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A spectre haunts the infosphere. Marshall McLuhan, who died in 1980, still informs fastforward-looking disc-course. Wired Magazine (and its on-line version, HotWired) list Marshall McLuhan on their mastheads as "patron saint." New editions of his books appear. His "probing" theories have become the focus (to use an optical/mechanical metaphor) of several often-visited web sites and newsgroups. A revaluation seems warranted (even if presented in the retrograde medium of print) ... JK For Marshall McLuhan, electronic technologies represented "contradiction," they constitute the future. With their advent, he hypothesized, they would become a threat to phonetic literacy because, as extensions of our nervous systems rather than our corporeal bodies, they turn us inside out. For that reason these technologies are, in contrast to the linear-mechanical ones, all encompassing, organismic, circular, tactile, emotional, and affective. In that sense they are cool media: there is low definition input to all the senses rather than just one, meaning information is necessarily incomplete. This leaves the participant to fill in the gaps. As such, these new technologies must, by necessity, lead to unstoppable changes to individual and societal thinking and behavior. Progress in this direction will continue with or without permission or consciousness of the effects it will bring to Western society. (1) McLuhan argued that those changes would lead to implosion, not explosion. The world, he said, would fall in on itself. The globe would become joined through the blood system of electric wires that would shrink the planet into a single community with an all-inclusive nowness. And a smaller world obviates time - its relevance no longer important to a worldwide society where nothing or no one ever stops. Time and space become timelessness and spacelessness. The result is a Global Village based on a single consciousness in the preliterate oral tradition. Television, for many, is still the ultimate in electric progress. (2) But, if television is bringing the changes hypothesized by McLuhan, how exactly is it achieving these ends? How does participation in the cool medium of television effect changes in viewers and therefore society? How does the involvement necessary to "fill in the gaps" lead to changes in behavior at a level most are not even aware of? This paper will attempt to answer those questions as follows: first, by ascertaining how the Global Village may actually be developing by relying on the ideas of Joshua Meyrowitz, Erving Goffman and Edward Hall; second, by drawing a link between watching television and interpersonal interaction; and finally, by explaining why viewers pay attention to television in the first place.
but the requisite situational behavior and the information-flow that takes place among the contained individuals as well. (6) When vagueness or uncertainty occurs. or framing. if framing difficulties do occur. Television can achieve this end because it radically and permanently alters situational definitions and their consequent behaviors with global uniformity as the inevitable result. There may be vagueness where a question exists as to "what it is that's going on" or uncertainty where it is unclear which of two or more things are possibly occurring." Further. Thus. combine to rule out all effectively different meanings. THE GLOBAL VILLAGE: LIVING IN A PLACELESS AND SPACELESS WORLD a. it may not always be possible to exactly frame each situation. as well as the context of gestures. For example. when the location changes so too does the situation. Each individual in a situation can "aid" the others by providing necessary cues in order to induce "appropriate" behavior. (3) However. Similarly. situational behavior and information-flow are determined as much by those who are included as those excluded because the boundaries and barriers that are inherent in physical and place-based locations tend to include certain people at the expense of others. if a person is among "friends" he will behave differently and receive different information than from a situation where he is among his "enemies. Every person in a situation expects that the others contained therein will frame the situation appropriately. (7) Thus. electric technologies such as television were seen as catalysts toward an interconnected. Frames allow a quick and easy way to put useful personal and social meanings to events. because most situations occur in a physical location. an expert is often called on to provide interpretation and thereby restore order to the process." (5) The chosen frame will not only dictate the appropriate rules and roles of each situation." . is a formulation developed by sociologist Erving Goffman. organismic. Mass communication scholars define them as "social or personal definitions of situations that are used to organize actions in those situations. and holistic Global Village. He hypothesized that in every physical and place-based situation. all the individuals contained therein will in some fashion ask themselves "What is it that's going on here?" (4) Each individual will try to answer that question by framing the situation in a manner that makes the interpersonal encounter understandable. "what the participants bring (and are known to bring) of their past involvements to the current one. they tend to be only temporary in nature. every time the situation shifts. Situational definitions. an individual will have to shift frames appropriately. and objects in the current environment. Frames and Situational Behavior Defined McLuhan argued that the previous mechanical technologies based upon visual linearity had made man essentially physically and socially static.I. such irregularities were thought to be unlikely in interpersonal communication because ordinarily. Despite the seeming complexity of the framing process. Still.
social life is based primarily on a relatively static social system. Indeed. that adaptations take root which eventually lead to overall cultural changes. It can accomplish this because. is informal learning. Formal learning is accomplished by precept and admonition. Of more importance here. But changes can occur in a culture's overall pattern of frames because small adaptations are made vicariously and unconsciously every day through informal learning when new situations and behaviors are observed and imitated." (9) Accordingly. Television and the Emerging Global Village Based on the above conception. (10) Individuals receive these frameworks as part of the socialization process: they adapt to social life by learning the culture's stock of situational definitions. though. Technical learning is accomplished in the same manner except that a reason is given for the change. television is providing an incredible amount of new frames and situational behavior for vicarious observation and imitation. When a mistake is made it is corrected without any reason for the correction. rules regarding proper situational framing can be developed and maintained in space. Never before have so many been available for experience. it was the first to truly overcome the physical and space-based limitations of a print-oriented society. It is not as necessary when a person can "actually" see and hear other places and peoples. Once these activities and behaviors are learned they become automatic to such a degree that if a person becomes aware of them. These frames constitute a main element of a society's culture and for that reason the consequent behaviors are culture specific. It is accomplished through unconscious vicarious imitation where whole dusters of related activities and/or behaviors are learned at one time. little conscious effort is needed since "at any given time. in a physical and placed-based society. over time. it would be consistent to argue that the framing process. The nature of the medium has lessened the need for physical presence and direct experience. It is here then. Frames. a society's situations tend to be highly conventionalized and finite in number. Today. It is a binary form of learning with all elements being either right or wrong based on how things have been done in the past. becoming a problem only when not done correctly. technical. it often hinders the activity and/or behavior. If those adaptations prove positive in some respect they become actual changes which become technalized in the culture. as set out above. is learned informally and vicariously. (12) Basically then. A sport like baseball is an excellent example: one learns both actions and behaviors by example. His triad of learning involved formal. In the stasis created by the difficulties in overcoming both physical and social place. in the area of out-of-awareness informal and vicarious adaptations. Situational Behavior. any society has a series of frames which it uses in an attempt to govern the behavior of its citizens. rather than idiosyncratic and infinite. (11) Edward Hall's complementary three-pronged theory demonstrates how those essentially static frames can be changed. .(8) The framing process in most situations is intuitive. b. it is akin to classroom-learning. and informal aspects. as a medium of communication.
Here. television "not only affects the way people behave. smoke. through this process. but more importantly. These new frames are then actually used in everyday life with either positive or negative repercussions. However. and hierarchy that were once dependent on physical locations and the special experiences available in them have been altered by the electronic media. through the presentation of both real and fictional events. the ability to accept a person. Finally." (14) For example. In the end. (18) But the process is perpetual: if an individual receives . the converse is also true. it becomes harder for students to accept the authority of their teachers if television constantly portrays teachers outside of the classroom as "regular" people without any inherent power. television bypasses the traditional boundaries which kept the two tiers separate. in their particular role depends on a lack of knowledge of them in other situations. First. Second. socialization. This leads to certain societal effects which can be summarized in a four-fold typology. thereby allowing each to have access to the previously "private" situations of the other. the print media are forced to adopt the standards of the electronic media in determining their form and content. previously distinct varieties of content become homogenized as all groups become exposed to similar material through television which in turn forces the medium to produce content catering to the combined audience. individuals within the same socioeconomic group generally have access to similar kinds of situations. eventually affect[s] the way people feel they should behave.. therefore. Thus. Viewers will.. It is not usually possible for the member of one group to have access to many situations of others in different socio-economic echelons. each of which provides a specific type of information-flow that regulates behavior. within a variety of programming formats. a teacher perhaps. be it of high or low cultural value. the content of a particular program is not as relevant as the portrayal of how one should frame and behave in a particular situation." As McLuhan stated: "For the 'message' of any medium or technology is the change in scale or pace or pattern that it introduces into human affairs. the new frames will be re-evaluated. dance and dress. (13) For example. the new frames will continue to be used. the content of programs changes to include the new information that was initially made available by television. Second. television blurs the distinctness between situational behaviors. individuals can more easily vary their behavior from one situation to the other. If they are positively reinforced by others. develop new individual frames for situations they may encounter in everyday life. for example. lies beyond the realm of mere content. (15) First. television affects situational definitions because it bypasses traditional boundaries of information-flow: "Those aspects of group identity. Generally.Television accomplishes these changes in two basic ways. television provides demonstrations of acceptable social behaviors such as how to kiss. television removes the barriers of physical and social place. it provides cues concerning when those behaviors are acceptable. but . the "medium is the message. the new situational behaviors caused by television are in turn depicted in program content. if not. Third. So." (16) The consequences of watching television." (17) Because television promotes new behaviors by providing new situations that were heretofore not available for experience. when two or more situations are distant in terms of time and space.
Again. the Americanization of situational behaviors. Still. many Canadian frames are not the same as American frames. many Canadian situational behaviors do not mirror American ones for they developed when physical and place-based differentiation was possible. if those American media frames come to be prevalent in Canadian society. it is not particularly difficult for viewers to get to "know" the characters because everyday interpersonal communication frames are used to code the television representations. that Canadian culture is affected by American television. Ultimately. (19) They thereby encounter many more of the new American frames for new American situations as well as their consequent behaviors which can then be used as potential frames to take back into their everyday encounters. Canada is somewhat unique in that it has faced this problem since the birth of radio. in far greater numbers. With television. however. they will replace Canadian frames thereby changing Canadian behavior. in part through the use of nonverbal communication. the more the frames and situational behaviors used by the characters should influence the viewers. satellite and cable capabilities should eventually allow all countries to penetrate all others. However. . that individual may not be disinclined to stop using the particular frame. But now. However. Likewise. most Canadians were able to receive American over-the-air transmissions as they lived within 100 miles of the border. the possibility for a seamless web of experience exists and therefore. Obviously this has not as of yet happened. The above generally deals with how television may affect one particular society. but then sees the same frame again presented on television. it is possible for one nation to "enter" the space of another nation. Canadians have been able to develop new frames through exposure to both Canadian and American sources although Canadians have always turned. could become the common experience of another nation. theoretically. (20) This process is aided through television's ability to promote parasocial interaction.negative feedback from the use of a television-induced frame. the possibility of a true Global Village. Although American media products have infiltrated many countries. causing friction to ensue when American television frames are taken by individual Canadians into everyday Canadian situations. TELEVISION'S LINK WITH INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS Despite the fact that individuals see and hear new social and physical places across vast distances in the comfort of their own homes. irrespective of the actual content. This is not meant to suggest a strictly one-way process. For purposes of explication. It is through these behavioral shifts that culture can change. by means of trans-national television programming received through cable and satellite transmission. many viewers come to believe that they actually "know" the places and people they have visited. to American programming. II. the more the viewers come to believe they know the characters. This further blurring of physical place means the common experience of one nation. some effects of American television programming on Canadian culture can be considered here. It is through this process.
(21) It is intimacy at a distance. (35) . (29) The latter type of interaction is the key element. whatever their particular station in their fictional life. studies have shown an interplay between the two types of interactions. it is not a far leap to an idea that postulates that parasocial relationships develop in a similar manner to interpersonal relationships. has been found to exist between viewers and newscasters (23). Caughey stated that media interaction directly parallels interpersonal interaction. (22) The characters are seen as real friends. Other studies have also found some support for the use of the uncertainty reduction theory. viewers and entertainers (24). (28) Horton and Wohl recognized. Indeed. For example. and viewers and celebrities in television commercials. Accordingly. and viewers come to believe they actually know them. They argued that television is able to achieve parasocial interaction because. they saw parasocial interaction as containing elements of both interpersonal and vicarious interaction. (26) The power of such relationships is evident in the fact that viewers sometimes seek to actually meet their parasocial friends and thereby overstep the proper bounds of these types of interactions. are encountered as if they were members of the viewers' social group. vicarious interaction can also be seen as essentially similar to the way one informally learns frames and behaviors. It can be defined as the ability to follow the interactions of others without overtly taking part: the viewer takes the roles of the various actors alternatively and reciprocally. Parasocial Interaction Horton and Wohl were the first to deal explicitly with such pseudo-relationships. individuals seek out information to reduce their uncertainty about the other person in the interaction. the greater the likelihood the viewer will evaluate the program along interpersonal lines. based on the above or similar conceptualizations. vicarious interaction has been linked to parasocial interaction. (33) While this may be something of an overstatement. (25) Other researchers have also found pseudo-relationships or concepts similar to parasocial interaction in their studies. it gives the illusion of a face-to-face relationship with the performer. (32) Thus. (30) Further. This tends to happen over time.M. Parasocial interaction. as a medium. Rubin and Perse found a link between uncertainty reduction theory for initial interpersonal encounters and parasocial interaction. Television characters. a relationship between the two concepts has been found. (31) Indeed. the greater the state of willing disbelief. (34) Under the former theory. though. Parasocial interaction increases the more that viewers enter a state of willing disbelief and forget that what they are actually viewing is just a television program. Indeed. Nevertheless. A. that there was an essential difference between parasocial interaction and actual communication. (27) This should not be particularly surprising considering enculturation into such an imaginary world of pseudo-social relationships is said to begin for many when they are children. the more uncertainty goes down the more liking increases.a.
" meaning the viewer sees the action directly through the eyes of one particular character. Third. One can choose what to watch on television just as one can choose a friend. utility. or it can be "subjective. the effects of the content itself. Likewise. there are similarities between interpersonal friendship and parasocial friendship. Thus. both are based on voluntary interaction and involve a personal focus. THE COOL MEDIUM: TELEVISION AND VIEWER PARTICIPATION None of the above would make any significant difference if viewers were not actively paying attention to what was transpiring on their television screens. many scholars persist in viewing the audience as passive recipients of content. Nonverbal Communication There is much more to communication than the exchange of sounds. accent it. In this way the viewer sees variation of distance within the shot and thereby the relationship of the characters on the screen. Consequently. In this regard. can be superimposed with set design. physically. according to Meyrowitz. (38) b. through the camera. However. The flow and shift of distance between people as they interact with each other is part and parcel of the communication process. the shot gives the viewer different orientations to the scene: the shot can be "objective. and self-disclosure functions. For them. and at times even override the spoken word. . personal. (40) The illusion with respect to space increases the likelihood that viewers will enter a willing state of disbelief with respect to television because many of the subtle spatial nuances of daily interpersonal life are provided on the screen. which is by necessity alien to television. rather it is the relative size of the figure within the frame. viewers become more inclined to engage in parasocial interaction. (42) III. But it does: through illusions designed specifically to employ the technical aspects inherent in the medium. and can confide with the audience all of which are elements of interpersonal friendships. attraction appears to be a precursor to both relationships: television viewers develop parasocial interactions with the characters they find socially. both friendship and parasocial interaction serve companionship. it is not the absolute size of the figure that is the key variable in determining response. This.Further. the television shots themselves generally make use of four spatial zones: intimate. McLuhan argued that the third dimension. Meyrowitz speculated that television makes use of the silent language of space as developed by Hall through "para-proxemic" tools. and public. the characters can establish mutual eye contact." meaning the viewer sees the action as a vicarious observer. The whole silent realm of nonverbal language needs to be considered: "Spatial changes give a tone to communication." (39) It may seem strange to consider television as involving these elements. As well. (36) First. and task attractive. is the manner in which individuals judge distance in everyday life. express fidelity. social. (37) Second. (41) For example.
This increasing definition. specialized jargon can develop in certain literature (like this paper) that excludes a certain portion of the population. a child must learn to read Dr. it was visually low in data leaving viewers to fill in the detail. however. TV is above all a medium that demands a creatively participant audience. Viewers under this and similar conceptions of passivity are seen as mere repositories for information broadcast by networks and other television outlets. (47) Similarly." (43) McLuhan argued that audience involvement took place because of the coolness of the medium. though. As such. It can be still be argued that. possibly a hot medium such as film. As was pointed out above. a person has to learn how to encode and decode its messages.not the medium. by relying on its own inherent characteristics such as the instigation of parasocial interaction. the McLuhanesque conception of an active. It is easy to use and its easiness engenders participation. "Everybody experiences far more than he understands. it has only one degree of complexity. that TV presents an experience for passive viewers is wide of the mark. Consequently. however. television is also able to activate viewers' subjective involvement. Yet it is experience. the television picture was merely a series of dots out of which only a few dots are used to shape an image. use is restricted to those who have the access code: the knowledge of how to read and write. With television. Audience activity. is also affected in the way in which it offsets or bypasses the uses and characteristics of earlier media. (46) In addition. Seuss stories before graduating to the Hardy Boys (or Nancy Drew) mysteries. he can watch and listen to almost anything. namely print. program content was irrelevant. with print. Perhaps it is not as cold as it once was. the access code is hardly a code at all. (45) In order to learn how to use any particular medium. If. for example. (44) Television technology has indeed improved. Once a person learns how to watch and listen. but is still cool nonetheless. No person has access to all the codes right from the outset. This view was sharply criticized by McLuhan: "The banal and ritual remark of the conventionally literate. different access codes exist for different levels of understandings. there is other evidence for an active audience. a process that will be further encouraged when high-definition television sets become widely available. creatively participant audience should still be applicable. In linear print-based media. television is still a cool medium. should not radically change the nature of television viewing. messages can be and are directed to particular segments of the population. Increasingly. As McLuhan noted. in the section on television's link to interpersonal communication. For him. is the main problem. television has been able to achieve higher resolution. rather than . because television was low in definition and it was high in participation. it's true that the person may not understand everything but the same is true for real-life situations. The broadcast picture is no longer merely a series of disjointed dots out of which an image can be culled. one does not subscribe to such a conception. though. He further argued that improvements to the television image would turn the medium into something else. relative to film and to print. therefore. Therefore. only those who have the requisite skills can participate in the medium.
are the problems of understanding. CONCLUSION A careful reading would seem to leave open the following questions: "what about the different languages spoken in the world?" Or. Nevertheless. unlike print. That ability leads to changes in culture as the frames and behaviors experienced through television are unconsciously absorbed. This fact links television viewing to . there is a great similarity in how people watch the medium. as set out by various general semanticists. And because television provides its information to all who have a receiver. (49) IV.understanding. it has bridged the gap by overcoming space and place-based limitations for people all over the world. but to bypass language in favor of a general cosmic consciousness which might be very like [a] collective consciousness. not to translate. At this point language still holds the seed of grave differences among people. television allows a much greater sharing of information between different sections of the population. By doing so. It is still a "hindrance" to the development of the Global Village. the medium of television gives viewers the ability to experience new situations with their inherent frames and consequent behaviors. especially in collective matters of media and technology. regardless of actual physical or social place. in part. As a result. no information elite should be created unlike under the specialized and segregated print-based information-systems. there is no set sequence in watching television programs: it is not necessary for a child to graduate from Dr. electronic technology has vast implications for language: it does not need it. television. no longer applicable? It is true that the people of the world speak different languages which often hinders the free flow of information from television. promises by technology a Pentecostal condition of universal understanding and unity. The computer. But more importantly. that influences his behavior. The next logical step would be. where the individual is almost inevitably unaware of their effect upon him. in short. Seuss television cartoons to Hardy Boys programs. by individuals and taken into society. as the current ultimate fulfillment of electronic technology. Electronic technology extends consciousness itself on a worldwide scale thereby obviating the need to verbalize. (50) However. or informally learned." (48) Further. However. by translating the language tracks. This is made easier because television activates the audience through its ease of use and in the way it promotes both parasocial interaction and nonverbal communication. It has done this. has gone to extraordinary lengths toward bridging the gaps between the world's peoples despite language differences. As McLuhan stated: Today computers hold out the promise of a means of instant translation of any code or language into any other code or language. this Pentecostal condition is seemingly still in the future.
8. Marshall McLuhan. Quebec. Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience (Boston: Northeastern University Press. 38." Journal of Broadcasting 23 (1979): 69-80. . Meyrowitz. Combs and M. Joshua Meyrowitz. 3." paper presented at the Joint Meeting of the Canadian Communication Association. "Local Television-News Audience and the Para-Social Interaction. et al. See also D. Ibid. May 1987. No Sense of Place. Davis and S. 150-175. Goffman. 72.M. 174-175. 1981). McLuhan." American Journal of Sociology 62 (1957): 579-587." Human Communication Research 12 (1985): 155-180. Hall. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (Cambridge. the International Communication Association." in Drama in Life: The Uses of Communication in Society. 16. 69 [hereinafter Baran and Davis].. Strauss. 5. 4. 8.S. Rubin. Horton and R. Gumpert and R. 20. Wohl. Mass: The MIT Press. and possibly the two-step flow theory. "Television and Interpersonal Behavior: Codes of Perception and Response. 10. A similar occurrence often takes place with respect to rumors.S. It is the ultimate because. 75% of all programming viewed in Canada is foreign-produced. Meyrowitz. Baran and Davis. J.J. network news on experts during times of crisis. G. and the Quebec Communication Research Association. See also Baran and Davis. 24. 47: "Man is the sex organs of the machine world. Nordlund. 8. Ibid. 120. the more that people watch television. 221-241. E. Thus. "Mass Communication and Para-Social Interaction. Goffman. Several elements may come into play here: diffusion of information. eds. Levy.11. "TV Network News: A Canadian-American Comparison. 11. Cathcart (New York: Oxford University Press. Goffman. 21. 212. Powell. eds. This is the most likely reason behind the reliance of U. 288. 25. 12. Perse. 24. 1974). Baran.. and Local Television News Viewing. 89. 14." Journal of Broadcasting 28 (1984): 423-429. 22. 23. No Sense of Place. Surlin. "Media Interaction. D. Goffman. communication networks. J. 1994). E.e. "Watching TV-News as Para-Social Interaction.interpersonal communication. for example. Ibid. Mansfield (New York: Hastings House. far more people have televisions. Place here is defined broadly enough to include both physical place and social place. 2nd ed.M. 176-180. 18. and R. 42. A. NOTES 1. No Sense of Place. See. 441. D.K.R. "Loneliness. Parasocial Interaction. 17. 1982). No Sense of Place: The Impact of Electronic Media on Social Behavior (New York: Oxford University Press.E.R. McLuhan." in Inter-Media: Interpersonal Communication in a Media World. 15. M.. 7. 15. S. "Interaction in Audience Participation Shows. E." Communication Research 5 (1978) 150-175. Montreal. and those who don't (i. 125. Meyrowitz. R. 19. 70." 2. 9.A. Mass Communication and Everyday Life (California: Wadsworth Publishing Company. Houlberg. Horton. unlike the newer computer technologies. the greater the speed of the coming of the Global Village. 13. 303. 1985). something almost all people have experience in. A. nt. The same is true to some extent for radio and movies. 67-68. in the developing world) are likely to purchase one before they buy a computer.W. 6. Nordlund. Meyrowitz. and J. 1976).
Meyrowitz. A." Journal of Communication 30(4) (1980): 66-73. "Attribution in Social and Parasocial Relationships." Human Communication Research 4 (1978): 196-207. 336. Calabrese. 1972)." Communication Research 16 (1989): 59-77.B. Horton and Wohl.R.: University of Nebraska Press. Meyrowitz." 221-241. ed. "Fans . 1972). Rubin and M. See also Horton and Strauss. 49.M. Neb. Themes and Uses. D. 46." Journal of Broadcasting 26 (1982): 783-800 and L. 45. 74-75.B. Intimate Strangers: The Culture of Celebrity (New York: Doubleday.B. 175." in Sociology of Mass Communication. 597-587. F. 318. 212-227. but not in the same manner as print." Human Communication Research 1 (1975) 99-112. Meyrowitz. 246-268 and R. N. (Lincoln. Perse and R. 246-268. Interpersonal friendship: P.M. 32. "Television and Interpersonal Behavior. Wright. "Imaginary Social Relationships With Celebrities in Television Commercials. Reid and C. University of Toronto Press. 47. Windhahl. "Viewers' Relations to Television Personalities. Perse. 59-77. J. Hall. 40. .M. Rubin." Communication Quarterly 35 (1987): 225-237. "Television Games Preschool Children Play: Patterns. 69. R.25. McLuhan. Lessan. 50. L. A. Meyrowitz. 30. 35. A. 48.R. Ibid. Snow. "Audience Activity and Soap Opera Involvement: A Uses and Effects Approach. Horton and Wohl." Human Communication Research 14 (1987): 246-268.Exploring Expressed Motivations for Contacting Celebrities. Rosengren and S. 212-227. 33. 166-194.C. 164 and 313. 82-83 and H." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 34 (1990): 17-36 and A. McHugh. Perse and R. Rubin and Perse. McLuhan.M. 27. R. 37. McLuhan. Both Harold Innis and McLuhan have argued that it was on this basis that previous monopolies of knowledge developed. Rubin and Perse. Perse. E.M. 42." Psychological Reports 57 (1985): 263-266. Rubin. Alperstein. "Interaction with Mass Media: The Importance of Rhythm and Tempo. 80. McCain.. Frazer. England: Penguin. "Some Explorations in Initial Interaction and Beyond: Toward a Developmental Theory of Interpersonal Communication. 34. Empire and Communications (Toronto. 246-268. 279-292. Caughey. Caughey." Journal of Language and Social Psychology 14 (1995): 102-123. 1985). "Mass Media Consumption as a Functional Alternative. 1984). Information can obviously still be controlled. No Sense of Place. Berger and R. James and T. 26. Rubin and Perse.A. N.J. P.M.P. "Television at Play. 39. Leets. 41. 77-80. 44. McLuhan.M. Imaginary Social Worlds: A Cultural Approach. No Sense of Place. Ibid. and E.H. Koenig and G.E. E. Uncertainty reduction theory: C. McLuhan. Parasocial interaction: K. 36. Innis.M. De Becker and H. 212-227. Schickel. 38." Journal of Broadcasting 35 (1991): 43-58. 29.M. Ibid.. G." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 31 (1987): 279-292. Parasocial interaction: A. 313. Giles. No Sense of Place. "Media Involvement and Local News Effects.B. "Toward a Theory of Friendship Based on Conception of Self. "Development of Parasodal Interaction Relationships. Rubin. 28. McQuail (Middlesex. 31. 43. Rubin and McHugh.
Perse. Koenig.E.M. "Watching TV-News as Para-Social Interaction. R.M." Human Communication Research 14 (1987): 246-268. and McHugh.E." Journal of Broadcasting 23 (1979): 69-80. "Television Games Preschool Children Play: Patterns. Cathcart. Levy." Journal of Communication 30(4) (1980): 66-73. 1974. Meyrowitz.A. "Imaginary Social Relationships With Celebrities in Television Commercials. A. .R. Hall. E." Journal of Broadcasting 28 (1984): 423-429." Communication Research 5 (1978) 150-175." Journalism Quarterly 65 (1988): 368-375. C." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 31 (1987): 279-292. Neb. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company. Parasocial Interaction." Journal of Broadcasting 26 (1982): 783-800. A. Combs and M. "Audience Activity and Soap Opera Involvement: A Uses and Effects Approach. N.M. 1972. "Television at Play.A. 221241." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 34 (1990): 17-36. 1981. "Development of Parasocial Interaction Relationships. "Media Interaction. Mass Communication and Everyday Life: A Perspective on Theory and Effects. Themes and Uses. and Powell..K. E. Empire and Communications. and Frazer.M. Mansfield.T. M. "Loneliness. 1984. E. J. "Some Explorations in Initial Interaction and Beyond: Toward a Developmental Theory of Interpersonal Communication. D.R. and Wohl.C. 1976. eds. Davis.. Mass: The MIT Press. "Local Television-News Audience and the Para-Social Interaction. Intimate Strangers: The Culture of Celebrity. Leers L. Cambridge. M." In Inter-Media: Interpersonal Communication in a Media World.B. G. R. Schickel. and Rubin. "Fans . R.P. McQuail. C.. 2nd ed.M. eds. Imaginary Social Worlds: A Cultural Approach. D. M. McLuhan. De Becker G. "Television and Interpersonal Behavior: Codes of Perception and Response. Perse. The Silent Language." American Journal of Sociology 62 (1957): 579-587. 212-227. "Interaction in Audience Participation Shows. Horton. No Sense of Place: The Impact of Electronic Media on Social Behavior. Houlberg.J. S.: University of Nebraska Press. D. R." In Drama in Life: The Uses of Communication in Society. Berger. Rubin. and Giles H. E. J.M. Reid. and McCain T. New York: Doubleday. 1972. University of Toronto Press." Journal of Language and Social Psychology 14 (1995): 102-123. Goffman. R. and Rubin. A. and Perse.W. New York: Doubleday (Anchor Books). 166-194. J. Rubin. F. Toronto.B." Journal of Broadcasting 35 (1991): 43-58.J. and Strauss. "Audience Activity and Satisfaction with Favorite Television Soap Opera. and Lessan." Communication Research 16 (1989): 59-77. 1982.S. D. Lincoln.Exploring Expressed Motivations for Contacting Celebrities. Boston: Northeastern University Press. ----. 1981. Perse. A." Human Communication Research 1 (1975) 99-112. New York: Oxford University Press.E." In Sociology of Mass Communication. Rosengren.R. "Viewers' Relations to Television Personalities. ed. and Windhahl. Middlesex. Caughey. E. R. S.M. 1985. New York: Hastings House. New York: Oxford University Press.M.BIBLIOGRAPHY Alperstein. H. L. Rubin. and Local Television News Viewing. 1985." Psychological Reports 57 (1985): 263-266. R. K. G. E. J. England: Penguin. Horton. Innis. Gumpert and R. Perse E. "Media Involvement and Local News Effects. and Baran. "Mass Media Consumption as a Functional Alternative. N. "Mass Communication and Para-Social Interaction. Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. and Calabrese.M. Nordlund." Human Communication Research 12 (1985): 155-180. "Attribution in Social and Parasocial Relationships. James. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. 1994.
Quebec.H.. "TV Network News: A Canadian-American Comparison. "Toward a Theory of Friendship Based on Conception of Self. S. Montreal." Paper presented at the Joint Meeting of the Canadian Communication Association. and the Quebec Communication Research Association. P. May 1987. et al.R. P. "Interaction with Mass Media: The Importance of Rhythm and Tempo. the International Communication Association.Snow." Human Communication Research 4 (1978): 196-207. Surlin." Communication Quarterly 35 (1987): 225-237. Wright. .
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