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Original Title: Cfd Analysis

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ISSN: 2454-7875

VOLUME 1, ISSUE 2, -2015

ENHANCEMENT OF CORRUGATED TWISTED TAPE INSERT WITH

CFD ANALYSIS

K.G.KULKARNI1, S.Y.BHOSALE 2 , S. N .SATPUTE ³

1

Appearing in ME ( HEAT POWER),

PES’s Modern College Of Engineering

Shivajinagar , Pune, Maharashtra, India

Email : kulkarni.kaustubh18@gmail.com

2

HOD, Department of Mechanical Engineering,

PES’s Modern College Of Engineering

Shivajinagar , Pune, Maharashtra, India

Email : sybmodern@gmail.com

Marathwada Mitra Mandal’s College Of Engineering

Karvenagar, Pune-52 , Maharashtra ,India

Email: somnathsatpute@mmcoe.edu.in

---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------

ABSTRACT - The need to increase the thermal performance of heat I. INTRODUCTION

exchangers, thereby affecting energy, material & cost savings have Heat exchangers are widely used in various industrial

led to development & use of many techniques termed as Heat processes for heating and cooling applications such as air

transfer Augmentation. Augmentation techniques increase conditioning and refrigeration systems, heat recovery

convective heat transfer by reducing the thermal resistance in a heat

exchanger. Twisted tapes-a type of passive heat transfer

processes food and dairy processes, chemical process plants

augmentation techniques have shown significantly good results in etc.The major challenge in designing a heat exchanger is to

past studies. Different designs of twisted tapes used are-Reduced make the equipment compact and achieve a high heat transfer

width twisted tapes (RWTT), Baffled reduced width twisted tapes rate using minimum pumping power. Techniques for heat

(BRWTT1) & Baffled reduced width twisted tape with holes transfer augmentation are relevant to several engineering

(BRWTT2). The proposed work is aimed at finding the heat transfer applications. In recent years, the high cost of energy and

performance in a circular pipe by employing corrugated twisted material has resulted in an increased effort aimed at producing

tapes& also results are to be compared with plain twisted tape. These more efficient heat exchange equipment. Furthermore,

tapes will be tested for different configurations of twist ratios & sometimes there is a need for miniaturization of a heat

wave angles. It is to be verified whether corrugated nature of twisted

tape assists the heat transfer by turbulence enhancement or if it

exchanger in specific applications, such as space application,

increases the pressure drop. Also the use of „CFD‟ software is through an augmentation of heat transfer. For example, a heat

proposed for analysis work & developing correlations. exchanger for an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

plant requires a heat transfer surface area of the order of

Heat transfer augmentation techniques (passive, active or a

combination of passive and active methods) are commonly used in 10000 m2/MW. Therefore, an increase in the efficiency of the

areas such as process industries, heating and cooling in evaporators, heat exchanger through an augmentation technique may result

thermal power plants, air-conditioning equipment, refrigerators, in a considerable saving in the material cost. Furthermore, as a

radiators for space vehicles, automobiles, etc. Passive techniques, heat exchanger becomes older, the resistance to heat transfer

where inserts are used in the flow passage to augment the heat increases owing to fouling or scaling. These problems are

transfer rate, are advantageous compared with active techniques, more common for heat exchangers used in marine

because the insert manufacturing process is simple and these applications and in chemical industries. In some specific

techniques can be easily employed in an existing heat exchanger. In applications, such as heat exchangers dealing with fluids of

design of compact heat exchangers, passive techniques of heat

low thermal conductivity (gases and oils) and desalination

transfer augmentation can play an important role if a proper passive

insert configuration can be selected according to the heat exchanger plants, there is a need to increase the heat transfer rate. The

working condition (both flow and heat transfer conditions). In the heat transfer rate can be improved by introducing a

past decade, several studies on the passive techniques of heat transfer disturbance in the fluid flow thereby breaking the viscous and

augmentation have been reported. The present paper is a review on thermal boundary layer. However, in the process pumping

progress with the passive augmentation techniques in the recent past power may increase significant lyand ultimately the pumping

and will be useful to designers implementing passive augmentation cost become high. Therefore, to achieve a desired heat transfer

techniques in heat exchange. Twisted tapes, wire coils, ribs, fins, rate in an existing heat exchanger at an economic pumping

dimples, etc., are the most commonly used passive heat transfer power, several techniques have been proposed in recent years

augmentation tools.

and are discussed under the classification section.

Key Words: Heat exchanger, twisted corrugated tape, twist

ratio, turbulence..

Page | 1

NOVATEUR PUBLICATIONS

International Journal Of Research Publications In Engineering And Technology [IJRPET]

ISSN: 2454-7875

VOLUME 1, ISSUE 2, -2015

Types of artificial roughness, corrugated or corrugated CFD Code Procedure : CFD codes are structured around the

channels: numerical algorithms that can tackle fluid flow problems. In

The roughness elements are classified as follows: order to provide easy access to their solving power all

commercial CFD packages include sophisticated user

a) According to arrangement of ribs: Depending on interfaces to input problem parameters and to examine the

whether one complete rib or ribs in pieces are placed on results. Hence all codes contain three main elements:

absorber plate, the ribs can be full (continuous) or broken

(discrete). Pre-processor,

Solver and

b) According to orientation of ribs: transverse, inclined and Post-processor.

V- shaped. We briefly examine the function of each of these elements

within the context of a CFD code.

c) According to shape of cross section of ribs: square,

rectangular, circular, semi-Circular, trapezoidal, triangular. Pre-Processor

d) According to material of ribs: Aluminum, copper, brass Pre-processing consists of the input of a flow problem to a

etc. CFD program by means of an operator-friendly interface and

the subsequent transformation of this input into a form

e) According to geometry: Sand grains, ribs, dimples, suitable for use by the solver. The user activities at the pre-

expanded metal wire mesh, Compound rib groove processing stage involve

arrangement Corrugated or corrugated channels.

Definition of the geometry of the region of interest:

f) According to method of attachment of ribs: Gluing, the computational domain.

casting, machining of roughness elements on heat transfer Grid generation-the sub-division of the domain into a

surface. number of smaller, non overlapping sub-domains: a

grid (or mesh) of cells (or control volumes or

Research Opportunities: elements).

The aim of insert is to enhance heat transfer rate by reducing Selection of the physical and chemical phenomena

the size and cost of heat exchanger but not with the increase in that need to be modeled.

pumping power. By referring the above literature it was Definition of fluid properties.

observed that the objective can be achieved if one goes for

Specification of appropriate boundary conditions at

passive techniques. After referring the results obtained from

cells which coincide with or touch the domain

the twisted tape inserts, they are offering less pressure drop

boundary.

than the other techniques mentioned in above literature. There

The solution to a flow problem (velocity, pressure,

exists a lot of work on twisted tape by various researchers by

temperature etc.) is defined at nodes inside each cell. The

varying various pitches by diameter ratios or by varying

accuracy of a CFD solution is governed by the number of cells

thickness to pitch ratio. The material used by them is normally

in the grid. In general, the larger the number of cells the better

Teflon which is a non metal also the material is solid in shape.

the solution accuracy. Both the accuracy of a solution and its

The inserts can be modified by giving new design as it can be

cost in terms of necessary computer hardware and calculation

made corrugated or corrugated; as if a material becomes

time are dependent on the fineness of the grid. Optimal

corrugated the turbulence may rise in the fluid flow. Also if it

meshes are often non-uniform: finer in areas where large

is given a twisted shape then due to nature of inserts an

variations occur from point to point and coarser in regions

extensive contact surface between solid and fluid surfaces are

with relatively little change. Efforts are under way to develop

generated. The extensive contact surface enhances the internal

CFD codes with a self adaptive meshing capability.

heat exchange between the phases and consequently results in

Ultimately such programs will automatically refine the grid in

an increased thermal diffusivity. A corrugated twisted tape

areas of rapid variations. A substantial amount of basic

insert is a swirl producing geometry where the secondary fluid

development work still needs to be done before these

motion is generated by the continuous change in direction of

techniques are robust enough to be incorporated into

the tangential vector to the bounding curve surface of the duct,

commercial CFD codes. At present it is still up to the skills of

which results in the local deflection of the bulk flow velocity

the CFD user to design a grid that is a suitable compromise

vector. Therefore a corrugated twisted tape insert may prove

between desired accuracy and solution cost.

to be beneficial by improving the heat transfer rate and by

reducing the pressure drop. .

Experimental work done on various inserts:

Numerical Simulation by the Solver: There are three

Computational Fluid Dynamics or CFD is the analysis of

systems involving fluid flow, heat transfer and associated distinct streams of numerical solution techniques: finite

phenomena such as chemical reactions by means of computer-

difference, finite element and spectral methods. In outline the

based simulation. The technique is very powerful and spans a

wide range of industrial and non-industrial application areas.

Page | 2

NOVATEUR PUBLICATIONS

International Journal Of Research Publications In Engineering And Technology [IJRPET]

ISSN: 2454-7875

VOLUME 1, ISSUE 2, -2015

numerical methods that form the basis of the solver perform throughout the entire computational domain. Again we

the following steps: replace the unknowns in the governing equation by the

truncated series. The constraint that leads to the algebraic

Approximation of the unknown flow variables by

equations for the coefficients of the Fourier or Chebyshev

means of simple functions.

series is provided by a weighted residuals concept similar to

Discretisation by substitution of the approximations

the finite element method or by making the approximate

into the governing flow equations and subsequent

function coincide with the exact solution at a number of grid

mathematical manipulations.

points.

Solution of the algebraic equations.

The main differences between the three separate streams are The finite volume method: The finite volume method was

associated with the way in which the flow variables are originally developed as a special finite difference formulation.

approximated and with the discretisation processes. It is central to four of the five main commercially available

CFD codes: PFIOENICS, FLUENT, FLOW3D and STAR-

Finite difference methods: Finite difference methods

CD. The numerical algorithm consists of the following steps:

describe the unknown λ of the flow problem by means of

point samples at the node points of a grid of co-ordinate lines. Formal integration of the governing equations of

Truncated Taylor series expansions are often used to generate fluid flow over all the (finite) control volumes of the

finite difference approximations of derivatives of λ in terms of solution domain.

point samples of λ at each grid point and its immediate Discretisation involves the substitution of a variety of

neighbours. Those derivatives appearing in the governing finite-difference-type approximations for the terms in

equations are replaced by finite differences yielding an the integrated equation representing flow processes

algebraic equation for the values of λ at each grid point. such as convection, diffusion and sources. This

converts the integral equations into a system of

Finite Element Method: Finite element methods use simple

algebraic equations.

piecewise functions (e.g. linear or quadratic) valid on

Solution of the algebraic equations by an iterative

elements to describe the local variations of unknown flow

method.

variables λ. The governing equation is precisely satisfied by

Post-Processing :

the exact solution λ. If the piecewise approximating functions As in pre-processing a huge amount of development work

for λ are substituted into the equation it will not hold exactly has recently taken place in the post-processing field. Owing to

and a residual is defined to measure the errors. Next the the increased popularity of engineering workstations, many of

residuals (and hence the errors) are minimised in some sense which have outstanding graphics capabilities, the leading CFD

by multiplying them by a set of weighting functions and packages are now equipped with versatile data visualization

integrating. As a result we obtain a set of algebraic equations tools. These include:

for the unknown coefficients of the approximating functions.

The theory of finite elements has been developed initially for Domain geometry and grid display.

Line and shaded contour plots.

Spectral Methods: Spectral methods approximate the

2D and 3D surface plots.

unknowns by means of truncated Fourier series or series of

Particle tracking.

Chebyshev polynomials. Unlike the finite difference or finite

View manipulation (translation, rotation, scaling

element approach the approximations are not local but valid

etc.).

Page | 3

NOVATEUR PUBLICATIONS

International Journal Of Research Publications In Engineering And Technology [IJRPET]

ISSN: 2454-7875

VOLUME 1, ISSUE 2, -2015

More recently these facilities may also include animation for The apparatus consist of a blower unit fitted with the

dynamic result display and in addition to graphics all codes test pipe. The test section is surrounded by nichrome heater.

produce trusty alphanumeric output and have data export Six thermocouples are embedded on test section and two

facilities for further manipulation external to the code. As in thermocouples are placed in the air stream at the entrance and

many other branches of CAE the graphics output capabilities exit of test section to measure air temperatures. Test pipe is

of CFD codes have revolutionized the communication of ideas connected to the delivery side of the blower along with the

to the non-specialist. orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the

heater is given through power unit and is measured by meters.

II. METHODOLOGY It is also noted that only a part of the total heat supplied is

1. Present experimental work: utilized in heating the air. A temperature indicator with clod

junction compensation is provided to measure the temperature

The experimental study on passive heat transfer augmentation

in the pipe wall in the test section. Air flow is measured with

using corrugated twisted tape inserts for varying twist ratio

the help of an orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on

and wave-width with aluminum and copper as a material was

the board. In addition to this, an inclined manometer is also

carried on in a single phase flow heat exchanger having the

used to measure pressure drop across test section. The valve at

specifications as listed below:-

the outlet of pipe is used to vary the flow rate of air. At inlet

of test section a tapping with valve is provided to measure

pressure drop.

up

1 Inner diameter of pipe =(do) = 0.026 m.

2 Outer diameter of pipe =(di) = 0.03 m. T1 measures inlet air temp & is indicated by Digital

3 Length of test section = L =0.7m. Voltmeter (DV) on the front panel. The thermocouple no 8 is

4 Capacity of blower = 0.24h.p. used for measuring outlet air temperature. The thermocouples

5 Diameter of orifice (d) =0.016m. T2 to T7 are used to measure surface temperature of test

6 Range of Dimmer stat = 0 to 2 amp. 0-270V ac. section. The power control unit uses an isolating transformer

7 Temperature indicator =0 to 300 0C. (12 points) for stepping down mains voltage to 130 volts AC & get

8 U-tube manometer = Pressure tapings at start and end controlled DC output in the range 0-150 volts using

of the test pipe. 0-300 mm of water column unijunction transistor(UJT), pulse transformer &Silicon

9 Calibratedchromelalumel thermocouple(K-type- - Controlled Rectifier (SCR) circuit & capacitive filter. The

2700C to 1350 0C) heater power is necessarily DC. The voltage signals (V) for

10 Voltmeter = 0-200 V; ammeter 0-2 amp. measurement is obtained by means of a potential divider &

11 Nichrome wire (resistivity=1.5 x 10-6Ωm) heater current signal (I) is obtained by measuring the voltage drop

wound around test pipe. across a small resistance. This current is measured by means

of an ammeter on the front panel & for voltage measurement

test points are provided below the ammeter. The output can be

controlled by means of potentiometer. The ground is

internally connected.

Page | 4

NOVATEUR PUBLICATIONS

International Journal Of Research Publications In Engineering And Technology [IJRPET]

ISSN: 2454-7875

VOLUME 1, ISSUE 2, -2015

The literature that has been discussed above deals i. Width of tape = 24mm.

with active as well as passive techniques used for heat transfer ii. Twist ratios, TR=8.33, 8.83,9.375, 9.79 & 10.42.

augmentation, but maximum researchers have used passive iii. Length of insert, L = 700 mm

technique as it doesn‟t require any external agency for heat iv. Wave-width, WW = 13,16 & 24 mm

enhancement, hence it is advantageous over the active v. Thickness of inserts, t = 1mm

techniques thus giving ample of room for experimental

studies.

The researchers have used twisted tape with varying Table 3.1: Detailed specifications of corrugated twisted

pitches where they are getting higher friction factor of about

30% to 50 % hence an attempt have to be made to reduce this inserts

friction factor. This attempt can be done by changing the Wave- Twist

shape of insert and also by using various materials. The inserts SN Pitch Width Material Description

width Ratio

used for the experiment are corrugated twisted tape with 1 225 24 13 Aluminum Same pitch

different wave-widths and pitches as there is no work done on 2 225 24 16 Aluminum varying 9.375

such type of insert. 3 225 24 24 Aluminum wavelength

The work includes the following:

1. Determination of friction factor and Nusselt number

for smooth tube and for various corrugated twisted Fabrication Procedure:

tape inserts with varying pitches and wave-widths. 1. Take aluminum or copper sheet of thickness 1mm.

2. The results of Nusselt number, friction factor, 2. Cut them on hydraulic press in desired width & length

Performance evaluation criteria for all the aluminum (24mm x 750 mm) keeping 50 mm allowance for

corrugated twisted tape inserts are plotted on the compensating the length after twisting.

graph and compared with the values for the smooth 3. The cut tapes are then given corrugations on die for

tube. required wave-widths, on both sides.

3. Similarly all the above parameters for copper 4. After corrugations drill two holes each on one end on

corrugated twisted tape inserts are plotted on the tapes.

graph and compared with the values for the smooth 5. Hold the tape between headstock & tail stock on lathe

tube. machine using drilled holes.

4. To observe the effect of varying twists and wave- 6. Rotate the headstock (chuck) end & at the same time

widths, another set of graphs are plotted for copper move tailstock by required amount towards the

and aluminum inserts. headstock till we get desired shape &pitch.

5. Two materials are chosen for the experiment hence The actual photographs of twisted tape for varying wave-

to find an optimum value in terms of the above widths but same twist ratio are shown below from Fig.4 from

mentioned parameters, combined graphs are plotted (a) to (c).

for copper & aluminum to find an optimum out of

the two materials that can be used for this

experimental set up.

6. Comparing results of corrugated twisted tape with

plane tape.

7. The use of CFD programming to model the

experimental results of heat transfer in an circular Figure 4 (a) : Aluminium corrugated insert TR-9.375, WW-

tube heat exchanger equipped with the corrugated 13 mm

twisted tape inserts.

mm

mm

Page | 5

NOVATEUR PUBLICATIONS

International Journal Of Research Publications In Engineering And Technology [IJRPET]

ISSN: 2454-7875

VOLUME 1, ISSUE 2, -2015

Observation Table : Sample observation and result table of copper insert with

TR-8.83, WW-16 mm

Table 1: Observation table of without insert

SN Parameters Value Table 3 : Observation table of copper insert

T1 32.7

T2 42.6 Sr No. Parameters Value

T3 48.9

Temperatures T4 52.6 T1 31.9

o

C T5 56.8 T2 40.8

T6 57.6 T3 45.8

T7 54.3

T4 48.1

T8 40.3 Temperatures oC

T5 50.7

Manometer

hw 41

Difference T6 50.9

Inclined T7 49.2

Manometer hf 3.25

Reading T8 40.7

Manometer

As per the observation table shown in methodology hw 41

experimentation was carried out and temperature and

Difference

manometer difference values obtained are put in the table Inclined

4.2.1. This manometer difference indicates change in mass Manometer hf 5

flow rate operated by the valve next to the test section, this Reading

increase in manometric head indicates increase in mass flow

rate and this causes increase in Reynolds number. As

Reynolds number increases the friction factor has to reduce. Table 4 : Showing mass flow rate, friction factor and

Nusselt number of copper insert with TR-8.83, WW-16

Table 2 : showing mass flow rate, friction factor and mm

Nusselt number of without insert M

Re F Nu

m (kg/s)

Re fexpt Nu

(kg/s)

9466.089 0.003737 0.067640951 51.11746

As explained above that as Reynolds number increases then 7242.43 0.002859 0.075109639 42.80081

friction has to reduce, so by observing the table 4.2.2 then at

lower Reynolds number the friction factor is high however as 5913.419 0.002334 0.095331465 38.72239

the Reynolds number increases the friction factor drops as

compared to the initial value. The Nusselt number increases

with the increase in Reynolds number which indicates that 4181.419 0.001651 0.155996943 30.95081

heat transfer enhancement takes place at higher Reynolds

An sample observation table is shown above for the

number.

insert of copper with TR-8.83 & WW-16 mm and it is

observed that the Reynolds number increases with the

decrease in friction, so at lower Reynolds number the friction

factor is high however as the Reynolds number increases the

friction factor drops as compared to the initial value. The

Nusselt number increases with the increase in Reynolds

number which indicates that heat transfer enhancement takes

place at higher Reynolds number. There is another parameter

PEC which is defined above and it is observed that the

performance evaluation criteria decrease with the increase in

Reynolds number hence there is increase in heat enhancement.

Page | 6

NOVATEUR PUBLICATIONS

International Journal Of Research Publications In Engineering And Technology [IJRPET]

ISSN: 2454-7875

VOLUME 1, ISSUE 2, -2015

Computational Mesh & Numerical Approach for Analysis of Heat Pipe. The entire domain consists of majorly two different

Heat Pipe :-

The geometry is created in a commercial CAD tool and parts i.e. Heat pipe and twisted tape.

provides advanced geometry acquisition, mesh generation,

mesh optimization, and post-processing tools to meet the

requirement for integrated mesh generation and post

processing tools for today‟s sophisticated analyses.

Maintaining a close relationship with the geometry during

mesh generation and post-processing, ANSYS ICEM CFD is

used especially in engineering applications such as

computational fluid dynamics and structural analysis. ANSYS

ICEM CFD‟s mesh generation tools offer the capability to

parametrically create meshes from geometry in numerous

formats:

Fig :effect of pressure drop on twisted tape

Multiblock structured

Unstructured hexahedral

Unstructured tetrahedral

Cartesian with H-grid refinement

Hybrid meshes comprising hexahedral, tetrahedral,

pyramidal and/or prismatic elements

Quadrilateral and triangular surface meshes

and analysis. In ANSYS ICEM CFD, geometry can be input

from just about any format, whether from a commercial CAD

design package, 3rd party universal database, scan data or

point data. Beginning with a robust geometry module which Fig.: effect of Velocity contour on twisted tape

points, ANSYS ICEM CFD‟s open geometry database offers

the flexibility to combine geometric information in various

formats for mesh generation. The resulting structured or

unstructured meshes, topology, inter-domain connectivity and

boundary conditions are then stored in a database where they

can easily be translated to input files formatted for a particular

solver. In the present study unstructured tetrahedral mesh is

used for the whole geometry with prismatic elements along

the wall of the pipe so as to capture the boundary layer

correctly. The Fig. shows the complete meshed domain of the

Page | 7

NOVATEUR PUBLICATIONS

International Journal Of Research Publications In Engineering And Technology [IJRPET]

ISSN: 2454-7875

VOLUME 1, ISSUE 2, -2015

M.J.H. Khan , M.A.R. Sarkar, M.A. Kalam , H.H.

Masjuki , M. Shahabuddin, “Heat transfer performance

for turbulent flow through a tube using double helical

tape inserts”, International Communications in Heat

and Mass Transfer, Vol.39,2012,Page 818-825.

[3] Halit Bas, Veysel Ozceyhan, “Heat transfer enhancement

in a tube with twisted tape inserts placed separately

from the tube wall”, Experimental Thermal and Fluid

Science Vol.41 (2012) Page51–58.

[4] Smith Eiamsa-ard, Chinaruk Thianpong and Pongjet

Promvonge, “Experimental Investigations of Heat

Transfer and Pressure Drop Characteristics of Flow

through Circular Tube Fitted with Regularly-spaced

Twisted Tape”,

[5] Suhas V. Patil, P. V. Vijay Babu , “Performance

Comparison of Twisted Tape and

Screw Tape Inserts in Square Duct”, Proceeding of the

International Conference on Advanced Science,

Engineering and Information Technology 2011,Page 50-

Fig : Residuals plot 55

[6] S. Eiamsa-ard , K. Wongcharee , P. Eiamsa-ard , C.

III. CONCLUSION Thianpong, “Heat transfer enhancement in a tube using

delta-winglet twisted tape inserts”, Applied Thermal

The heat transfer enhancement, thermal performance and Engineering,Vol.30 (2010) Page 310–318

friction factor characteristics of corrugated twisted tape [7] P. Murugesan , K. Mayilsamy , S. Suresh , P.S.S.

inserted tube will be investigated experimentally. The Srinivasan , “Heat transfer and pressure drop

experiments will be performed for the tube fitted with characteristics in a circular tube fitted with and without

corrugated twisted tapes with different pitches and also for V-cut twisted tape insert” , International

different wave numbers . Based on the experimental results, Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer,Vol. 38

following will be parameters which could be summarized as (2011) Page329–334

follows: [8] Smith Eiamsa-ard, Pongjet Promvonge, “Performance

assessment in a heat exchanger tube with alternate

1) The increase or decrease of Nusselt number obtained for clockwise and counter-clockwise twisted-tape inserts”,

the tube with corrugated twisted tape inserts in comparison to International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer,

those of the plain tube values. Vol. 53 (2010) Page1364-1372.

[9] P. Murugesan, K. Mayilsamy, S. Suresh, P.S.S.

2) The highest heat flux among the inserts tested and amount Srinivasan, “Heat transfer and pressure drop

by which it is higher than the value of the plain tube. characteristics of turbulent flow in a tube fitted with

trapezoidal-cut twisted tape insert”, International

3) The friction factor for the tube equipped with twisted tape journal of academic research,Vol. 1. September 2009

inserts will be compared with those of the plain tube values. Page 123-128.

possible with the twisted tape inserted tube with a particular

configuration among the tested ones.

proposed study which will predict the Nusselt number and

friction factor. The maximum deviations between the

predicted results and experimental results for Nusselt number

and friction factor will be checked.

REFERENCES

Kamal Bhuiya, “Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Tube

Using Twisted Tape Insert”, Proceedings of the 13th

Asian Congress of Fluid Mechanics, Page 835-838.

Page | 8

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