# Probability and Statistics Probability and Statistics

Formula Sheet Formula Sheet
I. Descriptive Statistics
Sample Mean Sample Mean Depth of Median Midrange Range
(List of Data) (Freq. Distrib.)

x
x
n

·
xf
x
f

·

1
( )
2
n
d x
+
·
2
H L
Midrange
+
· R H L · −
Sample Variance Pop. Variance Sample St. Deviation Pop. St. Deviation
(List of Data) (List of Data) (List of Data) (List of Data)
( )
2
2
1
x x
s
n
− ∑
·

( )
2
2
x
N
µ
σ
− ∑
·
( )
2
1
x x
s
n
− ∑
·

( )
2
x
N
µ
σ
− ∑
·

Variance St. Deviation
(Grouped Data) (Grouped Data)
( )
2
2
2
1
m
m
f x
f x
n
s
n
| `
⋅ ∑
⋅ − ∑

. ,
·

( )
2
2
1
m
m
f x
f x
n
s
n
| `
⋅ ∑
⋅ − ∑

. ,
·

Chebyshev’s Standard Score Percentile of a Piece of Data k th Percentile Interquartile
Theorem z -score Range
2
1
1 at least
k

x
z
µ
σ

·
number of values below+0.5
percentile= 100
total number of values

100
k
nk
P ·
3 1
IQR Q Q · −
II. Probability
Permutation Rule: The arrangement of n objects in a specific order using r objects at a time is called a permutation of n objects taken
r objects at a time. It is written
n r
P
and the formula is
!
( )!
n r
n
P
n r
·

Combination Rule: The number of combinations of r objects selected from n objects is denoted by
n r
C
, or
n
r
| `

. ,
, and is given by the
formula
!
!( )!
n r
n
C
r n r
·

.
Empirical Theoretical Complement General Special Addition Rule
Probability Probability Rule Addition Rule Mutually Exclusive Events
( )
( )
n A
P A
n
′ ·
( )
( )
( )
n A
P A
n S
·
( ) 1 ( ) P A P A · −
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) P Aor B P A P B P Aand B · + −

( ... ) ( ) ( ) ... ( ) P Aor Bor D P A P B P D · + + +
General Special Multiplication Rule Conditional
Multiplication Rule for Independent Events Probability
( ) ( ) ( | ) P Aand B P A P B A · ⋅ ( ... ) ( ) ( ) ... ( ) P Aand Band and D P A P B P D · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
( )
( | )
( )
P Aand B
P AB
P B
·
Mean of a Variance of a St. Deviation of a Binomial
Prob. Distribution Prob. Distribution Prob. Distribution Prob. Function
[ ] ( ) x P x µ· ⋅ ∑
2 2 2
( ) x P x σ µ ] · ⋅ − ∑
]
2 2
( ) x P x σ µ ] · ⋅ − ∑
]
( ) 0,1,2,...
x n x
n
P x p q for x
x

| `
· ⋅ ⋅ ·

. ,
Mean of a Variance of a Standard Deviation of a
Binomial Random Variable Binomial Random Variable Binomial Random Variable
np µ·
2
npq σ · npq σ ·
III. Inferential Statistics
z-score z-score Standard Error Confidence Interval Sample Size Needed for an
(Piece of Data) (Sample Mean) of the Mean Estimate for
µ
, (
σ
Known) Interval Estimate of Pop. Mean

x
z
µ
σ

·
x
x
x
z
µ
σ

·

x
n
σ
σ ·
2
x z
n
α
σ
t ⋅
2
2
z
n
E
α σ ⋅ | `
·

. ,
Confidence Interval Confidence Iterval Sample Size Needed for an
Estimate for
µ
, (
σ
Unknown) Estimate for p Interval Estimate of Pop. Proportion
2
s
x t
n
α t ⋅

2
ˆ ˆ
ˆ
pq
p z
n
α t ⋅
2
2
ˆ ˆ
z
n pq
E
α
| `
·

. ,
Test Statistic – Mean Test Statistic – Mean Test Statistic – Proportions
(
σ
Known) (
σ
Unknown)

* x
x
z
n
µ
σ

·
*
withdf 1
x
x
t n
s
n
µ −
· · −

*
ˆ
ˆ with
p p x
z p
n pq
n

· ·
Equation for Slope for y-intercept for Pearson’s Product
Line of Best Fit Line of Best Fit Line of Best Fit Moment r

0 1
ˆ y b b x · +
( ) ( )
( )
1 2
x x y y
b
x x
− − ∑
·
− ∑

0 1
b y b x · −
1
1
x y
x x y y
r
n s s
| ` | ` − −
· ∑

. ,. ,
Test Statistic Confidence Interval Confidence Interval
Variance or St. Deviation Variance Standard Deviation
2
2
2
( 1)
withdf 1
n s
n χ
σ

· · −
2 2
2
2 2
larger smaller
( 1) ( 1) n s n s
σ
χ χ
− −
< <

2 2
2 2
larger smaller
( 1) ( 1) n s n s
σ
χ χ
− −
< <
Goodness-of-Fit Chi-Square
Chi-Square Test Test for Independence
2
2
( ) O E
E
χ

·∑
2
2
( ) O E
E
χ

·∑
df = # categories – 1 df = (rows - 1)(columns – 1)
expected value =
rowsum×columnsum
grand total

Deviation χ2= ( n −1) s 2 with df = n −1 σ2 Confidence Interval Variance ( n −1) s 2 ( n −1) s2 <σ 2 < 2 2 χ larger χ smaller Goodness-of-Fit Chi-Square Test (O − E ) 2 χ 2 =∑ E df = # categories – 1 Chi-Square Test for Independence (O − E ) 2 χ 2 =∑ E df = (rows . Proportion  zα ˆˆ n = pq 2 E      2 s n Test Statistic – Mean ( σ Known) x −µ x z* = σ n Equation for Line of Best Fit ˆ y =b0 +b1 x Test Statistic – Mean ( σ Unknown) x −µx t* = with df = n −1 s n Slope for y-intercept for Line of Best Fit Line of Best Fit ∑ ( x − x )( y − y ) b1 = b0 = y −b1 x 2 ∑ ( x− x ) Test Statistic – Proportions z* = ˆ p− p x ˆ with p = n pq n Pearson’s Product Moment r 1  x − x  y − y  r= ∑   n −1  sx  s y    Confidence Interval Standard Deviation ( n −1) s 2 ( n −1) s2 <σ < 2 χ larger χ 2 smaller Test Statistic Variance or St. ( σ Unknown) x ± tα ⋅ 2 Confidence Iterval Estimate for p ˆˆ pq ˆ p ± zα ⋅ 2 n Sample Size Needed for an Interval Estimate of Pop.III. Inferential Statistics z-score (Piece of Data) x −µ z= σ z-score (Sample Mean) z= x −µx σx Standard Error of the Mean Confidence Interval Estimate for µ .1)(columns – 1) row sum×column sum expected value = grand total . ( σ Known) Sample Size Needed for an Interval Estimate of Pop. Mean  zα ⋅σ n = 2  E      2 σ σx= n σ x±z ⋅ n α 2 Confidence Interval Estimate for µ .