DC Generator having wave wound armature has 51 slots.76875 A Ia = 50 + 3. Q6) A short shunt compound generator supplies a current of 50 amperes at 200 volts. Find emf generated in the machine when driven at 1500 rpm with 67 mwb flux / pole.

7 volts Voltage drop across series winding = 50 × 0.025 _‰_ Ra = 0.025 = 1.25 = 203. Ish = 200 × 4 = 800 Watt Total = 800 + 145 = 945 Watt c) Stray losses = 1000 watt Total loss = 1000 + 945 = 1945 Watt Output = 200 × 50 = 10000 Output of Prime mover = 10000 + 1945 = 11945 Watt . of the prime mover.25 volts Emf generated = 200 + 2. generated. Load current = 50 A Vt = 200 volts Rsn = 50 _‰_ Rs = 0.f. c) The b. Find: a) e.7 + 1.m.05 _‰_ Iron and friction loss = 1 kW a) Emf generated = ? b) Cu loss = ? c) Output of prime mover d) Commercial efficiency a) Ish = 200 / 50 = 4 A Ia = 50 + 4 = 54 A Ia Ra = 54 × 0.ohms.95 volts b) Cu loss: Armature Cu loss = Ia2 Ra = 542 × 0.p.05 ohm.05 = 2. Iron and friction losses amount to 1 kW.h. b) The copper losses. d) The commercial efficiency.05 = 145 Watt Shunt Cu loss = V. and of armature 0.

Assuring the flux / pole to be 70 mwb. Calculate the emf generated. Q8) A 4 pole wave wound armature of a dc generator has 122 conductors and runs at 1200 rpm if the flux / pole is 25 mwb. P=4 A=2 Z = 122 N = 1200 rpm J = 25 × 10±3 wb E=? . having wave wound armature winding has 51 slots. P=4 A=2 Z = 51 × 20 E=? N = 1500 rpm J = 7 × 10±3 wb.717% Q7) A four pole generator.d) Qc = Qc = Output × 100% Input 10000 × 100% 11945 Qc = 83. each slot containing in the machine when driven at 1500 rpm. E= E= J ZN P × 60 A 7 × 10±3 × 51 × 20 × 1500 × 4 60 × 2 E = 357 volts.

05 .02 _‰_ Rse = 0. The load consists of 4 motors each taking 20 ampere and a lighting load of 20. Q9) A short shunt compound generator supplies a load at 200 volts through a pair of feeders of total resistance 0.E= E= J ZN P 60 A 25 × 10±3 × 122 × 1200 × 4 60 × 2 E = 122 volts.. Current taken by one lamp of 60 W W = VI W I= V .f.. Armature resistance 0. 60 watt lamps.1 Ohms..m. series field resistance of .1 _‰_ 4 motors = each taking 20 A 20 lamps = each 60 W Ra = 0. V = 200 Volt RT = 0. shunt field resistance 50 .02 . So total motor current = 20 × 4 = 80 Amp. generated = ? Solution: (i) Each motor taking 20 Amp.05 _‰_ Rsh = 50 _‰_ Load current = ? Terminal voltage = ? E.

6 = 208. Now total current supplied = 80 + 6 = 86 Amp.3 Volt Voltage across shunt field = voltage at brush = 208.9 Volts V Shunt field current = Ish = Rsh Ish = 212.258 .1 = 8.3 = 212.3 Amp.6 + 4. Total current of 20 lamps = 20 × 0.9 50 @ drop (iii) Ish = 4.05 = 4.I= 60 6 = 200 20 (ii) I = 0. The current 86 Amp flowing through series field So series voltage drop Vse = Ise × Rse Vse = 86 × 0.6 Volt Voltage at terminal = Voltage at load + Feeder = 200 + 8.6 Volt Ans.1 _‰_ So voltage drip in feeder = 86 × 0. Now current 86 Amp is flowing through the feeders of having resistance 0.3 = 6 Amps.258 A Total armature current = Ise + Ish Ia = 86 + 4.

m.01 _‰_ Rsh = 44 _‰_ Iron friction loss = 1000 W (i) E. = 214. generated E.02 = 1. Find: (i) E. = load voltage = feeder drop + series drop + armature drop E.f.H.H.m. Q10) A short shunt compound generator supplies 200 ampere at 220 volts armature resistance 0.m.71 Volts Ans.258 × 0. the iron and friction losses amount to 1600 watt.m.02 _‰_ Rse = 0.258 Amp.P.6 + 4.f. Armature volt drop = IaRa = 90.81 E.f.f.P.m. of engine. The shunt field resistance 44 ohms.3 +1. I = 200 A V = 220 V Ra = 0.02 Ohms.Ia = 90. (iv) Electrical efficiency.f.81 Volt Now E. of engine = ? (iv) Electrical efficiency = ? (v) Commercial efficiency = ? Solution: Voltage drop in Rse = Vse = IRse .m. (v) Commercial efficiency. = 200 + 8. Generated. (iii) B. generated = ? (ii) Copper losses = ? (iii) B.f. (ii) Copper losses.

1 × 205.f.m.m.1 = 226.1 Volt @ E. Electrical power input = V × I = 220 × 200 = 44000 Watt Electrical power developed in armature = E.05 = 46361.05 Ia = 205.05 × 0. Voltage drop in armature = IaRa Va = 205.805 Watt @ Copper losses = b ± c = 46360.05 Amp.01 Vse = 2 Volt @ Vb = 220 + 2 = 222 Volt Vb 222 Ish = = Rsh 44 Ish = 5. generated = Vb + Va = 222 + 4. = 226.8 + 1600 (c) (b) × Ia @ .8 Watt Ans.805 ± 44000 = 2361.02 Va = 4.05 A Ia = I + Ish Ia = 200 + 5. Iron friction loss = 1600 W Total losses = Current loss + Iron loss = 2361.Vse = 200 × 0.1 Volt Ans.f.

H. calculate the generated emf.= 3961.805 45111 × 100 47961.025 e.29 h.p. of engine = 746 = 47961.8 A .8 watt Mechanical power input = Output + total loss = 44000 + 3961.8 Watt Mechanical power input B. = ? Solution V Ish = Rsh Ish = 220 25 Ish = 8. Electrical efficiency = = 97.m.P. Q11) A shunt generator delivers 440 A and 220 V and the resistances of the shunt field and armature are 25 Ohms and 0. I = 440 A V = 220 V Rsh = 25 _‰_ Ra = 0.3% Ans.f.025 Ohms respectively. Commercial efficiency = = 94.8 = 47961.8 746 95111 × 100 46361.8 = 64.05% Ans.

=? 30 _‰_ Rsh G 220 V Ra = 0.02.3 Ia = 437.m. = Voltage at Brush + Armature drop = 220 + IaRa = 220 + (448. respectively.m.8 Ia = 448.02 _‰_ I = 430 A e.f .3 A Ia = I + Ish Ia = 430 + 7.8 × 0.22 = 231. I = 430 A V = 220 V Rsh = 30 _‰_ Ra = 0.3 A . Calculate the generated emf.8 A e.025) = 220 + 11.02 _ ‰ _ Ish = V Rsh 220 = 30 Ish = 7.Ia = I + Ish Ia = 440 + 8.22 Volt Ans. Q12) A shunt generator delivers 430 A and 220V and the resistances of the Shunt Field and armature are 30.f. and 0.

m.f.W.75 = 228. = E1 = 560 V e.02 ohm and field resistance is 50.02 _‰_ each Rsh = 50 _‰_ each IL = 2500 A e.f. = ? Solution: Let V = Bus-bar voltage I1 = Current output machine 1 I2 = Current output machine 2 @ I1 + I2 = 2500 (A) V V = Ish = Rs 50 V Ish = 50 . The combined load current is 2500A. = E2 = 550 V Bus-bar voltage = V = ? Output in K. Q13) Two Shunt generators are operating in parallel have each Ra 0. if generated emf¶s of the machine are 560V and 550V respectively. each. Ra = 0.m. calculate the Bus Bar Voltage and output of each machine. = Voltage at brush + Voltage drop at armature = 220 + IaRa = 220 + (437.3 × 0.75 Volt Ans.m.e.02) = 220 + 8.f.

02 = 550 50 (2) Subtract equation (2) from equation (1) 0. we have I1 ± I2 = 500 I1 + I2 = 2500 2I1 = 3000 3000 I1 = 2 I1 = 1500 A I1 + I2 = 2500 1500 + I2 = 2500 I2 = 1000 A Put value of I1 in equation (1) .02 = 560 50 (1) V V + (I2 + ) 0. generated V V + (I1 + ) 0.02 I2 = 10 2 I1 2 I2 ± = 10 100 100 I1 I2 ± = 10 50 50 I1 ± I2 = 500 (B) We know that I1 + I2 = 2500 (A) By adding equation (A) and (B).02 I1 ± 0.m.Bus-bar voltage + Voltage drop in armature = e.f.

W. V × I1 K. the shunt field resistance is 44 Ohms. Output of machine 1 = 1000 = 530 × 1500 1000 = 53 × 15 = 795 K.0004 V = 560 V + 0.78 V = 530 Volt (approx.0004 V = 529.02 V = 560 50 V + 30 + 0.02 = 560 50 V ) 0.V + (I1 + V ) 0.W.0004) V = 530 1. Q14) A short shunt compound generator supplies 200 amperes at 220 volts. Calculate (i) .) Bus-bar voltage = V = 530 Volt Ans. Ans. K.W. Output of machine 2 = = 530 × 1000 1000 V × I1 1000 = 530 K.0004 V = 530 530 V= 1.02 ohms.02 = 560 50 V + (1500 + V + 30 + 0. the Iron and Friction losses amount to 1600 watts.0004 V = 560 ± 30 (1 + 0. armature resistance 0.W.

generated = ? B.m.1 Volt @ E.f.f. I = 200 A V = 220 V Ra = 0.P. generates = Vb + Va E.H.f.01 = 2 Volt @ Vb = 220 + 2 Vb = 222 Volt Vb 222 Ish = = Rsh 44 Ish = 5.f.02 Va = 4.02 _‰_ Rse = 0.electrical Efficiency (ii) EMF generated (iii) B.m.05 Ia = 205.1 Volt @ .05 A Ia = I + Ish Ia = 200 + 5.01 _‰_ Rsh = 44 _‰_ Iron friction losses = 1600 W Electrical efficiency = ? e.05 × 0. of engine = ? Solution: Voltage drop in series winding = I × Rse = 200 × 0.1 E.H.m.P of engine. = 222 + 4. = 226.m.05 A Voltage drop in Armature = IaRa Va = 205.

I2 = 220 Axp Ra = 0.8 watts Iron and friction losses = 1600 watts = 2361.8 + 1600 = 3961.805 watts @ Copper losses = b ± c = 46361.015 _‰_ .05 = 46361.29 h. 45111 Electrical efficiency = × 100 46361.805 = 97.8 watts Meth power input B.8 746 = 64. × Ia = 226.015 ohm.805 ± 44000 = 2361. Q1) A 100 volt shunt motor is taking a current of 220 Amp armature resistance 0.f.m.m.8 watts Mechanical power input = Output + Total loss = 44000 + 3961. V = 100 volts. of Engine = 746 = 47961.p.f.8 = 47961.3% Ans.H. shunt field resistance 20 ohms.(c) Electrical power output = V × I = 220 × 200 = 44000 watts (b) Electrical power developed in armature = E.1 × 205.P. Calculate back e.

Q2) A shunt motor running at 600 r. Armature resistance. shunts field resistance 50 ohms. Iron and friction losses 2188 watts: Find (i) Total torque (ii) Copper losses (iii) Commercial efficiency.775 volts. takes 80 amperes at 250 volts.1 ohm.m.5 volts Torque a) . N = 600 rpm I2 = 80 A V = 250 volts Ra = 0.Rsh = 20 _‰_ Back emf = ? 100 Ish = 20 Ish = 5 A Ia = 220 ± 5 = 215 A Back emf = V ± Ia Ra = 100 ± 215 (0.1 = 242.p. 0.015) Back emf = 96.1 _‰_ Rsh = 50 _‰_ Iron & friction losses = 2188 watt 250 Ish = 50 Ish = 5 A Ia = 80 ± 5 Ia = 75 A Eb = V ± Ia Ra = 250 ± 75 × 0.

Ta = Ta =

1 Es t a 2T N 242.5 × 75 1 × = 4.8245 N/m. 600 2 × 3.14

b) Cu loss Armature Cu loss = Ia2 Ra = (75)2 × 0.1 = 562.5 watt Shunt Cu loss = V. Ish = 250 × 5 = 1250 watt Total Cu loss = 562.5 + 1250 = 1812.5 watt c) Commercial efficiency Iron and friction loss = 2188 watts. Total loss = 2188 + 1812.5 = 4000.5 watt Output × 100% Qc = Input Qc = 250 × 80 × 100% = 83.333% (250 × 80) + 4000.5


A shunt motor, armature resistance 0.2 _‰_, shunt field resistance 55 _‰_ is tahj 50 A at 220 volts. Find back emf. IL = 50 A V = 220 volts Ra = 0.2 _‰_ Rsh = 55 _‰_ Eb = ? 220 Ish = 55 Ish = 4 A Ia = 50 ± 4 = 46 A Eb = V ± Ia Ra

Eb = 220 ± 46 (0.2) = 210.8 volts Q4) A shunt motor takes 25 A from a 240V main. Its efficiency is 85%, find the output in horse power and total copper losses, when the field resistance is 150; (ohms) and armature resistance is 0.4; (Ohms). I = 25 A V = 240 V Rsh = 150 _‰_ Ra = 0.4 _‰_ (Efficiency) L = 85% Output in hp = ? Total copper losses = ? Solution: Ish = 24J V = Rsh 15J

Ish = 1.6A For armature current Ia = I ± Ish Ia = 25 ± 1.6 Ia= = 23.4 A Now for copper losses Shunt copper loss = Ish2 × Rsh = (1.6)2 × 150 = 384 W Armature copper loss Ia2 × Ra = (23.4)2 × 0.4 = 219.1 W

@ Total copper losses = Shunt Cu loss + Armature Cu loss = 384 + 219.1 = 603.1 Watt Ans. Output in h.p. Input = V × I = 240 × 25 = 6000 watt Output Efficiency = x = Input @ Output = x × input 85 = × 6000 100 = 85 × 60 = 5100 watt = 6.8 h.p. Ans.


A shunt motor takes 30A from a 230 mains, its efficiency is 80%, find the output in horse power and copper losses when the field resistance is 160; and armature resistance is 0.4;. I = 30 A V = 230 V Rsh = 160 _‰_ Ra = 0.4 _‰_ Efficiency L = 80% Total copper loss = ? Output in hp = ? Solution:

4 = 326.18 + 326.5 = 653.4 h.5 watt Total copper loss = Shunt loss + Armature Loss = 327.57)2 × 0.43 Ia = 28.43 A Ia = I ± Ish Ia = 30 ± 1. .Ish = Ish = V 230 = Rsh 160 23 16 Ish = 1.p. Ans.57 A Shunt copper loss = Ish2 × Rsh = (1.43)2 × 160 = 327.18 watt Armature copper loss = Ia2 × Ra = (28.p.68 watt Output in h. Input = V × I = 230 × 30 = 6800 watt Output Efficiency = L = Input Output = L × Input 80 = × 6900 100 = 80 × 69 = 5520 watt = 7.

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