You are on page 1of 17

আরও পরব�� ব্লগ» ব্লগ ���র করুন প্র�বশ করুন

MARINESHELF.COM
WELCOME TO THE WORLD OF SHIPS AND MERCHANT NAVY THIS SITE IS A MARITIME BLOG AND WILL DEAL MAINLY
WITH RESPECT TO SHIPS AND ALL THAT RELATES TO SHIPS AND MERCHANT NAVY ;YOUR VIEWS AND SUGGESTIONS
AND ARTICLES ARE IMPORTANT TO ME FOR HELPING THE NEW GENERATION OF SEAFARERS ;KINDLY COME OUT WITH
YOUR IDEAS AND HELP THIS SMALL VENTURE TO GROW AND HELP ALL SEAFARERS OUT THERE.KINDLY NOTE ALL
ARTICLES ARE CONTRIBUTIONS FROM FRIENDS AND OTHER SOURCES HENCE KINDLY CORRECT ME IF YOU FIND ANY
MISTAKES.

PROFILE
STABILITY BASIC FORMULAS Vipin Kumar 
Follow

S SOME  BASIC FORMULAS View my complete profile

Area of Waterplane = L x B x CW
…. L = Length of vessel
…. B = Breadth of vessel Followers
...CW = Co-efficient of Waterplane Followers (155) Next

Volume of Displacement = L x B x d x CB
…. d = depth of vessel
….CB = Block co-efficient
Volume (V) = L x B x d

Displacement (W) = L x B x d x R.D Follow


... R.D = Relative density of water

TRANSVERSE STABILITY TOPICS


Rectangular Waterplanes
Home
BM = I . where I = LB3
V 12 MARINE AUXILARIES

…. V = Volume of vessel MARINE INSURANCE BASICS


BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCE
Depth of centre of buoyancy below water line:
ELECTRICAL
= 1 ( d + V )
3 2 A SURVEY CHECKLIST
LONGITUDINAL STABILITY CAP(condition assessment progamme)
a) Rectangular Waterplanes CLASSIFICATION AND SURVEY
IL = L3B and BML = IL .
PORT STATE CONTROL
12 V
STABILITY BASIC FORMULAS

b) Box Shapes SHIPS CERTIFICATES

BML = L2 Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP)


12d BOILER
GMDSS QUESTIONS
LIST
TERMS OF HULL STRUCTURE
GG1(Horizontal) = w x d
W MARITIME LAW
….d = distance moved horizontal MARINE PAINTS
….w = weight SHIP MANAGEMENT COMPANIES IN INDIA
….W = Final Displacement
MARITIME INSTITUTES IN INDIA

GG1(Vertical) = w x d SOME EXAM QUESTIONS FOR MARINERS


W
….d = distance moved vertical
….w = weight
SOME LINKS WHICH ARE OF
….W = Final Displacement
INTEREST TO SEAFARERS
TANq = GG1 marine -knowledge
GM
sailors club
….GM = Metacentric height
saveourseafarers
maritimeadvocate
TANq = Listing Moments maritimeemployment
W x GM ….GM = Use Fluid GM
jobsite.gcaptain
…. W = Final Displacement
seajobhunt
maritimecareer
------------o------------ seamanwebsite
cruisecareers
DRY DOCKING
watercrew
P = trim x MCTC offshorejobsonline
l jobonyachts
...l = Distance of COF from where vessel touches blocks first
maritime-jobs
...P = Upward force acts on ship where block first touches
vcrew
P = COT x MCTC maritimejobs4u
l …..In case of declivity of Dock
findamariner
shiptalkjobs
Virtual loss of GM = P x KM
job2sea.com
                                        W
The Mother of all Maritime links
Maritime Employment.com
Virtual loss of GM = P x KM
http://www.mmd.gov.in
                                   (W - P)                   if  P - force is very small http://www.dgshipping.com
http://marinediesels.co.uk
After taking the blocks (F & A):
http://www.dieselduck.net
P = Change in TMD ( cms ) x TPC or
http://www.marineengineering.org.uk
P = Reduction in water level x TPC
http://www.mui.in
….TMD = True mean draft
http://vacanseas.com
http://marinersplanet.com
Change in Draft (rise) (cms) =    P        …always subtract from draft http://seafarerjobs.com
http://seajob.net
                                                  TPC
http://jobships.com

TMD = Draft Aft – ( LCF x Trim ) http://ocimf.com

LBP http://equasis.org
http://ship-technology.com
….subtract if vessel is by the stern
….add if vessel is by the head http://ships nostalgia.com
http://sea folks.com
http://digital-seas.com
DRY DOCKING
http://vessel tracker.com

HYDROSTATIC TABLES AND http://www.marine traffic.com


maritimeadvocate
VESSEL ‘A’ TYPE PROBLEMS

Proceed as follows : TOPICS


▼ 2011 (13)
1. Find mean draft from the present given drafts.
▼ March (13)
2. From this mean draft, look in tables for LCF
3. Using that LCF, calculate TMD HI FRIENDS THERE ARE ONLY A VERY FEW
SITES WHO GI...
4. From the TMD, look in tables and find
MCTC,  LCF and DISPLACEMENT FUEL OIL SAMPLING
5. Calculate now P-Force incinerator starting procedure
6. For Displacement (W) at Critical Instant, find W-P
view from a ship
7. From this new (W), look in tables for KMT
8. Now find Virtual loss of GM and use new KMT but old Displacement (W) FUELS
9. Find now initial GM, using the new KMT FUEL OIL SPECIFICATIONS
10. Apply Virtual loss of GM in it and find the
fuel specifications
EFFECTIVE GM.
safety of bulk carriers and IMO
------------o------------ Dumping at sea

stcw 95

FAILURE OF AIR COOLER TUBES


FREE SURFACE EFFECT / MOMENT stcw manila convention some new changes

► 2012 (186)
FSE = l.b3.R.D
► 2013 (136)
             12W ► 2014 (49)

► 2015 (9)
FSM = l.b3.R.D ► 2016 (3)

               12
….R.D = Density of liquid in tank Popular Posts
FSE = FSM
INCOMETAX RULES FOR SEAFARERS IN INDIA
              W 952. Clarification regarding liability to income-tax in
India and deduction of tax at source of members of the
crew of foreign going In...
Corrected FSM = Tabulated FSM x Actual R.D
HOW TO OBTAIN INDIAN EQUIVALENT FOR U.K
                                                           Assumed R.D COC
Its been confusing for all holders of U.K C.O.C to obtain
an Indian equivalent as nobody is aware of the
New FSM = Original FSM x 1 procedure.For class 4 and second o...
n2
ME ENGINES an article
Preamble In the field of research and development of
….n = number of tanks which are subdivided marine two stroke diesel engine it was a decade of
remarkable landma...
------------o------------
HOW TO APPEAR FOR COC EXAMS FROM U.K
MARINESHELF publishes articles contributed by
DYNAMICAL STABILITY
seafarers and other marine related sites solely for the
benefit of seafarers .All copyright m...

Dynamical Stability  =  W  x  Area under the curve STATUTORY CERTIFICATES


All cargo ships are required to be registered with
concerned Administration as per Merchant Shipping
STATICAL STABILITY Act. The Registrar issues the Cert...

CHIEF ENGINEERS STANDING ORDERS


WHAT DOES A CHIEF ENGINEERS STANDING
ORDER CONTAIN, HERE IS A COMMON AND MOST
FREQUENTLY FOUND ONE CHIEF ENGINEER
Statical Stability  =  W  x  GZ
STANDING ORDER ...

KN CURVES MARITIME UNION OF INDIA AND ITS


BENEFITS TO SEAFARERS
About Us | Members Area | Media Corner |
Contact Us Benefits Forms Fee Structure Benefits FOR
GZ = KN – KG.SINq MERCHAN...

INCLINING EXPERIMENT MAGNETIC COMPASS


MARINESHELF publishes articles contributed by
seafarers and other marine related sites solely for the
GM = w x d x Length of Plumbline benefit of seafarers .All copyright m...

               W                  Deflection SOLAS STEERING GEAR REGULATION


SOLAS REGULATIONS 19-2 Steering Gear 1)
Within 12hours before departure, the ship's steering
------------o------------ gear shall be checked ...

RIGHTING MOMENT D.G APPROVED DOCTORS IN INDIA


MARINESHELF publishes articles contributed by
seafarers and other marine related sites solely for the
benefit of seafarers .All copyright m...
SMALL ANGLES OF HEEL (UPTO 10O HEEL):

GZ = GM x SINq Total Pageviews http://monthly


youth.com/
LARGE ANGLES OF HEEL (WALL SIDED FORMULA): 6 0 4 5 4 2
Instant Job Account
Setup and Get Paid for
GZ = SINq ( GM + 1.BM.TAN2q ) your task work!
There was an error in
2 this gadget Guaranteed Job Earning.
WIND HEELING MOMENT: Create your Job
Personal Account. Click
Total Wind heeling moment = F.A.d here! Login to your Job
1000 Management Area. Click
Here! And start work that
GZ (at angle of heel) = F.A.d
you got in your
Dashboard. And the,
                                       1000W
Instant money paid for
your work in your
….d = Distance of centre of buoyancy to centre of windage area account! We guarantee
….F = Steady wind force of 48.5 kg/m2 you that you will earn
1500$ in your first week
by simple task of 5 - 10
------------o------------
minute 25$ Signup
Bonus ! images/g-create-
account-button.png
http://monthlyyouth.com/
?ref=652545

SIMPSON’S RULES
SIMPSON’S FIRST RULE: There was an error in
this gadget

Search This
Blog
Search
Amazon Kindle
9W PowerFast...
welcome to
marineshelf
Shop now
Area = h x ( a + 4b + 2c + 4d + 2e + 4f + g )
welcome to marineshelf
3 the place where u will get
all u wanted about
Remember : 1 4 1 marine world

SIMPSON’S SECOND RULE:


Subscribe To marineshelf
Posts

All Comments

marineshelf live
chat
marineshelf
1 3 3 1
5 online show all...


Empire Screen Welcome to my
Protector Film... new Chatroll!
h h h

Area = 3 x h x sum of products Shop now


8

Remember : 1 3 3 1

SIMPSON’S THIRD RULE: Please sign in


5 8 –1 Type a message
Chat is closed.
and press enter

U.S. Polo Assn. Try Relay: the free SMS


Sport Men's... and picture text app for
$21.99 iPhone.

Shop now
Blogger

h h

Area = h x ( 5a + 8b – c )
12 Levi's Men's 501
Original-Fit Jean

Remember : 5 8 –1

Shop now
NB:
Divide the value of ‘ h (in degrees) ’ by ‘ 57.3 ’ while calculating the area.

Shop Amazon - Save up


NB: to $200 on Select
rd
In the 3 rule of Simpson, we are only looking for a particular piece between the area i.e., from one co-ordinate Laptops
to other and this is mainly used by surveyors for calculating sludge in bunker tank etc. Also for knowing the full
area, we use Simpson’s first rule.
Join Amazon Prime -
Watch Over 40,000
GM CONDITIONS Movies

GM AT LOLL:

GM = 2(Initial GM)
                   COSq             ….answer will be –ive but write +ive sign

WHEN GM IS NEGATIVE:

WHEN GM IS NIL:
Galaxy S4
Screen...
------------o------------ $5.95

Shop now
TURNING CIRCLE

TAN(Heel) = v2BG
gGMr
….v = velocity of ship(m/s)
….r = radius of turning circle
….g = Acceleration due to Gravity

(9.81 m/s)
….T = Period of Rolls (seconds)
iPhone 4 / 4S
….K = Radius of Gyration Anti-Glare,...
$3.50
….p = 3.142857143 (constant)
….I = Weight Moment of Inertia about Shop now

Rolling axis (tonne - metres2)


Hence we get,

Actual New Draft = [ Initial draft + B Tanq ] Cosq


2
------------o------------
AIR DRAFT

CALCULATING LENGTH OF THE IMMAGINARY MAST WD My Passport


1TB Portable...
WHICH IS EXACTLY ABOVE THE ‘CF’:

Correction to Aft Mast Shop now

= Dist. of center mast from Aft Mast x Diff. of ht between masts

        Dist. between the two masts marineshelf
chat
….subtract this value from the ht of Aft mast 4 Oct 16, 02:15 PM
milton: ilo test information and
or adress in kolkata
4 Oct 16, 02:15 PM
milton: ilo test information
Correction to Fwd Mast 25 Mar 14, 04:03 PM
MNpattnaik: Shall be obliged to
get Institute /Your help &
= Dist. of center mast from Fwd Mast x Diff. of ht between masts advice ,information from relevant
articles and discussions the Topic on
          Dist. between the two masts "HRD - Challenges and
Opportunities" in Marine Profession.
In India ...
25 Mar 14, 04:02 PM
….add this value from the ht of Fwd mast
MNpattnaik: Shall be obliged to
get Institute /Your help &
FOR FINDING DRAFT FWD AND AFT advice ,information from relevant
articles and discussions the Topic on
"HRD - Challenges and
Trim between masts = Trim of vessel Opportunities" in Marine Profession.
In India ...
Distance between masts LBP
[Get a Cbox] refresh
…..(from this, calculate ‘trim of vessel’ and proceed as follows) name e-mail / url
message
Trim Effect Aft = la x Trim help · smilies

WELCOME TO
Trim Effect Fwd = lf x Trim
L
MARINESHEL
F
GRAIN IMAGINE A SHELF
FULL OF BOOKS.....ALL
Weight of Grain = Volume RELATED TO
MARINE...MARINESHEL
                                    S.F F IS ALL ABOUT
THAT ...SPECIALLY
FOR MARINERS,
Weight of H.M = Volumetric H.M SEAFARERS...CANDID
ATES WISING TO JOIN
                                         S.F MERCHANT
NAVY.....AND
STUDENTS
Approx. Angle of heel = Total H.M x 12o
APPEARING FOR
CERTIFICATE OF
                                           Max.H.M
COMPETENCY EXAMS

…. Max.H.M can be found in the Tables of Maximum permissible


Grain heeling moment against ‘W’ and KG Feedjit
Live Traffic Feed
GG1 ( lo) = w x d A visitor from India viewed
W "MARINESHELF.COM:
….w = weight of Grain liable to shift while rolling MAGNETIC COMPASS" 6
A visitor
mins ago from Bangalore,
….d = horizontal distance of Grain shift
Karnataka viewed
"MARINESHELF.COM: SHIP
lo = Total volumetric H.M (in m4) MANAGEMENT
S.F x W A visitor from Tokyo
COMPANIES viewed
IN INDIA" 7
"MARINESHELF.COM:
mins ago
l40 = GG1(lo) x 0.80 ….80% of lo (GG1)
GENERAL PROCEDURE TO
BE FOLLOWED DURING
A visitor from Thrissur,
BLACKOUTS" 13 minsKerala
ago
NB: viewed
If value for cargo is given for centroid then follow as normal "MARINESHELF.COM:
but if value given for ‘Kg’ of cargo then, EXHAUST GAS
A visitor from TURBO-
Mountain View,
CHARGING" 20 mins ago
California viewed
Multiply H.M value for fully filled compartment by 1.06 and "MARINESHELF.COM: Ship
Multiply H.M value for partially filled compartment by 1.12 Energy Efficiency Management
A visitor
Plan from Gurgaon,
(SEEMP)" 22 mins ago
TRIM Haryana viewed
"MARINESHELF.COM:
HYDROSTATIC TABLES AND SOME EXAM
A visitor QUESTIONS
from Northvale, New
FOR
JerseyMARINERS"
viewed 1 hr 13 mins
ago
"MARINESHELF.COM: Cargo
VESSEL ‘A’ TYPE PROBLEMS
Hold Fire Detection and CO2
Proceed as follows : Extinguishing system" 1 hr 14
A visitor from United Kingdom
mins ago
viewed
1. Find mean draft from the present given drafts. "MARINESHELF.COM:
2. From this mean draft, look in tables for LCF REVALIDATION
A visitor from Australia viewed
3. Using that LCF, calculate TMD PROCEDURE FOR U.K COC
"MARINESHELF.COM:
4. From the TMD, look in tables and find 1 hr 19 mins
CHIEF ago
ENGINEERS
MCTC,  LCB and DISPLACEMENT STANDING
A visitor fromORDERS"
Gurgaon, 1 hr 37
5. Calculate now INITIAL LCG mins agoviewed
Haryana
6. Now Calculate FINAL ‘W’ and FINAL LCG by MOMENTS "MARINESHELF.COM:
7. With this FINAL ‘W’, go in tables and look find TMD, LCB, LCF and MCTC REVALIDATION
Real-time view · Get Feedjit

8. Calculate TRIM
9. After this calculate TRIM EFFECTS ( F & A )
10. Now apply this TRIM EFFECT to find FINAL DRAFTS.

------------o------------

TRIM

Trimming Moment = w x d ( d = distance from COF )

Area of Waterplane = L x B x Cw

Volume of Displacement = L x B x D x CB

TPCsw = 1.025A
100

FWA = W .

               40 TPC

DWA = FWA (1.025 – R.D)


0.025

MCTC = WGML

                  100L

TPCDW = R.D x TPCSW


1.025
MCTCDW = R.D x MCTCSW
1.025

Displacement(DW) = RD x Displacement(sw)
1.025

Sinkage (cms) = w .

                               TPC

COT = Trimming Moments

                       MCTC

COD Aft = la x COT

                       L

COD Fwd = COT – COD Aft

WHEN THE VESSEL IS EVEN KEEL

LCG = LCB

FOR A BOXED SHAPED VESSEL

BM = B2
12d

KB = draft
2

FOR A BOX SHAPED VESSEL WHEN DISPLACEMENT CONSTANT

New Draft = Old Density


Old Draft New Density

FOR A SHIP SHAPED VESSEL WHEN DRAFT CONSTANT

New Displacement = New Density


Old Displacement Old Density

TO KEEP THE AFT DRAFT CONSTANT

d = L x MCTC
la x TPC ….keeping the aft draft constant

d = L x MCTC
lf x TPC ….keeping the fwd draft constant

d = Distance from the CF


la = Distance from the AP
lf = Distance from the FP

TO PRODUCE A REQUIRED TRIM

Change in Draft (cms) = ( l. x w x d ) ± w .

                                             L        MCTC        TPC
( - ive for Draft Aft)
( + ive for Draft Fwd)
( la for aft and lf for fwd)

Trim (cms) = W (LCB - LCG)

                                 MCTC
(Values for LCB, LCG and MCTC should be final)
COT WITH CHANGE OF DENSITY

COT = W(RD1 – RD2)(LCF – LCB)


RD1 x MCTC2

LCGINITIAL = LCB ± ( Trim (cms) x MCTC )


W
….( - ive for stern trim )
….( + ive for head trim )

TRIM EFFECT AFT = la x Trim


L

TRIM EFFECT FWD = lf x Trim


L

------------o------------

BILGING

WHEN HEIGHT OF COMPARTMENT IS GIVEN AND ABOVE WATER LEVEL


CALCULATE SINKAGE BY RECOVERABLE BUOYANCY METHOD:

Sinkage = Buoyancy still to be recover


L x B

Buoyancy still to be recover = Lost buoyancy – Recoverable


Buoyancy
Volume of Lost Buoyancy = l x b x draft

Recoverable Buoyancy = ( L – l ) x B x ( Depth – Draft )

To find the Final Draft, add the Sinkage to Tank’s height

WHEN IN QUESTION PERMEABILITY OF THE CARGO IS GIVEN


CALCULATE THE EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF THE TANK:

Permeability ( m ) = Broken Stowage


Stowage Factor

Broken Stowage = Actual Stowage – Solid Stowage

Solid Stowage = 1 .
R.D of liquid in tank

Effective Length = Tank’s length ORIGINAL x Permeability ( m )

NB
After calculating ‘Effective length’ always use this length for tank’s length.

------------o------------
BILGING

MIDSHIP COMPARTMENT

NON WATER TIGHT WATER TIGHT

Sinkage = v .
A- a …If NON WATER TIGHT

Sinkage = v .
A …If WATER TIGHT

BM = LB3
12V …If WATER TIGHT
BM = (L – l)B3
12V …If NON WATER TIGHT

BILGING

SIDE COMPARTMENT

PLAN VIEW OF A SHIP

Sinkage = v .
A- a …If NON WATER TIGHT

Sinkage = v .
A …If WATER TIGHT

TANq = BB1
GM ….q = List

BB1 = a x d
Final A ….d = Distance from center of tank to
ship’s center line
….Final A = A - a
BM = IOZ
V

IOZ = IAB - Ad2 ….d = B + BB1


2
….A = A - a
IAB = LB3 - lb3
3 3
BILGING

END COMPARTMENT

AFT COMP. BILGED FWD COMP. BILGED


NON WATER TIGHT NON WATER TIGHT

Sinkage = v .
A- a …If NON WATER TIGHT

Sinkage = v .
A …If WATER TIGHT

If ‘KG’ is not given, then GML = BML

BM = L3B
12V …If WATER TIGHT

BM = (L – l)3B
12V …If NON WATER TIGHT

COT = w x d
MCTC ….w = l x b x dft x R.D
….d = L ..(Non water tight case)
2
….d = tank’s center to CF
..(Water tight case)

MCTC = WGML

                  100L
COD Aft = la x COT

                       L                              ….la  =  ( L - l )  +  tank’s length
2
(For measuring the CF from AP) ..(Non water tight case)

                                                      …. la  =  L
2
(CF hasn’t changed and is amidships) ..(Water tight case)

When Fwd compartment is bilged (and non water tight), then just use

                                                      ….la  =  ( L - l )
2
(Again for measuring the CF from AP) ..(Non water tight case)

IN CASE OF WATER TIGHT COMPARTMENT BELOW WATER LINE AND BELOW THE TANK THERE IS AN
EMPTY COMPARTMENT

a) Deal as normal water tight case


b) Use volume of the tank only which is filled with water but not the portion beneath it.
c) But for KB of tank, use from K to center of tank

NB
IN WATER TIGHT CASE
· BM remains the same before and after
· KB is different before and after bilging
KB1 is half of Original Draft
KB2 is found by moments

IN NON WATER TIGHT CASE


· BM is different before and after bilging
BM1 is LB3 and BM2 is (L - l)B3
12V 12V

· KB is different before and after bilging


KB1 is half of Initial Draft
KB2 is half of New Draft

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS

WATER TIGHT CASE NON WATER TIGHT CASE


Calculate:
a) Sinkage by non w/t method
b) KB2 by Moments

NB:
In all cases of WATER TIGHT COMPARTMENT, calculate KB by the MOMENTS METHOD& use ‘New Draft’ in
calculating this KB when calculating volume.

------------o------------

TANKER CALCULATIONS

TOTAL OBSERVED VOLUME (T.O.V.):
The Total Observed Volume of all Petroleum Liquids and Free Water at observed temperature.

GROSS OBSERVED VOLUME (G.O.V.):
The Total Volume of all Petroleum Liquids, excluding Free Water at observed temperature.

G.O.V. = T.O.V. - Vfw (at observed temperature)

GROSS STANDARD VOLUME (G.S.V.):
The Total Volume of all Petroleum Liquids, excluding Free Water, corrected by appropriate Volume Correction
Factor for the observed temperature and API Gravity 60º F, Relative Density 60º F / 60º F or Density 15º C.

G.S.V. = G.O.V. X V.C.F.

FREE WATER (Vfw):
The volume of water present in a tank which is not in suspension in the contained liquid at observed
temperature.

ONBOARD QUANTITY (O.B.Q):
Quantity of water, oil, slops, residue, sludge or sediment, remaining in the tanks prior to loading.

TOTAL CALCULATED VOLUME (T.C.V.):
It is the Gross Standard Volume plus Free Water.

T.C.V. = G.S.V. + Vfw

TOTAL RECEIVED VOLUME (T.R.V.):
Is equal to the Total calculated Volume minus O.B.Q.
Weight Correction Factor (W.C.F.) is applied to this Volume to obtain Weight in Metric Tons or Long Tons.
Shore Gross B/L figure is to be compared with this figure.
Whenever Free Water is found in Cargo:

T.R.V. = T.C.V. - O.B.Q.

LOADED OIL WEIGHT:
Is equal to the Gross Standard Volume minus O.B.Q.
Weight Correction Factor is applied to this Volume to obtain weight in Metric Tons or Long Tons.
Shore Gross B/L figure is to be compared with this figure when no Free Water is found in Cargo.

LOADED OIL WEIGHT = (G.S.V. - O.B.Q.) W.C.F.

VESSEL’S EXPERIENCE FACTOR (V.E.F.):
Is equal to the Total of Gross B/L figures divided by the Total of Ship’s figures over the last 10 voyages.

For the purpose of calculating V.E.F., 10 TO 20 Voyages may be taken. However all voyages must ‘qualify’. A
minimum of 5 ‘qualified’ voyages is needed for some level of V.E.F.

The defination of a “qualified voyage is one that meets the following criteria:
· Any voyage that is within +/- 0.0030 of then average ratio of all voyages listed. (eg. If the average listed is
1.00105, then all voyages within the range 0.99805 through 1.00405 would qualify)
· Excludes all voyage prior to any structural modification which affected the vessel’s cargo capacity.
· Excludes load or discharge data where shore measurements were not available.

This Factor is not to be applied to ship’s figure for assessing Ship / Shore difference.

The Factor may be applied to Ship’s figure to obtain an approximate B/L figure, only as a counter check where:

SHIP’S FIGURE X V.E.F = APPROXIMATE B/L FIGURE.

TABLES, VOLUME AND DENSITY:
API = AMERICAN PETROLEUM INDEX

ASTM = AMERICAN STANDARD OF TESTING MATERIALS

Previously there were 3 versions of ASTM Tables:


· USA Version - Giving API at 60º F
· UK Version - Giving Specific Gravity at 60º / 60º F (Ratio of density of Oil at 60º F to density of Water at
60º F = Specific Gravity)
· Metric Version - Giving Density at 15º C (eg. 0.865 kg/m3)

IN PRACTICE:
Volume at observed temperature is calculated by taking ullages.

Density at 15º C is given by Shore authorities.

Now Volume at 15º C = Volume at observed temperature X V.C.F.

And Volume at 15º C X Density at 15º C = Weight at 15º C (IN VACUUM)

But we want Weight IN AIR, therefore we apply the W.C.F.

W.C.F. = DENSITY AT 15º C - 0.0011


NOTES:
Now all 3 Versions are combined together and made into total 14 Volumes which contain all calculations
regarding CRUDE, LUBE OIL, DIESEL OIL and all kinds of fluids / liquids.
A particular ship may have selected Volumes only, for the trade on which she is being run.

HYDROMETER - TO MEASEURE DENSITY OF WATER


PICNOMETER - TO MEASURE DENSITY OF ANY LIQUID OTHER THAN WATER

SOLVED NUMERICALS: 

1. Volume at observed temperature = 10000 m3


Density at 15º C. Use observed temperature = VCF
Volume at 15º C = 9000 m3 (Volume at observed temperature X VCF)
Therefore Weight in Vacuum = 9000 X 0.8 = 7200
Density at 15º C - 0.0011 = WCF
0.8 - 0.0011 = 0.7989
Therefore W = Volume at 15º C X 0.7989

OBQ = ON Board Quantity


ROB = Remaining On Board

TOV = Vo + Vfw at observed temperature


GOV = TOV - Vfw
GSV = GOV x VCF
TCV = GSV + Vfw
TRV = TCV - obq

TRU x WCF is the figure used to compare B/L figure.


(GSV – OBQ) x WCF = Weight of Oil Loaded

API at 60º F  =   141.5               -   131.5    
                           SG 60º / 60º F

API 10 is for fresh water.


Higher the API, the lighter the product

1m3 = 6.28981 barrels

6A A - stands for Crude Oil


6B B - stands for Product Oil

2. On commencement of discharge of No. 3 © tank at 1324, EK draft of 9.00 m, ullage of 0.20 m with
waterdip 15 cm.
On completion of bulk discharge at 1800, sounding of 3 © was 20 cm.
The tank is box shaped with dimensions L = 14, B = 12, D = 10, density at 15º C = 0.8937
Average Cargo temperature = 26.0º C. Find the rate of discharge.

TOV = 14 x 12 x 9.8 = 1646.4 m3


Vfw = 14 x 12 x 0.15 = 25.2 m3
GOV = 1646.4 – 25.2 = 1621.2 m3
GSV = GOV x VCF = 1608.026 m3

By Interpolation:
0.8937
0.890 0.895
26º C 0.9918 0.9919
therefore VCF = 0.991874

WCF = 0.8937 - 0.0011 = 0.8926

Therefore Weight of oil on arrival = 1608.026 x 0.8926 = 1435.324 Tons


Volume ROB (0.2 x 14 x 12) x VCF x WCF = 29.747 Tons

Therefore Rate of Discharge in MT = (1435.324 - 29.747)


TIME

WEDGE FORMULA:
It is applicable to Center Tanks only and when the ship is upright and trimmed.
Refer to Figure 1.
Let Breadth of the tank = ‘b’, trim = 0º, dist. of ullage port from aft b/head = ‘d’, height of the tank = ‘h’.

In triangle DGB, angle DGB = 90º


DB = DG Cosec 0 [ DG = Sounding = Pm = Pmiddle ]
= Pm Cosec 0
EC = Dist of ullage port from aft b/head = d
Now, BE = EC + BD – CD
Therefore BE = (d + Pm Cosec 0 – h Tan 0) ………………………. (A)

BE is < / = AE [Wedge is formed]


EF = BE Tan 0
= (d + Pm Cosec 0 - h Tan 0) x Tan 0
Therefore Volume of Wedge = [1/2 x BE x EF] x b
Vwedge = [1/2 x BE x P] x b (B)

Now, Trim = 0
Therefore Tan 0 = Trim = T ………….(1)
Length L

Also from Figure 1


Tan 0 = EF (2)
BE

Comparing (1) and (2)


T = EF
L BE

Therefore BE = EF x L = P x L ………(3)
T T

Putting value of BE (3) in (B),

Vwedge = ½ x (P x L) x P x b
T

Vwedge = L x b x P2 Where P = EF = Ht. Of liquid at aft b/head


2T T = Trim
See Figure 2. below

IN CASE WHEN TRAPEZIUM IS FORMED INSTEAD OF WEDGE

Refer to Figure 3 as above.


Corrected Sounding (P) = {Obs. Sounding (P’) + [d – (h – T/L)] x T/L}

Area of Trapezium = [ (Pmax + z) + z] x l = [ 2P – Pmax] x l


1 2
Where P = Corrected sounding at aft b/head
P’ = Sounding observed from ullage port
d = Dist of ullage port from aft b/head
h = Height of the tank
T = Trim, L = Length of the ship, l = Length of the tank, b = Breadth of the tank

Pmax Max EF due to wedge

Pmax = T/L x l ………………………………….(1)

Pcorr. sdg = P’ + [ d – (h x T/L) ] x T/L ……….(2)

If (1) < (2) ie. Pmax < Pcorr. sdg

The instead of wedge, a trapezium is formed of volume…

Volume = [ Pmax + 2z ] x l x b
2

MORE NUMERICALS:

1. Given tank ullage = 37 cm


Observed temperature of Cargo = 19.3º C
Density of Cargo in Vacuum at 15º C = 0.857 t/m3
Water Content = 165 m3
Calculate amount of Cargo in the tank in MT.
TOV = 3014.9 m3 at 19.3º C
GOV = TOV - Vfw
GOV = 3041.9 – 165 = 2876.9 m3
GSV = 2876.9 x VCF
= 2876.9 x 0.9966
= 2867.1185 m3

WCF = 0.8570 – 0.0011 = 0.8559

Therefore amount of Cargo in MT = 2867.1185 x 0.8559


= 2453.967 MT

2. LBP = 150 M, Trim = 1.30 m


P’ = 58 cm = 0.58 m
d = 1.500 m, l = 12, b = 15, h = 19
R.D. = 0.89

Pmax = T/L x l = 1.3/150 x 12 = 0.104 m

Pcorr.sdg = P’ + [ d – (h x T/L) ] x T/L


= 0.58 + [ 1.5 – (19 x 1.3/150) ] x 1.3/150 = 0.592 m

Since Pmax < Pcorr.sgd, therefore a trapezoid if formed.

Area of Trapezium ABCF,


= ( 0.592 + 0.488 ) x 12 = 6.48 m2
2

Volume of the trapezoid = 6.48 x 15

Therefore amount of Oil in the tank = 6.48 x 15 x 0.89 = 86.508 MT

2. The vessel is on even keel


(A) Ullage = 0.43 m, Water dip = 0.12 m
Density at 15º C = 0.8572
Observed temperature = 33.5º C

For ullage 0.43 m,


Tov = 1955.0 m3
Vfw = 14.8 m3

Therefore GOV = TOV – Vfw = 1940.2 m3


VCF = 0.985388
GSV = GOV x VCF = 1940.2 x 0.985388 = 1911.8498
WCF = 0.8572 – 0.0011 = 0.8561

Therefore the amount of Cargo = 1911.8498 x 0.8561

(B) At the end of discharge,


Ullage = 10.3 m, Sdg = 0.20 m = P’
Trim = 2 m, l x b x h = 20 x 8 x 10.5
d = 1.000 m, LBP = 150

Pmax = T/L x l = 2/150 x 20 = 0.266

Pcorr.sdg = P’ + [ d – (h x T/L) ] x T/L


= 0.20 + [ 1.0 – (10.5 x 2/150) ] x 2/150 = 0.21466

Since Pmax> Pcorr. sdg, therefore a wed ge is formed

P = BE Tan 0 = [ d + Pm Cosec 0 – h Tan 0 ] x Tan 0.

(Tan 0 = 2/150. Therefore 0 = 0.1458. Cosec 0 = 81.404 )

P = [ 1.0 + 0.2Cosec 0 – 10.5 x 2/150] x 2/150


= [ 1.0 + 0.2 x 81.404 – 10.5 x 2/ 150 ] x 2/150 = 0.22854

Volume of wedge = L x b x P2 = 150 x 8 x (0.228544 x 0.228544)


2T 2x2

Therefore Volume of wedge = 15.6697 m3

3.   l x b x h = 40 x 20 x 20 m3
Ullage of oil = 1.24 m Trim = 3 m
Height of ullage point = 1.10 m LBP = 200 m
Depth of free space above oil = 0.14 m d = 1.6 m
Depth of oil = P’ = 19.86 m
Water dip = 21.1 – 20.94 = 0.61 m

Pmax = T/L x l = 3/20 x 40 = 0.60 m

Pcorr.sdg = { [P’] + [ (d – h x T/L) ] x T/L }


= [ 19.86 + ( 1.6 – 20 x 3 / 200) x 3 / 200 ] = 19.8795

Since Pmax < Pcorr.sdg, a trapezium is formed.

Volume of trapezium = ( 19.2795 – 19.8795) x 40 x 20 = 15663.8 m3


2
Now considering the water dip,
Pmax = EF /AE = T/L
Pmax = 3/200 x 40 = 0.60 m

Present P’ = ( d + Pm Cosec 0 – h Tan 0) x Tan 0


= ( 1.6 + 0.16 x 66.901 – 20 x 0.015 ) x 0.015 = 0.180 m

Since Pmax > P a wedge is formed

Volume of wedge EBF = L x b x P2/ 2T = 200 x 20 x 0.18 x 0.18/ 2 x 3 = 21.6 m3

TOV = 15663.8 m3
Vfw = 21.6 m3
GOV = 15642.2 m3
VCF = x 0.980784
GSV = 15341.619 m3
WCF = x 0.8135

Therefore amount of oil in Tonnes = 12480.407 MT


7 comments:
Dan Debnam said... 
I need some help with some ship stability questions, can anyone please help me?
regards
January 20, 2015 at 8:55 PM

Capt. Marc said... 
I'm working on a vessel stability article now at WetBoating.com It's a long way from being finished, but I
am trying to put vessel stability into easy to understand terms. Capt. Marc
March 5, 2015 at 8:42 AM

Job G said... 
i need help with pontoons stability at large angles of heel. Can you recommend a book o a file in which i
can find an analitycal method to calculate it?
May 18, 2015 at 8:19 AM

Institution Furniture said... 
Thank you for sharing valuable information. Library Cupboard Furniture | Student Desk
July 28, 2016 at 2:13 AM

Christian Villaruel said... 
GOOD DAY SIR I NEED HELP! .HOW TO SOLVE GGO AND WHAT IS THE MEANING OF GGO
December 4, 2016 at 1:38 AM

Christian Villaruel said... 
god day sir,
how to solve GGo sir
what is the meaning of ggo sir
December 4, 2016 at 1:39 AM

manoj agrahari said... 
refer to the stability booklet and determine which tanks cause relatively more free surface effect if kept
slack...kindly help me with an example
March 14, 2017 at 12:16 AM

Post a Comment

Home

Subscribe to: Posts (Atom)

ADVERTISE FOR FREE


IF YOU ARE A MARINE RELATED FIRM YOU ARE WELCOME TO ADVERTISE IN WWW.MARINESHELF.BLOGSPOT.COM FOR FREE; INTERESTED PARTIES MAY FORWARD
YOUR HTML LINKS TO marineshelf@yahoo.in

SEND YOUR ARTICLES


NOW MARINESHELF WILL POST INTERESTING ARTICLES FORWARDED BY MARINERS ;IF YOU BELIEVE SOME TOPIC OR ARTICLE WHICH YOU HAVE OUGHT TO BE SHARED
WITH MARINERS PLEASE FWD TO US

WELCOME TO MARINESHELF
PLEASE JOIN US AND LEND YOUR SUPPORT AND ADVISE TO MAKE IT MORE HELPFUL TO SEAFARERS
SEND YOUR COMMENTS TO
marineshelf@yahoo.in OR upv26@yahoo.co.in

Labels
a ship at sea
Google+ Followers DUMPING AT SEA

Vipin Kumar FAILURE OF AIR COOLER TUBES

Add to circles FUEL OIL SAMPLING


FUEL OIL SPECIFICATIONS
FUEL SPECIFICATIONS
FUELS
INCINERATOR STARTING PROCEDURE
SAFETY OF BULK CARRIERS AND IMO
some sample exam papers
STCW 95
stcw manila convention some new changes

215 have me in circles View all

MARINESHELF. Powered by Blogger.