You are on page 1of 10


 Recruitment
 Induction
 Training
 Payroll
 Performance appraisal
 Stress management


Recruitment refers to the overall process of attracting, selecting and appointing suitable
candidates for jobs (either permanent or temporary) within an organization. Recruitment can also
refer to processes involved in choosing individuals for unpaid positions, such as voluntary roles
or unpaid trainee roles. Managers, human resource generalists and recruitment specialists may be
tasked with carrying out recruitment, but in some cases public-sector employment agencies,
commercial recruitment agencies, or specialist search consultancies are used to undertake parts
of the process. Internet-based technologies to support all aspects of recruitment have become

In situations where multiple new jobs are created and recruited for the first time or vacancies are
there or the naturein such documents as job descriptions and job specifications. Often, a
company already has job descriptions for existing positions. Where already drawn up, these
documents may require review and updating to reflect current requirements. Prior to the
recruitment stage, a person specification should be finalized.[2]
Sourcing is the use of one or more strategies to attract or identify candidates to fill job vacancies.
It may involve internal and/or external recruitment advertising, using appropriate media, such as
job portals,local or national newspapers, social media, business media, specialist recruitment
media, professional publications, window advertisements, job centers, or in a variety of ways via
the internet.
Alternatively, employers may use recruitment consultancies or agencies to find otherwise scarce
candidates—who, in many cases, may be content in their current positions and are not actively
looking to move. This initial research for candidates—also called name generation—produces
contact information for potential candidates, whom the recruiter can then discreetly contact and


Various psychological tests can assess a variety of KSAOs, including literacy. Assessments are
also available to measure physical ability. Recruiters and agencies may use applicant tracking
systems to filter candidates, along with software tools for psychometric testing and performance-
based assessment.[3] In many countries, employers are legally mandated to ensure their screening
and selection processes meet equal opportunity and ethical standards.[2]
Employers are likely to recognize the value of candidates who encompass soft skills such as
interpersonal or team leadership.[4] Many companies, including multinational organizations and
those that recruit from a range of nationalities, are also often concerned about whether candidate
fits the prevailing company culture.[5]

The word disability carries few positive connotations for most employers. Research has shown
that employer biases tend to improve through first-hand experience and exposure with proper
supports for the employee[6] and the employer making the hiring decisions. As for most
companies, money and job stability are two of the contributing factors to the productivity of a
disabled employee, which in return equates to the growth and success of a business. Hiring
disabled workers produce more advantages than disadvantages.[7]There is no difference in the
daily production of a disabled worker.[8] Given their situation, they are more likely to adapt to
their environmental surroundings and acquaint themselves with equipment, enabling them to
solve problems and overcome adversity as with other employees. The U.S. IRS grants
companies Disabled Access Credit when they meet eligibility criteria.[9]
Many major corporations recognize the need for diversity in hiring to compete successfully in a
global economy.[10] Other organizations, for example universities and colleges, have been slow
to embrace diversity as an essential value for their success.


Is the process use within many business to welcome new employees to the company and prepare
them for their new role.


Voice and accent training

VNA training is the process training were you are groomed from a BPO jobs. Here the people
learn to speak, learning to behave and learning to stay wakeup in nights.

A performance appraisal (PA), also referred to as a performance review, performance evaluation,

(career) development discussion, or employee appraisal is a method by which the job
performance of an employee is documented and evaluated. Performance appraisals are a part
of career development and consist of regular reviews of employee performance
within organizations.

A performance appraisal is a systematic general and periodic process that assesses an individual
employee's job performance and productivity in relation to certain pre-established criteria and
organizational objectives. Other aspects of individual employees are considered as well, such
as organizational citizenship behavior, accomplishments, potential for future improvement,
strengths and weaknesses, etc.

To collect PA data, there are three main methods: objective production, personnel, and
judgmental evaluation. Judgmental evaluations are the most commonly used with a large variety
of evaluation methods. Historically, PA has been conducted annually (long-cycle appraisals);
however, many companies are moving towards shorter cycles (every six months, every quarter),
and some have been moving into short-cycle (weekly, bi-weekly) PA. The interview could
function as "providing feedback to employees, counseling and developing employees, and
conveying and discussing compensation, job status, or disciplinary decisions". PA is often
included in performance management systems. PA helps the subordinate answer two key
questions: first, "What are your expectations of me?" second, "How am I doing to meet your

1. Establish Performance Standards:

The appraisal process begins with the establishment of performance standards. The managers

must determine what outputs, accomplishments and skills will be evaluated. These standards

should have evolved out of job analysis and job descriptions.

These performance standards should also be clear and objective to be understood and measured.

Standards should not be expressed in an articulated or vague manner such as “a good job” or “a

full day’s work” as these vague phrases tells nothing.

2. Communicate Performance Expectations to Employees:

Once the performance standards are established, this need to be communicated to the respective
employees so that they come to know what is expected of them. Past experience indicates that
not communicating standards to the employees compounds the appraisal problem.

3. Measure Actual Performance:

This is the third step involved in the appraisal process. In this stage, the actual performance of

the employee is measured on the basis of information available from various sources such as
personal observation, statistical reports, oral reports, and written reports.

4. Compare Actual Performance with Standards:

In this stage, the actual performance is compared with the predetermined standards. Such a

comparison may reveal the deviation between standard performance and actual performance and

will enable the evaluator to proceed to the fifth step in the process, i.e., the discussion of the
appraisal with the concerned employees.

5. Discuss the Appraisal with the Employee:

The fifth step in the appraisal process is to communicate to and discuss with the employees the

results of the appraisal. This is, in fact, one of the most challenging tasks the manager’s face to

present an accurate appraisal to the employees and then make them accept the appraisal in a
constructive manner.
6. Initiate Corrective Action:
The final step in the appraisal process is the initiation of corrective action when it is necessary.

The areas needing improvement are identified and then, the measures to correct or improve the
performance are identified and initiated.

The corrective action can be of two types. One is immediate and deals predominantly with

symptoms. This action is often called as “putting out fires.” The other is basic and delves into
causes of deviations and seeks to adjust the difference permanently.


Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any skills and knowledge that relate to
specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one's capability,
capacity, productivity and performance. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of
content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In addition to the
basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market recognize as of
2008 the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills
throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of
training as professional development
Training concentrates on mechanistic goals: training programs in this area develop specific skills or
muscles, often with a view of peaking at a particular time. Some physical training programs focus on
raising overall physical fitness.

In military use, training means gaining the physical ability to perform and survive in combat, and learning
the many skills needed in a time of war. These include how to use a variety of weapons,
outdoor survival skills, and how to survive being captured by the enemy, among many others.
See military education and training.

For psychological or physiological reasons, people who believe it may be beneficial to them can choose
to practice relaxation training, or autogenic training, in an attempt to increase their ability to relax or deal
with stress.[1] While some studies have indicated relaxation training is useful for some medical conditions,
autogenic training has limited results or has been the result of few studies.


A payroll is a company's list of its employees, but the term is commonly used to refer to:

 the total amount of money that a company pays to its employees

 a company's records of its employees' salaries and wages, bonuses, and withheld taxes
 the company's department that calculates and pays these.
Payroll in the sense of "money paid to employees" plays a major role in a company for several
From an accounting perspective, payroll is crucial because payroll and payroll taxes considerably
affect the net income of most companies and because they are subject to laws and regulations
(e.g. in the US, payroll is subject to federal, state, and local regulations).
From a human resources viewpoint, the payroll department is critical because employees are
sensitive to payroll errors and irregularities: Good employee morale requires payroll to be paid
timely and accurately. The primary mission of the payroll department is to ensure that all
employees are paid accurately and timely with the correct withholdings and deductions, and that
the withholdings and deductions are remitted in a timely manner. This includes salary payments,
tax withholdings, and deductions from paychecks.
Government agencies at various levels require employers to withhold income taxes from
employees' wages.
In the United States, "payroll taxes" are separate from income taxes, although they are levied on
employers in proportion to salary; the programs they fund include Social Security, and Medicare.
U.S. income and payroll taxes collected through deductions are considered to be trust fund taxes,
because the employer holds the deducted money in trust for later remittance.
The employer must withhold payroll taxes from an employee's check and hand them over to
several tax agencies by law. Payroll taxes include the following:

1. Federal income tax withholding, based on withholding tables in "Publication 15,

Employer's Tax Guide"[4] by Internal Revenue Service – IRS;
2. Social Security tax withholding.[5] The employee pays 6.2 percent of the salary or wage,
up to $118,500 (as of 2015–2016).
3. ). The employer also pays 6.2 percent in Social Security taxes. If you are self-employed,
you pay the combined employee and employer amount of 12.4 percent in Social Security
taxes on your net earnings;
4. Medicare tax.[6] The employee pays 1.45 percent in Medicare taxes on the entire salary or
wage. 0.9% is added for the salary portion bigger than $200,000 (only for the employee
portion). The employer also pays 1.45 percent in Medicare taxes (regardless if the
amount is bigger than $200,000). If you are self-employed, you pay the combined
employee and employer amount of 2.9 percent (3.8% for the portion bigger than
$200,000) in Medicare taxes on your net earnings;
5. State income tax withholding;
6. various local tax withholding, such as city taxes, county taxes, school taxes, state
disability, and unemployment insurance.
References include the following publications:

 Publication 15, (Circular E), Employer's Tax Guide. This publication explains employer's tax
responsibilities. It explains the requirements for withholding, depositing, reporting, paying,
and correcting employment taxes. It explains the forms any employer must give to its
employees, those employees must give to the employer, and those employers must send to
the IRS and SSA (Social Security Administration). This guide also has tax tables needed to
figure the taxes to withhold from each employee;
 Publication 15 – A, Employer's Supplemental Tax Guide. This publication supplements
Publication 15 (Circular E), Employer's Tax Guide. It contains specialized and detailed
employment tax information supplementing the basic information provided in Publication 15
(Circular E);
 Publication 15-B. Employer's Tax Guide to Fringe Benefits. This publication supplements
Publication 15 (Circular E), Employer's Tax Guide, and Publication 15 – A, Employer's
Supplemental Tax Guide. This publication contains information about the employment tax
treatment of various types of noncash compensation.
In the earlier part we have considered payroll taxes related to employee's side. Now it's the
moment to talk about the Employer Payroll Taxes Employers are responsible for paying their
portion of payroll taxes. These payroll taxes are an expense over and above the expense of an
employee's gross pay. The employer-portion of payroll taxes include the following:

1. Social Security taxes (6.2% up to the annual maximum);

2. Medicare taxes (1.45% of wages);
3. Federal unemployment taxes (FUTA);
4. State unemployment taxes (SUTA).
Very often you can hear people using FICA in their terminology. FICA stands for the Federal
Insurance Contributions Act and the FICA tax consists of both Social Security and Medicare
taxes. As we explained earlier both parties pay half of these taxes. Employees pay half, and
employers pay the other half. Social Security and Medicare taxes are paid both by the employees
and the employers. In summary together both halves of the FICA taxes add up to 15.3 percent.
Any employer is responsible for paying the employer's share of payroll taxes, for depositing tax
withheld from the employees' paychecks, preparing various reconciliation reports, accounting for
the payroll expense through their financial reporting, and filing payroll tax returns. As you see
this suite of employer payroll tax responsibilities is far above issuing paychecks to employees.–


Stress management refers to the wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies aimed at
controlling a person's levels of stress, especially chronic stress, usually for the purpose of
improving everyday functioning.
In this context, the term 'stress' refers only to a stress with significant negative consequences,
or distress in the terminology advocated by Hans Selye, rather than what he calls eustress, a
stress whose consequences are helpful or otherwise.
Stress produces numerous physical and mental symptoms which vary according to each
individual's situational factors. These can include physical health decline as well as depression.
The process of stress management is named as one of the keys to a happy and successful life in
modern society.[1] Although life provides numerous demands that can prove difficult to handle,
stress management provides a number of ways to manage anxiety and maintain overall well-
Despite stress often being thought of as a subjective experience, levels of stress are readily
measurable, using various physiological tests, similar to those used in polygraphs.
Many practical stress management techniques are available, some for use by health
professionals and others, for self-help, which may help an individual reduce their levels of stress,
provide positive feelings of control over one's life and promote general well-being.
Evaluating the effectiveness of various stress management techniques can be difficult, as limited
research currently exists. Consequently, the amount and quality of evidence for the various
techniques varies widely. Some are accepted as effective treatments for use in psychotherapy,
while others with less evidence favouring them are considered alternative therapies. Many
professional organizations exist to promote and provide training in conventional or alternative
There are several models of stress management, each with distinctive explanations of
mechanisms for controlling stress. Much more research is necessary to provide a better
understanding of which mechanisms actually operate and are effective in practice.