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i- English Grammar Terms ii- The 8 English Parts of Speech
These are the words that you use to make a sentence. There are only 8 types of word - and the most important is the Verb!
1- Verbs 2- Nouns 3- Adjectives 4- Adverbs 5- Pronouns 6- Prepositions 7- Conjunctions 8- Interjections iii- Revision
be, have, do, work man, town, music a, the, 69, big loudly, well, often you, ours, some at, in, on, from and, but, though ah, dear, er, um
i Glossary of English Grammar Terms
Active Voice In the active voice, the subject of the verb does the action (eg They killed the President). See also Passive Voice. Adjective A word like big, red, easy, French etc. An adjective describes a noun or pronoun. Adverb A word like slowly, quietly, well, often etc. An adverb modifies a verb. Article The "indefinite" articles are a and an. The "definite article" is the. Auxiliary Verb A verb that is used with a main verb. Be, do and have are auxiliary verbs. Can, may, must etc are modal auxiliary verbs. Clause A group of words containing a subject and its verb (for example: It was late when he arrived). Conjunction A word used to connect words, phrases and clauses (for example: and, but, if). Infinitive The basic form of a verb as in to work or work. Interjection An exclamation inserted into an utterance without grammatical connection (for example: oh!, ah!, ouch!, well!). Modal Verb An auxiliary verb like can, may, must etc that modifies the main verb and expresses possibility, probability etc. It is also called "modal auxiliary verb". Noun A word like table, dog, teacher, America etc. A noun is the name of an object, concept, person or place. A "concrete noun" is something you can see or touch like a person or car. An "abstract noun" is something that you cannot see or touch like a decision or happiness. A "countable noun" is something that you can count (for example: bottle, song, dollar). An "uncountable noun" is something that you cannot count (for example: water, music,
money). Object In the active voice, a noun or its equivalent that receives the action of the verb. In the passive voice, a noun or its equivalent that does the action of the verb. Participle The -ing and -ed forms of verbs. The -ing form is called the "present participle". The -ed form is called the "past participle" (for irregular verbs, this is column 3). Part Of Speech One of the eight classes of word in English - noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction and interjection. Passive Voice In the passive voice, the subject receives the action of the verb (eg The President was killed). See also Active Voice. Phrase A group of words not containing a subject and its verb (eg on the table, the girl in a red dress). Predicate Each sentence contains (or implies) two parts: a subject and a predicate. The predicate is what is said about the subject. Preposition A word like at, to, in, over etc. Prepositions usually come before a noun and give information about things like time, place and direction. Pronoun A word like I, me, you, he, him, it etc. A pronoun replaces a noun. Sentence A group of words that express a thought. A sentence conveys a statement, question, exclamation or command. A sentence contains or implies a subject and a predicate. In simple terms, a sentence must contain a verb and (usually) a subject. A sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop (.), question mark (?) or exclamation mark (!). Subject Every sentence contains (or implies) two parts: a subject and a predicate. The subject is the main noun (or equivalent) in a sentence about which something is said. Tense
present or future). Verb A word like (to) work. The "present continuous tense". noun animals. can be used to talk about the present or the future. noun Tara pronoun She pron.4 The form of a verb that shows us when the action or state happens (past. noun English adverb well. I adverb quickly. noun verb prep. adj. noun adverb . (to) begin. A verb describes an action or state. conj. She preposition to adjective the noun station pron. big noun snakes conjunction but Here is a sentence that contains every part of speech: interjection pron. (to) love. ii Parts of Speech Examples Here are some sentences made with different English parts of speech: verb Stop! pronoun She noun Tara noun John verb loves verb speaks verb ran verb likes verb works. adj. them. verb hate pron. noun John noun Animals verb is verb working. adjective good noun English. verb like adjective kind verb speaks noun people. Note that the name of a tense is not always a guide to when the action happens. for example.
"but" can be a conjunction and a preposition. These are just a few examples. Everyone came but Mary. In addition. preposition and conjuction! . We had afternoon tea. an adverb and an interjection. John came but Mary didn't come. Well! That's expensive! We ate in the afternoon. there are more. I work in London. she and young John walk to school slowly. many nouns can act as adjectives. "work" can be a verb and a noun. Of course. To analyze the part of speech. noun. "well" can be an adjective. In fact.5 Well. adverb. if you look in a good dictionary you will see that the word but has six jobs to do: • verb. or be more than one part of speech. ask yourself: "What job is this word doing in this sentence?" Here are some examples: word work part of speech noun verb but conjunction preposition well adjective adverb interjection afternoon noun noun acting as adjective example My work is easy. pronoun. Words with More than One Job Many words in English can have more than one job. Are you well? She speaks well. For example. even for some of the words above.
4.Conditionals put out look after get on with if I win . Perfect Simple.Verb Forms • • • Forms of Main Verbs Forms of Main Verbs: Examples to sing sing. Perfect Continuous I sing I am singing I have sung I have been singing I sang I was singing o Future Simple.What Are Verbs? • • • Verb Classification Helping Verbs Main Verbs 1. sung singing sings Forms of Helping Verbs 1.2.5.Phrasal Verbs 1. Perfect Simple.1. sang. Perfect Simple. Perfect o Continuous Past Simple. Perfect Continuous 1.6 1 English Verbs 1. Continuous. Continuous.3. Continuous.English Verb Tenses • • What is Tense? The English Tense System o Present Simple.
7 if I won if I had won 1.6- Modal Verbs
• • •
Can, Could, Be able to Have to, Must, Must not
can, shall, must...
Shall and Will 1.7- Gerunds (-ing) 1.8- Questions
Basic Question Structure Basic Question Types
fishing is fun I hate working Do you like me? Why do you like me? Do you like me or him? You like me, don't you?
1.9- Tag Questions 1.10- The English Subjunctive 1.11- Active Voice, Passive Voice He insists that he come Cats eat mice Mice are eaten by cats to do doing the board do the board does Am I being silly?
1.12- Infinitive or -ing? 1.13- Plural Verbs with Singular Subjects 1.14- Verb Meanings with Continuous Tenses
• • •
Verbs not Used with Continuous Tenses Verbs with Two Meanings Be and Continuous Tenses
1.15- Used to do & Be used to
Used to do
I used to do it I am not used to it I am going to do
Be used to 1.16- going to do 1.17- Future Time
• • •
Will: for no prior plan and prediction Going to: for intention and prediction Present Continuous: for prior plan
I will do I am going to do I am doing
Present Simple: for schedule
I do for two days since 1st April
Summary 1.18- For & Since for Time
1.1 What are Verbs?
The verb is king in English. The shortest sentence contains a verb. You can make a oneword sentence with a verb, for example: "Stop!" You cannot make a one-word sentence with any other type of word. Verbs are sometimes described as "action words". This is partly true. Many verbs give the idea of action, of "doing" something. For example, words like run, fight, do and work all convey action. But some verbs do not give the idea of action; they give the idea of existence, of state, of "being". For example, verbs like be, exist, seem and belong all convey state. A verb always has a subject. (In the sentence "John speaks English", John is the subject and speaks is the verb.) In simple terms, therefore, we can say that verbs are words that tell us what a subject does or is; they describe:
action (Ram plays football.) state (Anthony seems kind.)
There is something very special about verbs in English. Most other words (adjectives, adverbs, prepositions etc) do not change in form (although nouns can have singular and plural forms). But almost all verbs change in form. For example, the verb to work has five forms:
to work, work, works, worked, working
Of course, this is still very few forms compared to some languages which may have thirty or more forms for a single verb. In this lesson we look at the ways in which we classify verbs, followed by a quiz to test your understanding:
• • •
Verb Classification Helping Verbs Main Verbs
We divide verbs into two broad classifications:
1. Helping Verbs
Imagine that a stranger walks into your room and says:
• • •
I can. People must. The Earth will.
Do you understand anything? Has this person communicated anything to you? Probably not! That's because these verbs are helping verbs and have no meaning on their own. They are necessary for the grammatical structure of the sentence, but they do not tell us very much alone. We usually use helping verbs with main verbs. They "help" the main verb. (The sentences in the above examples are therefore incomplete. They need at least a main verb to complete them.) There are only about 15 helping verbs.
2. Main Verbs
Now imagine that the same stranger walks into your room and says:
• • •
I teach. People eat. The Earth rotates.
Do you understand anything? Has this person communicated something to you? Probably yes! Not a lot, but something. That's because these verbs are main verbs and have meaning on their own. They tell us something. Of course, there are thousands of main verbs. In the following table we see example sentences with helping verbs and main verbs. Notice that all of these sentences have a main verb. Only some of them have a helping verb. helping verb John main verb likes coffee.
We usually use helping verbs with main verbs. but they do not tell us very much alone.com Tip Helping verbs are also called "auxiliary verbs". do.) to ask questions (Do you want some coffee?) to show emphasis (I do want you to pass your exam. Note that we can use these three verbs as helping verbs or as main verbs. now. There are only about 15 helping verbs in English.) • have o to make perfect tenses (I have finished my homework. Helping Verbs EnglishClub. as we shall see on the following pages. happy. any. On this page we talk about them as helping verbs.) .) to make the passive (Small fish are eaten by big fish. Helping verbs have no meaning on their own. We use them in the following cases: • be o o to make continuous tenses (He is watching TV. and we divide them into two basic groups: Primary helping verbs (3 verbs) These are the verbs be. They are necessary for the grammatical structure of a sentence. and have. go want to me. They "help" the main verb (which has the real meaning).) • do o o o to make negatives (I do not like you. Helping verbs and main verbs can be further sub-divided.10 You They The children We I are must do not lied are playing.
and changes the main verb in that sense. and we can classify them in several ways: Transitive and intransitive verbs . might will. These are the modal verbs: • • • • • • can. EnglishClub.11 o to stand for a main verb in some constructions (He speaks faster than she does. should must ought to Here are examples using modal verbs: • • • • • I can't speak Chinese.com Tip Main verbs are also called "lexical verbs". shall.) Modal helping verbs (10 verbs) We use modal helping verbs to "modify" the meaning of the main verb in some way. could may. Main verbs have meaning on their own (unlike helping verbs). There are thousands of main verbs. John may arrive late. I really must go now.com Tip Semi-modal verbs (3 verbs) The following verbs are often called "semi-modals" because they they are partly like modal helping verbs and partly like main verbs: • need • dare • used to Main Verbs EnglishClub. A modal helping verb expresses necessity or possibility. Would you like a cup of coffee? You should see a doctor. would.
(bread > bad) Dynamic and stative verbs Some verbs describe action. fight. (mary = teacher) Tara is beautiful. Look at these examples: transitive: • • • I saw an elephant. He speaks English. Usually. (tara = beautiful) That sounds interesting. It "links" the subject to what is said about the subject. please. explode. (that = interesting) The sky became dark. • • • • • Mary is a teacher. Many verbs. We are watching TV. sound .12 A transitive verb takes a direct object: Somebody killed the President. Linking verbs are always intransitive (but not all intransitive verbs are linking verbs). wish impress. She speaks fast. can be transitive or intransitive. Other verbs describe state (non-action. (the sky > dark) The bread has gone bad. surprise hear. intransitive: • • • He has arrived. run. They are called "dynamic". dynamic verbs (examples): • hit. see. and can be used with continuous tenses. John goes to school. like speak. Linking verbs A linking verb does not have much meaning in itself. They are called "stative". a linking verb shows equality (=) or a change to a different state or place (>). and cannot normally be used with continuous tenses (though some of them can be used with continuous tenses with a change in meaning). love. go stative verbs (examples): • • • • be like. An intransitive verb does not have a direct object: He died. a situation). prefer.
include. worked. worked irregular verbs: base. the past tense ending and past participle ending is always the same: -ed. need appear. EnglishClub. regular verbs: base. past participle • • look. regular verbs change very little. worked. another verb could be regular. looked work. looked. . worked. consist of.com Tip One way to think of regular and irregular verbs is like this: all verbs are irregular and the so-called regular verbs are simply one very large group of irregular verbs. so it is necessary to learn them by heart. cut. bought. Regular Verbs Unlike English irregular verbs. For regular verbs. The only real difference between regular and irregular verbs is that they have different endings for their past tense and past participle forms. For example. done Here are lists of regular verbs and irregular verbs. transitive and dynamic. seem Regular and irregular verbs This is more a question of vocabulary than of grammar. did. For irregular verbs. Often the above divisions can be mixed. cut do. The past tense and past participle of regular verbs end in -ed. the past tense ending and the past participle ending is variable. transitive and stative. one verb could be irregular. past participle • • • buy. This is a list of 600 of the most common regular verbs in English. past tense. Please note the following points. past tense. resemble. contain.13 • • belong to. for example: work. bought cut.
learnt Some verbs change their meaning depending on whether they are regular verbs or irregular verbs. hung. for example to hang: to hang regular to hang irregular hang. the verb "to be". less when writing.. Base Form finish the past simple and past participle always end stop in -ed: work Past Simple finished stopped worked Past Participle finished stopped worked . for example: learn.14 Some verbs can be both regular and irregular. hanged.. hung to kill or die. is irregular. What is the difference between regular and irregular verbs? With regular verbs. the rule is simple. hanged hang. learned. the most famous English verb of all. a picture) at the top so that the lower part is free The present tense of some regular verbs is the same as the past tense of some irregular verbs: regular irregular found founded founded find found found Irregular Verbs Irregular verbs are an important feature of English. learned learn. The past simple and past participle end in -ed. by dropping with a rope around the neck to fix something (for example. Here are some examples of regular verbs: With REGULAR verbs. Of course. learnt. We use irregular verbs a lot when speaking.
.15 But with irregular verbs. as above. But when speaking. especially spoken English. For written and more formal English. Irregular verbs are very common in English. we tend to use regular verbs. we use irregular verbs a lot. there is no rule: With IRREGULAR verbs. sometimes the verb changes completely: sometimes there is "half" a change: sometimes there is no change: Base Form sing buy cut Past Simple sang bought cut Past Participle sung bought cut A good way to learn irregular verbs is to try to sort the different types into groups.. .
V1 infinitive regular irregular (to) work (to) sing base work sing V2 past simple worked sang V3 past participle worked sung present participle working singing present simple. In this lesson we look at the forms of main verbs and helping (auxiliary) verbs. For example. for example) have more than 30 forms for an individual verb. 5 or 6 forms.16 1. English tenses may be quite complicated. English main verbs have only 4.com Tip Main verbs are also called "lexical verbs". singing or sings. considering that some languages (French. sing. sung. Do not confuse verb forms with tenses. Not many. but they are not the same thing.2 Verb Forms English verbs come in several forms. To be has 9 forms. We use the different verb forms to make the tenses. This is a total of 6 forms. "To be" has 9 forms. 3rd person singular works Sings . followed by a quiz to check your understanding: • • • Forms of Main Verbs Forms of Main Verbs: Examples Forms of Helping Verbs Forms of Main Verbs EnglishClub. but the forms that we use to make the tenses are actually very simple! With the exception of the verb to be. English main verbs—except the verb "to be"—have only 4. sang. the verb to sing can be: to sing. 5 or 6 forms.
Forms of Main Verbs: Examples Infinitive • • I want to work He has to sing. Verb 2. being. . in many ways! At school. cut. "have" and "be" also function as helping or auxiliary verbs. V2. sung. have. sang. working. been. to sing and sing are both infinitives. works to sing has 6 forms: to sing. is. be. etc. sung. sings to be has 9 forms: to be. are. had. Verb 3) for the irregular verbs. are Note that the infinitive can be with or without to. was. go. work. The present participle is always made by adding "-ing" to the base. We often call the infinitive without to the "bare infinitive". were. worked. past simple and past participle (sometimes called V1. They do not learn the past participle and 3rd person singular present simple by heart—for another very simple reason: they never change. meaning Verb 1. They do not learn these for the regular verbs because the past simple and past participle are always the same: they are formed by adding "-ed" to the base.17 (to) make (to) cut make cut made cut did had past simple was. EnglishClub.com Tip The verb to be is always an exception. am. and the 3rd person singular present simple is always made by adding "s" to the base (though there are some variations in spelling). singing. students usually learn by heart the base. They may spend many hours chanting: sing. sang. with exactly the same forms (except that as helping verbs they are never in infinitive form). were made cut done had past participle been making cutting doing having present participle being makes cuts Does has present simple am. went. sing. gone. cuts to work has 5 forms: to work. cutting. For example. * Note that "do". had. is (to) do* do (to) have* have infinitive (to) be* In the above examples: • • • • base be to cut has 4 forms: to cut. V3.
After modal auxiliary verbs • • • • I can work tomorrow. I have never been so happy. Be quiet! Base . Base . You must sing louder. You could be right. or not to be. To be. You are being silly! . Have a nice day. Singing well is not easy. that is the question: Base . You sing well. It is done like this.Present simple (except 3rd person singular) • • • I work in London. he went home. He needs a folder made of plastic.Imperative • • • • Work well! Make this. They had a good time. They were surprised.18 • • • This exercise is easy to do. Past participle • • • • I have worked here for five years. Present participle • • • • I am working. but I was not. They might do it. Having finished. They have a lot of money. Past simple • • • • I worked yesterday. She cut his hair last week. Let him have one.
Forms of Helping Verbs EnglishClub.19 3rd person singular. Modal helping verbs. present simple • • • • He works in London. There are 2 groups of helping verbs: • • Tense helping verbs. used to change the tense of the main verb. used to change the "mood" of the main verb. All helping verbs are used with a main verb (either expressed or understood*). "be" and "have" as helping verbs have exactly the same forms as when they are main verbs (see forms of main verb above) (except that as helping verbs they are never used in infinitive forms). She has a lot of money. Modal helping verbs can may will shall must ought (to) Could Might Would Should Tense helping verbs Do Be Have (to make simple tenses) (to make continuous tenses) (to make perfect tenses) "Do". Modal helping verbs are invariable. It is Vietnamese. She sings well. Tense helping verbs are followed by the main verb "Ought" is followed by the main verb . They always have the same form.com Tip Helping verbs are also called "auxiliary verbs".
In fact. I can. I can". Other modal helping verbs are followed by the main verb in its base form (V1). * Sometimes we make a sentence that has a helping verb and seems to have no main verb. (The main verb speak is not expressed. It is "understood" from the context. (see forms of main verb above) Modal helping verbs cannot also function as main verbs. But if somebody walked into the room and said "Hello. (infinitive) other modals + V1 (base verb) "Do". we would understand nothing! . "be" and "have" can also function as main verbs...20 in a particular form(see forms of main verb above): • • • in infinitive form. • • do + V1 (base verb) be + -ing (present participle) have + V3 (past participle) ought + to.) Answer: Yes. the main verb is "understood". We understand: Yes. Look at the following examples: • • Question: Can you speak English? (The main verb speak is "expressed". I can speak English.
I am doing tomorrow I have done I have been doing Past Tenses Past Tense Past Continuous Tense Past Perfect Tense Past Perfect Continuous Tense I did do. In English. What is Tense? • Tense and Time The English Tense System • • • Regular Verbs Irregular Verbs Be Present Tenses Present Tense Present Continuous Tense Present Perfect Tense Present Perfect Continuous Tense I do do. I did I was doing I had done I had been doing . the concept of verb tenses is very important. verb tenses are not very important or do not even exist.21 1. I do I am doing.3 English Verb Tenses In some languages.
So. Tense is a method that we use in English to refer to time—past. Other languages have no tenses. of an action in relation to the time of speaking. Many languages use tenses to talk about time. (From Latin tempus = time). Mood indicative mood expresses a simple statement of fact. using different methods. which can be positive (affirmative) or negative • • I like coffee. But. but of course they can still talk about time. interrogative mood expresses a question • Why do you like coffee? imperative mood expresses a command • Sit down! subjunctive mood expresses what is imagined or wished or possible . it is not a tense) one tense does not always talk about one time (see tense and time for more about this) Terminology Here are some of the terms used in discussing verbs and tenses. and sometimes the continuation or completeness. and this is a very big but: • • we can also talk about time without using tenses (for example.22 Future Tenses Future Tense Future Continuous Tense Future Perfect Tense Future Perfect Continuous Tense I will do I will be doing I will have done I will have been doing What is Tense? tense (noun): a form of a verb used to indicate the time. present and future. I do not like coffee. we talk about time in English with tenses. going to is a special construction to talk about the future.
Among other things. such as completion or duration. using progressive [continuous] tenses.23 • The President ordered that he attend the meeting. a present tense does not always refer to present time: • I hope it rains tomorrow. Aspect Aspect expresses a feature of the action related to time. "had" is past simple but it refers here to present time (now) . In the passive voice. the subject does the action (cats eat mice). Voice Voice shows the relationship of the subject to the action. uncompleted). using perfect tenses.) the action or state referred to by the verb is in progress or continuing (that is. (This is called progressive aspect. for example: I have emailed the report to Jane. but it refers here to future time (tomorrow) Or a past tense does not always refer to past time: • If I had some money now. (so now she has the report) (This is called perfective aspect. I could buy it. For example. the subject receives the action (mice are eaten by cats).) • Tense and Time It is important not to confuse the name of a verb tense with the way we use it to talk about time. Present simple and past simple tenses have no aspect. but if we wish we can stress with other tenses that: • the action or state referred to by the verb is completed (and often still relevant). In the active voice. we can use voice to help us change the focus of attention. "rains" is present simple. for example: We are eating.
are living I have finished. Past Continuous Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Continuous Future Simple . I could not have agreed. she would marry you. If I had been working tomorrow. in London. I have been playing tennis. We had been working for 3 hours. If you came tomorrow. I'll do it now. I had not eaten for 24 hours.24 The following examples show how different tenses can be used to talk about different times. Hold on. I'll see you tomorrow. I am taking my exam next month. I would have missed you. We have been working for four hours. If she loved you now. Present Continuous They Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous I have seen ET. Past Simple I finished one hour ago. present I want a coffee. If I had been working now. I was working at 2am this morning. coffee. future I leave tomorrow. you would see her. TIME TENSE past Present Simple She likes I am having dinner.
25 Future Continuous I will be working at 9pm tonight. Future Perfect Simple Future Perfect Continuous English Tense System For past and present. we can add 4 "modal tenses" for the future (using modal auxiliary verbs will/shall). We will have been married for ten years next month. 24 Tenses simple tenses past past past perfect ACTIVE past continuous past perfect continuous past past perfect past continuous past perfect continuous present present present perfect present continuous present perfect continuous present present perfect present continuous present perfect continuous future future future perfect future continuous future perfect continuous future future perfect future continuous future perfect continuous complex tenses (formed with auxiliary verbs) PASSIVE . To these. They may be tired when you arrive because they will have been working. Another 12 tenses are available in the passive voice. I will have finished by 9pm tonight. So now we have 24 tenses. This makes a total of 12 tenses in the active voice. there are 2 simple tenses + 6 complex tenses (using auxiliary verbs). In 30 minutes. we will have been working for four hours.
Here are some more detailed examples covering affirmative. The examples are included here for convenience and comparison. but the structure of English tenses is actually very simple. (In the simple present and simple past tenses. but it can and does exist for intensification.) The following table shows the 12 tenses for the verb to work in the active voice. The use of tenses in English may be quite complicated.com Tip Some grammar books use the word progressive instead of continuous. there are no future tenses in English. The word will is a modal auxiliary verb and future tenses are sometimes called "modal tenses". They are exactly the same. the auxiliary verb is usually suppressed for the affirmative. negative and interrogative with: • a regular verb .26 so-called "modal tenses" englishclub. The basic structure for a positive sentence is: subject + auxiliary verb + main verb An auxiliary verb is used in all tenses. structure past auxiliary normal simple intensive perfect do have base past participle present participle -ing present participle -ing I did work I had worked I was working I had been working I do work I have worked I am working I have been working I will have worked I will be working I will have been working main verb I worked I work I will work present future* continuous be continuous perfect have been * Technically.
I will not work. It includes the affirmative or positive form (+). Had I worked? SIMPLE PERFECT have + past participle ? . Do I work? I have worked. I worked. I had not worked. I work. I will not have worked.27 • • an irregular verb the irregular verb "to be" English Tense System: regular verbs This page shows an example of the basic English tense system with the regular verb to work. the negative form (-) and the interrogative or question form (?). Did I work? I had worked. The basic structure is: + positive: subject + auxiliary verb + main verb . I did not work. I do not work. I have not worked. Have I worked? future I will work.negative: subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb ? question: auxiliary verb + subject + main verb These are the various forms of the main verb that we use to construct the various tenses: work worked worked past participle working present participle -ing base verb past Tenses past present I do work. Will I work? I will have worked. Will I have worked? SIMPLE do + base verb (except future: will + base verb) + ? + I did work.
negative: subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb ? question: auxiliary verb + subject + main verb These are the various forms of the main verb that we use to construct the various tenses: sing sang sung past participle singing present participle -ing base verb past Tenses SIMPLE past present I do sing. Was I working? I had been working. Have I been working? I will be working. I was not working. I had not been working.28 CONTINUOUS be + ing + ? + I was working. the negative form (-) and the interrogative or question form (?). Will I be working? I will have been working. It includes the affirmative or positive form (+). I will not have been working. I will not be working. Had I been working? I am working I am not working? Am I working? I have been working. The basic structure is: + positive: subject + auxiliary verb + main verb . I have not been working. + I did sing. . future I will sing. Will I have been working? CONTINUOUS PERFECT have been + ing ? English Tense System: irregular verbs This page shows an example of the basic English tense system with the irregular verb to sing.
Was I singing? I had been singing.com Tip The basic structure of tenses for regular verbs and irregular verbs is exactly the same (except to be). Had I been singing? SIMPLE PERFECT have + past participle ? + CONTINUOUS be + -ing ? CONTINUOUS PERFECT have been + -ing + ? englishclub. I do not sing. I have not been singing. while with irregular verbs the past and past participle are not always the same (sang. worked). The only difference is that with regular verbs the past and past participle are always the same (worked. Will I be singing? I will have been singing. sung). Had I sung? I was singing. Do I sing? I have sung. Will I have been singing? ? + I did not sing. Am I singing? I have been singing. I will not have sung. I had not been singing. Will I sing? I will have sung. Did I sing? I had sung. Have I been singing? I will not sing. I was not singing. I will not be singing.29 do + base verb (except future: will + base verb) I sang. Have I sung? I am singing I am not singing. But the structure is the same! It will help you a great deal to really understand that. I had not sung. I will not have been singing. Will I have sung? I will be singing. . I have not sung. I sing.
"To be" is an exceptional verb. the basic structure for to be is the same as for all verbs: + positive: subject + auxiliary verb + main verb . It includes the affirmative or positive form (+). in various ways. + ? + I was I was not Was I? I had been. were been past participle being present participle am. the negative form (-) and the interrogative or question form (?). the structure is not the same. In fact. Here is the structure: + positive: subject + main verb .negative: subject + main verb + not ? question: main verb + subject These are the various forms of the main verb that we use to construct the various tenses: be was.negative: subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb ? question: auxiliary verb + subject + main verb Exception! For simple past and simple present tenses.30 English Tense System: to be This page shows the tense system for the irregular verb to be. it's even easier! There is no auxiliary verb. So we cannot expect "to be" to have exactly the same structure as other verbs! However. SIMPLE PERFECT . future I will be I will not be Will I be? I will have been. are. It is always different from other verbs. is present simple base past simple Tenses SIMPLE present simple or past simple (except future: will + base verb) past present I am I am not Am I? I have been.
they) for the 12 tenses.31 have + past participle I had not been. Have I been? I am being I am not being. Have I been being? I will not have been. I will not have been being. I had not been being. I have not been being. you. I was not being. Was I being? I had been being. Had I been being? I have not been. you. Will I have been being? ? + CONTINUOUS be + -ing ? CONTINUOUS PERFECT have been + -ing + ? In the following table. we see to be conjugated with all persons in the singular (I. Had I been? I was being. I will not be being. Will I have been? I will be being. he/she/it) and in the plural (we. SIMPLE I singular you he/she/it we plural you they PERFECT singular I past was were was were were were past had been present am are is are are are present have been future will be will be will be will be will be will be future will have been . Am I being? I have been being. Will I be being? I will have been being.
32 you he/she/it we plural you they CONTINUOUS I singular you he/she/it we plural you they CONTINUOUS PERFECT I singular you he/she/it we plural you they had been had been had been had been had been past was being were being was being were being were being were being past had been being had been being had been being had been being had been being had been being have been has been have been have been have been present am being are being is being are being are being are being present have been being have been being has been being have been being have been being have been being will have been will have been will have been will have been will have been future will be being will be being will be being will be being will be being will be being future will have been being will have been being will have been being will have been being will have been being will have been being Simple Present Tense I sing How do we make the Simple Present Tense? subject + auxiliary verb + main verb .
it I ? You. she. it I. Look at these examples with the main verb like: subject auxiliary verb main verb like likes not like not like like like coffee. For the verb to be. we. they He. they He. she. she. French. she. they do He. Notice that there is no auxiliary: subject I main verb am are is am are is I you. coffee? coffee? base + ? I. we. it Am Are . 2. we. French. old. you. she. we. coffee. For positive sentences. they he. late? late? + You. you. you. it Look at these examples with the main verb be. coffee. they not not not French. it Do Does does I. 3. old. they He. we add s to the main verb or es to the auxiliary. we do not normally use the auxiliary. we. coffee. she. even for questions and negatives.33 do There are three important exceptions: 1. we do not use an auxiliary. old. it). For the 3rd person singular (he. we.
some of them are now: Am I right? Tara is not at home. in the past. present and future. He does it every day. We do not work at night. John drives a taxi. past present future It is John's job to drive a taxi. The Moon goes round the Earth. Do you play football? Note that with the verb to be. Look at these examples: • • • • • • I live in New York. He does not drive a bus. present and future the action is not only happening now the statement is always true John drives a taxi. or habitually. Look at these examples of the verb to be in the present simple tense—some of them are general. we can also use the simple present tense for situations that are not general. Past. she.34 Is he. You are happy. We can use the simple present tense to talk about now. past present future . it late? How do we use the Simple Present Tense? We use the simple present tense when: • • • • the action is general the action happens all the time.
So the present progressive tense is the same as the present continuous tense.com Tip This page shows the use of the simple present tense to talk about general events.35 The situation is now. Why are you so beautiful? Ram is tall. But note that there are some other uses for the simple present tense. present and future. or to talk about the future. You will learn about those later. follwed by a quiz to check your understanding: • • • Structure: how do we make the present continuous tense? Use: when and why do we use the present continuous tense? Spelling: how do we spell verbs with -ing for the present continuous tense? EnglishClub. past present future The situation is general. Past. How do we make the Present Continuous? .com Tip Continuous tenses are also called progressive tenses. for example in conditional or if sentences. I am not fat. EnglishClub. In this lesson we look the structure and use of the present continuous tense. It is very different from the simple present tense. Present Continuous Tense I am singing We often use the present continuous tense in English. both in structure and in use.
36 The structure of the present continuous tense is: subject + auxiliary verb + main verb be Look at these examples: subject auxiliary verb am are is are he they not not main verb speaking reading staying playing watching waiting to you. football. this. TV? for John? base + ing + + ? ? I You She We Is Are How do we use the Present Continuous? We use the present continuous tense to talk about: • • action happening now action in the future Present continuous tense for action happening now a) for action happening exactly now I am eating my lunch. past present future The action is happening . in London.
for example. . but it is happening just before and just after now. past present future The action is happening around now.. We only use the present continuous tense to talk about the future when we have planned to do something before we speak. .. b) for action happening around now The action may not be happening exactly now. at Christmas etc. past present future !!! .. We have already made a decision and a plan before speaking.the candle is burning. .the numbers are spinning. next year.. I am taking my exam next month. Right now you are looking at this screen and at the same time. John is going out with Mary.the pages are turning.37 now. "Future words" include. Present continuous tense for the future We can also use the present continuous tense to talk about the future—if we add a future word!! We must add (or understand from the context) a future word. in June. Look at these examples. tomorrow.. Look at these examples: • • Muriel is learning to drive... and it is not permanent or habitual.. I am living with my sister until I find an apartment.
. e. o. How do we spell the Present Continuous? We make the present continuous tense by adding -ing to the base verb. double the last letter: s (vowels = a. Here are the rules to help you know how to spell the present continuous tense.38 A firm plan or programme exists now. or we drop a letter. Basic rule Just add -ing to the base verb: work play assist see be Exception 1 > > > > > working playing assisting seeing being If the base verb ends in consonant + stressed vowel + consonant. Look at these examples: • • • The action is in the future. We're eating in a restaurant tonight. They're not working. we have a firm plan or programme before speaking. We've already booked the table. When are you starting your new job? In these examples. But sometimes we have to change the word a little. Normally it's simple—we just add -ing. i. They can play tennis with you tomorrow. Perhaps we double the last letter. The decision and plan were made before speaking. u) stop run begin t consonant > > > o stressed vowel stopping running beginning p consonant .
Note that this exception does not apply when the last syllable of the base verb is not stressed: open Exception 2 > opening
If the base verb ends in ie, change the ie to y: lie die > > lying dying
If the base verb ends in vowel + consonant + e, omit the e: come mistake > > coming mistaking
Present Perfect Tense
I have sung The present perfect tense is a rather important tense in English, but it gives speakers of some languages a difficult time. That is because it uses concepts or ideas that do not exist in those languages. In fact, the structure of the present perfect tense is very simple. The problems come with the use of the tense. In addition, there are some differences in usage between British and American English. In this lesson we look at the structure and use of the present perfect, followed by a quiz to check your understanding:
• • •
Structure: how to make the present perfect tense Use: when and why to use the present perfect tense For and Since with the present perfect tense. What's the difference?
EnglishClub.com Tip The present perfect tense is really a very interesting tense, and a very useful one. Try not to translate the present perfect tense into your language. Just try to accept the concepts of this tense and learn to "think" present perfect! You will soon learn to like the present perfect tense!
How do we make the Present Perfect Tense?
The structure of the present perfect tense is:
subject + auxiliary verb + main verb
have past participle Here are some examples of the present perfect tense: subject auxiliary verb have have has have you they not not main verb seen eaten been not played finished? done it? ET. mine. to Rome. football.
+ + ? ?
I You She We Have Have
Contractions with the present perfect tense
When we use the present perfect tense in speaking, we usually contract the subject and auxiliary verb. We also sometimes do this when we write. I have You have He has She has It has John has I've You've He's She's It's John's
The car has We have They have
The car's We've They've
Here are some examples:
• • •
I've finished my work. John's seen ET. They've gone home.
EnglishClub.com Tip He's or he's??? Be careful! The 's contraction is used for the auxiliary verbs have and be. For example, "It's eaten" can mean: • It has eaten. [present perfect tense, active voice] • It is eaten. [present tense, passive voice] It is usually clear from the context.
How do we use the Present Perfect Tense?
This tense is called the present perfect tense. There is always a connection with the past and with the present. There are basically three uses for the present perfect tense: 1. experience 2. change 3. continuing situation
1. Present perfect tense for experience
We often use the present perfect tense to talk about experience from the past. We are not interested in when you did something. We only want to know if you did it:
I have seen ET. He has lived in Bangkok. Have you been there?
+ Now I have a car. 2. I have a memory of the event. Now he has a bad leg. Connection with past: the event was in the past. Has the price gone up? past present future . past present future !!! The action or state was in the past. I know something about the event. John has broken his leg. I have experience of it. past present future Last week I didn't have a car. Present perfect tense for change We also use the present perfect tense to talk about a change or new information: I have bought a car. past present future + Yesterday John had a good leg.42 We have never eaten caviar. now. Connection with present: in my head. I have a memory now. In my head.
Connection with present: the situation continues in the present. How long have you known Tara? past present future The situation started in the past. This is a state that started in the past and continues in the present (and will probably continue into the future). past present future Yesterday the killer was free.com Tip Americans do not use the present perfect tense so much as British speakers.70 today? The police have arrested the killer. where a British person would say "Have you had lunch?" 3. + Now he is in prison.50 yesterday? Is the price $1. This is a state (not an action). Connection with past: the past is the opposite of the present. EnglishClub.43 + Was the price $1. (It will probably continue into the future. . We usually use for or since with this structure. Connection with present: the present is the opposite of the past. Americans often use the past tense instead.) Connection with past: the situation started in the past. Present perfect tense for continuing situation We often use the present perfect tense to talk about a continuing situation. It continues up to now. I have worked here since June. He has been ill for 2 days. An American might say "Did you have lunch?".
. for a period of time since a point in past time · 20 minutes three days 6 months 4 years 2 centuries a long time ever etc Here are some examples: • • • • • • 6.com Tip For can be used with all tenses. 1st January. He has worked in New York for a long time.15pm Monday January 1994 1800 I left school the beginning of time etc I have been here for 20 minutes. 6 years. We use since to talk about a point in past time—9 o'clock. • • We use for to talk about a period of time—5 minutes.44 For & Since with Present Perfect We often use for and since with the present perfect tense. I have been here since 9 o'clock. Monday. John hasn't called for 6 months. EnglishClub. 2 weeks. John hasn't called since February. He has worked in New York since he left school. Since is usually used with perfect tenses only.
I have been You have been He has been I've been You've been He's been . playing seeing doing football.45 Present Perfect Continuous Tense I have been singing How do we make the Present Perfect Continuous Tense? The structure of the present perfect continuous tense is: subject + auxiliary verb + auxiliary verb + main verb have has been base + ing Here are some examples of the present perfect continuous tense: subject auxiliary verb have have has have you they not not auxiliary verb been been been been been been main verb waiting talking raining. + + ? ? I You It We Have Have Contractions When we use the present perfect continuous tense in speaking. We also sometimes do this in informal writing. we often contract the subject and the first auxiliary. too much. her? their homework? for one hour.
46 She has been It has been John has been The car has been We have been They have been She's been It's been John's been The car's been We've been They've been Here are some examples: • • • I've been reading. The car's been giving trouble. I'm tired [now] because I've been running. past present future !!! Recent action. • • • Result now. 2. An action that has just stopped or recently stopped We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in the past and stopped recently. I'm tired because I've been running. . An action continuing up to now We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in the past and is continuing now. There is usually a connection with the present or now. There are basically two uses for the present perfect continuous tense: 1. How do we use the Present Perfect Continuous Tense? This tense is called the present perfect continuous tense. There is usually a result now. We've been playing tennis for two hours. Why is the grass wet [now]? Has it been raining? You don't understand [now] because you haven't been listening. This is often used with for or since.
[And we are not smoking now. I have been reading for 2 hours. We use since to talk about a point in past time—9 o'clock. [We're still studying now. 1st January.15pm Monday January 1994 1800 I left school the beginning of time etc . 2 weeks.] We've been studying since 9 o'clock. Monday.] We have not been smoking. past present future Action started in past.] How long have you been learning English? [You are still learning now. 6 years. [I am still reading now.47 I have been reading for 2 hours.] For and Since with Present Perfect Continuous Tense We often use for and since with the present perfect tense. • • • • Action is continuing now. for a period of time since a point in past time · 20 minutes three days 6 months 4 years 2 centuries a long time ever etc 6. • • We use for to talk about a period of time—5 minutes.
Since is usually used with perfect tenses only. In this lesson we look at the structure and use of the simple past tense. We can use several tenses to talk about the past. Simple Past Tense I sang The simple past tense is sometimes called the preterite tense.com Tip For can be used with all tenses. we use: • past form only or . He has been living in Bangkok since he left school.48 Here are some examples: • • • • • • I have been studying for 3 hours. but the simple past tense is the one we use most often. Tara hasn't been visiting us since March. Tara hasn't been feeling well for 2 weeks. EnglishClub. I have been watching TV since 7pm. He has been playing football for a long time. followed by a quiz to check your understanding: • • Structure: how do we make the simple past tense? Use: how do we use the simple past tense? How do we make the Simple Past? To make the simple past tense.
It is the same for all persons (I did. he did etc). It is shown here for completeness only.49 • auxiliary did + base form Here you can see examples of the past form and base form for irregular verbs and regular verbs: V1 base regular verb V2 past V3 past participle worked exploded liked gone seen sung You do not need the past participle form to make the simple past tense. work worked explode exploded like liked go see sing went saw sang irregular verb The structure for positive sentences in the simple past tense is: subject + main verb past The structure for negative sentences in the simple past tense is: subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb did base The structure for question sentences in the simple past tense is: auxiliary verb + subject + main verb did base The auxiliary verb did is not conjugated. You need to learn it by heart. you did. The past form for all regular verbs ends in -ed. Look at these examples with the main verbs go and work: . The past form for irregular verbs is variable. And the base form and past form do not change.
we. to London? at home? + ? I You She We Did Did did did you they not not go work go work Exception! The verb to be is different. right? late? + ? I. Here are some short events with the simple past tense: The car exploded at 9. happy. The event can be short or long. and we do not use an auxiliary for negative and question sentences. he/she/it You.30am yesterday. there. we exchange the subject and verb. We conjugate the verb to be (I was. She went to the door. very hard. yesterday. he/she/it You. they Was Were How do we use the Simple Past? We use the simple past tense to talk about an action or a situation—an event—in the past. Look at these examples: subject main verb was were was were I. he/she/it was. we.50 subject auxiliary verb main verb went worked to school. we. they not not here. they were). you were. . To make a question. with me. in London. we were. they I. he/she/it you.
Notice that it does not matter how long ago the event is: it can be a few minutes or seconds in the past. Did you see that car? past present future The action is in the past.com Tip In general. . Did you watch TV last night? past present future The action is in the past. Here are some more examples: • • • • • I lived in that house when I was young. or millions of years in the past. He didn't like the movie. It can be a few milliseconds (car explosion) or millions of years (Jurassic period). Here are some long events with the simple past tense: I lived in Bangkok for 10 years. we cannot use the present perfect.51 We did not hear the telephone. Also it does not matter how long the event is. if we say the time or place of the event. Mary did not go to work yesterday. We did not sing at the concert. What did you eat for dinner? John drove to London on Monday. we must use the simple past tense. We use the simple past tense when: • • • the event is in the past the event is completely finished we say (or understand) the time and/or place of the event EnglishClub. The Jurassic period lasted about 62 million years.
for example in conditional or if sentences.. and ordered a drink at the bar. He sat down in the corner of the lounge and quietly drank his. We were not late (for the train). It was cold.com Tip Continuous tenses are also called progressive tenses. . The past continuous tense is an important tense in English. which was very wet. He took off his coat.. We may use the past continuous tense to "set the scene". In this lesson we look at: • • Structure: how do we make the past continuous tense? Use: how do we use the past continuous tense? o Past continuous tense + simple past tense englishclub. Look at this example of the beginning of a story: "The wind was howling around the hotel and the rain was pouring down. Past Continuous Tense I was singing.com Tip This page shows the use of the simple past tense to talk about past events." EnglishClub. But note there are some other uses for the simple past tense. We use it to say what we were in the middle of doing at a particular moment in the past. we usually use the simple past tense. The door opened and James Bond entered.52 • • • • Did you play tennis last week? I was at work yesterday. but we almost always use the simple past tense for the action. Were you angry? Note that when we tell a story.
How do we make the Past Continuous Tense?
The structure of the past continuous tense is:
auxiliary verb BE
conjugated in simple past tense was were
present participle base + ing
For negative sentences in the past continuous tense, we insert not between the auxiliary verb and main verb. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and auxiliary verb. Look at these example sentences with the past continuous tense: subject auxiliary verb was were was were you they not not main verb watching working helping joking. being playing silly? football? TV. hard. Mary.
+ + ? ?
I You He, she, it We Were Were
english club.com Tip The spelling rules for adding ing to make the past continuous tense are the same as for the present continuous tense.
How do we use the Past Continuous Tense?
The past continuous tense expresses action at a particular moment in the past. The action started before that moment but has not finished at that moment. For example, yesterday I watched a film on TV. The film started at 7pm and finished at 9pm.
At 8pm yesterday, I was watching TV.
past 8pm At 8pm, I was in the middle of watching TV. When we use the past continuous tense, our listener usually knows or understands what time we are talking about. Look at these examples:
• • • • • • •
I was working at 10pm last night. They were not playing football at 9am this morning. What were you doing at 10pm last night? What were you doing when he arrived? She was cooking when I telephoned her. We were having dinner when it started to rain. Ram went home early because it was snowing.
english club.com Tip Some verbs cannot be used (document break – refer to “verb meanings with continuous tenses”) in continuous/progressive tenses.
We often use the past continuous tense to "set the scene" in stories. We use it to describe the background situation at the moment when the action begins. Often, the story starts with the past continuous tense and then moves into the simple past tense. Here is an example: " James Bond was driving through town. It was raining. The wind was blowing hard. Nobody was walking in the streets. Suddenly, Bond saw the killer in a telephone box..."
Past Continuous Tense + Simple Past Tense
55 We often use the past continuous tense with the simple past tense. We use the past continuous tense to express a long action. And we use the simple past tense to express a short action that happens in the middle of the long action. We can join the two ideas with when or while. In the following example, we have two actions: 1. long action (watching TV), expressed with past continuous tense 2. short action (telephoned), expressed with simple past tense past Long action. I was watching TV at 8pm. 8pm You telephoned at 8pm. Short action. We can join these two actions with when:
I was watching TV when you telephoned.
(Notice that "when you telephoned" is also a way of defining the time [8pm].) We use:
when + short action (simple past tense) while + long action (past continuous tense)
There are four basic combinations: I was walking past the car When the car exploded The car exploded While I was walking past the car while when it exploded. I was walking past it. I was walking past it. it exploded.
Notice that the long action and short action are relative.
Look at these example sentences with the past perfect tense: subject auxiliary verb had had had had not not main verb finished stopped gone left. The past perfect tense is quite an easy tense to understand and to use. In this lesson we look at: • • Structure: how do we make the past perfect tense? Use: how do we use the past perfect tense? How do we make the Past Perfect Tense? The structure of the past perfect tense is: subject + auxiliary verb HAVE + main verb conjugated in simple past tense had past participle V3 For negative sentences in the past perfect tense. Past Perfect Tense I had sung. we insert not between the auxiliary verb and main verb. my work. "Telephoned" took a few seconds. to school. we exchange the subject and auxiliary verb. before me. This tense talks about the "past in the past". + + - I You She We . "Walking past the car" took a few seconds. For question sentences.56 • • "Watching TV" took a few hours. "Exploded" took a few milliseconds.
How do we use the Past Perfect Tense? The past perfect tense expresses action in the past before another action in the past. we'd can mean: • • We had or We would But usually the main verb is in a different form. For example. the train had left. we often contract the subject and auxiliary verb: I had you had he had she had it had we had they had I'd you'd he'd she'd it'd we'd they'd englishclub.com Tip The 'd contraction is also used for the auxiliary verb would. This is the past in the past. We arrived at 9. for example: • • We had arrived (past participle) We would arrive (base) It is always clear from the context. For example: • The train left at 9am.15am.57 ? ? Had Had you they arrived? eaten dinner? When speaking with the past perfect tense. . When we arrived.
past perfect tense had | done | >| past now future present perfect tense have | done | >| past now future For example. They had not eaten for five hours. Look at some more examples: • • • • I wasn't hungry. The stationmaster says to you: • "You are too late. you tell your friends: • "We were too late. told. wondered: Look at these examples: . past Train leaves in past at 9am. I had just eaten. imagine that you arrive at the station at 9.15am. but instead of the time being now the time is past. They were hungry. I had never seen him before. The train has left." We often use the past perfect tense in reported speech after verbs like said.1 5 present future We arrive in past at 9. thought. "Mary wasn't at home when I arrived.58 The train had left when we arrived. 9 9. The train had left. I didn't know who he was." Later. asked.15am." "Really? Where had she gone?" You can sometimes think of the past perfect tense like the present perfect tense.
+ + ? I You It We Had . Past Perfect Continuous Tense I had been singing. we exchange the subject and first auxiliary verb. I thought I had met her before. playing working expecting drinking? tennis. we insert not after the first auxiliary verb. For question sentences. How do we make the Past Perfect Continuous Tense? The structure of the past perfect continuous tense is: subject + auxiliary verb HAVE conjugated in simple past tense had + auxiliary verb BE past participle been + main verb present participle base + ing For negative sentences in the past perfect continuous tense. I wondered if I had been there before. Look at these example sentences with the past perfect continuous tense: subject auxiliary verb had had had had you not not auxiliary verb been been been been been main verb working. well.59 • • • • • He told us that the train had left. her. He explained that he had closed the window because of the rain. I asked them why they had not finished. but I was wrong.
Somebody had been smoking. but it expresses longer actions in the past before another action in the past. I was not surprised. Here are some more examples: • • • present future John was very tired. my car broke down. Ram had been waiting for two hours. I could smell cigarettes. I arrived at 11am. Suddenly. past Ram starts waiting in past at 9am. He had been running. we often contract the subject and first auxiliary verb: I had been you had been he had she had been it had been we had been I'd been you'd been he'd been she'd been it'd been we'd been they had been they'd been How do we use the Past Perfect Continuous Tense? The past perfect continuous tense is like the past perfect tense. . 9 11 I arrive in past at 11am. It had not been running well for a long time. Ram had been waiting for two hours when I arrived. When I arrived.60 ? Had they been waiting long? When speaking with the past perfect continuous tense. For example: • Ram started waiting at 9am.
For question sentences. The simple future tense is often called will. Look at these example sentences with the simple future tense: . past perfect continuous tense had | | been | | doing | | >>>> | | past now future present perfect continuous tense | have | | been | | doing | | >>>> | past now future For example. imagine that you meet Ram at 11am. because we make the simple future tense with the modal auxiliary will. but instead of the time being now the time is past." Later." Simple Future Tense I will sing. I have been waiting for two hours. you tell your friends: • "Ram was angry. Ram says to you: • "I am angry. He had been waiting for two hours. we insert not between the auxiliary verb and main verb. we exchange the subject and auxiliary verb.61 • Had the pilot been drinking before the crash? You can sometimes think of the past perfect continuous tense like the present perfect continuous tense. How do we make the Simple Future Tense? The structure of the simple future tense is: subject + auxiliary verb WILL + main verb invariable will base V1 For negative sentences in the simple future tense.
62 subject auxiliary verb will will will will you they not not main verb open finish be leave arrive want the door. like this: I will not you will not he will not she will not it will not we will not I won't you won't he won't she won't it won't we won't . at school tomorrow. we often contract the subject and auxiliary verb: I will you will he will she will it will we will they will I'll you'll he'll she'll it'll we'll they'll For negative sentences in the simple future tense. on time? dinner? + + ? ? I You She We Will Will When we use the simple future tense in speaking. yet. before me. we contract with won't.
We will see what we can do to help you. Will you be at work tomorrow? english club. I think I will have a holiday next year. We often use the simple future tense with the verb to think before it: • • • I think I'll go to the gym tomorrow. there is no firm plan. Look at these examples: • • • Hold on.63 they will not they won't How do we use the Simple Future Tense? Simple future tense for No Plan We use the simple future tense when there is no plan or decision to do something before we speak. I'm going shopping. Examples: • • • I'll be in London tomorrow.com Tip Note that when we have a plan or intention to do something in the future. such as the present continuous tense or going to. People won't go to Jupiter before the 22nd century. We are saying what we think will happen. Maybe we'll stay in and watch television tonight. Here are some examples: • • • It will rain tomorrow. I don't think I'll buy that car. I won't be very long. We make the decision spontaneously at the time of speaking. we had no firm plan before speaking. I'll get a pen. we usually use other tenses or expressions. Again. Who do you think will get the job? Simple future tense with BE When the main verb is be. The decision is made at the time of speaking. we can use the simple future tense even if we have a firm plan or decision before speaking. . Simple future tense for Prediction We often use the simple future tense to make a prediction about the future. In these examples.
on a beach tomorrow. we exchange the subject and will. we often contract the subject and will: I will I'll . the car. For question sentences. we insert not between will and be. How do we make the Future Continuous Tense? The structure of the future continuous tense is: subject + auxiliary verb auxiliary verb + + WILL BE invariable will invariable be main verb present participle base + ing For negative sentences in the future continuous tense. football? TV? + + ? ? I You She We Will Will When we use the future continuous tense in speaking. dinner at home. Look at these example sentences with the future continuous tense: subject auxiliary verb will will will will you they not not auxiliary verb main verb be be be be be be working lying using having playing watching at 10am.64 Future Continuous Tense I will be singing.
tomorrow I will start work at 2pm and stop work at 6pm: At 4pm tomorrow. For example.65 you will he will she will it will we will they will you'll he'll she'll it'll we'll they'll For spoken negative sentences in the future continuous tense. The action will start before that moment but it will not have finished at that moment. I will be working. past present future 4pm At 4pm. I will be in the middle of working.com Tip We sometimes use shall instead of will. . especially for I and we. we contract with won't. like this: I will not you will not he will not she will not it will not we will not they will not I won't you won't he won't she won't it won't we won't they won't english club. How do we use the Future Continuous Tense? The future continuous tense expresses action at a particular moment in the future.
to school. It will be raining when you return. We 'll be having dinner when the film starts. The future perfect tense is quite an easy tense to understand and use. our listener usually knows or understands what time we are talking about. Future Perfect Tense I will have sung. The future perfect tense talks about the past in the future. They won't be watching TV at 9pm tonight. Take your umbrella. What will you be doing at 10pm tonight? What will you be doing when I arrive? She will not be sleeping when you telephone her. How do we make the Future Perfect Tense? The structure of the future perfect tense is: subject + auxiliary verb auxiliary verb + + WILL HAVE invariable will invariable have main verb past participle V3 Look at these example sentences in the future perfect tense: subject auxiliary verb will will will not auxiliary verb have have have main verb finished forgotten gone by 10am. + + - I You She . Look at these examples: • • • • • • • I will be playing tennis at 10am tomorrow. me by then.66 When we use the future continuous tense.
past present future Train leaves in future at 9am. especially for I and we. When you arrive.1 5 . the train will have left. You will arrive at the station at 9. How do we use the Future Perfect Tense? The future perfect tense expresses action in the future before another action in the future. For example: • The train will leave the station at 9am. arrived? received it? In speaking with the future perfect tense.67 ? ? We Will Will will you they not have have have left. This is the past in the future. The train will have left when you arrive.com Tip We sometimes use shall instead of will. Sometimes. we often contract the subject and will. will and have all together: I will have you will have he will have she will have it will have we will have they will have I'll have you'll have he'll have she'll have it'll have we'll have I'll've you'll've he'll've she'll've it'll've we'll've they'll have they'll've english club.15am. we contract the subject. 9 9.
"Mary won't be at home when you arrive." "Really? Where will she have gone?" You can sometimes think of the future perfect tense like the present perfect tense. I will have arrived at the office by 8. but instead of your viewpoint being in the present. Look at some more examples: • • • You can call me at work at 8am.68 You arrive in future at 9. They will be tired when they arrive. How do we make the Future Perfect Continuous Tense? The structure of the future perfect continuous tense is: auxiliary auxiliary auxiliary subject + verb + verb + + verb BE WILL HAVE invariable will invariable have past participle been main verb present participle base + ing . They will not have slept for a long time. it is in the future: present perfect tense | have | done | >| past now future past now future perfect tense will | have | done | >| future Future Perfect Continuous Tense I will have been singing.15am.
football? TV? + + ? ? I You She We Will Will When we use the future perfect continuous tense in speaking. we contract with won't.69 For negative sentences in the future perfect continuous tense. we often contract the subject and auxiliary verb: I will you will he will she will it will we will they will I'll you'll he'll she'll it'll we'll they'll For negative sentences in the future perfect continuous tense. like this: . we exchange the subject and will. the car. we insert not between will and have. for two days. long. Look at these example sentences with the future perfect continuous tense: subject auxiliary verb will will will will you they not not auxiliary verb have have have have have have auxiliary verb been been been been been been main verb working travelling using waiting playing watching for four hours. For question sentences.
Look at these examples: • • I will have been working here for ten years next week. He will be tired when he arrives. . He will have been travelling for 24 hours.70 I will not you will not he will not she will not it will not we will not they will not I won't you won't he won't she won't it won't we won't they won't How do we use the Future Perfect Continuous Tense? We use the future perfect continuous tense to talk about a long action before some point in the future.
especially in spoken English. many people refer to all multi-word verbs as phrasal verbs. A multiword verb is a verb like "pick up". Look at these examples. are very common. The two or three words that make up multi-word verbs form a short "phrase"—which is why these verbs are often all called "phrasal verbs". So you should treat each multi-word verb as a separate verb. "Get" and "get up" are two different verbs. The important thing to remember is that a multi-word verb is still a verb. including phrasal verbs. "Get up". For convenience. a different verb. Phrasal verbs and other multi-word verbs are an important part of the English language. These verbs consist of a basic verb + another word or words. including phrasal verbs. They do not have the same meaning. "turn on" or "get on with". You can see that there are three types of multi-word verb: single-word verb multiword verbs prepositional verbs phrasal verbs look look after look up direct your eyes in a certain direction take care of search for and find information in a reference book anticipate with pleasure You must look before you leap. "Get" is a verb.4 Phrasal Verbs and other multi-word verbs Phrasal verbs are part of a large group of verbs called "multi-word verbs". phrasalprepositional verbs look forward to In this lesson we look at the three types of multi-word verbs. The other word(s) can be prepositions and/or adverbs.71 1. Multi-word verbs. and learn it like any other verb. Who is looking after the baby? You can look up my number in the telephone directory. followed by a quiz to check your understanding: • • Phrasal Verbs Prepositional Verbs . is also a verb. I look forward to meeting you.
call all multi-word verbs "phrasal verbs".com Tip Like many grammar books.72 • Phrasal-prepositional Verbs EnglishClub. On these pages we make a distinction between three types of multi-word verbs: prepositional verbs. He was late because his car broke down. my offer. however. Phrasal verbs are made of: verb + adverb Phrasal verbs can be: • • intransitive (no direct object) transitive (direct object) Here are some examples of phrasal verbs: examples phrasal verbs get up break down put off turn down meaning direct object I don't like to get up. We will have to put off They turned down the meeting. intransitive phrasal verbs transitive phrasal verbs rise from bed cease to function postpone refuse Separable Phrasal Verbs . On this page we look at phrasal verbs proper. Many people refer to all multi-word verbs as phrasal verbs. Phrasal Verbs Phrasal verbs are a group of multi-word verbs made from a verb plus another word or words. we divide multi-word verbs into: • prepositional verbs • phrasal verbs • phrasal-prepositional verbs Other grammars. phrasal verbs and phrasal-prepositional verbs.
they have a direct object). we have no choice. you know that the phrasal verb "look up" is separable. Look at this example with the separable phrasal verb "switch on": direct object pronouns must go between the two parts of transitive phrasal verbs John John John John switched switched switched switched the radio it on on. It's a good idea to write "something/somebody" as appropriate in your vocabulary book when you learn a new phrasal verb. On this page we look at prepositional verbs. the radio. if the direct object is a pronoun. on it. phrasal verbs and phrasal-prepositional verbs.73 When phrasal verbs are transitive (that is. my offer. EnglishClub. If a dictionary writes "look (something) up". . on.com Tip Separable or inseparable phrasal verbs? Some dictionaries tell you when phrasal verbs are separable. "turn down" is a separable phrasal verb. Prepositional Verbs Prepositional verbs are a group of multi-word verbs made from a verb plus another word or words. like this: • get up • break down • put something/somebody off • turn sthg/sby down This tells you whether the verb needs a direct object (and where to put it). separable However. Look at this table: transitive phrasal verbs are They They turned turned my offer down down. This is not possible. For example. We must separate the phrasal verb and insert the pronoun between the two parts. On these pages we make a distinction between three types of multi-word verbs: prepositional verbs. we can usually separate the two parts. and you can say "look something up" and "look up something". These are all possible. We can say: "turn down my offer" or "turn my offer down". Many people refer to all multi-word verbs as phrasal verbs.
we must say "look after the baby". On these pages we make a distinction between three types of multi-word verbs: prepositional .com Tip It is a good idea to write "something/somebody" in your vocabulary book when you learn a new prepositional verb. We cannot say "look the baby after": prepositional verbs are Who is looking after the baby? Who is looking the baby after? This is possible. inseparable EnglishClub. For example. That means that we cannot put the direct object between the two parts. Here are some examples of prepositional verbs: examples prepositional verbs believe in look after talk about wait for meaning direct object have faith in the existence of I believe in take care of discuss await He is looking after Did you talk about John is waiting for God. This is not possible. like this: • believe in something/somebody • look after sthg/sby This reminds you that this verb needs a direct object (and where to put it). Phrasal-prepositional Verbs Phrasal-prepositional verbs are a small group of multi-word verbs made from a verb plus another word or words. me? Mary. Prepositional verbs cannot be separated.74 Prepositional verbs are made of: verb + preposition Because a preposition always has an object. the dog. Many people refer to all multi-word verbs as phrasal verbs. all prepositional verbs have direct objects.
And. like this: • get on with somebody • put up with sthg/sby . it. Look at these examples: phrasalprepositional verbs are We We ran out of ran out of fuel. eggs. phrasal verbs and phrasal-prepositional verbs. seeing you. phrasal-prepositional verbs cannot be separated. exhaust Because phrasal-prepositional verbs end with a preposition.com Tip It is a good idea to write "something/somebody" in your vocabulary book when you learn a new phrasalprepositional verb. like prepositional verbs. inseparable EnglishClub. Phrasal-prepositional verbs are made of: verb + adverb + preposition Look at these examples of phrasal-prepositional verbs: examples phrasal-prepositional verbs meaning direct object He doesn't get on with I won't put up with I look forward to We have run out of his wife.75 verbs. get on with put up with look forward to run out of have a friendly relationship with tolerate anticipate with pleasure use up. On this page we look at phrasalprepositional verbs. there is always a direct object. your attitude.
5 English Conditionals There are several structures in English that are called conditionals. There are some more conditionals that we do not use so often. then a particular result happens. Of course. • • • • • • Structure of Conditional Sentences First Conditional Second Conditional Third Conditional Zero Conditional Summary EnglishClub. Structure of Conditional Sentences The structure of most conditionals is very simple. because there is usually (but not always) the word "if" in a conditional sentence.76 • run out of something This reminds you that this verb needs a direct object (and where to put it). but the basic structure is usually like this: IF condition result . There are two basic possibilities. we will look at the three basic conditionals as well as the so-called zero conditional. we add many words and can use various tenses. • • If y = 10 then 2y = 20 If y = 3 then 2y = 6 There are three basic conditionals that we use very often.com Tip People sometimes call conditionals "IF" structures or sentences. 1. "Condition" means "situation or circumstance". If a particular condition is true. In this lesson. We'll finish with a quiz to check your understanding.
77 IF y = 10 2y = 20 or like this: result IF condition 2y = 20 IF y = 10 First Conditional: real possibility We are talking about the future. But the sky is cloudy and you think that it could rain. The important thing about the first conditional is that there is a real possibility that the condition will happen. he will invite her. We use WILL + base verb to talk about the possible future result. But there are some clouds in the sky. It is not raining yet. You are at home. There is a real possibility that this condition will happen. What will you do? IF condition present simple If it rains result WILL + base verb I will stay at home. Here are some more examples (do you remember the two basic structures: IF condition result / result IF condition?): IF Condition present simple If If If I see Mary Tara is free tomorrow they do not pass their exam Result WILL + base verb I will tell her. You plan to play tennis this afternoon. and the result of this condition. Imagine that it rains. it is morning. their teacher will be sad. We are thinking about a particular condition or situation in the future. Notice that we are thinking about a future condition. . We use the present simple tense to talk about the possible future condition. For example.
for example: If you are good today. she is free tomorrow. Second Conditional: unreal possibility or dream The second conditional is like the first conditional. no win! But maybe you will buy a lottery ticket in the future. like a dream. We are thinking about a particular condition in the future. We use the past simple tense to talk about the future condition. IF condition past simple If I won the lottery result WOULD + base verb I would buy a car. and the result of this condition. can.com Tip Sometimes. . We are still thinking about the future. Is it possible to win? No! No lottery ticket. they do not pass their exam. it rains tomorrow? it rains tomorrow? Their teacher will be sad if Will you stay at home What will you do if if EnglishClub.78 If If it rains tomorrow it rains tomorrow will you stay at home? what will you do? result WILL + base verb I will tell Mary He will invite Tara IF condition present simple if if I see her. So you can think about winning in the future. or may instead of will. We use WOULD + base verb to talk about the future result. Notice that we are thinking about a future condition. It's not very real. you can watch TV tonight. but it's still possible. you do not have a lottery ticket. For example. we use shall. But there is not a real possibility that this condition will happen.
we use should.79 The important thing about the second conditional is that there is an unreal possibility that the condition will happen. she would marry him. could or might instead of would. Third Conditional: no possibility The first conditional and second conditionals talk about the future. I could stop working. We talk about a condition in the past that did not happen. The third conditional is also like a dream.com Tip Sometimes. With the third conditional we talk about the past. he became rich. it snowed next July? it snowed next July? EnglishClub. Here are some more examples: IF condition past simple If If If If I married Mary Ram became rich it snowed next July it snowed next July result WOULD + base verb I would be happy. Last week you bought a lottery ticket. :-( . for example: If I won a million dollars. That is why there is no possibility for this condition. But you did not win. would you be surprised? what would you do? result WOULD + base verb I would be happy She would marry Ram Would you be surprised What would you do IF condition past simple if if if if I married Mary. but with no possibility of the dream coming true.
We use WOULD HAVE + past participle to talk about the impossible past result. The important thing about the third conditional is that both the condition and result are impossible now. it had rained yesterday? it had rained yesterday? . I would have invited her. would you have stayed at home? what would you have done? result WOULD HAVE + past participle I would have told Mary I would have invited Tara Their teacher would have been sad Would you have stayed at home What would you have done EnglishClub. she had been free yesterday. You did not win the lottery. they had not passed their exam. Notice that we are thinking about an impossible past condition. We use the past perfect tense to talk about the impossible past condition.80 Condition Past Perfect If I had won the lottery Result WOULD HAVE + Past Participle I would have bought a car. their teacher would have been sad. and that particular condition can never be true because it is finished. Here are some more examples: IF condition past perfect If If If If If I had seen Mary Tara had been free yesterday they had not passed their exam it had rained yesterday it had rained yesterday result WOULD HAVE + past participle I would have told her.com Tip IF condition past perfect if if if if if I had seen her. So the condition was not true.
We use the present simple tense to talk about the condition. Notice that we are thinking about a result that is always true for this condition. We also use the present simple tense to talk about the result. does it melt? result IF condition .81 Sometimes. my boss gets angry. We are not thinking about the future or the past. Take some ice. IF condition present simple If you heat ice result present simple it melts. like a scientific fact. might have instead of would have. we use should have. for example: If you had bought a lottery ticket. Zero Conditional: certainty We use the so-called zero conditional when the result of the condition is always true. What happens? The ice melts (it becomes water). Put it in a saucepan. or even the present. You would be surprised if it did not. The important thing about the zero conditional is that the condition always has the same result. they get hungry. Heat the saucepan. The result of the condition is an absolute certainty. you might have won. could have. We are thinking about a simple fact. Here are some more examples: IF condition present simple If If If If I miss the 8 o'clock bus I am late for work people don't eat you heat ice result present simple I am late for work.
time any time future future past . you heat it? EnglishClub. If it rains.com Tip We can also use when instead of if. Do not take the 50% and 10% figures too literally.82 present simple I am late for work My boss gets angry People get hungry Does ice melt if if if if present simple I miss the 8 o'clock bus. probability 100% 50% 10% 0% conditional zero conditional first conditional second conditional third conditional example If you heat ice. I would buy a car. If I won the lottery. I would have bought a car. I will stay at home. They are just to help you. it melts. Conditionals: Summary Here is a little chart to help you to visualize the basic English conditionals. they don't eat. If I had won the lottery. for example: When I get up late I miss my bus. I am late for work.
Be able to Can and could are modal auxiliary verbs. Could.6 Modal Verbs (modal auxiliaries) Can.com Tip Modal auxiliary verbs may sound difficult but in fact they're easy. We include be able to here for convenience. In this lesson we look at these three verbs. Can. Be able to Have to. followed by a quiz to check your understanding: • • • Can Could Be able to Can . Must. Be able to is not an auxiliary verb (it uses the verb be as a main verb). Must not Shall and Will EnglishClub. And the main verb is always the "bare infinitive" (the infinitive without "to"). Could.83 1. They are invariable (no conjugation).
what we are able or free to do: • • She can drive a car.com Tip The main verb is always the bare infinitive (infinitive without "to"). subject auxiliary verb can cannot main verb play tennis. We cannot say: Use of Can can: Possibility and Ability We use can to talk about what is possible. + ? I He can't Can you play tennis. EnglishClub.84 Can is an auxiliary verb. The main verb is always the bare infinitive. a modal auxiliary verb. There is only one form of can. John can speak Spanish. We use can to: • • • talk about possibility and ability make requests ask for or give permission Structure of Can subject + can + main verb The main verb is always the bare infinitive (infinitive without "to"). . play tennis? Notice that: • • Can is invariable.
We use could to: • • talk about past possibility or ability make requests Structure of Could subject + could + main verb The main verb is always the bare infinitive (infinitive without "to"). Can you come here a minute. we want them to do it! The use of can in this way is informal (mainly between friends and family): • • • • Can you make a cup of coffee. But it is possible to use can when we make present decisions about future ability. Can you be quiet! can: Permission We sometimes use can to ask or give permission for something: A.) Can you hear me? Normally. . Sorry. You can't smoke here. (Note that we also use could. may. This is not a real question . please. A. but you can smoke in the garden. Can I smoke in this room? B. Can you put the TV on. (I can't hear you.) Could Could is an auxiliary verb. But I can help you tomorrow.we do not really want to know if the person is able to do something. might for permission.85 • • I cannot hear you. we use can for the present. a modal auxiliary verb. (future) can: Requests and Orders We often use can in a question to ask somebody to do something. Can you help me with my homework? (present) B. I'm busy today. The use of can for permission is informal.
But when we talk about one special occasion in the past. + ? My grandmother She couldn't Could your grandmother speak Chinese. When we arrived home. We cannot say: Use of Could could: Past Possibility or Ability We use could to talk about what was possible in the past. we use be able to (positive) and couldn't (negative). (.couldn't open the door. Look at these examples: Past General Specific Occasion A man fell into the river yesterday.) Could you understand what he was saying? We use could (positive) and couldn't (negative) for general ability in the past.. There is only one form of could.86 subject auxiliary verb could could not main verb speak Japanese. we could not open the door. . The police were able to save him. + My grandmother could speak Spanish. The main verb is always the bare infinitive. My grandmother could speak seven languages. EnglishClub. speak Japanese? Notice that: • • Could is invariable..com Tip The main verb is always the bare infinitive. what we were able or free to do: • • • • I could swim when I was 5 years old.
please? Could you send me a catalogue.. for example: • • • I was able to drive. We use be able to: • to talk about ability Structure of Be able to The structure of be able to is: subject + be + able + infinitive be subject main verb am is not She isn't Are you able to drive? able to drive. . please? Be able to Although we look at be able to here. it is not a modal verb. I will be able to drive.. + ? I Notice that be able to is possible in all tenses.. We look at be able to here because we sometimes use it instead of can and could. It is simply the verb be plus an adjective (able) followed by the infinitive.. The police Spanish. couldn't save him.87 - My grandmother couldn't speak A man fell into the river yesterday. could: Requests We often use could in a question to ask somebody to do something.. able adjective able infinitive to drive. The use of could in this way is fairly polite (formal): • • Could you tell me where the bank is.. I have been able to drive.
(infinitive) EnglishClub. We include it here for convenience.88 Notice too that be able to has an infinitive form: • I would like to be able to speak Chinese. So we use "be able to" when we want to use other tenses or the infinitive. We sometimes use "be able to" instead of "can" or "could" for ability. Have to. Use of Be able to be able to: ability We use be able to to express ability. Have to is not an auxiliary verb (it uses the verb have as a main verb). it is like saying "I can swim". "Be able to" is possible in all tenses—but "can" is possible only in the present and "could" is possible only in the past for ability. followed by a quiz to check your understanding: • • • Have to Must Must not Have to (objective obligation) We often use have to to say that something is obligatory. . "Able" is an adjective meaning: having the power.com Tip Be able to is not a modal auxiliary verb. Must not Must is a modal auxiliary verb. which are modal auxiliary verbs. Look at these examples: • • • I have been able to swim since I was five. skill or means to do something. "can" and "could" have no infinitive form. Must. In this lesson we look at these two verbs. because it is often used like "can" and "could". If we say "I am able to swim". In addition. (future simple) I would like to be able to fly an airplane. (present perfect) You will be able to speak perfect English very soon. We include have to here for convenience. for example: • Children have to go to school.
It is not even an auxiliary verb. tomorrow. We can use have to in all tenses. The structure is: subject + auxiliary verb + have + infinitive (with to) Look at these examples in the simple tense: subject auxiliary verb main verb have has do not you have have infinitive (with to) to work. have to expresses impersonal obligation. today. Have to is objective. John has to wear a tie at work.89 Structure of Have to Have to is often grouped with modal auxiliary verbs for convenience. to school? + ? She I Did Use of Have to In general. In each of the above cases. Here are some examples: main verb auxiliary verb have had have will have subject past simple present simple future simple I I I infinitive to work to work to work yesterday. the obligation is not the subject's opinion or idea. but in fact it is not a modal verb. The subject of have to is obliged or forced to act by a separate. Look at these examples: • • • In France. We conjugate it just like any other main verb. In England. external power (for example. The obligation is imposed from outside. and also with modal auxiliaries. "have" is a main verb. In the have to structure. to see to go the doctor. the Law or school rules). you have to drive on the right. . most schoolchildren have to wear a uniform.
So. It is followed by a main verb. now.90 present continuous She present perfect modal (may) We They is have may having had have to wait. Structure of Must Must is a modal auxiliary verb. to do it again. for example: • I must go. (not *I must to go now. to change the time. must expresses personal obligation. . Must (subjective obligation) We often use must to say that something is essential or necessary. The structure is: subject + must + main verb The main verb is the base verb (infinitive without "to"). us. Must expresses what the speaker thinks is necessary. EnglishClub.com Tip Like all auxiliary verbs. Look at these examples: • • I must stop smoking. we say: • I must go now. Look at these examples: subject auxiliary must I You We must must must main verb go visit stop home. You must visit us soon. "must" cannot be followed by to.) Use of Must In general. Must is subjective.
It is not imposed from outside. Look at these examples: subject I You Students auxiliary must + not mustn't mustn't must not main verb forget disturb be my keys. (present) I must call my mother tomorrow. late. the "obligation" is the opinion or idea of the person speaking. We use have to to talk about the past. (future) There is no past tense for must. In fact. It is followed by a main verb. him. for example a rule or a law. We can use must to talk about the present or the future. EnglishClub. . it is not a real obligation. The structure for must not is: subject + must not + main verb The main verb is the base verb (infinitive without "to"). Must not is often contracted to mustn't. Must not (prohibition) We use must not to say that something is not permitted or allowed.com Tip It is sometimes possible to use "must" for real obligation. Structure of Must not Must is an auxiliary verb. But generally we use "have to" for this. In each of the above cases.91 • He must work harder. for example: • Passengers must not talk to the driver. Look at these examples: • • I must go now.
Contraction I'll You'll He'll . We use another structure to talk about the past. must cannot be followed by to. You will see a large building on the left.92 NB: like all auxiliary verbs. (future) We cannot use must not for the past. or even that today nobody uses shall (except in offers such as "Shall I call a taxi?"). The difference between shall and will is often hidden by the fact that we usually contract them in speaking with 'll. So. (objective) Policemen must not drink on duty. she. The prohibition can be subjective (the speaker's opinion) or objective (a real law or rule). He will be wearing blue. The truth is that there are two conjugations for the verb will: 1st Conjugation (objective. I couldn't park outside the shop. (objective) We use must not to talk about the present or the future: • • Visitors must not smoke.something that is not permitted. But the difference does exist. This is not really true. (subjective) You mustn't watch so much television. not allowed. simple statement of fact) Person I Singular you he. Shall and Will People may sometimes tell you that there is no difference between shall and will. we say: • You mustn't arrive late. (subjective) Students must not leave bicycles here. for example: • • We were not allowed to enter.) Use of Must not Must not expresses prohibition . it Verb shall will will Example I shall be in London tomorrow. (present) I mustn't forget Tara's birthday. Look at these examples: • • • • I mustn't eat so much sugar. (not You mustn't to arrive late.
You shall be sorry for this. They shall give one month's notice. It is perfectly normal. for example: • I should be grateful if you would kindly send me your latest catalogue. which often contain phrases such as: • Each party shall give one month's notice in writing in the event of termination. . However. You shall do as you're told. We shan't You'll They'll 2nd Conjugation (subjective. to write. We will not interfere. and somewhat more elegant. or many American legal documents. It shall be done. You will find his office on the 7th floor.93 we Plural you they shall will will We shall not be there when you arrive. promise or command) Person I Singular you he. Note that exactly the same rule applies in the case of should and would. They will arrive late. let those who make assertions such as "Americans never use 'shall'" peruse a good American English dictionary. strong assertion. Contraction I'll You'll It'll We won't You'll They'll It is true that this difference is not universally recognized. she. it we Plural you they Verb will shall shall will shall shall Example I will do everything possible to help.
com Tip Gerunds are sometimes called "verbal nouns". Object or Complement Gerunds after Prepositions Gerunds after Certain Verbs Gerunds in Passive Sense EnglishClub. When a verb ends in -ing. it is usually a present participle: • • Anthony is fishing. In this lesson. it is usually a gerund: • Fishing is fun.com Tip . I have a boring teacher. It is important to understand that they are not the same. When we use a verb in -ing form more like a verb or an adjective. we look at the different ways in which we use gerunds. followed by a quiz to check your understanding: • • • • Gerunds as Subject.7 Gerunds (-ing) EnglishClub.94 1. When we use a verb in -ing form more like a noun. it may be a gerund or a present participle.
Answer reading as gerund Main Verb Complement . the whole expression [gerund + object] can be the subject. object or complement of a sentence: • • • Smoking costs a lot of money. • • • Smoking cigarettes costs a lot of money. Like nouns. My favourite occupation is reading detective stories. • My favourite niece is reading. • My favourite occupation is reading. like a verb. we can use gerunds with adjectives (including articles and other determiners): • • • • pointless questioning a settling of debts the making of "Titanic" his drinking of alcohol But when we use a gerund with an article. Like nouns. EnglishClub.com Tip Do you see the difference in these two sentences? In one. Object or Complement Try to think of gerunds as verbs in noun form. In this case.95 Many grammarians do not like to use the expression "gerund". a gerund can also have an object itself. My favourite occupation is reading. object or complement of the sentence. But. gerunds can be the subject. I don't like writing. Gerunds as Subject. The making of "Titanic" was expensive. "reading" is a gerund (noun). I don't like writing letters. In the other "reading" is a present participle (verb). it does not usually take a direct object: • • • a settling of debts (not a settling debts) Making "Titanic" was expensive. That is because there is sometimes no clear difference between a gerund and a present participle.
I am looking forward to meeting you. I am looking forward to our lunch. I am used to driving on the left. 2. we say: • • • • • I will call you after arriving at the office. EnglishClub. Please have a drink before leaving. It is impossible to use an infinitive after a preposition. Gerunds after Prepositions This is a good rule. Do you object to this job? Tara always dreams about holidays.com Tip The above rule has no exceptions! So why is "to" followed by "driving" in 1 and by "drive" in 2? 1. Answer . Main Verb reading. Please have a drink before your departure. it must be a gerund. It has no exceptions! If we want to use a verb after a preposition. finished. football.96 (noun) My favourite occupation My favourite occupation reading as present participle (verb) My favourite niece My favourite niece is is Auxiliary Verb is has reading. Do you object to working late? Tara always dreams about going on holiday. So for example. I used to drive on the left. Notice that you could replace all the above gerunds with "real" nouns: • • • • • I will call you after my arrival at the office.
intend. on the left driving on the left. risk. delay. EnglishClub. involve. Often the second verb is in the infinitive form. excuse. mind. miss. love. resent. report. This depends on the first verb. detest. understand Look at these examples: • • • • She is considering having a holiday. enjoy. face. dislike. propose. avoid. escape. give up. Here is a list of verbs that are usually followed by a verb in gerund form: • admit. But sometimes the second verb must be in gerund form. can't stand. Gerunds after Certain Verbs We sometimes use one verb after another verb. • I like playing tennis. put off.97 to as preposition I am used I am used to as infinitive I used I used Preposition to to Infinitive to drive to smoke. for example: • I dislike eating. carry on. deny. practise. defer. appreciate.com Tip Some verbs can be followed by the gerund form or the infinitive form without a big change in meaning: begin. continue. start • I like to play tennis. forgive. like. suggest. feel like. Do you feel like going out? I can't help falling in love with you. I can't stand not seeing you. finish. . mention. can't help. prefer. postpone. animals. for example: • I want to eat. leave off. imagine. consider. hate. endure.
98 • • It started to rain. A question is a sentence that asks for information. In this case. Question: Do you like EnglishClub.8 Questions What is a question? A statement is a sentence that gives information. 1.com Tip The expression "something wants doing" is British English. (needs to be repainted) EnglishClub. (need to be washed) This letter requires signing.com? A written question in English always ends with a question mark: ? In this lesson we look at basic questions in English. Gerunds in Passive Sense We often use a gerund after the verbs need.com. followed by a quiz to check your understanding: • • Basic Question Structure Basic Question Types Basic Question Structure The basic structure of a question in English is very simple: . Statement: I like EnglishClub. require and want. (needs to be signed) The house wants repainting. the gerund has a passive sense. It started raining. • • • I have three shirts that need washing.
No. Choice Questions (the answer to the question is "in the question") 1. Yes/No Questions (the answer to the question is "Yes" or "No") 2. he German? Basic Question Types There are 3 basic types of question: 1. We simply reverse the positions of be and subject: Statement: Question: He is Is German.99 auxiliary verb + subject + main verb auxiliary verb Do Are Will Have subject you they Anthony you main verb like playing go seen Mary? football? to Tokyo? ET? Exception! For the verb be in simple present and simple past. Yes. Question Word Questions (the answer to the question is "Information") 3. they didn't. Yes/No Questions auxiliary verb Do Can Has Did subject you you she they main verb want drive? finished go her work? home? dinner? Answer Yes or No Yes. I can't. she has. Exception! verb BE simple present and simple past . we do not use an auxiliary verb. I do. No.
. She went to London. 3. 2. Choice Questions auxiliary verb Do Will Did subject you we she main verb want meet go tea John to London OR or or or coffee? James? New York? Answer In the question Coffee. No. Question Word Questions question word Where When Who Why auxiliary verb do will did hasn't subject you we she Tara main verb live? have meet? done it? lunch? Answer Information In Paris. she is. Exception! verb BE simple present and simple past Where How is was Bombay? she? In India. John.100 Is Was Anne Ram French? at home? Yes. $15. Very well. Because she can't. please. At 1pm. She met Ram. Exception! verb BE simple present and simple past Is Were your car they white $15 or or black? $50? It's black. he wasn't.
The basic structure is: + - . We use tag questions at the end of statements to ask for confirmation. and the mini-question at the end is called a "question tag". They mean something like: "Am I right?" or "Do you agree?" They are very common in English. the little piece of cloth added to a shirt showing size or washing instructions is a tag.101 1. EnglishClub. It is a statement followed by a miniquestion. The whole sentence is a "tag question".com Tip A "tag" is something small that we add to something larger. For example.9 Tag Questions A tag question is a special construction in English.
like like will can must should help. go. English. negative tag [-] personal not pronoun (same as subject) notes: subject auxiliary auxiliary You We You You They I We He You John are have do are have do do wo can must should are was n't n't n't n't n't 't n't n't n't n't you? we? you? you? they? I? we? he? you? he? no auxiliary for main verb be present & past You (do) like. come. positive tag [+] auxiliary is personal pronoun (same as subject) it? . coffee. negative tag? + Negative statement.102 Positive statement. try are was harder. won't = will not Look at these examples with negative statements: negative statement [-] subject It auxiliary is n't main verb raining. positive tag? Look at these examples with positive statements: positive statement [+] main verb coming.. finished. coffee.. there.
don't you? I have been answering. would we? The weather's bad. Some special cases: I am right. it right. isn't it? You won't be late. I couldn't help it. so fast.. shall we? He'd better do it. won't it? Well. report that. use first auxiliary treat statements with nothing. nobody etc like negative statements let's = let us he had better (no auxiliary) But you don't really love her. won't you? We'd never have known. aren't I? You have to go. hadn't he? Here are some mixed examples: • • • • • • • • aren't I (not amn't I) you (do) have to go.. n't English. have do will we? you? they? they? I? we? he? you? he? us. will can must should are was never do n't n't tell drive are was not there. do they? . do you? This will work. haven't I? Nothing came in the post. her.103 We You They They I We He You John have do will wo can must should never seen n't not n't like help. will you? Nobody knows. did it? Let's go. could I? But you'll tell me if she calls. coffee.
104 Notice that we often use tag questions to ask for information or help, starting with a negative statement. This is quite a friendly/polite way of making a request. For example, instead of saying "Where is the police station?" (not very polite), or "Do you know where the police station is?" (slightly more polite), we could say: "You wouldn't know where the police station is, would you?" Here are some more examples:
• • •
You don't know of any good jobs, do you? You couldn't help me with my homework, could you? You haven't got $10 to lend me, have you?
We can change the meaning of a tag question with the musical pitch of our voice. With rising intonation, it sounds like a real question. But if our intonation falls, it sounds more like a statement that doesn't require a real answer: intonation You don't know where my wallet is, do you? It's a beatiful view, isn't it? / rising \ falling
real question not a real question
Answers to tag questions
EnglishClub.com Tip A question tag is the "mini-question" at the end. A tag question is the whole sentence.
How do we answer a tag question? Often, we just say Yes or No. Sometimes we may repeat the tag and reverse it (..., do they? Yes, they do). Be very careful about answering tag questions. In some languages, an oposite system of answering is used, and non-native English speakers sometimes answer in the wrong way. This can lead to a lot of confusion!
EnglishClub.com Tip Answer a tag question according to the truth of the situation. Your answer reflects the real facts, not (necessarily) the question.
For example, everyone knows that snow is white. Look at these questions, and the correct answers: tag question Snow is white, isn't it? correct answer Yes (it is).
the answer is the same in but notice the change of stress
Snow isn't white, is it? Snow is black, isn't it? Snow isn't black, is it?
Yes it is! No it isn't! No (it isn't).
both cases - because snow IS WHITE! the answer is the same in both cases - because snow IS NOT BLACK! when the answerer does not agree with the questioner
In some languages, people answer a question like "Snow isn't black, is it?" with "Yes" (meaning "Yes, I agree with you"). This is the wrong answer in English! Here are some more examples, with correct answers:
• • • • • • •
The moon goes round the earth, doesn't it? Yes, it does. The earth is bigger than the moon, isn't it? Yes. The earth is bigger than the sun, isn't it? No, it isn't! Asian people don't like rice, do they? Yes, they do! Elephants live in Europe, don't they? No, they don't! Men don't have babies, do they? No. The English alphabet doesn't have 40 letters, does it? No, it doesn't.
Question tags with imperatives
Sometimes we use question tags with imperatives (invitations, orders), but the sentence remains an imperative and does not require a direct answer. We use won't for invitations. We use can, can't, will, would for orders. imperative + question tag invitation Take a seat, won't you? Help me, can you? Help me, can't you? order notes: polite quite friendly quite friendly (some irritation?)
Close the door, would you? quite polite Do it now, will you? Don't forget, will you? less polite with negative imperatives only will is possible
Same-way question tags
Although the basic structure of tag questions is positive-negative or negative-positive, it is sometime possible to use a positive-positive or negative-negative structure. We use
106 same-way question tags to express interest, surprise, anger etc, and not to make real questions.
• • •
So you're having a baby, are you? That's wonderful! She wants to marry him, does she? Some chance! So you think that's amusing, do you? Think again.
Negative-negative tag questions usually sound rather hostile:
So you don't like my looks, don't you?
The subjunctive is a special, relatively rare verb form in English.
Construction of the Subjunctive
The structure of the subjunctive is extremely simple. For all verbs except the past tense of to be, the subjunctive is the same as the bare infinitive (infinitive without "to"): to be past everything else, same as bare infinitive present past and present
it be we be you be they be I work you work he. we use the subjunctive when talking about events that somebody: • • • wants to happen hopes will happen imagines happening Look at these examples: • • • The President requests that you be present at the meeting. propose. The subjunctive is typically used after two structures: • • the verbs: ask. request. important.com Tip The subjunctive does not change according to person (I. Use of the Subjunctive We use subjunctives mainly when talking about events that are not certain to happen. essential. Notice that in these structures the subjunctive is always the same. recommend. it were we were you were they were I be you be he. it work we work you work they work EnglishClub. you. It does not matter whether the sentence is past or present. she. he etc). insist. . demand.107 I were you were he. The board of directors recommended that he join the company. vital + that Here are some examples with the subjunctive: • • • • The manager insists that the car park be locked at night. she. necessary. Present: It essential that she be present. she. It is essential that we vote as soon as possible. command. It was necessary that every student submit his essay by the weekend. It is vital that you be present at the meeting. the President would be happy. Past: The President requested that they stop the occupation. For example. If you were at the meeting. suggest + that the expressions: it is desirable. Look at these examples: • • • Present: The President requests that they stop the occupation.
I wish I wasn't so slow! I wish it was longer. I would go.108 • Past: It was essential that she be present. Suppose she were here.com Tip The use of the subjunctive as above is more common in American English than in British English. familiar conversation. But the if I were you structure does not use the past simple tense of the verb "to be".) If I were younger. . EnglishClub. "he were"? We sometimes hear things like "if I were you. he would buy one for me. I would ask her. I would go" or "if he were here.) If I was younger. • It was essential that we should vote as soon as possible. he was. where should + infinitive is often used: • The manager insists that the car park should be locked at night. In the following examples. If he weren't so mean. I would go. She acts as if she was Queen. he would buy one for me. It's not as if I was ugly. Normally. Look at these sentences: • • If I were you. he would tell you". the past tense of the verb "to be" is: I was. Formal (The were form is correct at all times. We usually use the subjunctive were instead of "was" after if (and other words with similar meaning). If he wasn't so mean. I wish I weren't so slow! I wish it were longer. She acts as if she were Queen. It's not as if I were ugly. It uses the past subjunctive of the verb "to be". you can see that we often use the subjunctive form were instead of "was" after: • • • • if as if wish suppose Informal (The was form is possible in informal. What would you say? Why do we say "I were".
This is the voice that we use most of the time. I should tell her. In the active voice. Passive voice The active voice is the "normal" voice. even in familiar conversation.11 Active Voice. I will never forget you. he still wants to see her. as it were. Active voice 2. the object receives the action of the verb: . We are all citizens of the world. Here are some examples: • • • • • • Long live the King! God bless America! Heaven forbid! Be that as it may. Some fixed expressions use the subjunctive. 1. You are probably already familiar with the active voice. Passive Voice There are two special forms for verbs called voice: 1.109 If I were you. Come what may. Note: We do not normally say "if I was you".
The passive voice is less usual. The active voice is the "normal" voice. when to use it and how to conjugate it. is drunk by everybody. Construction of the Passive Voice The structure of the passive voice is very simple: subject + auxiliary verb (be) + main verb (past participle) The main verb is always in its past participle form: base past past participle . Passive Voice The passive voice is less usual than the active voice.110 subject active Cats verb object >>> eat fish. In the passive voice. The object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb: subject active passive Everybody Water verb drinks object water. the subject receives the action of the verb: subject passive Fish verb object <<< are eaten by cats. But sometimes we need the passive voice. In this lesson we look at how to construct the passive voice.
He was killed by somebody with a gun. it would be: Somebody killed him with a gun. Normally we use by to introduce the passive object. in euro.111 regular irregular work sing worked sang worked sung Look at these examples: subject Water 100 people I We Are auxiliary verb (to be) is are am are they main verb (past participle) drunk employed paid not paid paid by everyone. Somebody is the "agent" or "doer". EnglishClub. But the gun is not the active subject. . in yen? Use of the Passive Voice We use the passive when: • • we want to make the active object more important we do not know the active subject subject verb was killed has been stolen. object by Lee Harvey Oswald. The gun is the instrument. In the active voice. give importance to active object (Kennedy) active subject unknown President Kennedy My wallet ? Note that we always use by to introduce the passive object (Fish are eaten by cats).com Tip Look at this sentence: • He was killed with a gun. in dollars. The gun did not kill him. by this company.
It was washed. It will have been washed. To form the required tense. . conjugation of verbs in the passive tense is rather easy. as the main verb is always in past participle form and the auxiliary verb is always be. It would be being washed. we conjugate the auxiliary verb. It would have been washed. It will be washed. It will be being washed. It has been washed. It had been being washed. It would have been being washed. It has been being washed. for example: • • • present simple: It is made present continuous: It is being made present perfect: It has been made Here are some examples with most of the possible tenses: infinitive present past simple future conditional present past continuous future conditional present past perfect simple future conditional present past perfect continuous future conditional It will have been being washed. In fact. It was being washed.112 Conjugation for the Passive Voice We can form the passive in any tense. It would be washed. So. It had been washed. to be washed It is washed. It is being washed.
113 1.12 Infinitive or -ing? Sometimes we need to decide whether to use a verb in its: .
mean. train . Which one? • • I dislike working late. promise. decide. The infinitive form is always used after adjectives. Why are they encouraged to learn English? We can't afford to take a long holiday. only one of the following sentences is correct. surprised • • I was happy to help them. want. happy. relieved. Is your coffee too hot to drink? The infinitive form is used after adjective + enough: • • He was strong enough to lift it.114 • • -ing form ("doing") or infinitive form ("to do"). pleased. She will be delighted to see you. expect. She is rich enough to buy two. (???) When to use the infinitive The infinitive form is used after certain verbs: .choose. for example: . glad. For example. (???) I dislike to work late. teach. would like . recommend .agree.allow. pretend. sad.forget. manage. Mary needs to leave early. help. encourage. hope. The -ing form is used after a preposition: . refuse • • • • I forgot to close the window. Doctors say that smoking is bad for you. can/can't afford. This includes too + adjective: • • The water was too cold to swim in. offer. need. learn. When to use -ing The -ing form is used when the word is the subject of a sentence or clause: • • Swimming is good exercise.disappointed.
hate. enjoy. propose. • It started raining. 1. intend. dislike. practise • • I dislike getting up early.avoid. like.115 • • I look forward to meeting you. Would you mind opening the window? EnglishClub. • It started to rain." The -ing form is used after certain verbs: . finish. mind/not mind.com Tip Some verbs can be followed by the -ing form or the infinitive without a big change in meaning: begin. continue.13 Plural Verbs with Singular Subjects . prefer. • I like playing tennis. They left without saying "Goodbye. • I like to play tennis. start. love. give up.
feeling etc). The committee. . Notice that this is often a question of style and logic. which was formed in 1999. My family.116 We often use singular nouns that refer to groups of people (eg government. the Ministry of Health But when we consider the group as an impersonal unit. union. team. staff. the Conservative Party. government. committee. family. englishclub. team) as if they were plural. is made up of four men and four women. The important thing is to be consistent.com Tip Using a plural verb with singular subject is less common in American English. company. school. In such cases. board of directors. Manchester United. we use: • • • plural verb plural pronoun (they) who (not which) Here are some examples: • • • The committee want sandwiches for lunch. who don't see me often. The team hope to win next time. This is particularly true in British English. have asked me home for Christmas. doing things that people do (eating. Here are some examples of words and expressions that can be considered singular or plural: • choir. the BBC. club. class. They have to leave early. An average family consists of four people. This is because we often think of the group as people. wanting. committee. jury. we use singular verbs and pronouns: • • • The new company is the result of a merger.
imagine. see Here are some examples: I want a coffee. contain. recognize. understand belong. (not I am not hearing you very well. matter. like. not I am wanting a coffee.) I can't hear you very well. possess appear. I don't believe you are right. suppose. involve. consist.117 1. realize. I don't hear anything. own.com Tip . depend. not I am not hearing anything. concern. know. mean. need. • • • Verbs not Used with Continuous Tenses Verbs with Two Meanings Be and Continuous Tenses Verbs not Used with Continuous Tenses We usually use the following verbs with simple tenses only (not continuous tenses): • • • • • hate. seem. resemble. And there are other verbs that we use in the simple tense with one meaning and in the continuous tense with another meaning. Does this pen belong to you? It seemed wrong. In this lesson we look at various uses of continuous tenses. prefer. not Is this pen belonging to you? not It was seeming wrong. want. (not I am seeing someone in the distance. wish believe. owe. love. not I am not believing you are right. hear.14 Verb Meanings with Continuous Tenses There are some verbs that we do not normally use in the continuous tense. remember. need. Notice that we often use can + see/hear: • • I can see someone in the distance.) EnglishClub.
we can use a simple or continuous tense. There is no real action or activity by you. Does the wine taste good? Mary has three I was tasting the wine when I dropped the glass. Verbs with Two Meanings Some verbs have two different meanings or senses. I'm thinking. Please phone later. I always taste wine before I drink it. This sense is called "dynamic".118 With verbs that we don't use in the continuous tense. Simple I will think about this problem tomorrow. For example. to reflect. there is no real action or activity. we use a simple tense. depending on the situation. to have an opinion (example: I think Ricky Martin is sexy. "To hear" means "to receive sound in your ears".) In sense 1. This table measures 4 x She is measuring the room for a 6 feet. We have dinner at 8pm I don't consider that he We are considering your job is the right man for the application and will give you our job. When we use the dynamic sense. For one sense we must use a simple tense. A good carpenter measures his wood carefully. We can use "to listen" with simple or continuous tenses. Dynamic sense (a kind of action) Continuous Be quiet. We use "to hear" with simple tenses only. to believe. there is no real action. a kind of activity. In sense 2. no activity. Look at these examples: Stative sense (no real action) Simple only I think she is beautiful. When we use the stative sense. there is a kind of action. We are having . For the other sense we can use a continuous or simple tense.) 2. You make an effort to hear. to use your brain to solve a problem (example: I am thinking about my homework. answer in a few days. the verb to think has two different senses: 1. new carpet. This sense is called "stative". There is a kind of action or activity. We consider every job application very carefully. Compare "to hear" and "to listen". But "to listen" means "to try to hear".
This is when the real sense of the verb is "to act" or "to behave".) Is she beautiful? (not Is she being beautiful?) Were you late? (not Were you being late?) Sometimes. ask yourself the question: "Is there any real action or activity?" Be and Continuous Tenses The verb be can be an auxiliary verb (Marie is learning English) or a main verb (Marie is French). she.119 children.) John is being careful. dinner now. every day.) They were being really stupid.) Why is he being so selfish? (Why is he acting so selfishly at the moment?) Notice that we also make a difference between "to be sick" and "to be being sick": • • She is sick (= she is not well) She is being sick (= she is vomiting) EnglishClub.com Tip If you have a doubt about a particular verb.we don't know.it's her nature. (John is acting carefully now. Compare the following examples: Mary is a careful person. we say: • • • London is the capital of the UK.) Is he always so stupid? (Is that his personality?) Andrew is not usually selfish. For example. On this page we look at the verb be as a main verb. Also. of course. but maybe he is not always careful . we can use the verb be with a continuous tense. Usually we use simple tenses with the verb be as a main verb.com Tip Here is the structure of the verb be in the continuous present tense: I am being You are being He. (They were behaving really stupidly at that moment. it is being We are being You are being They are being . (It is not Andrew's character to be selfish. the action is temporary. (not London is being the capital of the UK. (Mary is always careful . EnglishClub. however.
15 Used to do & Be used to These two expressions look the same. to do? + ? I I Did EnglishClub. EnglishClub. but actually they are completely different. we say use to (without the d) • when there is no did in the sentence. It is not a tense but it is like a tense.120 1. It is a special expression. we say used to (with the d) How do we use used to do? We use this expression to talk about: • • an activity that we did regularly in the past (like a habit) a situation that was true in the past .com Tip Used or use? • when there is did in the sentence. to do. In this lesson we look at the structure and use of both expressions. followed by a quiz to check your understanding: • • Used to do Be used to Used to do We use used to do to talk about the past. How do we make used to do? The structure is: subject auxiliary did (not) main verb use infinitive used did you not use use to do. They have different meanings.com Tip Do not confuse used to do with with the expression be used to. We use the expression used to do for the past only.
How do we make be used to? The structure is: subject + be + used to + object .121 I used to smoke. the past the present Now she works in a bank. He used to watch a lot of TV. Did you use to smoke? Be used to Be used to something Be used to doing Be used to is an expression. it is like saying "I am accustomed to Thailand. present future + + + + ? She used to work in a shop. Now I go swimming. I didn't use to go swimming. Now there is a supermarket here. There used to be a cinema here. They used to be married. Now they are divorced. It is not a tense." EnglishClub. ////////////// past Look at these examples. Now he doesn't watch much TV.com Tip Do not confuse be used to with with the special construction used to do. They have different meanings. If I say "I am used to Thailand".
I am Japanese. For example: • I am used to driving on the left. horses. It means that it is not a problem for me to drive on the left of the road. horses? + ? I He We Are not used to used to used to If the object is a verb. I am used to working hard.com Tip Why do we use -ing for a verb after be used to? Because we always use -ing for a verb after a preposition and the to is a preposition! How do we use be used to? The be used to expression is for talking about something that is familiar to us or easy for us. • • • I am used to hard work. Of course. used to cooking. but when I go to Japan it is easy for me to drive on the left because "I am used to it". Now I am living in the USA where people drive on the right. horses. In Japan.122 subject main verb be am is aren't you (not) used to used to object horses. we use the -ing form: subject main verb be (not) am is aren't you not used to object verb+ing used to cooking. He is not used to New York. Look at these examples. used to cooking. + ? I He We Are EnglishClub. used to cooking. . I drive on the right in the USA. people drive on the left.
Look at these examples: • • • When we lived in Bangkok. we were used to hot weather.123 • • • He isn't used to living in New York. . I have been used to snakes for a long time. We just conjugate the verb be in the tense that we need. Are you used to fast food? Are you used to eating quickly? Be used to with other tenses We can use be used to in any tense. You will soon be used to living alone.
We're not going to paint our bedroom tomorrow. The decision was made before speaking. . He says he's going to buy a Porsche. we had an intention or plan before speaking. the exam. swimming. How do we make a sentence with "going to"? The structure is: subject + be + going + infinitive The verb "be" is conjugated (past. subject be am (not) going going going is isn't you not going going going infinitive to buy to go to take to rain. Look at these examples: • • • Jo has won the lottery. We have already made a decision before speaking. It is a special expression to talk about the future.124 1.16 going to going to is not a tense. present or future). + + ? I I'm He It Are How do we use "going to"? going to (for intention) We use going to when we have the intention to do something before we speak. When are you going to go on holiday? In these examples. to paint the house? a new car.
30! You're going to miss the train! I crashed the company car. We are saying what we think will happen. Our prediction is based on present evidence.125 going to (for prediction) We often use going to to make a prediction about the future. It's 8. Here are some examples: • • • The sky is very black. . It's going to snow. My boss isn't going to be very happy! In these examples. the time. the present situation (black sky. damaged car) gives us a good idea of what is going to happen.
but technically there are no future tenses in English. Look at these examples: • • • Hold on. We make the decision at the time of speaking. We often use "will" with the verb "to think": .com Tip Although we often talk about "future tenses". for example: I will call you tonight. technically there are no future tenses in English—only different ways of talking about the future. We will see what we can do to help you. We can be 100% sure or certain about the past and the present. using special constructions. We often call this the "future simple tense". other tenses or modal verbs.17 Future Time The future is uncertain. we had no firm plan before speaking.126 1. We know the present. I'll get a pen. The decision is made at the time of speaking. We do not know the future. followed by a quiz to check your understanding: • • • • • Will: for no prior plan and prediction Going to: for intention and prediction Present Continuous: for prior plan Present Simple: for schedule Summary EnglishClub. Will: no prior plan We use will when there is no prior plan or decision to do something before we speak. It is usually the degree of certainty about the future that decides our choice of structure or tense. In these examples. Will One of the most common ways to talk about the future is with will. the word will is a modal auxiliary verb. We know the past. In this lesson we look at four of the most common ways to talk about the future. In English there are several structures and tenses to talk about the future. Maybe we'll stay in and watch television tonight. In this construction. But we can never be 100% certain about the future.
Going to: prediction We often use "going to" to make a prediction about the future. We have already made a decision before speaking. Who do you think will get the job? Will + to be The verb "to be" is an exception with "will". We are saying what seems sure to happen. I think I'll have a holiday next year. we can use "will" with "to be".com Tip The verb to be is always exceptional! Going to Going to: intention We use the special "going to" construction when we have the intention to do something before we speak. we had an intention or plan before speaking. EnglishClub. We are saying what we think will happen.30 am. and we are not speaking spontaneously. Here are some examples: • • • It will rain tomorrow.127 • • • I think I'll go to the gym tomorrow. Will: prediction We often use "will" to make a prediction about the future. The meeting will be at 9. I don't think I'll buy that car. Look at these examples: • • • I will be in London tomorrow. Look at these examples: • • • I have won $1. Our prediction is based on evidence. there is no firm plan. I am going to buy a new TV. There will be 50 people at the party. People won't go to Jupiter before the 22nd century. The decision was made before we spoke. Again. Here are some examples: . Even when we have a very firm plan.000. When are you going to go on holiday? In these examples. We're not going to see my mother tomorrow.
the present situation (black sky/the time/damaged car) gives us a good idea of what is going to happen.30! You're going to miss the train! I crashed the company car.) We use the present continuous only when a plan exists before we speak. They can’t play tennis with you tomorrow. Look at these examples: • • • Mary is taking her music exam next year.) Present Continuous: for prior plan We often use the present continuous tense to talk about the future. black cloud in the sky and if it doesn't rain I'll be very surprised. it doen't matter which we use." (There's a big. "in June" etc.com Tip Sometimes there is no real difference between an intention ("Going To") and a plan (Continuous Present). "at 6. My boss isn't going to be very happy! In these examples. It is going to snow. Of course. They 're working. EnglishClub. EnglishClub.) • We use going to for prediction when there is some real evidence: "It's going to rain. The future word may be clearly expressed or understood from the context. "next week". We usually also use a future word (expressed or understood) like "tomorrow". • We're painting the bedroom tomorrow. but if we add a future word. we can use it to talk about the future. .30pm". we normally use the present continuous to talk about action happening in the present. • We're going to paint the bedroom tomorrow." (It's my feeling but I can't be sure.com Tip • We use will for prediction when we have no real evidence: "It will rain tomorrow.128 • • • The sky is very black. We’re going to the theatre on Friday. "next week". we often use the present simple to express the future. the take-off time for a plane). It's 8. In this case. Present Simple: for schedule When an event is on a schedule or timetable (for example. (By "future word" we mean words like "tomorrow".
18 For & Since for Time . arrive. I'll answer the phone. open. and there are many variables. John starts work next week. Future Time: Summary When we speak. the tense we choose can express how we "see" the future. even our personal feelings about the future. This table should help you to think about the "concept" of the future in English. Tomorrow is Thursday. % probability before speaker speaks of event happening structure 0% 70% 90% 99. end. EnglishClub. return Look at these sentences: • • • The train leaves Detroit at 9pm tonight. This table gives a simple scale of probability for each structure.129 Only a few verbs are used in this way. close. It certainly expresses what we believe to be the probability (the chance. come. This concept does not exist in all languages. leave.999% will going to present continuous present simple used for no plan intention plan schedule example Don't get up. This is important in English. the reality) of something happening or whether we have already decided to do it. We're going to watch TV tonight. for example: • be. When we speak about the future. but it is rather important in English. My plane takes off at 6. (The speakers of any language that can do this must all be millionaires!) 1. we choose the tense that we use. start. begin. because the tense we choose expresses more than just a simple fact.00am tomorrow. finish. It is not exact because language is not a science.com Tip It is impossible in English to express the future with 100% certainty. I'm taking my exam in June.
He has been living in Paris for three months. since + point A point is a precise moment in time." Since is normally used with perfect tenses.." For can be used with all tenses. "all the time" etc. for + period A period is a duration of time. 20 minutes three days 6 months 4 years 2 centuries a long time ever etc perfect tenses since. for example: 9 o'clock. for a period (from start to end) since a point (up to now) >===< ·===>| all tenses for. For means "from the beginning of the period until the end of the period. Since means "from a point in the past until now.130 We often use for and since when talking about time. 9am Monday January 1997 1500 I left school the beginning of time etc For can be used with all tenses. for example: 5 minutes.. 6 years. I worked at that bank for five years.. Will the universe continue for ever? For is not used with "all day".. He has lived in Bangkok for a long time. Here are a few examples: • • • • • • They study for two hours every day. Monday. 2 weeks. They are studying for three hours today. • I was there all day. (not *for all day) . 1st January.
with no reference to time. • Since he didn't study he didn't pass the exam. 2 English Nouns .": • • It is a year since I saw her. He has been working since he arrived..131 Since is normally used with perfect tenses: • • • He has been here since 9am. • Is this the train for London? • Since you ask. Since can also be used in the structure "It is [period] since. How long is it since you got married? EnglishClub.. I had lived in New York since my childhood.com Tip Both for and since also have different meanings. I'll say yes. Here are some examples: • This is for you.
In simple terms. Food (noun) is something you eat (verb). John.1 What are Nouns? What do nouns do? What's their job? Why are they important? How can I recognize a noun? 2. 2.132 It's not easy to describe a noun. Or happiness. The simple definition is: "a person. dog. my parents' house 2. rice. love. place or thing". money.3 Proper Nouns (Names) Do we say "Atlantic Ocean" or "the Atlantic Ocean"? Should I write "february" or "February"? 2. A human being (noun) is something you are (verb). Function 1) Noun Ending There are certain word endings that show that a word is a noun. nouns are "things" (and verbs are "actions"). dog/dogs. America Thing: table.4 Possessive 's Adding 's or ' to show possession. woman. town. hair(s) Shirley. Thailand. Or human being. Ending 2. Here are some examples: • • • Person: man. Happiness (noun) is something you want (verb). car. monkey The problem with this definition is that it does not explain why "love" is a noun but can also be a verb. Mary Place: home. Mr Jeckyll. Sony John's car. Position 3. Uncountable Nouns Why is this important? Why do some nouns have no plural? 2.1 What are Nouns? It is not easy to define a noun. banana. Like food. Another (more complicated) way of recognizing a noun is by its: 1.2 Countable Nouns. music. countryside. for example: • • -ity > nationality -ment > appointment . teacher. office.
an. Indian doctor this difficult word my brown and white house such crass stupidity 3) Function in a Sentence Nouns have certain functions (jobs) in a sentence. Nouns often come after a determiner. for example: • • • subject of verb > Doctors work hard. • • • • • • a great relief a peaceful afternoon the tall. object of verb > He likes coffee. the noun "spoonful" ends in -ful. 2. For example. It could be a pronoun or a phrase.) • • • • • • a relief an afternoon the doctor this word my house such stupidity Nouns often come after one or more adjectives. subject and object of verb > Teachers teach students. the noun is "doctor" but the subject is "My doctor". 2) Position in Sentence We can often recognise a noun by its position in the sentence. (A "determiner" is a word like a.2 Countable and Uncountable Nouns English nouns are often described as "countable" or "uncountable". In the sentence "My doctor works hard". . this. but the adjective "careful" also ends in -ful. my. the. such. But the subject or object of a sentence is not always a noun.133 • • • -ness > happiness -ation > relation -hood > childhood But this is not is not true for the word endings of all nouns.
three or more pens. bag Countable nouns can be singular or plural: • • My dog is playing. Have you got any pens? We can use a few and many with countable nouns: • I've got a few dollars. We can count pens. we must use a word like a/the/my/this with it: • • I want an orange. My dogs are hungry. person bottle. We can have one. man. animal. Bottles can break. (not I want orange. suitcase.134 In this lesson we look at: • • • Countable nouns Uncountable nouns Nouns that can be countable and uncountable Countable Nouns Countable nouns are easy to recognize. For example: "pen". We can use some and any with countable nouns: • • I've got some dollars. We can use the indefinite article a/an with countable nouns: • A dog is an animal. They are things that we can count. . two. we can use it alone: • • I like oranges. cat. box. litre coin. When a countable noun is singular. chair. note. fork table. Here are some more countable nouns: • • • • • dog. plate. dollar cup.) Where is my bottle? (not Where is bottle?) When a countable noun is plural.
information. news furniture. love.com Tip "People" is countable. gas. We use a singular verb. concepts etc that we cannot divide into separate elements. power money. Your luggage looks heavy. We cannot say "an information" or "a music". Have you got any rice? We can use a little and much with uncountable nouns: • • I've got a little money. For example. happiness advice.com Tip Uncountable nouns are also called "mass nouns". "People" is the plural of "person". sugar. Here are some more uncountable nouns: • • • • • • music. There is one person here. We can count people. We can count "bottles of milk" or "litres of milk".135 • I haven't got many pens. we cannot count "milk". luggage rice. englishclub. englishclub. We do not usually use the indefinite article a/an with uncountable nouns. But we can say a something of: • • • a piece of news a bottle of water a grain of rice We can use some and any with uncountable nouns: • • I've got some money. water electricity. There are three people here. butter. For example: • • This news is very important. We cannot "count" them. . art. I haven't got much rice. currency We usually treat uncountable nouns as singular. but we cannot count "milk" itself. Uncountable Nouns Uncountable nouns are substances.
3 Proper Nouns (Names) A proper noun is the special word (or name) that we use for a person. London. Have you got some paper? Is there room for me to sit here? Have you got time for a coffee? I have no money. 2. like John. But if we are thinking of a cup or a glass. Shhhhh! I thought I heard a noise. for example): · Two teas and one coffee please. Have you got a paper to read? (= newspaper) Our house has seven rooms.com Tip Drinks (coffee. Countable There are two hairs in my coffee! There are two lights in our bedroom. Proper nouns have special rules. France or Sony. There's too much light! It's difficult to work when there is too much noise. We had a great time at the party. Macbeth is one of Shakespeare's greatest works. A name is a noun. it's a good idea to learn whether it's countable or uncountable. I need work! englishclub. we can say (in a restaurant. but a very special noun—a proper noun. . I want to draw a picture. often with a change of meaning. Nouns that can be Countable and Uncountable Sometimes. the same noun can be countable and uncountable. Close the curtain. hair light noise paper room time work Uncountable I don't have much hair. place or organization. Marie.136 When you learn a new word. water. orange juice) are usually uncountable.
followed by a quiz to check your understanding: • • • Using Capital Letters with Proper Nouns Proper Nouns without THE Proper Nouns with THE Using Capital Letters with Proper Nouns We always use a Capital Letter for the first letter of a proper noun (name). This includes names of people. London Ford. The last day in January is a Monday. boy woman. For example: • • • • • They like John. She works for Sony. Proper Nouns without THE We do not use “the” with names of people. places. day of the week book. We saw Titanic in the Odeon Cinema. Titanic In this lesson we look at the uses of proper nouns. companies. film proper noun John Mary England. girl country.137 common noun man. restaurant month. Sony Maceys. For example: first names Bill (not *the Bill) . town company shop. days of the week and months.) I live in England. (not *They like john. Sunday War & Peace. McDonalds January.
net General Motors. Maceys Barclays Bank Steve’s Hotel. Italy. British Airways Warner Brothers. North America Corsica Everest Exception! If a country name includes “States”. St Peter’s Cathedral We do not normally use “the” with names of places. cathedrals Harrods. Ford. regions countries continents islands mountains Washington (not *the Washington). Sony. we use “the”: . Brazil Asia. Joe’s Café. Eastern Europe England. Europe. EnglishCLUB. For example: towns states. Brown & Son Ltd We do not normally use “the” for shops. banks. Air France. Marks & Spencer. hotels etc named after a founder or other person (with -’s or -s). restaurants churches. For example: • • • Renault. Tokyo Texas.138 Hilary Clinton surnames Gates full names Hilary Gates We do not normally use “the” with names of companies. “Kingdom”. McDonalds St John’s Church. Paris. Kent. “Republic” etc. For example: shops banks hotels.
the professor my uncle. Mrs Clinton. the king the captain. Aunt Jill Mr Gates (not *the Mr Gates). squares. We have a fantastic view across the lake. streets. the US. the detective the doctor. Kew Gardens . your aunt President Bush (not *the President Bush) Captain Kirk. Who was the president before President Kennedy? We do not use “the” with “Lake/Mount + Name”: the lake the mount Lake Victoria Mount Everest Look at this example sentence: • We live beside Lake Victoria. Trenholme Road. the UK the French Republic We do not use “the” with “President/Doctor/Mr etc + Name”: the president. Dr Well. Detective Colombo Doctor Well. parks etc: streets etc squares etc parks etc Oxford Street. Piccadilly Circus Central Park. I wanted to speak to Doctor Brown. Oundle Place. Professor Dolittle Uncle Jack. the United States of America. Miss Black Look at these example sentences: • • • I wanted to speak to the doctor. Fifth Avenue Trafalgar Square.139 states kingdom republic the United States. We do not normally use “the” for roads. the USA the United Kingdom.
140 Many big. St Paul’s Cathedral Heathrow Airport. seas and oceans: canals rivers seas oceans the Suez Canal the River Nile. we do not normally use “the”: people places Kennedy Airport. Kennedy Airport). “Republic” etc: States the United States of America/the USA Kingdom the United Kingdom/the UK Republic the French Republic We normally use “the” for names of canals. important buildings have names made of two words (for example. “Kingdom”. for example) countries island groups mountain ranges Look at these sentences: the Clintons the Philippines. rivers. Waterloo Station. If the first word is the name of a person or place. Edinburgh Castle Proper Nouns with THE We normally use "the" for country names that include “States”. the Pacific We normally use “the” for plural names of people and places: people (families. the Nile the Mediterranean Sea. the British Isles the Himalayas. the Alps . the United States the Virgin Islands. Alexander Palace. the Mediterranean the Pacific Ocean.
4 Possessive 's When we want to show that something belongs to somebody or something. We normally use “the” with the following sorts of names: hotels. restaurants banks cinemas. the Crystal Palace the Daily Telegraph.141 • • • I saw the Clintons today. the European Union We normally use “the” for names made with “…of…”: • • • • • • the Tower of London the Gulf of Siam the Tropic of Cancer the London School of Economics the Bank of France the Statue of Liberty 2. for example: • • the boy's ball (one boy) the boys' ball (two or more boys) Notice that the number of balls does not matter. the ABC Cinema the British Museum. theatres museums buildings newspapers organisations the Ritz Hotel. one ball more than one ball . the Peking Restaurant the National Westminster Bank the Royal Theatre. we usually add 's to a singular noun and an apostrophe (') to a plural noun. the National Gallery the White House. It was Bill’s birthday. the BBC. the Sunday Post the United Nations. Mount Everest is in the Himalayas. Trinidad is the largest island in the West Indies. The structure is influenced by the possessor and not the possessed.
the boyfriend of my sister 2.142 one boy more than one boy the boy's ball the boys' ball the boy's balls the boys' balls ENGLISH CLUB TIP Although we can use "of" to show possession. classical names) to just add the apostrophe ('): • Who was Jesus' father? Irregular Plurals Some nouns have irregular plural forms without "s" (man > men). But it is possible (especially with older. To show possession. my sister's boyfriend The structure can be used for a whole phrase: • • • the man next door's mother (the mother of the man next door) the Queen of England's poodles (the poodles of the Queen of England) the President of the USA's secretary (the secretary of the President of the USA) Proper Nouns (Names) We very often use possessive 's with names: • • • • This is Mary's car. we usually treat it like any other singular noun. and add 's: • This is Charles's chair. The following phrases have the same meaning. but #2 is more usual and natural: 1. Where is Ram's telephone? Who took Anthony's pen? I like Tara's hair. When a name ends in "s". it is more usual to use possessive 's. we usually add 's to the plural form of these nouns: singular noun my child's dog the man's work plural noun my children's dog the men's work .
They add information to a sentence. An or The? When do we say "the dog" and when do we say "a dog"? (On this page we talk only about singular.3 Comparative Adjectives 3. not certain. countable nouns. long. We use "indefinite" to mean not sure. .2 Adjective Order 3.4 Superlative Adjectives the. 3. more exciting the richest. but adjectives are still very useful words. That may be true.) The and A/An are called "articles". some. the most exciting 3. certain. and tell us more about nouns and pronouns. "Definite" is particular. this. We divide them into "definite" and "indefinite" like this: Articles Definite The Indefinite A. An We use "definite" to mean sure. "Indefinite" is general.1 Determiners 3.1 Determiners The or A/An? Each and Every Some and Any Determiners: A.143 the mouse's cage a person's clothes the mice's cage people's clothes 3 English Adjectives It is said that the adjective is the enemy of the noun. dark brown richer. any beautiful. a/an.
John had an omelette for lunch. It depends on the situation. Look at these examples: The • • • • • A. She asked the man if he could buy the dress for her. Each = every one separately.) Where is the umbrella? (We already have an umbrella. An: • A man and a woman were walking in Oxford Street. (Any umbrella. I saw a star last night. We want to buy an umbrella. all. Every = each. a particular umbrella. Think of the sky at night. • • • • • I was born in a town. He said: "Do you think the shop will accept a cheque? I don't have a credit card.) This little story should help you understand the difference between The and A. . The woman saw a dress that she liked in a shop. So normally we could say: • • I saw the moon last night. we use a or an. often we can use The or A/An for the same word." Determiners: Each. Verbs with each and every are always conjugated in the singular. not a particular umbrella.144 When we are talking about one thing in particular. An The capital of France is Paris. Look at these examples: • • We want to buy an umbrella. Have you cleaned the car? There are six eggs in the fridge. We are looking for our umbrella. I have found the book that I lost. Every Each and every have similar but not always identical meanings. In the sky there is 1 moon and millions of stars. When we are talking about one thing in general. James Bond ordered a drink. Have you got a pen? Of course. Please switch off the TV when you finish. we use the.
Every is used to say how often something happens: • • There is a plane to Bangkok every day.145 Sometimes. He gave a medal to each of them. It sees things or people as singular. Each can be followed by 'of': • • The President spoke to each of the soldiers. Each artist sees things differently. The bus leaves every hour. Every is half-way between each and all. each and every have the same meaning: • • Prices go up each year. Each can be used in front of the verb: • The soldiers each received a medal. a few or a small number or amount Any = one. It emphasizes individuality. Each expresses the idea of 'one by one'. The President gave each soldier a medal. Prices go up every year. Every cannot be used for 2 things. Consider the following: • • • • • Every artist is sensitive. some or all . but in a group or in general. Determiners: Some and Any Some = a little. each can be used: • He was carrying a suitcase in each hand. For 2 things. But often they are not exactly the same. Every soldier saluted as the President arrived. Each soldier received a medal from the President.
• • I refused to give them any money. Look at these examples: • • • • • • • • • • • • He needs some stamps. I'm thirsty. I don't want anything to drink. we use something/anything and somebody/anybody in the same way as some/any. He doesn't need any stamps. Do you have any money? I don't have $1 and I don't have $10 and I don't have $1. I can see somebody coming. I can stay.2 Adjective Order . we use some in positive (+) sentences and any in negative (-) and question (?) sentences. I want something to drink. (= I did not give them any money) She finished the test without any difficulty. Do you have $1 or $10 or $1. I don't have any homework to do. Does he need any stamps? Do you have any homework to do? Do you want anything to drink? Can you see anybody coming? We use any in a positive sentence when the real sense is negative. I can't see anybody coming.146 Usually. I don't have any money.000? example + ? I have some money. I must go. I have $0. some any I have $10. I'm not thirsty.000. (We could say that it is not a real question.000. (= she did not have any difficulty) Sometimes we use some in a question.000. when we expect a positive YES answer.) • • Would you like some more tea? Could I have some sugar. please? 3. In general. I have some homework to do. because we think we know the answer already.
your.) 2 The normal order for fact adjectives is size. before the noun 2.147 There are 2 basic positions for adjectives: 1. get. She was wearing a beautiful long red dress. shape. seem. become. What is the correct order for two or more adjectives? 1 The general order is: opinion.. three) . the) possessives (my.) demonstratives (this. fact: • a nice French car (not 'a French nice car') ('Opinion' is what you think about something. any. My car is big. after certain verbs (be. 'Fact' is what is definitely true about something. two.. smell. age. even though they are fact adjectives: • • • • • articles (a.. verb adjective In this lesson we look at the position of adjectives in a sentence. taste) adjective 1 2 I like big noun cars. wooden Chinese table 3 Determiners usually come first. material. square.) numbers (one.. sound. that. feel. few.. followed by a quiz to check your understanding: • • Adjective before noun Adjective after certain verbs Adjective Before Noun We sometimes use more than one adjective before the noun: • • I like big black dogs.. many.) quantifiers (some. black. colour. old. origin: • a big. look.
blue and yellow dress. . That new film doesn't sound very interesting. This towel feels damp. Dinner smells good tonight. Even though the adjective is after the verb. it does not describe the verb. Your friend looks nice. Is it getting dark? The examination did not seem difficult. This milk tastes sour. noun When we want to use two colour adjectives. Consider the following conversations: Conversation 1 A 'I want to buy a round table. For example: subject verb adjective • • • • • • • • • Ram is English. It describes the subject of the verb (usually a noun or pronoun). These rules are not always rigid. B 'Do you want a round old table or a square old table?' Adjective After Verb We can use an adjective after certain verbs. She was wearing a long.148 Here is an example with opinion and fact adjectives: adjectives determiner opinion fact age Two nice old shape round colour red candles.' B 'Do you want a new round table or an old round table?' Conversation 2 A 'I want to buy an old table'. Because she had to wait. she became impatient. we join them with 'and': • • Newspapers are usually black and white.
Perhaps they are the same in some ways and different in other ways.149 3. double the last consonant Variation: if the adjective ends in -y. intellectual modern > more modern expensive > more expensive Normal rule: use 'more' Tip With some 2-syllable adjectives. we can "compare" them. just add -r Variation: if the adjective ends in consonant. We can see if they are the same or different. A B We can use comparative adjectives to describe the differences. pleasant expensive. easy old > older late > later big > bigger happy > happier Normal rule: add '-er' Variation: if the adjective ends in -e." Formation of Comparative Adjectives There are two ways to form a comparative adjective: • • short adjectives: add '-er' long adjectives: use 'more' Short adjectives • • 1-syllable adjectives 2-syllable adjectives ending in -y old. consonant. we can use '-er' or 'more': .3 Comparative Adjectives When we talk about 2 things. "A is bigger than B. vowel. change the -y to -i Long adjectives • • 2-syllable adjectives not ending in -y all adjectives of 3 or more syllables modern. fast happy.
only 2 things). But Chris is 1m85. Is French more difficult than English? If we talk about the two planets Earth and Mars.4 Superlative Adjectives .000 things.150 • • • • quiet > quieter/more quiet clever > cleverer/more clever narrow > narrower/more narrow simple > simpler/more simple Exception! The following adjectives have irregular forms: • • • • good > better well (healthy) > better bad > worse far > farther/further Use of Comparative Adjectives We use comparative adjectives when talking about 2 things (not 3 or 10 or 1. Look at these examples: • • • • John is 1m80.000. the comparative adjective is followed by 'than'.790 228 Mars is smaller than Earth. He is taller than John. 24 1 22 25 2 -23 3. He is tall. Often. America is big. we can compare them like this: Earth Diameter (km) Distance from Sun (million km) Length of day (hours) Moons Surface temperature (°C) 12. Mars is colder than Earth. Mars has more moons than Earth. Mars is more distant from the Sun. I want to have a more powerful computer.760 150 Mars 6. A day on Mars is slightly longer than a day on Earth. But Russia is bigger.
fast happy. Short adjectives 1-syllable adjectives 2-syllable adjectives ending in -y Normal rule: add '-est' Variation: if the adjective ends in -e. pleasant expensive. "A is the biggest. there are two ways to form a superlative adjective: short adjectives: add '-est' long adjectives: use 'most' We also usually add 'the' at the beginning." B C Formation of Superlative Adjectives As with comparative adjectives. vowel. just add -st Variation: if the adjective ends in consonant.151 Comparison is between 2 things: "A is bigger than B." A A • • B But the superlative is the extreme between 3 or more things. double the last consonant Variation: if the adjective ends in -y. intellectual modern > the most modern expensive > the most old. consonant. easy old > the oldest late > the latest big > the biggest happy > the happiest . change the -y to -i Long adjectives 2-syllable adjectives not ending in -y all adjectives of 3 or more syllables Normal rule: use 'most' modern.
Jupiter is the most distant from the Sun. Chris is 1m85. Chris is the tallest.152 expensive Tip With some 2-syllable adjectives. we do not use "the": . When we compare one thing with itself. Jupiter has the most moons.800 778 10 16 -150 Jupiter is the biggest. Look at these examples: • • • John is 1m75. we can use superlatives like this: Earth Diameter (km) Distance from Sun (million km) Length of day (hours) Moons Surface temperature (°C) 12. America. If we talk about the three planets Earth.760 150 24 1 22 Mars 6. Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. China and Russia are big countries. Mars and Jupiter.790 228 25 2 -23 Jupiter 142. we can use '-est' or 'most': • • • • quiet > the quietest/most quiet clever > the cleverest/most clever narrow > the narrowest/most narrow simple > the simplest/most simple Exception! The following adjectives have irregular forms: • • • good > the best bad > the worst far > the furthest Use of Superlative Adjectives We use a superlative adjective to describe 1 thing in a group of 3 or more things. Jupiter is the coldest. Jupiter has the shortest day. David is 1m80. But Russia is the biggest.
(not the most generous) 4 Adverbs .153 • • England is coldest in winter. (not the coldest) My boss is most generous when we get a big order.
It's immediately inside the door. or even other adverbs (It works very well). Position 1.2 Adverbs of Frequency 4. Modify another adverb: .She never smokes. (How does John speak?) . Modify a prepositional phrase: . In the following examples. Function (Job) 2. (When does she smoke?) Modify an adjective: . Form 3. adjectives and other adverbs. They can: • Modify a whole sentence: . We can usually recognize an adverb by its: 1.Mary lives locally. Form Many adverbs end in -ly. • • But adverbs have other functions.She drives incredibly slowly. Function The principal job of an adverb is to modify (give more information about) verbs. the adverb is in bold and the word that it modifies is in italics.1 What are Adverbs? 4. 4. (Where does Mary live?) . An adverb "qualifies" or "modifies" a verb (The man ran quickly).154 An adverb is a word that tells us more about a verb. • 2. We form such adverbs by adding -ly to the adjective.He is really handsome. But adverbs can also modify adjectives (Tara is really beautiful). Here are some examples: .1 What are Adverbs? Many different kinds of word are called adverbs.Obviously. too.John speaks loudly. I can't know everything. • Modify a verb: .
She is always late. Some adverbs have no particular form. I have often done that. is an adjective. honestly. . • • 4. softly.Now we will study adverbs. often. I play tennis occasionally. interestingly But not all words that end in -ly are adverbs. for example: • well. frequently and usually can also go at the beginning or end of a sentence: • • Sometimes they come and stay with us. Position Adverbs have three main positions in the sentence: • Front (before the subject): .We study adverbs carefully. Adverbs of frequency come before the main verb (except the main verb "to be"): • • • We usually go shopping on Saturday. strongly. End (after the verb or object): . often.155 • quickly. "Friendly". never. John eats meat very seldom. Occasionally. sometimes. fast. Rarely and seldom can also go at the end of a sentence (often with "very"): • • We see them rarely. still 3. very.2 Adverbs of Frequency Adverbs of Frequency answer the question "How often?" or "How frequently?" They tell us how often somebody does something.We often study adverbs. for example. Middle (between the subject and the main verb): . always.
156 5 Pronouns .
The teacher corrected our homework. If we didn't have pronouns. we can say. we would have to repeat a lot of nouns. Like: he.. themselves. This homework is yours. John did the homework himself. . Personal pronouns list includes possessive adjectives for convenience and comparison. Pronouns number person gender* subject 1st 2nd singular 3rd m/f m/f M F N 1st plural 2nd 3rd m/f m/f m/f/n I you he she it we you they object me you him her it us you them possessive Mine Yours His Hers Its Ours Yours Theirs reflexive myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves Possessive adjectives My Your His Her Its Our Your Their * m=male f=female n=neuter pronoun subject object possessive reflexive possessive adjective Examples- She likes homework.157 Pronouns are small words that take the place of a noun. The President is pompous. Do you like the President? I don't like the President.Do you like the President? I don't like her. The teacher gave me some homework. With pronouns. each. you. ours. She is pompous.. some.
in the box. in May. By "noun" we include: • • • • • noun (dog. and usually coming in front of. Here is a short list of 70 of the more common one-word prepositions. a noun or pronoun and expressing a relation to another word or element. It is never followed by a verb. us) noun group (my first job) gerund (swimming) A preposition cannot be followed by a verb. Rule. Mary) pronoun (you. the prepositions of.(separate doc) 6. him. In fact. money. Here are some examples: .1 List of English Prepositions There are more than 100 prepositions in English.158 6 English Prepositions A preposition is a word governing. verbs etc).4 Prepositions of Time: at. Many of these prepositions have more than one meaning. on at the bus stop.1 List of English Prepositions 6. this rule has no exceptions.A preposition is followed by a "noun". Prepositions are important words. unlike most rules. we must use the "-ing" form which is really a gerund or verb in noun form. on the wall at Christmas. A full list of 150 prepositions (including one-word and complex prepositions with 370 example sentences) is English Prepositions Listed. to and in are among the ten most frequent words in English. Yet this is a very small number when you think of the thousands of other words (nouns. We use individual prepositions more frequently than other individual words. on 6.2 A Simple Rule for Prepositions in English 6. on Friday 6.2 English Preposition Rule There is one very simple rule about prepositions. as in: • • She left before breakfast What did you come for? 6.3 Prepositions of Place: at. Please refer to a dictionary for precise meaning and usage. in. in. love) proper noun (name) (Bangkok. If we want to follow a preposition by a verb. And.
Question: In the following sentences. coming. "to smoke"). we use: • • • at for a POINT in for an ENCLOSED SPACE on for a SURFACE in ENCLOSED SPACE in the garden in London in France on SURFACE on the wall on the ceiling on the door At POINT at the corner at the bus stop at the door . you. English people. Japan.159 Subject + verb The food is She lives Tara is looking The letter is Pascal is used She isn't used I ate preposition On In For Under To To before "noun" the table.3 Prepositions of Place: at. She used to smoke. It is part of the infinitive ("to go". "to" is not a preposition. working. why is "to" followed by a verb? That should be impossible. your blue book. according to the rule: • • I would like to go now. Answer: In these sentences. in. on In general. 6.
Notice the use of the prepositions of place at. on television on the left. on a motorbike on a horse. The shop is at the end of the street. When will you arrive at the office? Do you work in an office? I have a meeting in New York. You are standing on my foot. on an elephant on the radio. in and on in these standard expressions: At at home at work at school at university at college at the top at the bottom at the side in in a car in a taxi in a helicopter in a boat in a lift (elevator) in the newspaper in the sky in a row On on a bus on a train on a plane on a ship on a bicycle. There was a "no smoking" sign on the wall. There are no prices on this menu. My plane stopped at Dubai and Hanoi and arrived in Bangkok two hours late. on the right . Do you live in Japan? Jupiter is in the Solar System.160 at the top of the page in a box on the cover on the floor on the carpet on the menu on a page at the end of the road in my pocket at the entrance at the crossroads at the entrance in my wallet in a building in a car Look at these examples: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Jane is waiting for you at the bus stop. I live on the 7th floor at 21 Oxford Street in London. The author's name is on the cover of the book.
161 at reception in Oxford Street on the way 6. The shop closes at midnight.4 Prepositions of Time: at. YEARS. CENTURIES and LONG PERIODS on for DAYS and DATES in MONTHS. Do you think we will go to Jupiter in the future? There should be a lot of progress in the next century. CENTURIES and LONG PERIODS in May in summer in the summer in 1990 in the 1990s in the next century in the Ice Age in the past/future On DAYS and DATES on Sunday on Tuesdays on 6 March on 25 Dec. Do you work on Mondays? Her birthday is on 20 November. YEARS. it often snows in December. 2010 on Christmas Day on Independence Day on my birthday on New Year's Eve At PRECISE TIME at 3 o'clock at 10. In England. on We use: • • • at for a PRECISE TIME in for MONTHS. Jane went home at lunchtime. . in.30am at noon at dinnertime at bedtime at sunrise at sunset at the moment Look at these examples: • • • • • • • • I have a meeting at 9am.
162 • Where will you be on New Year's Day? Notice the use of the preposition of time at in the following standard expressions: Expression at night at the weekend at Christmas/Easter at the same time at present Example The stars shine at night. A conjunction joins two parts of a sentence. (not in this evening) 7 Conjunctions Conjunctions are words that join. He's not home at present. (not in last June) He's coming back next Tuesday. Notice the use of the prepositions of time in and on in these common expressions: in in the morning in the mornings in the afternoon(s) in the evening(s) on on Tuesday morning on Saturday mornings on Sunday afternoons on Monday evening When we say last. every. next. this we do not also use at. Try later. . in. (not at every Easter) We'll call you this evening. on. We finished the test at the same time. I don't usually work at the weekend. • • • • I went to London last June. I stay with my family at Christmas. (not on next Tuesday) I go home every Easter.
unless 7. or. Function (Job) Conjunctions are divided into two basic types. but. • • Coordinating Conjunctions are used to join two parts of a sentence that are grammatically equal. 7.Jack and Jill went up the hill. in order that) Correlative (which surround an adverb or adjective) (for example: so.. but. Subordinating Conjunctions are used to join a subordinate dependent clause to a main clause.1 What are Conjunctions? 7. because.that) 2. as long as. Form Conjunctions have three basic forms: • • • Single Word for example: and. for. Position • • Coordinating Conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join. or.163 7.1 What are Conjunctions? Conjunctions are words that "join". . so . yet. although) Compound (often ending with as or that) (for example: provided that. simple conjunctions are called "coordinating conjunctions": • and.2 Coordinating Conjunctions The short. so although.I went swimming. 3. yet. 1. Conjunctions join two parts of a sentence. nor. for example: . since. because. but. nor.2 Coordinating Conjunctions 7. although it was cold. The two parts may be single words or clauses. for.3 Subordinating Conjunctions and..The water was warm but I didn't go swimming. Subordinating Conjunctions usually come at the beginning of the subordinate clause. for example: .
They have only two or three letters. Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join. though. it is always correct to place a comma before the conjunction: • I want to work as an interpreter in the future. When "and" is used with the last word of a list. although. wine and rum. if the independent clauses are short and well-balanced. so I am studying Russian at university. He drinks beer. whisky. till. because.their initials spell: F A N B O Y S For And Nor But Or Yet So 7. if. [Ram likes tea]. once. wine. but [Anthony likes coffee]. a comma is not really essential: • She is kind so she helps people. since. There's an easy way to remember them . where. until. whisky. englishclub. simple words. when.the two elements that the coordinating conjunction joins are shown in square brackets [ ]: • • I like [tea] and [coffee]. However. A coordinating conjunction shows that the elements it joins are similar in importance and structure: + Look at these examples . When a coordinating conjunction joins independent clauses. as. a comma is optional: • • He drinks beer. Common subordinating conjunctions are: • after. while .164 A coordinating conjunction joins parts of a sentence (for example words or independent clauses) that are grammatically equal or similar.3 Subordinating Conjunctions The majority of conjunctions are "subordinating conjunctions". than. how. and rum.com Tip The 7 coordinating conjunctions are short. before. that. whether.
" it was raining.165 A subordinating conjunction joins a subordinate (dependent) clause to a main (independent) clause: + Look at this example: main or independent clause Ram went swimming subordinate or dependent clause Although subordinating conjunction englishclub. Thus. :-) . 8 Interjections Hi! That's an interjection. It "introduces" a subordinate clause." What do you understand? Nothing! But a main or independent clause can exist alone. a subordinate clause can sometimes come after and sometimes before a main clause. A subordinating conjunction always comes at the beginning of a subordinate clause. Imagine that somebody says to you: "Hello! Although it was raining. Ram went swimming.com Tip A subordinate or dependent clause "depends" on a main or independent clause. two structures are possible: + Ram went swimming although it was raining. + Although it was raining. You will understand very well if somebody says to you: "Hello! Ram went swimming. However. It cannot exist alone.
usually more in speaking than in writing. I'm not so sure." "Oh dear! Does it hurt?" example "Ah. Um or Ah! They have no real grammatical value but we use them quite often. now I understand." "Ah! I've won!" "Alas.." .er. An interjection is sometimes followed by an exclamation mark (!) when written. Here are some interjections with examples: interjection meaning expressing pleasure expressing realization Ah expressing resignation expressing surprise Alas Dear expressing surprise asking for repetition Eh expressing enquiry expressing surprise inviting agreement Er hello. joy etc Hi hmm expressing greeting expressing hesitation." "Ah.. When interjections are inserted into a sentence." "What do you think of that. eh?" "Lima is the capital of.. Interjections are short exclamations like Oh!." "Hello John. that feels good. they have no grammatical connection to the sentence. How are you today?" expressing grief or pity expressing pity "Ah well. it can't be heped.. eh?" "Eh! Really?" "Let's go. doubt or "Hey! What a good idea!" "Hi! What's new?" "Hmm.Peru." "Eh?" "I said it's hot today." "Hello! My car's gone!" "Hey! look at that!" expressing hesitation expressing greeting "Dear me! That's a surprise!" "It's hot today. she's dead now. hullo expressing surprise calling attention hey expressing surprise.166 Interjection is a big name for a little word.
" "Shall we go?" "Uh-huh." "Oh...167 disagreement expressing surprise Oh." "Well I never!" ..17. what did he say?" expressing pain expressing hesitation expressing agreement expressing hesitation expressing surprise "Oh! You're here!" "Oh! I've got a toothache..I don't know the answer to that. o expressing pain expressing pleading ouch Uh Uh-huh Um.um.. please say 'yes'!" "Ouch! That hurts!" "Uh." "85 divided by 5 is.. umm well introducing a remark "Well.
and door frames to make the doorways. John example sentences EnglishClub. Each type of word has its own job. We live in London. do. It's quite important to recognize parts of speech. can.com. This helps you to analyze sentences and understand them. some words express "action". But not all words have the same job. Other words express a "thing". And when we want to build a sentence. Noun thing or person . In this lesson. sing. He lives in my house. town. have.com. Think of them like the parts of a house. dog. I like EnglishClub. And we use cement to join them all together. EnglishClub. Each part of the house has its own job. When we want to build a house. followed by a quiz to check your understanding: • • • Parts of Speech Table Parts of Speech Examples Words with More than One Job Parts of Speech Table This is a summary of the 8 parts of speech. We use window frames to make the windows. music. work. must pen.com Tip Some grammar books categorize English into 9 or 10 parts of speech. we use the different types of word. We use bricks to make the walls.168 iii Revision: English Parts of Speech There are thousands of words in any language. we use concrete to make the foundations or base. part of speech Verb function or "job" action or state example words (to) be. work. teacher. At EnglishClub. It also helps you to construct good sentences. we use the traditional categorization of 8 parts of speech. Other words "join" one word to another word. We can categorize English words into 8 basic types or classes. These are the "building blocks" of the language. This is my dog. like. For example.com is a web site. You can find more detail if you click on each part of speech. we have an overview of the eight parts of speech. London. These classes are called "parts of speech".
at. well. after. well. very. he eats really quickly. Pronoun Preposition Conjunction Interjection oh!. the. Ouch! That hurts! Hi! How are you? Well. but. 69. When he is very hungry. adjective or adverb replaces a noun links a noun to another word joins clauses or sentences or words short exclamation. some. silently. really I. We went to school on Monday. red. interesting quickly. She is beautiful. I like big dogs. he. ouch!. I like cats and dogs. big. well . badly. she. on.169 Adjective describes a noun a/an. sometimes inserted into a sentence My dog eats quickly. good. hi!. I like dogs but I don't like cats. some to. Tara is Indian. when My dog is big. I like dogs and I like cats. I don't know. but and. Adverb describes a verb. you.
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