ECHINACEA

COMMON NAMES: American Cone Flower, Black Sampson, Black Susans, Brauneria Angustifolia, Brauneria Pallida, Comb Flower, Coneflower, Echinaceawurzel, Equinácea, Hedgehog, Igelkopfwurzel, Indian Head, Kansas Snakeroot, Narrow-leaved Purple Cone Flower, Pale Coneflower, Purple Cone Flower, Purpursonnenhutkraut, Purpursonnenhutwurzel, Racine d'echininacea, Red Sunflower, Rock-Up-Hat, Roter Sonnenhut, Schmallblaettrige Kegelblumenwurzel, Schmallblaettriger Sonnenhut, Scurvy Root, Snakeroot, Sonnenhutwurzel.

SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION: KINGDOM: Plantae ORDER: Asterales FAMILY: Asteraceae/Compositae SUB FAMILY: Asteroideae TRIBE: Heliantheae GENUS: Echinacea SPECIES: There were 9 distinct species.
• • • • • • • • •

Echinacea angustifolia – Narrow-leaf Coneflower Echinacea atrorubens – Topeka Purple Coneflower Echinacea laevigata – Smooth Coneflower, Smooth Purple Coneflower Echinacea pallida – Pale Purple Coneflower Echinacea paradoxa – Yellow Coneflower, Bush's Purple Coneflower Echinacea purpurea – Purple Coneflower, Eastern Purple Coneflower Echinacea sanguinea – Sanguine purple Coneflower Echinacea simulata – Wavyleaf Purple Coneflower Echinacea tennesseensis – Tennessee Coneflower

Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida and Echinacea purpurea are the main medicinal Echinacea species. GENERIC NAME ORIGIN: Echinacea is derived from a Greek word “Echinos” meaning "hedgehog" or "sea urchin," referring to the sharp pointed bracts of the receptacles, giving the herb one of its many common names, "Hedgehog." GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE: Echinacea is a perennial herb native to the mid western region of North America growing from Virginia to Ohio, Michigan, south to Georgia and Louisiana. It is found growing on road banks, prairies, fields and in dry, open woods, from the prairie states northward to Pennsylvania and has been widely cultivated in Europe. SOURCE MATERIALS: Roots and/ Rhizomes.

25to 75µm in diameter. The phloem and xylem are composed of narrow strands of vascular tissue separated by wide. slightly spiral. TEXTURE: slender but stout. TEXTURE: tapering. and a parenchymatous cortex. FLOWERS: HEIGHT: 4 to 5 in. DIAMETER: 4 – 10mm LEAVES: COLOUR: dark green. The canals are present outside of the central cylinder only (unlike Echinacea pallida. Sclereids occur singly or in small groups.MORPHOLOGY: ROOTS: COLOUR: pale to yellowish brown. HEIGHT: 60cm-90cm high. varying considerably in size and shape from rounded to rectangular to elongated and fiber-like. and sometimes showing surface annulations up to 15mm in diameter. STEMS: LENGTH: 2 to 3 ft. lignified fibers in the pericycle. usually with reticulate thickening but occasionally with spiral or annular thickening. occasional small groups of thick-walled. The rhizome has a small circular pith. and fibrous ODOR: aromatic smell. with intercellular spaces forming schizogenous oleoresin canals that are 80to 150µm in diameter and contain a dense black deposit. Xylem vessels are lignified. RHIZOMES: COLOUR: pale to yellowish brown TEXTURE: crowned with remains of the aerial stem. TEXTURE: bristly. rough and bristly. cylindrical. where they are present . The cork is composed of several rows of thin-walled cells containing yellowish brown pigment. DIAMETER: 10cm-13cm SEED: COLOUR: tan or two-toned tan and brown SIZE: varies depending on species and availability of water and nutrients. non-lignified medullary rays. up to 300µm long and 20to 40µm wide. MICROSCOPY: The rhizomes and roots in transverse section show a thin outer bark separated from a wide xylem by a distinct cambial line.

well-drained. Keep weeded and thin to between 6 inches to 1 foot apart (for the tap rooted species). Barely cover the seed and tamp in. Spherocrystalline masses of inulin occur throughout the parenchymatous tissues. Large crowns will need to be hacked apart with a hatchet or machete in order to allow access to dirt and stones lodged at the base of the crown. and washed with a pressure hose. All species will give some germination in 2 to 3 weeks if planted shallowly in well-drained potting soil in a warm (not too hot!) greenhouse and watered gently. PESTICIDE RESIDUES: meets the requirements.001%. it is the fresh root that is most practical and effective for home medicine making. preferably in the autumn after 2 or 3 years of growth. Lignified fibers. 300to 800µm long. A period of cold. Natural outdoor stratification is much more successful than artificial (refrigerated) stratification. and are usually surrounded by phytomelanin (unlike fibers in Echinacea pallida.0%. ACID INSOLUBLE ASH: not more than 4.0%. and 2 feet apart for Echinacea purpurea. The roots are dug up with a garden fork or shovel. are present in scattered groups.0%. Sow the seed directly in the garden or field in the fall or early spring. HARVESTING AND PROCESSING THE ROOT: Although all parts of the plant have some medicinal value. with phytomelanin often absent). FOREIGN ORGANIC MATTER: not more than 3. HEAVY METALS: 0. moist conditioning (stratification) will improve germination rate on most species. However. PROPERTIES: LOSS ON DRYING: Dry it at 105 for 2hours:it loses USP28not more than 10. TOTAL ASH: not more than 7.0%. it . limey soil. where they usually occur singly in the periphery of the cortex and are 100to 300µm long. and regular watering. CULTIVATION: Echinacea plants prefer full sun. Echinacea roots are pretty stable after washing and may be cold-stored or shipped over a period of several days without molding. shaken free of dirt.both inside and outside of the central cylinder). Echinacea root is harvested during the dormant period.

The roots have high concentrations of volatile oils (odorous compounds) while the above-ground parts of the plant tend to . which contribute to the herb's immune empowering effects and increases T-cell production and other natural killer cell activity. E volatile oils ROOTS: The chemicals contained in the root differ considerably from the upper part of the plant. C. which will minimize oxidation.the important components stimulating the immune system are the large polysaccharides.makes sense to make the fresh root tincture as soon as possible after washing. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS: Echinacea Consists of • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • alkamides betain echinolene echinacein echinacin caryophylene myristic acid copper esquiterpenes essential oil fatty acids flavonoids glycoproteins glycosides carbohydrates cynarin resins iron sucrose polyacetylenes polysaccharides . These include: caffeic acid glycoside Echinacoside fat-soluble alkylamides inulin protein tannins vitamins A.

two.5percent of total phenols. NUTRIENT COMPOSTION: • • • • • • • • • • Calcium Chromium Manganese Vitamin A Vitamin B-3 Vitamin C B complex Vitamins Sodium Potassium UFA ECHINACEA ANGUSTIFOLIA: It contains not less than 0.contain more polysaccharides (substances known to trigger the activity of the immune system). Different products use different parts of the echinacea plant.chicoric acid (C22H18O12).chicoric acid (C22H18O12).It contains not less than 0. Echinacea (including one. or even all three of these species. vitamins. USP28 ECHINACEA PALLIDA: It contains not less than 0.chlorogenic acid (C16H18O9). capsules. Many echinacea preparations contain one.5percent of total phenols. and minerals.and echinacoside (C35H46O20). or all three species) is available in extracts.chlorogenic acid (C16H18O9). tinctures. This is why the effectiveness of echinacea may differ from one product to another. AVAILABLE FORMS: Three species of echinacea are commonly used for medicinal purposes: Echinacea angustifolia.calculated on the dried basis as the sum of caftaric acid (C13H12O9). . and ointments.075percent of dodecatetraenoic acid isobutylamides (C16H25NO) on the dried basis. Echinacea pallida. The beneficial effects of Echinacea appear to be due to the combination of these active substances. and Echinacea purpurea.and echinacoside (C35H46O20).dicaffeoylquinic acids (C25H24O12). tablets. two. It is also available in combination with other immune boosting herbs.calculated on the dried basis as the sum of caftaric acid (C13H12O9).

and dilute with methanol to volume. and extract with 50mL of chloroform for 1hour. wellness. and more than half of the standardized preparations did not contain the labelled amount of active ingredients. only 4 contained what was stated on their labels. transfer the extract to a 10-mLvolumetric flask. and concentrate to a small volume at 40 in vacuum. and water (17:2:1). With the aid of methanol. Transfer the thimble to a continuous extraction apparatus. Standard solution 2: Dissolve an accurately weighed quantity of 1. half were mislabelled as to the species of echinacea in the product. select products with guaranteed potency or standardized extracts IDENTIFICATION TESTS FOR ECHINACEA ANGUSTIFOLIA: 1. formic acid.com (an independent company that tests the purity of health. Developing solvent system: Prepare a mixture of ethyl acetate. and transfer 1g of the powder to a suitable extraction thimble. Standard solution 1: Dissolve an accurately weighed quantity of USP Powdered Echinacea angustifolia Extract RS in methanol to obtain a solution having a concentration of about 20USP28mg per ml. About 10% had no echinacea at all. established companies that distribute their products through trustworthy and knowledgeable establishments. . Continue the extraction with 50mLof methanol. and nutrition products) found that of 11 brands of echinacea purchased for testing. PRESENCE OF ECHINACOSIDE AND DICAFFEOYLQUINIC ACIDS (CYNARIN[E]): Thin-Layer Chromatographic Identification Test: Test solution: Weigh and finely pulverize about 10g of Echinacea angustifolia.A study performed by ConsumerLab.3dicaffeoylquinic acidUSP28in methanol to obtain a solution having a concentration of about 1mg per ml. Buy products made by reputable. When possible.Retain the chloroform extract for Identification testB.

Develop the chromatograms in Developing solvent system until the solvent front has moved not less than 12USP28cm. Standard solution 1: Transfer an accurately weighed quantity of USP Powdered Echinacea angustifoliaExtract RSto a centrifuge tube.14characteristic of echinacoside (absent or only traces present in Echinacea purpurea) that corresponds in colour and RF value to that in the chromatogram of Standard solution 1. and dry the plate in a current of air.and examine the plate under UV light at 365nm:the chromatogram obtained from the Test solution shows a yellowish zone at an RF value of 0.and pass through a nylon membrane filter having a porosity of 0.3dicaffeoylquinic acidUSP28(absent in Echinacea pallida and Echinacea purpurea) corresponding in colour and RF value USP28 to that in the chromatogram of Standard solution 2.add 1mLof alcohol. ethanolamine ester in methanol to obtain a solution having a concentration of about 10mg per ml. 2.and another zone characteristic of 1.45µm.Other coloured zones of varying intensities may be observed in the chromatogram of the Test solution. Procedure: Proceed as directed in the chapter. Spray the plate with Spray reagent 1followed by Spray reagent 2.and add chloroform to obtain a solution having a known concentration of about .To the residue.Spray reagent 1: Dissolve a suitable quantity of diphenylborinic acid. PRESENCE OF ISOBUTYLALKENYLAMIDES Thin-Layer Chromatographic Identification Test: Test solution: Evaporate the chloroform extract retained from preparation of the Test solution in Identification test A to dryness at 40 in vacuum. Spray reagent 2: Dissolve a suitable quantity of polyethylene glycol 4000in alcohol to obtain a solution having a concentration of about 50mg per ml.

Spray the plate with Spray reagent. . Developing solvent system: Prepare a mixture of hexaneUSP28and ethyl acetate (2:1).100USP28mg per mL.Develop the chromatograms inDeveloping solvent system until the solvent front has moved not less than 12USP28cm.8Z.pallida)that corresponds in RFvalue to that in the chromatogram of Standard solution 1USP28 .there isUSP28a USP28 zone to USP28 due to dodeca-2E.sulfuric acid.and panisaldehyde (10:5:0.bunsaturated isobutylamides (absent in Echinacea pallida and mostly violet in Echinacea purpurea due to the presence of a.25USP28due to 2E.10Z-tetraenoic corresponds in RFvalue to that in the chromatogram of Standard solution 1.and below this spot.8Z.there are several yellowish zones due to a.8Z. Spray reagent: Prepare a mixture of glacial acetic acid.and then heat the plate at 100 for 5minutes:the chromatogram obtained from the Test solution shows a zone due to b-sitosterol that corresponds in RFvalue to the principal spot in the chromatogram of Standard solution 2.4E.and centrifuge. USP28 Procedure: Proceed as directed in the chapter.and dry the plate in a current of air.5) in an ice bath.8Z.Shake by hand to disperse.g.10E-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide acid isobutylamide that and dodeca-2E.d-unsaturated isobutylamides)that are not visible or are very weak when viewed under UVlight at 254nm. Standard solution 2: Dissolve an accurately weighed quantity of bsitosterol in methanol to obtain a solution having a concentration of about 1mg per mL.4E.below this spot.4E.10Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide (absent in E. ExamineUSP28the plate under UVlight at 254nm:the chromatogram obtained from the Test solution shows one main zone at an RFvalue of about 0.10E-dodecatetraenoic acid isobutylamide and dodeca2E.b.Use the supernatant.4E.sonicate for 5minutes.

Solution B: Use filtered and degassed acetonitrile. RETENTION TIME: The retention time of the major peak in the chromatogram of the Test solution corresponds to that of the echinacoside peak in the chromatogram of Standard solution 1.0mLof Solvent. Standard solution 1: Dissolve an accurately weighed quantity of USP Powdered Echinacea angustifolia Extract RS in Solvent.DiluteUSP28with Solvent to obtain a solution having a known concentration of about 1mg of per mL.while shaking by mechanical .Dilute quantitatively.Pass through a membrane filter having a 0.3-dicaffeoylquinic acid corresponding in retention time to that obtained with Standard solution 1 USP28 4. The chromatogram of the Test solution shows a peak for 1.shaking and heating in a water bath.shaking for 1minute.and heat under reflux. CONTENT OF TOTAL PHENOLS : Solvent: Prepare a mixture of alcohol and water (7:3).to a round bottom flask equipped with a condenser. Solution A: Prepare a filtered and degassed solution of phosphoric acid (0.45-µm or finer porosity.accurately weighed. Mobile phase: Use variable mixtures of Solution Aand Solution B as directed for Chromatographic system.1in 100).Make adjustments if necessary.Pass through a membrane filter having a 0.45-µm or finer porosity. Test solution: Transfer about 125mg of finely powdered Echinacea angustifolia (capable of passing through a 40-mesh sieve).3. USP28 Add 25.and stepwise if necessary. Standard solution 2: Dissolve an accurately weighed quantity of chlorogenic acid RS in Solvent.with Solvent to obtain a solution having a known concentration of about 40µg per mL.as obtained in the test for Content of total phenols.

0. Time Solution A Solution B (minutes) (%) (%) Elution 0–13 13–14 14–17 90®78 78®60 60 10®22 22®40 40 40®10 10 linear gradient linear gradient isocratic linear gradient equilibration 17–17.5 60®90 17.3-dicaffeoylquinic acid isomer and echinacoside is not less than 1.Centrifuge.0.and the Test solution into the chromatograph.The flow rate is about 1.means.or pass through a membrane filter having a 0.The column temperature is maintained at 35 .45-µm or finer porosity. USP28the tailing factor is not more than 2.5mL per minute.for 15minutes. Chromatographic System: The liquid chromatograph is equipped with a 330-nm detector and a 4.and record the peak responses as directed for Procedure: The capacity factor. Procedure: Separately inject equal volumes (about 5µL)of Standard solution 1.R.and the relative standard deviation for replicate injections is not more than 2.5%.Identify the relevant analytes in the chromatogram obtained from the Test solution by comparison with the chromatogram obtained from Standard solution 1.5–22 90 Chromatograph Standard solution 1.Standard solution 2. USP28 Chromatograph Standard solution 2.6-mm ×25-cm column that contains 5-µm packing L1.between the 1.The chromatograph is programmed as follows.Separately calculate the percentage of .is not less than 3.and record the peak responses as directed for Procedure: The chromatogram obtained is similar to the Reference Chromatogram for total phenols provided with the USP Powdered Echinacea angustifolia Extract RSand the resolution.k¢.and measure the areas for the relevant peaks.record the chromatograms.0.

29:7-13. The caffeic acid derivatives (cichoric acid and echinacoside) did not cross the cell monolayer. Penman KG. . USP28 acids (C25H24O12). 2004. hence gaining access to immune cells and therefore able to modulate their actions. their concentration depending on the different species of Echinacea. et al. Blanchfield JT. BIOAVAILABILITY: “We examined the bioavailability of Echinacea phytochemicals on two levels: in cell culture using a cell monolayer made from human colon cancer cells. These results were then confirmed in a clinical trial. and riand rS are the peak responses for the relevant analyte obtained from the Test solution and the collagen from reactive oxygen species-induced damage.chlorogenic acid (C16H18O9).dicaffeoylquinic 2500F(C/W)(ri/rS).and echinacoside (C35H46O20)in the portion of Echinacea angustifolia taken by the formula: 0. Alkylamides.695for chicoric acid. where the alkylamides were found to readily cross the monolayer. have been found in blood samples after ingestion of Echinacea preparations.caftaric acid (C13H12O9).chicoric acid (C22H18O12). but not caffeic acid derivatives.Wis the weight.881for caftaric acid. in whichFis the response factor and is equal to 0. Cis the concentration.and 2.1.729for dicaffeoylquinic acids.of USP Chlorogenic Acid RS in Standard solution 2.220for echinacoside.in mg. This was an indication that they would not cross the intestinal barrier when taken orally.0.” REFERENCE: Matthias A. J Clin Pharm Ther. suggesting that they will be able to cross the intestinal barrier and be found in blood.of Echinacea angustifolia taken. Chichoric acid and echinacoside are almost always found.000for chlorogenic acid.in mg per mL.

77:2018-2029 Matthias. and vitamin C has been reported to reduce the number and duration of cold episodes. Cancer There is a lack of clear human evidence that echinacea affects any type of cancer. compared with placebo. one suggested that standardized extracts of echinacea were effective in the prevention of symptoms of the common cold after clinical inoculation. In children. Recent meta-analyses are conflicting. Further research is needed. Phytomedicine. 2007. Addison RS. Life Sciences. a clinical trial reported in July 2005 did not demonstrate any clinical benefit. propolis. et al. compared with placebo. Penman KG. in press. 2005. whereas the other reported no such benefit.Matthias A. et al. prevention research overall has not been well designed. Treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (adults) Although multiple low quality studies have previously suggested that taking echinacea by mouth by adults when cold symptoms begin may reduce the length and severity of symptoms. A recent meta-analysis suggested that standardized extracts of echinacea were effective in the prevention of symptoms of the common cold after clinical inoculation. a combination of echinacea. and additional trials are needed before a clear conclusion can be drawn. USES BASED ON EVIDENCE: Uses based on scientific evidence Prevention of upper respiratory tract infections (adults and children) Preliminary studies suggest that echinacea is not helpful for preventing the common cold in adults. However. Immune system stimulation Grade * B B C C .

and it is not clear whether echinacea has benefits for this use. Uveitis (eye inflammation) Oral Echinacea purpurea may offer some benefits in people with low-grade uveitis. echinacea cannot be considered effective in children for this use. Low white blood cell counts after X-ray treatment (leukopenia) C Studies have reported mixed results. Genital herpes Initial human studies suggest that echinacea is not helpful in the treatment of genital herpes. Treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (children) Initial research suggests that echinacea may not be helpful in children for alleviation of cold symptoms. or because the dose of echinacea for use in children is not clear. However. possibly because parents are not able to recognize the onset of common cold symptoms soon enough to begin treatment. different sites of infection. There are fundamental differences in causes of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms in children versus adults (bacterial versus viral causes. vaginal yeast infections ( Candida ) may occur less frequently. etc). It remains unclear if there are clinically significant benefits. different viruses. further research is needed to confirm this. Until additional research is available. Vaginal yeast infections When echinacea is used at the same time as the prescription cream econazole nitrate (Spectazole®). Further research is needed to confirm these findings.Echinacea has been studied alone and in combination preparations for immune system stimulation (including in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy). Additional studies are needed in this area before conclusions can be drawn regarding safety or effectiveness. C C D D .

ECHINACEA AND IMMUNE SYSTEM: From Dr. antihyaluronidase activity.” ECHINACEA AND INFLAMMATION: Mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity comes mainly via:inhibited oedema. which is a key substance in the cellular immune system. *Key to grades A: Strong scientific evidence for this use. Jurg Gertsch. which are known to modulate different aspects of immune function.PGE(2) inhibition with a synergistic manner. F: Strong scientific evidence against this use. C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use.Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme inhibition. D: Fair scientific evidence against this use.Furthermore. “We found that some of these alkylamide compounds have a very strong effect on the regulation of tumour necrosis factor. .cytokine antibody stimulation.Inflammatory response mediators(such like Nitric oxide (NO). namely that they bind to the type-2 (CB2) cannabinoid receptors. and therefore the risks may outweigh the potential benefits in this population. Later we managed to find a mechanism of action for alkylamides.COX-I and COX-II enzymes inhibition. B: Good scientific evidence for this use.inhibits rhinovirus induced secretion of IL-6 (interleukin-6) and IL-8 (chemokine CXCL-8). development of rash has been associated with echinacea use.

000).10Z-trien-8-ynoic acid isobutylamide (1) from E. pallida. Dr. purpurea and E. angustifolia and dodeca-2Z. Specifically.10-diynoic acid isobutylamide (2) from E.alkamides.such like dodeca-2Z. and an improvement of erythrocyte antioxidant defenses” .4E-diene-8. Anna Macintosh at the National College of Naturopathic Medicine in Oregon and showed a reduction in the incidence of winter infections in a group of highly stressed and therefore susceptible students over those on placebo. echinacoside(caffeoyl derivative). an increase in the expression of leucocyte heat shock proteins. BLEND OF ECHINACEA PURPUREA AND ANGUSTIFOLIA: By Dr. Professor Reg Lehmann.000 and 100. it was found that supplementation for two weeks caused an increase in white cell counts. Jurg Gertsch.4E. We have also recently published a clinical study looking at the effect of supplementation of this combination upon the human immune response. The first trial was with the research group of Dr. Anti-inflammatory principles of Echinacea got identified major comes from high-molecular weight polysaccharides(molecular weight between 30.tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). PhD “We have also been fortunate to have had the opportunity to have this product clinically tested as well in two trials to date and another one underway. Gertsch. PhD. and interleukin-1beta) inhibition.

8 0. QUANTITY DRIED SUB POPULATION CHILDREN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS ADOLESCENTS ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS Children and adolescent doses were calculated as a proportion of the adult dose (JC 2008).3 4. The use of Echinacea purpurea root in children is supported by the following references: McIntyre 2005. . 10 – 14y ≥ 14 y 0. 1992 Includes pregnant and breastfeeding women. Schilcher 1997.Dose information expressed as “quantity dried equivalent” of Echinacea purpurea root presented as dose per day. Adult dose supported by the following references: Mills and Bone 2000.90 2.1 Dose information for the pressed juice of Echinacea purpurea aerial parts presented as dose per day.45 0.15 0.5 2–4y 5–9y EQUIVALENT(root) (g/day) MINIMUM MAXIMUM 0.23 1. Bräunig et al. Bove 2001.

Schilcher 1997. 1997 Includes pregnant and breastfeeding women.0 3.0 2 -4 y 5 – 9y PARTS) (ml/day) MINIMUM MAXIMUM 0.5 Dose information expressed as “quantity dried equivalent” of Echinacea purpurea aerial parts presented as dose per day PRESSED JUICE(AERIAL .9 5.7 1.PRESSED JUICE(AERIAL SUB POPULATION CHILDREN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS ADOLESCENTS ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS Children and adolescent doses were calculated as a proportion of the adult dose (JC 2008). 2001. Bove 2001.7 1.0 2. 10 – 14 y ≥ 14 y 2. The use of Echinacea purpurea aerial parts in children is supported by the following references: McIntyre 2005. Adult dose supported by the following references: Schulten et al. Hoheisel et al.0 10.

5 1. http://www. Bove 2001.gc. Adult dose supported by the following reference: Mills and Bone 2000 Includes pregnant and breastfeeding women REFERENCES: 1. The use of Echinacea purpurea aerial parts in children is supported by the following references: McIntyre 2005.ca/dhp-mps/alt_formats/hpfbdgpsa/pdf/prodnatur/mono_echinacea_purpurea-eng.umm.org/wiki/Echinacea . http://en. http://www.edu/altmed/articles/echinacea-000239.hc-sc.0 6.6 MAXIMUM 1.0 1.4 0.5 3.0 Children and adolescent doses were calculated as a proportion of the adult dose (JC 2008). Schilcher 1997.pdf 3.SUB POPULATION CHILDREN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS ADOLESCENTS ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS 10 – 14 y ≥ 14 y 2 -4 y 5 – 9y PARTS) (ml/day) MINIMUM 0.3 2.htm 2.wikipedia.

full 23.therapeuticresearch.com/Echinacea.aspx? pt=100&id=981&AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1 8. http://www.uptodate. http://www. http://www. http://findarticles.com/echinacea.com/herb_information/echinacea. http://www. .asp?pageID=165 22.com/SAMPLE.gov/pubmed/16995328 31.gc.co. http://www.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Herbal__Community_herbal_monograph/2009/12/WC500018263.home-herb-garden.newdruginfo.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-echinacea.htm#usp28nf23s0_m28824 19. http://www.html 11.html 27.chiro.do?topicKey=~KIf/raY_e_LJ/ 24.html 13. http://www. http://www.cfm 18. http://www.4.nlm.annals.zhion.mnpoison.com/echinacea-purpurea.htm 21.com/products/herbextract/echinacea/data09.com/detoxification-diet/echinacea.nz/echanacea.com/nd/Search.springboard4health.asp?pg=echinacea 14. http://www.marketnz. http://www.naturalhealthschool.org/nutrition/echinacea.herbmed.com/education/monograph/echinacea. http://www. http://www.html 25.ncbi. http://www.com/pharmacopeia/usp28/v28230/usp28nf23s0_m28 824.medical-explorer.nlm.nih.hc-sc.pdf 6. http://naturaldatabase.personalhealthzone. http://www.html 29.html 5.htm#Plant_ Constituents 15.com/p/articles/mi_m0ISW/is_285/ai_n19170368/ 26.healingdaily.html 28.mdidea.shtml#Echinacea_Monograph 7.com/patients/content/topic.com/medicinal-ingredients-e/echinaceaangustifolia_1.nih.html 17.com/notebook/herbs_echinacea. http://www.com/echinacea.org/content/137/12/1001.ema.nih.html 30.horizonherbs.htm#Category1Herb6 32.html 10.com/echinacea.ecnext.globalherbalsupplies. http://www.com/coms2/gi_0199-3934151/Use-of-Echinacea-inupper. http://www.htm 12.herbalextractsplus. http://www.org/index. http://www.ca/dhp-mps/alt_formats/hpfbdgpsa/pdf/prodnatur/mono_echinacea_purpurea-eng. http://www.org/pss/3624205 16. http://www.medherb.pdf 9. http://www.com/pilot. http://www. http://goliath.stevenfoster. http://www.gov/sites/entrez? cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=16807880&dopt=Abstract 33.europa.HTM 20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.org/Herbs/Herb6.jstor.

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