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Practice Problem Set

Module 1: Fuels and Combustion


Note: For the data not given here such as the enthalpy of formation, use the Appendix given at
the end of the book An Introduction to Combustion: Concepts and Applications by S.R turns.
You are encouraged to carry the Xerox copy of the Appendix during the tutorials and exams
without fail. Please write your name on the Front page of the Xerox copy and do not write
anything on the tables.

1. Consider a mixture of N 2 and Ar in which there are three times as many moles of N 2 as there are
moles of Ar. Determine the mole fractions of N 2 and Ar, the molecular weight of the mixture, the
mass fractions of N 2 and Ar, and the molar concentration of N 2 in kmol/m3 at a temperature of
500 K and a pressure of 250 kPa. [X Ar =0.25, Y Ar =0.322, C N2 =0.0451 kmol/m3]
2. In a propane-fueled truck, 3% (by volume) oxygen is measured in the exhaust stream of the
running engine. Assuming “complete” combustion without dissociation, determine the air–fuel
ratio (by mass) supplied to the engine. [18.37]
3. Consider a stoichiometric mixture of isooctane and air. Calculate the enthalpy of the mixture at
the standard-state temperature (298.15 K) on a per-kmol-of fuel basis (kJ / kmol fuel ), on a per-
kmol-of-mixture basis (kJ/kmol mix ), and on a per-mass-of-mixture basis (kJ/kg mix ). [-224109
KJ/kmol fuel ,-3700 KJ/kmol Mix , -122.2 KJ/kg Mix ]
4. A natural gas–fired industrial boiler operates with an oxygen concentration of 3 mole percent in
the flue gases. Determine the operating air–fuel ratio and the equivalence ratio. Treat the natural
gas as methane. [0.84, 20.3]
5. A gas stream at 1 atm contains a mixture of CO, CO 2 , and N 2 in which the CO mole fraction is 0.10
and the CO 2 mole fraction is 0.20. The gas-stream temperature is 1200 K. Determine the
standardized enthalpy of the mixture on both a mole basis (kJ/kmol) and a mass basis (kJ/kg).
Also determine the mass fractions of the three component gases. [Refer S.R. Turns Example
2.3]
6. A) the upper and lower heating values at 298 K of gaseous n-decane (C 10 H 22 ), per kmole of fuel
and per kilogram of fuel. [48.003MJ/kg fuel , 44.6MJ/kg fuel ]
B) If the enthalpy of vaporization of n-decane is 359 kJ/kg fuel at 298 K, what are the upper and
lower heating values of liquid n-decane? Take MW C10H22 =142.284. [47.644MJ/kg fuel ,
44.242MJ/kg fuel ]
7. Determine the adiabatic flame temperature for constant-pressure combustion of a
stoichiometric propane–air mixture assuming reactants at 298 K, no dissociation of the products.
You may use constant specific heats of the product gases at 298 K. [2879 K]
8. Calculate the adiabatic constant-volume flame temperature for a boiler operating with the fuel
blend which is an equimolar mixture of propane (C 3 H 8 ) and natural gas (CH 4 ) and having an
equivalence ratio of 0.8. Assume complete combustion to CO 2 and H 2 O and neglect any
dissociation. Also, assume the heat capacities of the combustion products are constant evaluated
at 1200 K. The boiler operates at 1 atm, and both air and fuel enter at 298 K. [2581.53 K]
9. Estimate the constant-pressure adiabatic flame temperature for the combustion of a
stoichiometric CH 4 –air mixture. The pressure is 1 atm and the initial reactant temperature is 298
K. Use the following assumptions: “Complete combustion” (no dissociation), i.e., the product
mixture consists of only CO 2 , H 2 O, and N 2 . The product mixture enthalpy is estimated using
constant specific heats evaluated at 1200 K (≈ 0.5(T i + T ad )), where adiabatic flame temperature
T ad is guessed to be about 2100 K). [2317.136 K]
10. Estimate the constant-volume adiabatic flame temperature for a stoichiometric CH 4 –air mixture
using the same assumptions as in Problem 9. Initial conditions are T i = 298 K, P = 1 atm (= 101325
Pa). [2889 K]
11. Liquid octane (C 8 H 18 ) enters the combustion chamber of a stationary gas turbine at 250C and air
enters from the compressor at 2500C. It is determined that 98% of the carbon in the fuel burns
to form CO 2 and remaining 2% buns to form CO. What amount of excess air will be required if
the temperature of the products is to be limited to 8500C?
12. Consider the dissociation of CO 2 as a function of temperature and pressure,
1
𝐶𝐶𝑂𝑂2 ⇔ 𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶 + 𝑂𝑂2
2
Find the final composition of the mixture, in terms of the mole fractions of CO 2 , CO, and O 2 , that
results from subjecting originally pure CO 2 to various temperatures (T = 1500, 2000, 2500, and
3000 K) and pressures (𝑃𝑃 = 0.1,1,10,∧ 100 atm). [Refer S.R. Turns Example 2.7]
1
13. Consider the equilibrium reaction, 𝐻𝐻2 𝑂𝑂 ⇔ 𝐻𝐻2 + 𝑂𝑂2 . At 0.8 atm, the mole fractions are 𝜒𝜒𝐻𝐻2 𝑂𝑂 =
2
0.9, 𝜒𝜒𝐻𝐻2 = 0.03,∧ 𝜒𝜒𝑂𝑂2 = 0.07. Determine the equilibrium constant K p for this reaction.
[0.00789]
14. In their survey of experimental determinations of rate coefficients for the N–H–O system,
recommend was the following rate coefficient for the reaction NO + O → N + O 2 :
K f = 3.80 ⋅109 T1.0exp( −20820/T ) [cm3 /gmol-s.]
Determine the rate coefficient K r for the reverse reaction, i.e., N + O 2 → NO + O, at 2300 K.
[5.28E12 cm3/gmol-s]
1. A famous chain mechanism is the Zeldovich mechanism, or thermal mechanism for the formation
of nitric oxide (NO) from atmospheric N 2 :
𝑘𝑘1𝑓𝑓
N2 + O �� NO + N
𝑘𝑘2𝑓𝑓
N + O2 �� NO + O
Because the second reaction is much faster than the first, the steady-state approximation can be
used to evaluate the concentration of N-atom. Furthermore, in high-temperature systems, the
NO formation reaction is typically much slower than other reactions involving O 2 and O. Thus, O 2
𝐾𝐾𝑃𝑃
and O can be assumed to be in equilibrium: O2 ⇔ 2O. Construct a global reaction N2 + O2
𝑘𝑘𝐺𝐺
�� 2NO represented as
𝑑𝑑
[NO] = 𝑘𝑘𝐺𝐺 [N2 ]𝑚𝑚 [O2 ]𝑛𝑛
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
and determine the reaction rate constants k G , m, and n for the global reaction from the
elementary reactions mentioned above. [m=1, n=0.5]
15. Consider the shock-heating of air to 2500 K and 3 atm. Use the results of Problem 15 to
determine:
A. The initial nitric oxide formation rate in ppm/s. [3.45E06 ppm/s]
B. The amount of nitric oxide formed (in ppm) in 0.25 ms. [864 ppm]