DISEASES CITRUS CITRUS CANKER Xanthomonas campestris pv. Citri Canker is one of the most devastating disease of citrus.

It assumes serious proportions after the rainy season. Symptoms : The disease affects all the above ground parts of the plant. On leaves the canker appears as circular water-soaked yellowish spots, which gradually enlarge to 3-4 mm, turn rough, corky, brownish, raised on both the sides of the leaf, and are surrounded by yellow halo (Pic. 1). The spots on the twigs are more prominent as irregular and corky brown. Lesions. The lesions may coalesce to from large necrotic areas which lead to drying of twigs. The fruit lesions become rough and corky, sometimes resulting in to cracks in the skin (Pic. 2). These are confined only to the rind. Portion. Canker is severe on kaghzi lime, lemons, grapefruits, sour orange and citranges. Sweet orange, Baramasi lemon-1 and mandarins are less susceptible. Conditions for disease development : High humidity, well distributed rainfall and temperature from 20-35° C provide optimum conditions for disease development. The bacterium enters the tissue through stomata or through wounds. Affected leaves and twigs bearing old lesions serve as source of inoculum. Plant to plant spread is mainly by splashing rains and long distance spread is through infected plant material. Control : 1 Do not use infected nursery plants and also destroy the infected Jatti Khatti plants. 2 Prune and burn the infected parts of the trees during May-June. Disinfect the cut ends with Bordeaux paste. 3 Give three sprays of 50 gm of Streptocycline + 25 gm copper sulphate in 500 litres of water/acre, one each during the month of October, December and February. Bordeaux mixture (2:2:250) or copper oxy-chloride 50 WP (0.3%) can also be sprayed. Also spray the nursery plants with the above chemicals particularly during July-August. SCAB Elsinoe fawceti Scab becomes serious on many commercial citrus cultivars during periods of high humidity and rainy season. Symptoms : Leaves, twigs and fruits are attacked. On young leaves, lesions start as small pale orange elevated spots, becoming sharply defined. With the hardening of the leaf the

lesions become rough, corky and wart-like and are brown to dark brown in colour (Pic. 3). These may be single or irregularly grouped and are raised, thorny on the underside of the leaf. Affected leaves become distorted, wrinkled, stunted and mis-shapen. On twigs, lesions arise as small slightly raised warts with almost similar appearance as on the leaves. The lesions on fruits are corky having projections which become brittle and break into incrustations. Scab can be distinguished from canker in the following ways : 1. Canker spots are typically circular, bigger and on the leaves these are surrounded by a yellow halo. 2. Canker lesions are not thorny on the lower surface of the leaf. 3. Canker infected leaves are not distorted. Sour orange, lemons, grapefruits, some mandarins including kinnow are susceptible. Sweet oranges and limes are, however, less susceptible. Conditions for disease development : When surface is wet and the temperature is around 16-23°C the fungus can readily invade the young leaves, tender twigs and developing fruits to establish infection. Control : 1. Do not use infected nursery plants. 2. Prune and burn the infected leaves and twigs. Destroy the infected and fallen fruits. 3. Give three sprays with Ziram 27 SC (0.25%) or Dithane M-45 (0.25%) or Bordeaux mixture (2:2:250) or copper oxychloride 50 WP (0.3%) starting from last week of June to August at 15 days interval. FOOT ROT/GUMMOSIS Phytophthora parasitica Gummosis (foot rot) is a serious problem in kinnow orchards in Hoshiarpur and Abohar areas. The disease is more common in heavy, ill drained and high water table soils. Symptoms : The first indication of infection is the appearance of gum drops on the bark surface of the trunk usually below or just above the bud-union. Infected bark and wood below it becomes brown to dark brown. The bark develops vertical cracks. The infection spreads rapidly to the upper trunk (Pic. 4.). When gumming starts close to the soil, the disease spreads on the main roots and there is girdling of the base of the trunk as a result of which the tree starts declining. Prior to death the tree usually blossoms heavily and dies before the fruit matures. Conditions for disease development : Heavy soils, excessive irrigation or flood irrigation, low budding, burying of the budunion inside the soil or deep planting, piling up of the soil around the collar region, injuries to crown roots or base of the stem during orchard operations often predispose the

trees to foot rot. Maximum disease occurs when the temperature is around 25-28°C. Control : 1. Use resistant/tolerant rootstocks and bud union should be above the soil level; 2. Avoid injuries to the trunk and crowns roots. Don’t pile soil around the trunk and provide proper drainage conditions. 3. When infection is detected decorticate the infected bark along with some healthy part and disinfect the wounds with disinfectant solution on the trunk and cover them with Bordeaux paste. After about a week when the paste has dried up, apply Bordeaux paint to these wounds. Alternatively apply Ridomil MZ 75 WP @ 2 gm per 100 ml of linseed oil to the infected portion twice, in February-March and July-August. Drench the soil around the tree base with 25 gm Ridomil MZ in 10 litres of water per tree during February-March and repeat in July-August. DIE-BACK/ANTHRACNOSE Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Die-back appears generally on weak trees in the neglected orchards throughout the State. Symptoms : The disease appears in several forms, including die-back of twigs, leaf-spotting (Pic. 5) and rooting and dropping of fruits (Pic. 6). When twigs are attacked drying starts from tip downwards producing typical die back symptoms. Numerous minute black fruiting bodies of the fungus appear on the dead twigs which appear silvery grey in colour. On leaves faded green spots appear which turn brown and finally become grey in the centre with brown margins. The grayish areas are embedded with numerous fruiting bodies arranged in concentric rings. The fungus also attacks the fruit stalks. The stalks dry up and fruits rot from the stem end and drops off. Sweet oranges, mandarins especially kinnow, limes and grapefruits are highly susceptible to this disease. Conditions for disease development : Neglected and poor management conditions of the orchards predispose citrus plants to this malady. High humidity and temperature around 25°C are optimum for the development of the disease under field conditions. Control : 1. In the affected orchards, the dead-wood should be pruned during February and destroyed by burning to reduce the primary source of inoculum. 2. Spray the plants with Bordeaux mixture (2:2:250) or copper oxy-chloride 50 WP (0.3 per cent) in March and again during July and September. FRUIT DROP Colletotrichum limetticola

Pre-harvested fruit drop in September-October causes serious losses to the citrus growers in Punjab. Symptoms : Pre-harvested fruits start falling from trees in the month of September and continue up to December. The stalks of the diseased fruits turn grey and become embedded with numerous black dot-like fruiting bodies of the fungus (Pic. 7). The immature fruits turn yellow. A brown abscission layer is formed and the infected fruits fall down. In case of late infection, the diseased fruits shrink, become black, light in weight called mummified fruits which remain attached to the stalks for a longer time. The twigs of the infected trees show die-back symptoms. Conditions for disease development : Black dot like fruiting bodies of the fungus present on the dead twigs, leaves and fruits stalks serve as a source of primary infection. High humidity and rainfall favour disease development. Control : 1. Prune and burn infected twigs in January-February. 2. Disinfect cut ends with Bordeaux paste. 3. Give four sprays of Aureofungin (20 g) or Bavistin (500 g) in 500 liters of water per acre at 15 day interval or Bordeaux mixture (2:2:250) starting from Ist week of August. GREENING Bacterium-like organism (BLO) Greening is one of the major causes of citrus decline in the Punjab. The pathogen attacks almost all the citrus species and cultivars grown in the state. It has been found to be present in more than 70 % of the citrus trees in the State. Symptoms : Leaves show a chlorotic pattern. These may be completely yellow or yellow with green veins and small green dots (Pci. 8) Chlorosis is bound on one side by mid-rib and on the other side by the lateral vein. The chlorosis diffuses towards the leaf margins. Leaf blade may be dwarfed and thickened. Leaves show upright growth and drop prematurely. Twigs show short internodes, multiple bud formation and die-back symptoms. Infected mature plants show symptoms of decline. Fruits on such trees are small, lopsided and break colour first on the sides exposed to the sun. When such fruits are cut open, they have curved columellas and aborted seeds. Sweet orange cvs. Pineapple, Valencia and Orlando tangelo seedlings show characteristic symptoms and are used as indicator plants for detection of greening. No root stock or scion is known to be resistant to the greening pathogen. Transmission: The disease is transmitted by citrus psylla (Diaphorina citri) and through budwood

from infected trees which is used for propagation. Control : 1. Use disease-free bud-wood which should be obtained from certified disease free sources. 2. Control citrus psylla by spraying 625 ml of monocrotophos (Nuvacron 36 EC) or 670 ml of dimethoate. (Rogor 30 EC) in 500 liters of water during March-April and again in September-October when the insect is quite active and its population is high. TRISTEZA Citrus tristeza virus Tristeza us caused by a citrus tristeza virus, its pathogenic activity leads to sieve-tube necrosis at the bud-union in certain stock-scion combinations. Symptoms : Tristeza symptoms are similar to those caused by any root disease. The blocking of food conducting vessels leads to starvation of the roots which results in defoliation, dieback of twigs and stunting of the tree. A specific symptom of tristeza is ‘honey-combing’ which consists of fine holes in the wood portion and thorny outgrowths on the corresponding inner bark surface of root stocks just below the bud union. Vein clearing in infected Kagzi lime is the characteristic symptom. Kagzi lime seedlings are used as an indictor for detecting this virus. Tristeza also causes stempitting (Pic. 9a & 9b) in lime and grapefruit. Rough lemon, sweet orange, Rangpur lime, Cleopatra mandarin are tolerant whereas sour orange grapefruits, sweet lime and some tangelo are susceptible. Transmission The disease is transmitted by various aphid spices viz. Toxoptera citricida, Aphis gossypii, A spriaecola, A. cracivora, Myzus persicae etc. with different degrees of efficiency and through infected bud-wood. Control : 1. Use tolerant rootstocks, like rough lemon and virus-free bud-wood for raising new plants. 2. Check insect vectors by spraying dimethoate (Rogor 30 EC) at the rate of 670 ml in 500 liters of water at the time of new flush in March. EXOCORTIS Citrus exocortis viroid (naked RNA) Exocortis has been found to be present in the Punjab State as bark shelling disorder of certain rootstocks. Symptoms : Field symptoms of exocortis are characterized by scaling of the bark (Pic. 10). Scaling

commonly appears at first on the rootstocks near the soil line and it gradually extends up to the bud-union and down to the larger roots. The bark becomes dead and dry. The disease also causes noticeable stunting on susceptible trees. The scaling of the bark interferes with the natural translocation of food materials to the roots which get starved and the infected portion does not receive proper nutrition. As a result the infected trees show sings of general malnutrition and decline prematurely. Diagnostic symptoms on Etrog citron, Gynura aurantica (Velvet plant) and Petunia hybrida include epinasty (drooping down) and curling of leaves, browning of petiole basis, cracking of lower side of mid-veins and stunting of plants (Pic. 11). Rangpur lime, trifoliate orange and its hybrids (citranges) such as Troyer and Carrizo, sweet lime and citron are highly susceptible whereas rough lemon, sour orange, sweet orange, grapefruit and Cleopetra mandarin are tolerant to exocortis pathogen. Transmission: The disease is transmitted through infected buds (used for propagating), contaminated budding knives and other tools used for various operations in the citrus orchards. No insect vector is known to transmit the viroid. Control : 1. Use certified virus free budwood on tolerant root stock such as rough lemon for further multiplication of citrus trees. 2. Tools should be frequently disinfected by dipping them in 1% solution of sodium hypochlorite during budding and other operations. RING SPOT Citrus ring spot virus (CRSV) The incidence of the disease is high in kinnow and sweet oranges. The infected plants produce poor quality fruits. It causes 42% yield losses in kinnow mandarin and 26% in jaffa in Punjab. Symptoms : Infected leaves show typical yellow rings of variable diameter ranging from 2.0-2.4 mm with green tissue in the centre. Chloroitic spots appear more on mature leaves of kinnow and varieties of sweet orange (Pic. 12). Ring number varies from one to several per leaf. Fruits on the affected trees also show such ring spots. Infected leaves drop prematurely and dieback and declining symptoms appear. Vein flecking symptoms may also appear in the terminal leaves of sweet oranges infected trees bear less fruits which are of small size. Ring spot symptoms may also appear on fruits. Transmission : The disease is transmitted through infected buds, dodder (parasitic plant) and by mechanical means. Control : Use virus-free bud-wood for raising new plants. CRSV free nursery can be raised by

eliminating the disease by exposing the bud sticks to hot air treatment and shoot tip grafting.

GRAPES ANTHRACNOSE & DIE-BACK Gloeosporium ampelophagum Anthracnose is the most serious and wide spread disease in all the grape growing areas of Panjab. It can become a limiting factor in getting desired yield level if rains occurs in April-May. Yield losses have been estimated up to the extent of 10-15 % in Punjab. Symptoms : The symptoms of anthracnose appear on all the above ground parts of the vine. Reddish brown circular spots appear on young leaves which later turn brown and develop shot-holes. Affected leaves fall prematurely. On twigs, tendrils and petioles brown sunken spots mature into cankers with dark purple raised margins (Pic. 13). During moist weather, a pink spore mass consisting of fungal spores ooze out from the cankers and is a conspicuous sign of the disease. Young canes with many lesions often die prematurely. If rains occur in April, circular, dark brown, sunken spots also appear on berries (Pic. 14). Conditions for disease development : The disease is favored by high humidity, provided by intermittent rains. The pathogen over-winters in the cankers on twigs which produce abundant inoculum as soon as the first rain occurs in March-April, there by, causing the infection on young leaves and shoots. Monsoon season (July-August) is the most favorable period of spread and development of the disease which cause high vine mortality. Control : 1. Prune infected twigs in January and burn the pruned wood as it acts as source of primary inoculum for the new shoots. 2. Give one dormant spray of Bordeaux mixture (2:2:250) after pruning using 125 liters water/acre. 3. Spray Bavistin 50WP @ 400 gm/acre in the last week of April using 400 liters of water. 4. Spray Bordeaux mixture (2:2:250) in the last week of May using 400 liters water/acre. 5. Spray Bavistin 50WP @ 400 gm/acre in mid July in 400 liters of water. 6. Spray Bordeaux mixture (2:2:250) in mid-August using 400 liters of water. 7. Spray Bavistin 50 WP @ 400 gm/acre in first week of September using 400 liters of water. POWDERY MILDEW Uncinula necator

It is wide-spread in all the grape growing areas of the Punjab and causes serious damage during early stages of berry formation (April-May. In Punjab, the disease is prevalent in moderate to severe form with disease severely ranging from 25-80% on berries. Symptoms : White powdery growth appears on young berries (Pic. 5) and leaves. On leaves the disease manifests itself as dark coloured patches with white powdery mass of growth of the fungus (Pic. 16). Young inflorescence also catches infection and fruit bearing is adversely affected. Affected berries develop cracks and become unmarketable and unsuitable for consumption. Conditions for disease development : It is a dry weather disease, but may also occur in the rainy season provided dry conditions prevail in between. The fungus can grow over a wide range of atmospheric humidity by its development is hampered by low humidity and higher temperature during summer months. Relative humidity in the range of 60-70% is sufficient for the germination of conidia and infection. Control : 1. Spray the vines with wettable sulphur (0.25 per cent) or Bayleton/Topas (0.04%). Three sprays, one in mid March, second in the end of April and third in the first week of May are enough. 2. Dense growth of the vines should be avoided by proper pruning. The training system should allow proper sunlight and air circulation through the crop canopy which reduces powdery mildew development. An open canopy not only reduces the disease severity but also allows better penetration of fungicides. 3. Excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers should be avoided as it promotes succulent growth and increase disease severity. CERCOSPORA LEAF SPOT Cercospora viticola This disease is prevalent mostly in the neglected grapevine yards throughout the Punjab. It appears in March and assumes serious proportions from August onwards with maximum severity in September-October. The disease cause rapid pre-mature leaf fall. Symptoms : Small angular to circular necrotic spots with straw coloured centers and reddish brown margins (Pic. 17) appear only on the leaves. Black dot like masses of conidia are visible in the centre of spots. Some spots become dark tan-coloured. Severe attack results into drying of leaves and early defoliation. Conditions for disease development : The disease spreads quickly under high humidity and moderate temperature conditions. In September-October mild day temperature coupled with cooler humid nights

provide favorable conditions for the development of this disease. The pathogen survives in the infected leaves on the host and host plant debris. Control : 1. The infected leaves fallen on the ground should be collected and destroyed by burning as the fungus survives in these leaves which serve as the primary source of inoculum. 2. Follow the same spray schedule as given under grape anthracnose. BERRY ROT Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp. In the compact bunch varieties like Perlette berry rot is a common problem. The skin is broken or ruptured due to pressure by the swelling of maturing berries, thus exposing the berry contents which facilitate the entry of saprophytic fungi. Symptoms : Soft rot symptoms appear in May-June with or without visible growth of moulds on affected berries (Pic. 18). The juice released by various types of injuries (due to insects or faulty packing or handling during storage) provides good substrate for the growth of these fungi. Growth pressure in the compact bunches, especially in varieties like Perlette may also rupture the berries releasing juice which encourages the growth of various fungi causing further rotting. Symptoms are more pronounced on ripened berries. Conditions for disease development : Various types of pre or post-harvested injuries flavor attack of certain moulds responsible for berry rot. Compact nature of bunches also causes rupturing of berries thus providing a good substrate for the growth of many fungi. Rain spells during maturity aggravates berry rooting. Control : 1. Thinning of the berries in compact bunch varieties, like Perlette should be done in the initial stages. 2. Injuries to berries during storage should be avoided and packing should be done carefully. 3. Pre-harvest spraying of the berries with captaf or ziram (0.2 per cent) checks the spread of the disease in field as well as in storage. Spray one kg ziram/500 liters of water/acre starting from June and repeat at seven days interval. Stop spraying one week before harvesting. BACTERIAL LEAF SPOT Xanthomonas campestris pv. Viticola In Punjab State, the disease can appear in serious form during rainy season in JulyAugust.

Symptoms : The pathogen infects all the aerial parts of grapevine plants. Initially, yellowish watersoaked lesions are formed along the mid-rib and veins on the lower leaf surface. Later, the lesions enlarge (2-15 mm), become angular, cankerous and develop grey centre (Pic. 19). In severe cases, lesions coalesce and give blightened appearance to the leaves. Symptoms on the petioles and canes appear as brown to black, elongated, raised, cankerous lesions and affected the cane growth. Conditions for disease development : The bacterium persists from one season to another through infected canes and dormant buds. Secondary spread takes place through wind and rain splashes. Disease spread is mainly dependent on free water in the form of rain fall and dew. A temperature range of 25-30°C and relative humidity above 80% are most favorable for this pathogen. In Punjab, the disease appears with the onset of rains in July and reaches maximum level during August-September. The disease can spread to long distances through infected cuttings. Control : 1. Use disease free cuttings procured from certified nurseries. 2. Preventive spray of Bordeaux mixture (2:2:250) provides effective control of this disease. FOOT ROT Rhizoctonia sp. Collar rot disease has been observed in the neglected orchards with poor drainage. Symptoms : During July-August, roots and the collar region of the vines turn brownish with the shredding of bark. The infected plants degenerate and decline. The fungal growth also becomes visible on the outer infected root surface (Pic. 20). It affects plants in nursery and young vines of 2-3 years of age in the orchard which ultimately wilt and die. Conditions for disease development : Poorly drained soils help in the rapid development of this disease. The pathogen is capable of surviving on the dead wood or pieces of stem left in the soil Control : 1. All the infected parts should be removed and burnt at an early stage. 2. The moisture content of the soil should be kept low and the soil should be kept porous. 3. Application of Captaf as drench @ 20g in 5 liters of water/vine keeps the disease under check. DOWNY MILDEW

Plasmopara viticola Downy mildew is a less important disease and seldom occurs in Punjab. It does not appear on berries under Punjab conditions due to high temperature and dry climatic conditions during May-June so it does not cause any direct loss of yield. Symptoms : Greenish yellow, oily spots appear on upper surface of leaves (Pic. 21) which on the lower side are covered with whitish downy fungal growth. Under the favorable weather conditions, uniform whitish growth (Pci. 22) is seen on the under surface of the leaves. The spots later on become brown and brittle. Leaves with many active spots dry-up and drop pre-maturely and may adversely affect the new growth in next season. Conditions for disease development : The appearance and development of the disease is favored by cool-night and mild day temperature combined with early morning dew. In Punjab the ideal period for the spread of this disease is after the monsoons in September-October. The disease may, however, also appear in nursery and grown up vines during March-April. Control : 1. For raising grape orchards, plants should be obtained from disease free nurseries. 2. Follow the spray schedule as given under grape anthracnose disease. In addition, give one spray of Bordeaux mixture (2:2:250) during mid September.

MANGO MANGO MALFORMATION Fusarium moniliforme f. sp. subglutinans, F. oxysporum Malformation s a serious disease of all the commercial cultivars and poses threat to mango cultivation in Punjab. Symptoms : Depending upon the plant part affected, this disease can be divided in two categories i.e. vegetative and floral malformation. In vegetative malformation, complete loss of apical dominance of the seedlings occurs (Pic. 23). It leads to the formation of numerous small thickened shoots and secondary branch-lets with substantially reduced internodal length and tiny leaf rudiments, which are crowded together in to a compact head resulting in a “Witches broom’ like appearance, also called ‘bunchy top’. Floral malformation is characterized by deformation of panicles, suppression of apical dominance, shortened primary and secondary axes, thickened rachis of panicles, giving the flowers a clustered appearance (Pic. 24). These panicles usually do not set fruits, ultimately dry up, become black and persist as such on the tree for a long time. Conditions for disease development : The disease is serious in areas where temperature ranges between 15-20°C and this is

available in the State during December and January. The disease occurs more in young than in old mango trees. Control : 1. Remove the affected shoots every month and destroy them. 2. Application of NAA (naphthalene acetic acid) @ 200 ppm i.e. 20 g/100 litres of water, prior to flower bud differentiation during the first week of October substantially reduces the floral malformation. Dissolve NAA in small amount of alcohol before making further volume in water. 3. If the disease occurs in young seedlings, it is better to replace the plants with healthy ones rather than going for spray of NAA. POWDERY MILDEW Microsphaera alphitoides f. sp. mangiferae Powdery mildew has become a limiting factor in getting good yields of mango. It gets very serious after flowering in sub-mountaneous districts of the Punjab State. Symptoms : The disease starts appearing as soon as flowers develop. The inflorescence becomes covered with white powdery mass of the fungus. Tender flowers and their stalks are more prone to disease attack (Pic. 25). Premature drop of flowers results in the naked floral axis. The young fruits infected by mildew also drop off. Newly formed leaves are also attacked occasionally. On leaves, the white growth of the fungus appears and infected tissues become necrotic. Conditions for disease development : Warm humid weather and low night temperature favour disease development. The fungus perpetuates on the infected trees. Control : This disease can be controlled by spraying Karathane (0.1 per cent) or wettable sulphur (0.25 per cent). Spray once before flowering, again during flowering and then after fruit set. Another spray after 10-15 days can be given, if necessary. ANTHRACNOSE Colletotrichum gloeosporioides This disease assumes serious proportions in mango orchards of the state during and after rainy season. Symptoms : The disease occurs on young leaves, stems, inflorescence and fruits. Leaves show oval to irregular grayish brown spots which may coalesce to cover large area of the leaflamina (Pic. 26). The affected tissues dries up and shred. Infected petioles may result into pre-mature leaf fall. In young twigs, grayish-brown, oval to irregular spots develop which may soon enlarge and cause girdling and drying of the affected shoots.

In humid weather, minute black dots develop on the leaves and floral organs. The infected flowers ultimately shed resulting in partial or complete deblossoming. Latent infection are established on the fruits before harvest. The ripening fruits show typical small raised, dark brown or black anthracnose lesions (Pic. 27). Conditions for disease development : The optimum temperature for the development of anthracnose is 25°C. The disease spreads rapidly during rainy season. Cloudy and misty weather during flowering accelerate damage to the infected floral parts. Control : 1. Prune and destroy the shoots showing spots of canker and dead branches. Apply Bordeaux paste and then paint to the cut ends. 2. Protective sprays with Bordeaux mixture (2:2:250) or copper oxychloride (0.3 per cent) help in reducing the spread of the disease. LEAF BLIGHT AND DIE-BACK Botryodiplodia theobromae & Macrophomina mangiferae Die-back is one of the serious diseases affecting mango plantations in the State. Symptoms : The disease is characterized by the death of twigs from the downwards particularly of the older trees followed by complete defoliation (Pic. 28). Discolouration and darkening of the bark on or a certain distance from the tip is the external evidence of the disease. Before shedding, the leaves turn brown accompanied by upward rolling of the margins. The bark of the dead twigs becomes completely discoloured and shriveled (Pic. 29). Cracks may also appear in partially dead bark of the affected twigs from where gum may exude before death. This disease may result into complete death of a young plant if the graft union is affected. Conditions for disease development : The disease is more conspicuous during October-November. Moderate temperature (26-32°C) coupled with high relative humidity and rains favour the development of the disease. Infected grafts and twig bark of the trees are sources of primary infection. Control : 1. The incidence of the disease can be minimized by adopting preventive measures viz. selection of scion from healthy trees and adoption of sanitary measures. 2. Pruning and destruction of diseased twigs up to about 5 cm below the site of infection and protecting the cut surface with Bordeaux mixture (2:2:250) or 50% copper oxychloride (0.3%) can effectively check the disease. STEM CANKER Schizophyllum commune

It is a major disease problem of old and neglected orchards. Symptoms : Cankers are formed on the stem which leads to discoloration and drying of foliage of one or more branches. Gum exudation from the affected branches is common. Branches may be killed in due course. Small shell like dirty white fruiting bodies of the fungus appear in rows on the dead main branches with gills on the lower side (Pic. 30). Conditions for disease development : The pathogen has wide host range including several fruit and forest trees. The fruiting bodies are produced in abundance under moist conditions. The fungus gains entry through wounds on tree trunk. Stress factors increase the disease incidence and severity. Control : 1. Spray trees with copper oxychloride 50 WP @ 0.3% or Bordeaux mixture (2:2:250) at fortnightly intervals. Spray particularly if untimely rains are received 2. Affected branches should be covered with Bordeaux paste followed by paint after removing the disease parts. BLACK TIP Toxic gases The orchards near brick kilns are affected. As many as 90% of the fruits on trees near brick kilns may bear necrotic lesions and fruits become unmarketable. Symptoms : The tip of the fruits becomes abnormally long and it may cover half of the fruit. Black tip may results in premature ripening. The characteristic symptom of the disease is the necrosis of tissues at the distal end of the fruits. In the beginning there is a development of small etiolated area at the distal end which gradually spreads, turn black and covers the tip (Pic. 31) completely. The tip is flattened with the outer skin turning hard and sunken. Saprophytic bacteria induce rotting of the inner soft portion which giver out dark brown liquid in the form of ooze. The disease is more common in 6-8 weeks old fruits or when they are reaching maturity. Conditions for disease development : Due to toxic gases physiological disturbance is produced in the fruits particularly in Dusehri variety. Smoke from brick kilns pollutes the air with toxic gases like sulphur dioxide and these gases cause necrosis of the tissues of the fruits. Control : 1. Spray Borax (0.6%) before flowering and during flowering. The third spray should be given at fruit set with Bordeaux mixture (2:2:250) or copper oxychloride 50 WP @ 0.25%.

PEAR SHOOT BLIGHT AND BARK CANKER Phoma glomerata and Phomopsis sp. This disease is severe in old and neglected orchards. Symptoms : Cankers appear on bud scars, twigs, stubs or in crotches. Cankers are generally elliptical. Small circular brown spots appear around a leaf scar or superficial wound. As the canker enlarges the centre becomes sunken with the edges raised above the surrounding healthy bark. The bark is loosened and becomes brown and papery (Pic. 33). Wood below the bark is stained brown. The spurs and branches above the canker are killed (Pic. 32). Attacked leaves turn black. Infection of the young fruits which generally starts from the stem-end results in its blackening. Conditions for disease development : Newly exposed leaf scars are the most susceptible points of infection. The cracks in the leaf scars are also important. Other points of entry may be pruning or insect injuries, bark fissures on branches or crotches, abnormal buds and lenticels etc. The fungus overwinters in mycelial form or fruiting structures. The disease progresses throughout the rainy season. Humidity and warm weather favours the disease development. Spring rains help in liberation and dissemination of spores and infection of trees. The pathogen can infect a wide variety of hosts. Control : 1. Cankers on the trunk and in the crotches should be removed and the dead bark decorticated along with 2 cm of the healthy bark. 2. All the dead wood and prunings should be destroyed. 3. Cover the wounds with disinfecting solution and apply Bordeaux paste. 4. Give dormant spray of Bordeaux mixture (2:2:250) in January and two more sprays with the same or copper oxychloride 50 WP @ 0.3% in March and in June. ROOT ROT AND SAP WOOD ROT Polyporus palustris, Ganoderma lucidum and Schizophyllum commune Symptoms : The bark and wood of the roots rot and turn brown with white mycelial mat in the crevices. The affected trees begin to show yellowing of leaves and symptoms of wilt. There is early leaf fall and increase in fruit set before collapsing of the tree. Rotting of the roots leads to toppling over of the trees, especially those with bulky tops. The tree also exhibits die-back symptoms. Afterwards, fruiting bodies of the fungus in the form of conks appear in lower portion of the trunk, or on roots or on soil near it (Pic. 34). Conditions for disease development : The pathogens have a wide host range. Roots of healthy trees get infected when these come in contact with the roots of a diseased tree. Abundant spores are produced in the

fruiting bodies. Infection occurs through wounds on trunk and roots also. High moisture around the roots and clayey soils favour the disease development. Intercropping with crops which require high watering during winter months also adversely affects the roots of pear trees when these are dormant. The pathogens can invade easily the roots which are under stress. Control : 1. Each affected tree showing distress sings should be treated with 10g of Bavistin 50WP + 5 g of Vitavax 75 WP mixed together in 10 litres of water at the trunk base and the drip area twice, once before the monsoon (April-May) and then after the monsoon (September-October) Apply light irrigation after the treatment. 2. Avoid deep hoeing to prevent injuries to the roots, though which the fungus gains entry. Also avoid growing intercrops which require excessive irrigation during winter. 3. Avoid piling up of the soil around the trunk of the trees. 4. In a newly cleared forest area, orchard should be planted only after taking agricultural crops for 2-3 years so that residual diseased roots in the soil rot completely. Note : This disease is also serious on peaches.

PEACH & PLUM BACTERIAL CANKER AND GUMMOSIS Pseudomonas sp. This disease is very common in young orchards in the Punjab State. Symptoms : The main trunk as well as other parts are attacked. Circular to elongated water-soaked gummy lesions similar to borer injury appear on the stem/branches and the outer bark splits (Pic. 35). The bark becomes brown, gummy and sour smelling. The attacked limbs are girdled which results into their death (Pic. 36). The bark and sapwood may show circular to elongated water-soak lesions. Conditions for disease development : Mild winter and moderate summer temperatures are most favourable for disease development. Cankers develop more rapidly in the period between the end of cold weather and the beginning of rapid tree growth in the spring. During wet weather, bacteria ooze is out of the spots and are spread to other plants by direct contact, visiting insects and wind splashed rains. Control : Clean the wounds and apply Mashobra paste before the rains start in summer.

Continue treating the new lesions which appear. Mashobra paste can be prepared by mixing 225 g lanolin, steric acid 425 gm, morpholin 150 gm and streptocycline 25 cm in 5.5 litres of water. ROOT KNOT NEMATODE Meloidogyne incognita Root knot nematode is a serious problem in peach orchards as well as in nurseries in the State. Symptoms : In nurseries, infected plants show poor growth indicated by yellowing and reduction in size of the leaves, stunting of plants and formation of galls or knots on roots. Gall formation on root system is a characteristic symptom of the attack of these nematodes (Pic. 37). In infected orchards plants show uneven growth. General symptoms in infected plants are growth retardation, yellowing, reduction in size and pre-mature falling of leaves, flower shedding, pre-mature drop and reduction in fruit size. Under severe infection, root show gall formation and excessive branching which gives bushy appearance to the roots. Ability of the infected plants to withstand environmental stresses is impaired and such plants wilt more readily under water stress. Conditions for disease development : The nematodes are soil-borne in nature and infested nursery plants are the main source of their spread. Light soils, temperature of 25-30°C and moisture level of 40-60 per cent are most suitable for development of these nematodes. Control : 1. Use only nematode free nursery plants and raise nursery in root knot nematode free soil. 2. Do not plant peach in infested soil. 3. Avoid green manuring with Dhaincha as it increases nematode population. 4. Do not intercrop with susceptible crops like cucurbits and pulses. 5. Keep soil free from weeds in nursery and orchard. 6. Three application of Furadan 3G each at the rate of 40 kg/acre in nursery, 2-3 applications @ 100-150 g per plant in the orchard every year are known to control root knot nematode.

BER POWDERY MILDEW Microsphaera alphitoides f. sp. ziziphi Powdery mildew is a serious disease of Ber in the Punjab which appears at the time of fruit set in all the commercial cultivars and causes heavy losses.

Symptoms : The symptoms appear as powdery coating of the fungal growth on young and tender leaves. Young and developing fruits, however, are more susceptible to powdery mildew infection resulting in pre-harvest fruit drop (Pic. 38). The fruits supporting infection, even if escape dropping, show discolouration of skin and crackings, rendering them commercially unacceptable. Conditions for disease development : Temperature ranging from 15-25°C with optimum of 20°C favours the development of this disease. Dry atmosphere is more condusive for powdery mildew development. The fungus survives on wild Ber and certain root stock species. Control : The disease can be controlled by three sprays of Karathane (0.05%) or wettable sulphur (0.25%) or Bayleton (0.05%) starting from the flowering time in September followed by a spray in mid October and mid November. MOULDY LEAF SPOT Isariopsis indica var. ziziphi The disease affects the lower leaves of the plants resulting in severe defoliation. Symptoms : The disease starts as pinhead fly specks which gradually enlarge to irregular and raised spots with smoky black, fluffy, mouldy fungal growth on the lower surface of the leaves (Pic. 39). Later such spots coalesce to form bigger lesion and may cover almost entire leaf lamina resulting into pre-mature leaf fall. The corresponding upper areas of the infected leaves turn brown and necrotic. Under humid weather conditions, fruits may also get infected. Conditions for disease development : The disease initiates during first week of November when average temperature is around 21°C and relative humidity around 65%. The disease increases with gradual fall in the temperature during November to January. High relative humidity and rains have conducive effect on the disease development. Control : Give 3-4 sprays with Bordeaux mixture (2:2:250) or copper oxychloride 50 WP (0.3%) at fortnightly intervals starting from first week of November.

GUAVA WILT

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii and Cephalosporium sp. Wilt is more serious in neglected guava orchards in the State. Symptoms : Die-back and sudden wilt type of symptoms are observed in the orchards. Die back symptoms appear as defoliation of the twigs from top downwards. As a result the branches are left bare and dark in colour (Pic. 40). In sudden wilt symptoms appear as drooping followed by drying of leaves which later turn straw to brown in colour. Such leaves remain intact with the plant after drying. Sometimes only a branch or part of the plant is affected (wilted) and the other parts remain healthy. Conditions for disease development : High rate of wilting of both young and old plants occurs during rainy season. The disease appears in August and sharply increases during September and October. Control : 1. The guava orchards should be given adequate doses of fertilizer and manures. 2. The wilted trees should be uprooted and burnt. Replant the healthy seedlings after sterilizing the soil with 2 per cent formalin solution. 3. Drenching of soil with Bavistin at the rate of 0.2 per helps in reducing the disease. FRUIT ROT & ANTHRACNOSE Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica and Gloeosporium psidii These diseases normally occur in neglected guava orchards during rainy season in the state. Symptoms : Phytophthora fruit rot is common in fully mature fruits. On the blossom end of the fruits circular, slightly brown spots with definite margins appear. The fruits rot within a week after infection (Pic. 41), while cottony growth can also be seen on the lesions. Sunken brown spots with pink slimy spore mass in the centre appear on unripe fruits which are characteristics of anthracnose disease (Pic. 42). The spots enlarge and cover whole of the fruit and cause rotting. This fungus also attacks young branches during rainy season and causes die-back symptoms. The fungus has wide host range. Conditions for disease development : Both the pathogens cause severe damage during hot and humid rainy season. Dead branches and fallen infected fruits are the source of primary infection. Control : 1. Prune the dead twigs and remove mummified fruits from the trees and burn them. 2. After pruning, spray with copper oxychloride 50 WP or captaf @ 0.3%. Repeat the spray after fruit set and continue spraying at fourteen days interval upto maturity.

3. Bury the rotten and fallen fruits deep into the soil. 4. Avoid bruising and injuries of the fruits.

PAPAYA LEAF CURL Papaya leaf curl virus (PLCV) This disease occurs frequently wherever papaya is cultivated in the state. Symptoms : Infected plants show severe curling, crinkling and distortion of leaves, reduction of petioles, internodes and also the main shoot. Affected leaves are much raised on the upper surface due to uneven growth and twisting of veins (Pic. 43 & 44). Later on they become dark green, leathery and brittle. Infected plant fails to flower and may bear a few fruits. Severally damaged plants do not bear any fruits. Conditions for disease development : Virus is spread by white fly (Bemisia tabaci) efficiently. The symptoms may appear normally during peak summer and peak winter. Virus has a wide host range which includes tobacco, tomato, chillies and several weed hosts. Control : 1. Uproot the infected plants and destroy them to avoid secondary spread of the virus. 2. Use only virus free nursery ploants. 3. Spray 250 ml of Malathion 50 EC in 250 litres of water to keep white fly population under check. 4. Do not allow susceptible hosts to grow near the papaya plantation. MOSAIC Papaya mosaic virus (PMV) This disease is prevalent on all the varieties of papaya cultivated in Punjab. Symptoms : Mottling of the leaves with prominent raised dark green blisters are the characteristic symptoms (Pic. 45). Oily light green streaks appear on the stem and petioles. Fruits on affected trees are small, often with circular ring spots and do not mature properly. Diseased fruits are insipid and occasionally bitter. During severe summer or winter months the symptoms are masked. Conditions for disease development : The virus has many hosts and is readily spread by many aphid species. It can also be transmitted through contaminated hands of workers and tools.

Control : 1. Uproot infected plants and destroy them to avoid secondary spread of the virus. Only healthy seedlings should be transplanted. 2. Keep aphid vectors under check by spraying 250 ml of Malathion 50 EC in 250 litres of water periodically. ANTHRACNOSE Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Gloeosporium sp. Symptoms : Symptoms are more pronounced on fruits, which are severally affected at all stages of growth. The spots are circular in shape, brown to black in colour and become depressed. Spots may coalesce to cover most part of the fruit (Pic. 46). Fruits infected in the early stages of growth become mummified and fall prematurely. Sometimes this disease also occurs as stem end rot. On leaves, spots are brownish in colour and show shredded margins. Conditions for disease development : In old papaya leaves, the fungus perpetuate in the form of fruiting bodies which produce abundant spores. These spores become air borne and lodge on the fruit surface where they germinate and cause infection. The disease is more severe during rains. High temperature favours disease development. Control : 1. The infected fruits and leaves should be destroyed. 2. Spray Indofil M-45 @ 0.2% at fortnightly intervals during dry spells in the rainy season. COLLAR ROT & FOOT ROT Pythium aphanidermatum & Phytophthora palmivora It is a common disease found in places where soil is heavy with poor drainage. It often appears during rainy season from June to August. Symptoms : The disease is characterized by the appearance of spongy, water-soaked patches on the bark at the collar region or at the soil level. The yellowing of leaves, stunted plant growth and poor fruit development are observed. The patches enlarge rapidly and girdle the stem causing rotting of the trunk (Pic. 47) and roots. The fungus advances upwards on the trunk. The tissues become black and the entire tree topples down with a slight wind pressure. If the bark is opened, the internal tissues appear dry and give honey comb appearance. Conditions for disease development :

The pathogens also causes damping off of seedlings in the nursery. The seedlings raised in infested soil may carry the disease. Such seedlings later develop stem rot symptoms under favourable conditions. Papaya plant residue in the soil harbours the pathogens. The disease is favoured by abundant moisture and high temperature. Control : 1. The plants should be grown in well drained soil. 2. Avoid any injury to the basal portion of the trunk. 3. Uproot and destroy the affected plants immediately. Do not replant in the same pit without treating the pit with 2% formalin.

POMEGRANATE BACTERIAL LEAF SPOT AND CANKER Xanthomonas oxonopodis pv. Punicae This disease is a limitation in commercial cultivation of pomegranate. Symptoms : The bacterium infects all the above ground parts including flowers and fruits. On leaves water-soaked spots appear which turn brown and necrotic, ultimately leaves turn yellow and fall prematurely. Cankerous lesions develop on branches at the nodes which are depressed and elliptical in shape. Lesions may girdle resulting in the death of branches. Water-soaked spots turning into brown necrotic lesions also develop on floral parts resulting into premature dropping of flowers. On young fruits numerous small, depressed water-soaked spots appear which gradually increase in size to form irregular patches. In mature fruits necrotic corky black cankers develop (Pic. 48) with prominent cracks. The fruits ultimately rot completely and fall. Conditions for disease development : The bacterium survives on the fallen leaves and fruits and on diseased branches. The disease spreads during rains with splashing of water. Control : 1. Bordeaux mixture (2:2:250) spray can control the disease.

GENERAL HINTS FOR PLANT PROTECTION Method of preparing various solutions are given as under: a)(a) Wound Disinfectant Solution Mercuric chloride 1 gm Methylated spirit 250 ml Water 750 ml b)(b) Bordeaux Paste

c) Copper sulphate 2 Kg d) Quick lime 3 Kg e) Water 30 Liters f) (c) Bordeaux Paint g) Monohydrated copper sulphate 1 Kg h) Hydrated lime dust 2 Kg i) Boiled linseed oil 3 Kg j) (d) * Bordeaux Mixture (2:2:250) k) Copper Sulphate 2 Kg l) Quick lime 2 Kg m) Water 250 Liters n) HOW TO TEST BORDEAUX MIXTURE 1. If blue litmus turns red more lime should be added to make it alkaline 2. Immerse bright iron surface (knife blade or nail). No copper deposit should be there. 3. Add few drops of potassium ferrocyanide solution to Bordeaux mixture solution in a tube. If no change occurs, the mixture is safe, otherwise add more lime to make it alkaline. GENERAL HINTS FOR RATIONAL USE OF FUNGICIDES FOR DISEASE CONTROL IN ORCHARDS • Use recommended fungicides only at proper dosage. • Timely application of fungicides gives better disease control. • Do not mix fungicides with insecticides or other agro-chemicals without taking advice from experts. • Do not apply excessive and regular treatments of systemic fungicides because of the risk of resistance development in the target pathogens. • Do not spray fungicides on a rainy windy days. • Follow spray schedules recommended for controlling fruit diseases.

NUTRITIONAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS NITROGEN DEFICIENCY Symptoms : In most fruit plants, the deficiency of nitrogen results in reduced growth rate and decomposition of chlorophyll. The visual deficiency symptoms of nitrogen are first noticed on the older/lower leaves which are yellowish green to pale yellowish in early stages but develop highly coloured tints of yellow, orange and red if the deficiency is not treated in time. The symptoms then proceed towards the younger leaves also (Pic. 49). Conditions for disease development : The plants growing in soils low in organic matter generally suffer from the inadequate supply of nitrogen.

Corrective measures : The fruit trees differ widely in their requirement for nitrogen. It can be added through urea, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) or ammonium sulphate. The dose and time of application vary for different crops and the age of the trees and are given in the table 1. The dose is generally divided in two halves which are added at different times. Table. 1 Amount or Urea(g/tree)
Age (years) 1-3 4-6 7-9 Above 10 Citrus 100-300 400-500 600-800 800-1600 Mango 100-200 200-400 400-500 1000 Pear 100-300 400-600 700-900 1000 Guava 150-200 300-600 750-1000 1000 Peach 180-540 1000 1000 1000 Grape 400-600 800-1000 1000 1000

Time of application First half Jan Feb (full) __ Early Feb April May-June Sept-Oct Jan April Dec April

Second half April-May

PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY Symptoms : The symptoms of phosphorus deficiency first appear on the older leaves while new leaves appear to be healthy. The leaves develop a dull dark to bluish green colour during early stages. If the deficiency is allowed to continue for a longer time, the margins of older leaves develop brown or dark brown dead spots (necrosis) which later die and fall. In peach the lower leaves on the fruit bearing twigs exhibit symptoms first and in acute and prolonged deficiency the entire plant may become dark purple and premature defoliation takes place. (Pic. 50 & 51). Conditions for development : Too high or too low pH of the soils, too low moisture, colder weather conditions, overlimed soils, compact soils and genetic difference in the ability for phosphate uptake. Corrective measures : It is generally recommended to be applied as single super phosphate, the dose of which also depends on the age and type of the fruit plants (Table 2) Table 2. Amount of Single Super Phosphate (kg/tree)
Age (years) 1-3 4-6 7-9 Citrus 0.25-0.50 0.5-1.0 1.0-1.25 Mango 0.25-0.50 0.50-0.75 0.75-1.0 Pear 0.2-0.6 0.8-1.2 1.4-1.8 Guava 0.5-1.5 1.6-2.0 2.0-2.5 Peach 0.2-0.6 0.8 0.8 Grape 1.5-3.5 4.0-4.5 4.5

Above 10

1.25

1.0

2.0

2.5

0.8

4.5

Time of application Dec Dec Dec Dec Dec Dec

POTASSIUM DEFICIENCY Symptoms : The visual symptoms of potassium deficiency may differ in different fruit crops. These first appear on the older leaves as the yellowing of tips and margins and are particularly marked in the dry season. As the growing period advances the yellow part of the leaves becomes dead (necrosis) turning reddish brown or brownish grey. The yellow and necrotic areas and the healthy tissues are demarked sharply. The leaves may show necrotic spots or marginal burns. The symptoms spread to younger leaves and finally the entire plant may die (Pic. 52-56). Conditions for development : Acid sandy soils, absence of K-bearing minerals, high extractable calcium and magnesium, highly leached and eroded soils, long dry spells are more likely to result in inadequate supply of potassium to the plants. Corrective measures : It is applied in the form of muriate of potash (MOP) at the rates and time of application shown in the table 3. Table 3. Amount of Muriate of Potash (g/tree)
Age (years) 1-3 4-6 7-9 Above 10 Mango 175-350 350-700 700-1000 1000 Pear 150-450 600-900 1050-1300 1500 Guava 100-400 600-1000 1100-1500 1500 Time of application Feb Dec Dec May-June April Peach 150-450 800 800 800 Grape 250-500 650-800 800 800

SULPHUR DEFICIENCY Symptoms : The deficiency symptoms of sulphur first appear as yellowing of leaves in the new growth in contrast to those of nitrogen in which the older leaves are the first to show yellow colour. Later the leaves become thick and leathery and finally attain a dull green colour (Pic. 57-58). Conditions for development : Sandy soils with low organic matter and irrigated with canal water are more favourable conditions for the sulphur deficiency in fruit plants. The likelihood of the

incidence of sulphur deficiency increases where the use of sulphur containing fertilizers like single superphosphate and ammonium sulphate has been discontinued. Corrective measures : Soil application of sulphur containing fertilizers such as single super phosphate or ammonium sulphate as source of phosphorus and nitrogen respectively ensures the adequate supply of sulphur to meet the plant requirement. However, gypsum is a very cheap source of sulphur. A rate of 2 to 5 quintals per acre has been used for controlling the sulphur deficiency in citrus plants. BORON DEFICIENCY Symptoms : Growing points become brown and necrotic (dead), which slowly die-back for some distance. Older leaves also develop small necrotic areas and become irregularly shaped which drop out later resulting in perforations in the lamina. Most of the leaves are somewhat chlorotic with yellowing along the midrib and lateral veins. Defoliation occurs early proceeding from the tip to the base. In pear orchards, the plants suffer from blossom blight. The wilted. Flower clusters wither, turn brown or black but remain attached to the tree even throughout the season. Boron deficiency also causes dry corky lesions in pear fruit with or without external depressions (pitting). The lesions may develop at any stage until the fruit is fully grown. Such fruits tend do drop early or become badly distorted / mis-shapened (Pic. 59). Conditions for development : Leached sandy soils low in native boron, high pH conditions, over-liming, dry weather conditions and low temperature. Corrective measures : Depending upon the extent, the boron deficiency can be corrected by foliar sprays of 0.5 to 0.2% (50 to 200 g sodium borate in 100 litres of water) solution of sodium borate. ZINC DEFICIENCY Symptoms : The most distinctive feature of the zinc deficiency is “little leaf”. The affected leaves are somewhat undersized, pointed and narrow with interveinal chlorosis. Shortening of the internodes results in crowding of the small leaves together in clusters (rosettes) on the short terminals and the lateral shoots of the current seasons’ growth. In most fruits “little leaf” and the “rosettes” usually occur on the same branch. In kinnow, mild deficiency of zinc causes interveinal chlorosis of young leaves. The veins and some area around them remain green giving the leaf a “mottle leaf” appearance. The affected leaves become entirely yellow but usually the irregular areas along the veins remain green. Thus, there is a sharp colour contrast between the veins and the interveinal areas. The acute deficiency of zinc causes severe twig die-back resulting in bushy appearance of the plant and defoliation/death may also take place at this stage. In pear, the symptoms first appear at the time of flowering as diffused interveinal

chlorosis, reduced leaf size, shortened internodes with leaf rosettes and die back. Only few branches on the tree exhibit such type of symptoms. In peach, the leaves have characteristic wavy margins. Larger leaves on shoots arising from below the stunted portion show typical “herring bone” chlorotic pattern The fruits are small and mis-shapen. In mango, the deficiency symptoms appear on new leave which become narrow, stiff and deformed. The affected leave curl backwards giving a cup shaped appearance. In Guava, symptoms of zinc appear gradually on terminal growth as sharp colour contrast between veins and the interveinal areas of the leaves leading to interveinal chlorosis. In the subsequent growth, very small leaves appear with narrow and pointed tips and the twigs start dying back. The affected plants produce small sized fruit leading to reduced fruit yield. Dwarfing of the leaves may be caused by other physiological or pathological disorders but the simultaneous appearance of the interveinal chlorosis and the narrow shape of the small leaves provide and infallible indication of the zinc deficiency (Pic. 60-65). Conditions for development : Low native zinc in leached or leveled sandy soils, alkaline soils, ovelimed soils, soils with very high available phosphorus, very heavy nitrogen and potassium fertilization unreasonably cool, wet and cloudy weather conditions. Corrective measures : The deficiency of zinc can be controlled by soil as well as spray application of zinc sulphate. Depending upon the age of tree apply 0.25 to 1.0 kg zinc sulphate per tree in soil or three-four foliar sprays of 0.3% (300g zinc sulphate in 100 litre of water) solution of zinc sulphate. Under acute deficiency conditions 0.45% zinc sulphate solution can be sprayed on the leaves. COOPER DEFICIENCY Symptoms : The general symptoms of the copper deficiency include a sudden withering and die back of the terminal portion of the vigorously growing shoots. Multiple bud development induces abnormal branching. In citrus, the leaves of copper deficient trees are deep green, over-sized and coarse. The leaves may also develop brown stained areas. Multiple buds may form at the nodes. Severely affected twigs usually die back from the tip and new wig growth appears from nay multiple buds giving a bushy appearance. The dying tips curve in a characteristic manner. In citrus the most reliable symptoms are the gum pockets at the nodes of the twigs and the brownish excrescence on fruit, twigs and leaves. (Pic. 66). There are dark reddish brown gum soaked areas of irregular shape on the fruit surfaces. In pear, the first signs of copper deficiency usually appear as necrosis of the terminal leaves of actively growing shoots. The leaf tips turn black. The affected branches die back and multiple bud formation takes place (Pic. 67). Conditions for disease development : Coarse textured soils poor in native copper, sandy and alkaline or calcareous soils. Heavy clay soils rich in organic matter are also prone to copper deficiency.

Corrective measures : A single application of 2 to 8 kg copper sulphate per acre is enough for several years. Bordeaux mixture spray, the usual formulation used to control fungal disease in fruit plants is very effective for controlling the copper deficiency. This mixture is prepared by dissolving 4 kg copper sulphate and 4 kg lime in 500 litres of water. IRON DEFICIENCY Symptoms : Iron deficiency first appears as yellowing of young leaves (chlorosis) at the tip of the shoot. The leaves have a uniform yellow colour with a green network of veins which have no green margins beside them (as is observed in manganese deficiency). The size of the leaves is not reduced significantly as in case of zinc deficiency. Young terminal leaves are completely yellow with chlorosis progressively less intense towards the base of the shoots. Total bleaching of the young leaves may occur under severe deficiency conditions (Pic. 68-74). In peach, the most characteristic symptom is the absence of chlorophy11 in fully expanded new leaves. The affected leaves have a network of green midrib and the veins on a yellowed surface. The smaller veins and the areas in between them also become yellow. In the prolonged deficiency conditions, all the veins also turn yellow. The margins of the leaves exhibit browning. Conditions for development : Sandy soils poor in native iron, high amounts of available phosphorus, zinc, copper, manganese and bicarbonates; over-irrigation and prolonged periods of wet soil conditions, low or high soil temperature, presence of harmful soil organisms such as nematodes and soil fungi, high light intensity and inefficient root stocks are some of the known reasons of iron deficiency. Corrective measures : The deficiency of iron is corrected by spraying the iron containing materials on the plant leaves because the soil applications are of no value. Three to four sprays of 0.4 to 2.4% solution of ferrous sulphate (400 to 2400g ferrous sulphate in 100 litres of water) at 7-10 days interval are recommended. MANGANESE DEFICIENCY Symptoms : In kinnow, a marginal and interveinal chlorosis appears first on the middle fully expanded leaves at the base of the current shoots and on spurs in contrast to that of zinc and iron which appears on the young leaves at the shoot tips. In the initial stage, leaf lamina becomes light green with fine network of green veins. Later, the whole leaf lamina becomes yellow or chlorotic except narrow green bands along with the mid rib and lateral veins. In acute deficiency the light green/yellow areas change to grey or even whitish which are more pronounced on sunny side of the trees. A narrow margin on either side of the main veins remains green and the interveinal

area changes to a pale green or dull yellowish colour in contrast to the deficiency of zinc in which almost white discolouration occurs. Unlike zinc deficiency, the leaves are normal in size and shape though under severe deficiency the leaves may be somewhat smaller than normal. The growing points of the shoots are not affected at first so that the extension growth proceeds normally. The distinctive pattern of manganese chlorosis is typical in all the fruit species except for pear in which the interveinal chlorosis is much less pronounced and the leaves usually show a more uniform yellowing as in the case of nitrogen deficiency (Pic. 75a, 75b, 75c). Conditions for disease development : Sandy soils subjected to leaching with low native manganese, soils with high pH, lime and phosphorus and extreme cold and dry weather conditions. Corrective measures : Soil applied materials containing manganese have little effect, if any. Therefore, the deficiency of manganese is corrected by 3 to 4 sprays of 0.1 to 0.2% (100 to 200g manganese sulphate in 100 litre of water) solutions of manganese sulphate at 4-6 week’s intervals. FRUIT CRACKING IN LEMONS Symptoms : Fruit cracking is a serious physiogenic disorder in lemons. The cracked fruits spoil rapidly and become unfit for human consumption. The reduction of marketable yield may be to the extent of 40 per cent due to this malady. The incidence of cracking starts around middle of June and the peak occurs during second to third week of July. It appears as a little slit on the fruit surface which gradually widens with fruit development. In its severe form, whole of the fruit shows splitting. Longitudinal as well as transverse splitting patterns are commonly observed on the fruits. The fruit exposed to the sun are more prone to cracking (Pic. 76). Conditions for disease development : The disorder occurs mostly on mature fruits due to excessive absorption of moisture by the plant and it is more severe when a period of drought is followed by rains or heavy irrigation. In addition to water imbalance, bio-regulators, nutrients and weather conditions which promote differential growth rates of peripheral and cortex tissue, may also result in cracking of lemon fruits. Corrective measures : The problem can be checked by following certain cultural practices and with the use of bio-regulators. 1. Provide partial shading by sowing of Jantar or any other crop around the plants. Apply frequent and light irrigation during April, May and June. 2. Early harvesting of mature fruits also escapes cracking. 3. Two sprays of 20 ppm NAA or 40 ppm GA3 or 8.0% potassium sulphate during second fortnight of May also reduce fruit cracking.

HEAT INJURY Symptoms : Heat injury occurs on the most exposed fruits on the south side of the tree. It appears as a visible spot on the peel on the exposed side as a light yellow to dark brown area. Flattening of the affected area is also observed. The yellow or brown spot is devoid of chlorophyll, has ruptured skin glands and necrotic cells in varying degrees. In lemons, the affected skin becomes brown and sunken (Pic. 77a, 77b). In severely head injured citrus fruits juice vesicles become dehydrated. In litchi heat injured fruits show dark brown blotches on the skin without any damage to pulp. In pear and mango fruit, the heat injured portion becomes dark brown and sunken. Conditions for disease development : Heat injury is common in mandarin, sweet orange, lemons, litchi and mango fruits. Rarely it is also observed on pear fruits which are over exposed to direct sun rays on the southern aspect of the tree. Such trees are under some kind of biotic/abiotic stress. Heat injury to fruits, leaves and other tissues in the orchards occurs in regions where daily air temperature of 40°C and above are common in the hottest months. Shortage of irrigation water for extended periods usually aggravates this condition. Corrective measures : 1. Regulate crop load on the tree to prevent over exposure of fruits to the sun light. 2. Follow judicious irrigation as recommended for sensitive crops. 3. In certain fruits like lemon, creating partial shade by certain intercrops (Dhaincha) is useful. 4. White-wash tree trunks and limbs during April-May. WATER BERRIES IN GRAPES Symptoms : The disorder is characterized by shriveling of berries in the beginning followed by drying. Shriveling is usually at the tip of the bunch however, it may be scattered within bunch also. Affected berries look like cellophane bags, half filled with sap and remain hanging from the bunch. The berries become soft, watery and dull in colour though almost normal in size (Pic. 78). Conditions for disease development : Frequent irrigation and nitrogen application during berry growth period lead to development of water berries. Injury of wood due to faulty girding and water strees during the course of healing of girdle also contribute towards this disorder. In this condition berries lack normal sugar, flavour and keeping quality. The disorder is mainly due to overbearing and inadequate nourishment to the affected berries in a cluster. Corrective measures : 1. Maintain 15 leaves per bunch and practice berry thinning of individual bunches.

2. Apply irrigation and fertilizers as per the recommendations of P.A.U. only. 3. Avoid injury to wood while girdling, which is recommended to improve fruit quality in grapes. 4. Ensure proper moisture in the vineyard throughout the course of healing of girdle. SHOT BERRIES IN GRAPES Symptoms : Berries that are small, round, as compared to the normal berries in a cluster are called shot berries (Pic. 79). They are sweeter than the normal berries. Conditions for development : Flowers that fail to develop into normal berries due to poor pollination or fertilization, or poor carbohydrates nutrition give rise to shot berries. Generally, the berries which fail to form embryo or suffer from lack of nourishment, drop off within 710 days after fruit-set. But some berries do not shatter and develop into shot berries. Deficiencies of boron and zinc as well as application of gibberellic acid (GA) or girdling immediately after fruit-set also lead to development of this disorder. Corrective measures : 1. Do not apply GA between fruit set and shatter stage of berries. 2. Keep only 100-120 berries per bunch after thinning with plastic brush. 3. Correct the boron and zinc deficiencies. COLD INJURY Symptoms : In the plants affected by cold, leaves are charred and folded upward along mid-rib (Pic. 80). With increasing cold severity, twigs become wrinkled, show vertical cracks and gum exudation from the twigs and terminal buds. With warming up of the season, bark cracks and limbs may dry up. The young plants of 1-4 years of age may be killed totally, or partially depending upon the severity and duration of cold. Conditions for development : Evergreen fruits plants like mango, litchi, citrus, guava, loquat etc. suffer from cold injury if the night temperature drops to freezing point for longer periods of time. The extent of injury depends upon the kind of plant, its vigour, cultural practices like fertilization and irrigation and the intensity and duration of cold period. Damage is more to the parts nearer to the ground, while the upper tree parts are affected less or may remain even free of damage. Blossom and leaves are the first to be damaged, followed by twigs, branches and limbs. Corrective measures : 1. Cover the young plants (1-3 years of age) with thatches made from locally 2. available material. 3. Irrigated the plants during the expected period of frost.

4. Creating smoke screens in the orchard is also helpful. SUN BURNING CRACKING IN LITCHI Symptoms : Sun-burning and cracking of developing fruits of litchi (Litchi chinesis Sonn.) is a serious problem which accounts for a considerable loss to he growers every year. Losses may be up to 50 percent under adverse weather conditions. Fruit growth in litchi is accomplished in 2 stages. In the first stage, the fruit grows rapidly along the longitudinal axis, mainly because of rapid increase in seed length. In the second phase, flesh growth takes place rapidly in May and synchronizes with the period of highest temperature and lowest humidity. High temperature and low humidity result in localized light-brown blotches on portions of the fruit-skin facing direct sun-rays. The blotches become intense in a few days, and the blotchy areas dryup. Simultaneously, a small vertical rupture appears in the dried blotchy area on account of the internal pressure because of rapid flesh growth (Pic. 81). Occasionally this rupture is a transverse feature also. The cracks become more pronounced with the rapid increase in flesh growth. Conditions for development : The temperature is high, and relative humidity and rainfall low during the fruitdevelopment period. Close observations on fruit growth of litchi have shown that flesh growth extends from the second week of May to the third week of June in most of the varieties. Weather data for this period indicate that temperature higher than 38°C in combination with relative humidity lower than 60 per cent are very favourable for cracking. Low relative humidity as a result of high temperature and lack of adequate moisture supply during the active period of fruit growth are the limiting factors for normal fruit growth in litchi. Thus, due to a sharp vapour-pressure gradient, the rate of water loss from leaf and fruit surface exceeds the rate at which water is absorbed by the roots. As a result, fruit skin becomes hard and inelastic. When such hard skin is subjected to increased internal pressure as a result of rapid flesh growth following irrigation, it cracks. Corrective measures : It is important that high humidity be maintained through regular and copious irrigation throughout the fruiting season. To reduce cracking of litchi fruits, two irrigations per week, between second week of May to the end of June are recommended.

INSECT PESTS CITRUS CITRUS PSYLLA Diaphorina citri Citrus psylla, a serious pest of citrus plantations, is of utmost importance of all the

pests, as it acts as a vector of greening virus. Besides citrus, it is known to thrive well on Murraya paniculata, M. koenigi, Cordia cordata, C. cordifoila, cleusenia lansium and many other wild species of plants of family rutaceae. Identification : Females lay orange coloured and almond shape eggs. The nymphs are normally flat, circular, orange-yellow coloured body and louse like in appearance, usually found congregated on the site of oviposition or on terminal shoots and buds. The adults are brownish and rest on the underside of leaves with closed wings; their light brown and pointed heads almost touching the leaf surface and the hind end is raised upwards (Pic. 82). The male can be identified by the upturned tip of its abdomen. Forewings of adult are semi-transparent and possess brown band in apical half, whereas hind wings are shorter and thinner than the forewings. Damage : The nymphs and adults suck the sap from the floral buds, young leaves and tender shoots. The curling down of leaves is a characteristic feature of its damage. The infested twigs die off from tip backwards and adjacent branches also dry up due to toxin injected by the insect (Pic. 83). The honeydew secreted by the nymphs encourages the growth of black sootymould. Before the development of sootymould, the leaves are sticky to touch. Numerous flies, which feed on the sugary substance can be seen hovering around tree canopy. Besides its damage as a pest, the insect is also a potential vector of greening virus. The pest is active from March to November. During the hottest and coldest parts of the year, only adults are found in the field. There are three peaks of the pest in a year during March-April, June-August, and September-October. Life history : The female lays about 500 almond shaped eggs singly or in clusters in the folds of half opened leaves, axils of tender leaves and in the flower-buds. The eggs hatch n 10-12 day in winter and 4-6 days in summer. The insect passes through 5 nymphal in about 9-37 days before attaining adult stage. All the stages are available throughout the year, except during December-January, when only adults are met with. There are nine overlapping generations. Control : 1. The pest can be managed to desired level by conserving the biocontrol agents which are in abundance in citrus ecosystem. 2. Spray 1250 ml Rogor 30 EC (dimethoate) or 625 ml Nuvacron 36 SL (monocrotophos) or 10000 ml Metasystox 25 EC (oxydemetonmethyl) or 1140 ml Thiodan 35 EC/(Endosulfan or 1250 ml Hostathion 40 EC (triazophos) in 500 litres of water per acre in the second week of March and again in the first week of September to manage this key pest of citrus plantation CITRUS LEAF MINER Pjyllocnistis citrella

Citrus leaf miner is known to cause serious damage to nursery seedlings and young plantation. It also feeds on all species of citrus, bael, willow (Salix sp.), Murraya exotica,Laranthes sp., Pomelo and Cinnamon. Identification : The eggs are minute, round and yellowish green. Full-grown caterpillar is 5.1 mm in length, cylindrical, dull greenish-yellow and apodous. The adult is a tiny silvery white moth with black eyes, heavily fringed wings; fore wings possess brown stripes and a prominent black spot near apical margin while hind wings are pure white. Damage : Larvae of leaf miner attack tender leaves and feed by making zigzag shining silvery serpentine mines (Pic. 84). The larva feeds on the leaf epidermal cells leaving behind the remaining tissues intact. Due to leaf mines, leaves become mis-shapen, distorted and crumpled with considerable reduction in the growth of the seedlings (Pic. 85). The larva/pupa can also be seen at the terminal end of mine in the leaf/tender twig. The larva also mines the epidermis of the tender twigs/branches. The attack of citrus leaf miner is a pre-disposing factor for the development of citrus canker/scab. The pest remains active from March to November with its two peaks of infestation during April-May and again during September-October. The pest prefers dry and hot climatic conditions. Life history : Month lays minute flattened eggs singly, generally near the mid-rib or prominent vein of young leaves and shoots. Eggs hatch in about 2-10 days. Larval stage is 5-30 days. The brownish pupa is formed within the mine and it remains in the mine in a cocoon. The entire life cycle is completed in 20 to 60 days depending upon the climatic conditions. There are about 16 overlapping generations in a year. Warming up of the season form March onwards is accompanied by increase in its population, whereas fall of temperature form November onwards, recedes its population. Control : 1. Heavy pruning of infested leaves and their burning during winter months helps in reducing leaf miner population. 2. Spray 250 ml Sumicidin 20 EC (fenvalerate) or 500 ml Ripcord 10 EC (cypermethrin) or 1750 ml Decis 2.8 EC (deltamethrin) or 625 ml Nuvacron 36 SL (monocrotophos) in 500 litres of water per acre at fortnight intervals during flushing period of citrus is recommended. Avoid the continuous use of synthetic pyrethroids as their excessive use induces the development of insecticide resistance and encourages the appearance of secondary pests, particularly mites. CITRUS WHITEFLY Dialeurodes citri The whitefly is among the major pests of citrus. It feeds on all Citrus species besides

a large number of fruit plants such as coffee, Melia, Gardenia, pomegranate and jamun including ornamentals and shrubs. Identification : The eggs are oval and pale yellow in colour. The nymph is pale yellow with purple eyes and its body is marginally fringed with bristles. The adult is tiny (1.52 mm) and when at rest folds its wing, which are held over the body in roof like manner. Its wings and body are covered completely with white mealy powder giving it a whitish appearance. Antennae are six segmented. Damage : Both nymphs and adults (Pic. 86) suck the sap from the leaves, thereby reduce the plant vigour. Severely infested foliage turns pale green to brown, get badly curled and even shed. Honeydew excreted by nymphs serves as a substrate for the growth of black sooty mould on the upper surface of the leaves thereby affects the photosynthetic activity of the plant (Pic. 86a). In general, the plants give sickly appearance. It prefers hot and dry climatic conditions. It is active from April to November with its peak period of infestation during May-June and September-October. Life history : Pest is active throughout the year. In February, adult flies lay pale yellow eggs parthenogenetically irregularly scattered on the underside of soft leaves and each leaf may harbour several hundred of individuals. The eggs hatch in about 10-20 days. Freshly emerged nymphs crawl for few hours. After sometime, they settle at one place and insert their proboscis and become sessile and turn into pupal stage. The nymphs suck the cell sap from leaves and become full fed within 25-71 days. The pest passes the coldest (October-February) and hottest part (June-July) in pupal stage (Pic. 87) and it lasts for 114-159 days. Whereas, all the stages are present between March to September. The pest has three broods, the first occurring in March-April, whereas second and third in JulyAugust to October. Control : 1. Avoid closer plantation to reduce pest incidence. 2. Pruning and destruction of affected twigs help to a greater extent under low intensity attack. 3. Excessive irrigation, nitrogen or drought favours its multiplication, thus such conditions should be avoided. 4. Spray of 1000 ml Fosmite 50 EC (ethion) or 1250 ml Hostathion 40 Ec (triazophos) or 1140 ml of Thiodan 35 Ec (endosulfan) in 500 litres of water per acre during April-May again during September-October. CITRUS BLACKFLY Aleurocanthus woglumi Citrus blackfly used to be a major problem in Maharashtra State only. However, during the recent years it has gained significant importance in Punjab too. Apart from

citrus, it also feeds on many other plants such as grapevine, mango, guava, pear, plum, pomegranate, sapota, etc. Identification : Oval shaped yellowish eggs are laid in spiral pattern on under side of leaves. Crawlers (nymphs) are flattened, oval, scale like, dark brown to shiny black in colour, conspicuously spiny, bordered by a white fringe of wax. Pupae are black and the pupation takes place on the leaves. The dorsum of pupa (Pic. 88) is arched with long black spines and the margins are provided with stout teeths. The adults on emergence have heavy pulverulence that gives a slaty-bluish look to them. Wings wear black patches on whitish background. In freshly emerged adults, the head and thorax are bright red and eyes are redish brown. Damage : Both the nymphs and adults suck the cell sap from the leaves (Pic. 89). In case of heavy infestation leaves turn brown, wither and affect fruit setting. The attack of this pest leads to the development of rust fungi, which effect the growth of the tree. Besides, it also excretes honeydew, on which a black fungus grows that interferes with the photosynthetic activity of the plant. Life history : Eggs are laid on the underside of the leaves. Eggs are attached to the leaf by a short pedicel situated near the posterior end. Hatching of eggs takes place in 7-14 days. Nymphal stage is 38-60 days. The nymphs turn into pupae on the leaves and the pupal stage lasts for 100 to 131 days. The pest over winters in nymphal stage. The total life cycle is completed in 150 to 235 days depending upon the prevailing climatic conditions. The activity of nymphal period is more severe during May-June and August to October. The pest completes two generations in a year. Control : (Control measures same as in citrus whitefly). LEAF FOLDER Psorosticha zizyphi In punjab, leaf folder appears as a sporadic pest and cause heavy damage to the young foliage in the nursery. Apart from citrus, it also attacks ber and bael plants. Identification : The eggs are oval, somewhat flattened and pale yellow in colour. Full-grown caterpillar is active, yellowish green with black head and a brownish line on the body. The adult is yellowish green in colour. Damage : Young caterpillars start feeding in congregation on tender and succulent leaves or sprouting buds. Later on, they secrete silken strands to roll up the leaves longitudinally

and start feeding from the tip downwards (Pic. 90). In severely attacked plants, the apical buds wither resulting in reduced growth. Though the pest is active from April to October but it causes heavy damage during monsoon season on young citrus plantations. Life history : The female lays eggs singly or in linear groups along the mid-rib of dorsal side of leaf. The total life cycle from egg to adult varies from 20 to 31 days. There are nine overlapping generations in a year. Pupal stage is passed from November to March either in soil or in rolled leaves fallen on the ground. The pest is found on citrus plants from April to October and, on ber and bael from June to August. Control : 1. Clipping off of the rolled leaves is effective at initiation of damage. 2. Spray 625 ml of Nuvacron 36SL (monocrotophos) or 1250 ml Dursban 20EC (chlorpyriphos) or one litre Ekalux 25EC (quinalphos) in 500 litres of water per acre to manage the pest. APHID Toxoptera aurantii, Aphis gossypii, Myzus persicae Aphids are likely to attain a status of regular pests on citrus. Their activity generally coincides with the on set of mild weather conditions. Toxoptera aurantii (specific on citrus) and Myzus persicae (polyphagous) are the two species, which cause noticeable damage to citrus plantation during February-April and again during September-October. These species are also acting as vector of citrus tristeza virus. Besides these two species, A. gossypii (polyphagous) is also active during September-October on citrus. Identification : Toxoptera aurantii : the alate or apterous forms of T. aurantii are shiny black, whereas nymphs are dark brown in colour. In winged aphids, a prominent black spot like stigma is present on each wing with a median vein on forewings. The adult aphids have short tubes like cornicles on the dorsal side of the abdomen. Myzus persicae : Aphids are usually green but can be pale brown or pinkish, antennae as long as body and siphunculi (cornicles) fairly long and clavate. Appearance of alate and apterous forms depend on the environmental conditions. The alate forms possess dark sclerotic patch on the mid abdominal dorsum. Aphis gossypii : Adults are pear shaped but of variable colour. At high temperature and over crowded conditions, adults are pale yellowish-green while winter forms are bigger in size with dark green colour. Antennae are half the size of body, eyes red and siphunculi are black. Females are mostly wingless. Nymphs are greenish brown or yellow in colour. Damage : Aphids in general suck the sap from the tender shoots and foliage during adult and nymphal stages and cause stunting of growth (Pic. 91). Toxoptera aurantii : the nymphs and adults suck the cell sap from the phloem vessels of the leaf tissues of young leaves and tender twigs (Pic. 92). Their feeding impairs the

vitality of the tree and causes severe curling and deformation of young leaves coupled with stunted growth. Aphids also excrete honeydew, which provides a good substrate for the growth of sootymould, thereby affecting the photosynthetic activity of the plant. Besides, it acts as a vector of citrus tristeza virus. Myzus persicae : the species feed on leaves, flower buds and young fruits (Pic. 93). As a result, the infested leaves become pitted and curled; flower buds wither and young fruits shrivel and drop off prematurely. The infestation at flowering stage affects the fruit setting as well. Both the above species damage citrus during February to mid April and again in September-October. Ahis gossypii : Nymphs and adults suck the cell sap from ventral surface of leaves, apical shoots and tender twigs during September-October. The leaves get curled, cupped, distorted and dry up (Pic. 94) Growing of sootymould on honeydew affects the photosynthetic activity of the plants. Life history : Toxoptera aurantii : Black aphids are parthengentic and viviparous in nature. A female reproduces 1 to 16 young immature nymphs per day and lays more than 100 young ones in a life span of 12 to 33 days. The nymphs moult four times. Winged forms commonly develop when colony of aphids become crowded or when leaves become old and hard, whereas winged forms do no develop as long as aphids feed on very tender leaves. The entire cycle is completed in 3 weeks and there are 12 generations in a year. Myzus persicae : In sub-tropics, the species lose its sexual cycle and reproduces parthenogenetically. Each gynopara produces 5-15 oviparae. Aphis gossypi : the reproduction in this species is through parthenogenetical and viviparous means. A female produces 20-140 young ones during its life span. High humidity and cloudy weather with little rainfall enhances the reproduction potential. Control : Spray 625 ml Nuvacron 36 SL (monocrotophos) or 1250 ml Rogor 30 EC (dimethoate) or 1000 ml Metasystox 25 EC (oxydemeton-methyl) in 500 litres of water per acre in the second week of March and again in the first week of September. CITRUS CATERPILLAR Papilio demoleus It is a sporadic pest and the attack is generally confined to nurseries and young plantation of citrus. Besides feeding on citrus sp., it also attacks bael, ber, wood apple and many other species of plants of rutaceae family. Identification : Eggs are pale yellow, though, smooth, round and big in size. The young caterpillar is brown to black with milky white markings, possesses horn like structure on dorsal side of abdomen, resembles like bird droppings (Pic. 95). When full grown (40mm long), it changes to yellowish-green (Pic. 96), smooth and velvety with dusky brown oblique bands on lateral abdominal segments that do not meet on the dorsum. Pupae are parrot

green. The adult is a beautiful butterfly, ventrally yellow with small black and yellow hairs covers its body. Its wings are dull black and the four wings possess yellow and black markings. The hind wings bear a small brick red oval patch near the upper margin but there is no tail like projection on it. Adult has black head and thorax while ventral side of abdomen is creamy yellow. Antennae are club like and blackish in colour. Damage : The caterpillar is a voracious feeder of young, shinny tender leaves and terminal shoots and generally starts gnawing the leaf lamina from margins inwards reaching the mid-rib. (Pic. 97). In case of severe infestation, entire tree gets defoliated. Young seedlings and nurseries are preferred by this pest. Life history : The female lays eggs singly on tender shoots and young tender leaves. The entire life cycle ranges from 20 to 100 days according to season. It passes through ten generations from March to November. From December to February only pupae are seen. Damage is most severe during April-May and August-October. Control : 1. Hand picking of different stages of the pest and their destruction particularly in nurseries and newly planted orchards is recommended. 2. Encourage the predators like yellow wasp, preying mantids and spiders in orchards. 3. To manage the pest, spray of 750 ml Thiodan 35 EC (endosulfan) in 500 litres of water/acre is advocated. RED SCALE Aonidiella aurantii It is a cosmopolitan pest and is found on citrus throughout the world. In Punjab, it has been observed as a sporadic pest of citrus. Semi-arid climate is suitable for its development. It is polyphagous in nature. It feeds on citrus spices, fig, grape, rose, willow, shisham, Acacia, eucalyptus and many other trees and shrubs. Identification : Female scale is redish, circular in shape, leg less (sedentary) and flattened with raised centre. Gravid female scale is kidney shaped and appears yellowish-orange. The male scale is elongated, winged and possesses one pair of distinct purplish eyes. Damage : The scales congregate in large numbers on leaves, twigs (Pic. 98) and fruits (Pic. 99), and suck the sap resulting in yellow spots, at the feeding site. The scale injects the toxic saliva in the cell sap before ingestion. Black mark indicates the point at which the scale has inserted its stylet. The branches soon lose their vigour, turn scurfy and gradually dry up. It also secretes waxy covering over its dorsal surface. In case of heavy infestation the leaves become pale. Parenchyma tissues are normally punctured for feeding. Infested fruits fetch low market price. The activity of this scale is maximum during March-April

and August and October. Life history : The scale insects are abundant during autumn and are available throughout the year. In spring, ale emerges from the elongated scale, develop into winged adult in 30-60 days and approaches the female scale slowly for fertilizing it on the spot. The young ones are produced through ovoviviparous means. Crawlers emerge from beneath the female, moves for a short period and finally fix them to the plant tissues and start covering with a white waxy secretion. The scale moults twice in 10-15 weeks and becomes enlarged armour. In case of male scales, a pre-pupal and pupal stage intervenes before attaining the adult stage, which has wings and legs. The life cycle is completed in about 40 days in summer. It passes through three generations in a year. Control : Control of red scale can be obtained by spraying 300 ml methyl parathion in 500 litres of water per acre at frequent intervals. MEALY BUG Planoccocus citri It is a polyphagous pest confined to South Indian but recently gained importance in Punjab. Besides citrus, it has also been recorded as a pest of fern, begonia, cactus, poinsettia, etc. Identification : The nymphs are pale yellow with waxy coating and filaments. The adult female is wingless and elongate ovate, covered with white mealy waxy filaments, whereas midge like male is winged with long antennae and atrophied mouthparts. Female has piercing and sucking type of mouthparts. Damage : The nymphs and adult female inflict injury by sucking juices from the cells of leaves, tender branches (Pic. 100) and fruits (Pic. 101) ( at the base near the fruit stalk) and in some cases roots as well. The plants turn pale, wilt and consequently dry up. Besides, they also excrete honeydew on which sootymold grows. Black ants create nuisance as they visit to feed on honeydew excretion. The fruits fall off prematurely in case of severe attack. The activity of this pest is more from April to June on grown up trees. Life history : The fertilized females lay light creamy-yellow eggs in clusters and each cluster may contains more than 300 eggs, clusters are enclosed in a protective cottony mass. On emergence the young nymphs are pale yellow with no waxy coating, crawl about and start sucking sap from underside of leaf tissues. Soon they develop themselves with white mealy wax and having 34 wax covered appendages round the entire periphery. The male undergoes four moults and after passing through pre-pupal stage emerges as winged adult.

Control : 1. For effective management of mealy bugs, orchard sanitation is extremely important as weeds serve as additional hosts. 2. The infested shoots should be pruned and destroyed. 3. The ant colonies should be destroyed by ploughing the soil around trees and by application of quinalphos or carbaryl dust. FRUIT SUCKING MOTH Eudocima fullonia Fruit sucking moth is a sporadic pest of citrus orchards in Hoshiarpur and Pathankot areas of Punjab. It is polyphagous in nature. Besides citrus, it has been recorded from grapes, mango, apple, castor, ber, orange, pomegranate including wild plants and weeds. Identification : The caterpillar is cylindrical, stout body, semilooper, having dorsal hump on last abdominal segement and cryptic markings on velvety dark brown body. It has a prominent yellow spot on head with lateral yellow or red spots. The head and thorax of the adult are redish brown. The forewings of moth are variegated and striated with dark grey brown and a triangular white marks on them. Hind wings are orange red in colour with kidney shaped/large black “C” curved black blotch in the centre. Damage : The moths have well-developed proboscis with denate tips with which they are able to pierce the ripening fruits from the adjoining bushes/forest areas. The moth punctures the rind of fruit (Pic. 102). Infested fruits invariably fell to the ground prematurely perhaps due to toxins injected by the moth while feeding. A circular pinhole appears at the site of feeding. Fermented juice oozes out when fruit is swueezed. The attacked fruits are easily infected with bacteria and fungi. Life history : The moths on emergence swarm in enormous numbers towards the odour released by ripened fruits. This pest is active from July to October. The female lays eggs singly on the underside of leaves of wild creepers belonging to the family menispermaceae and anacardiaceae. Eggs hatch within 2 weeks. The larvae become full-grown in 4 weeks. Larvae pupates in fallen leaves and pupal period is 2 week. The entire life cycle is completed in 4 to 6 weeks. There are 2-3 generations in a year. Winter is passed in larval stage. Control : 1. Destructin of alternate hosts like wild weeds and creepers, especially Tinospora cordifolia around the orchards. 2. Dispose off fallen fruits, which attract the moths. 3. The bagging of fruits is also effective but is is slightly laborious and expensive. 4. Creating smoke in the orchards after sunset may also keep the pest at bay.

5. Spray trees with 1 kg of Sevin 50 WP (carbaryl) in 500 litres of water per acre at the time of maturity of fruits. 6. Dusting the fruits with methyl parathion 2 per cent dust, during evening also checks the fruit drop 50 per cent. THRIPS Scirtothrips citri It is mainly a pest of citrus but also attacks acacia. It prefers dry and hot conditions during May-June. Identification : Nymphs are cigar-shaped and orange-yellow in colour. Adults are redish-orange. Males are rare. Damage : Eggs are laid into soft tissues of fruits. On hatching, nymphs feed on small fruits near peduncle or tender leaves. Feeding on fruit results a ring of scaly-brownish tissues around the peduncle or as irregular areas of scarred tissues on fruit (Pic. 103). The affected fruits lose market value due to blemish rind. Life history : As the males are scanty, therefore, reproduce parthenogenetically. Eggs are bean shaped with an incubation period of 7 days. Nymphal and pupal periods varied from 7-15 days depending upon weather conditions. Pupation takes place in the soil. Control : Spray 715 ml Thiodan 35 EC (endosulfan) or 835 ml Rogor 30 EC (dimethoate) in 500 litres of water per acre.

GRAPE THRIPS Rhipiphorothrips cruentatus In Punjab, it is a key pest wherever the grape is grown. Being highly polyphagous, it also thrives on rose, jamm, calotropis, almond, cashewnut, guava, mango etc. Identification : The adult is tiny (1.4 mm long) and elongated winged insect that does not use its wings readily. The females are bright yellow white the males are dark brown. The last three abdominal segments are bright yellow in male and pale in female. The nymphs are pale yellow with red sides of the abdomen but otherwise similar to adults. Besides, the nymphs possess wing pads.

Damage : Both the adults and nymphs feed by rasping and sucking the oozing out cell sap from the ventral side of the leaves and flower-stalks. The attacked portion of the leaves turns silvery white scortchy patches (Pic. 104) with curly tips, get deformed and fall down. Attack on flower-stalks results in shedding of flowers. They also damage the developing berries and impart rusty or scaly appearance or result in scab formation on berries (Pic. 105). The severe attack occurs during March-May and again in September-October otherwise active from March-October. Life history : Female lays about 50 white bean shaped eggs singly in slits on the underside of the leaves. The egg, nymphal and pupal stages are completed in 3-8, 11-25 and 2-5 days, respectively. The pest remains in the soil as pupae during winter months. The pest is active from March to October under Punjab conditions. Females are produced from the fertilized eggs and males from unfertilized eggs. The male dies within 2-7 days after copulation while the life of the female is about 20 days. There are five to eight generations of this pest in a year. Control : To control this pest, spray 500 ml of Malathian 50 EC or 1.5 kg of Sevin/Hexavin 50 WP (carbaryl) in 500 litres of water per 100 vines, once before flowering and again after the fruit set. In Perlett, carbaryl should be preferred, as it also has thinning effect on berries. If necessary, repeat the spray after 15 days. JASSID Arboridia viniferata In recent years, the grapevine jassid has attained pest status in Punjab. It is serious after rainy season. Identification : The adults are a small wedge-shaped, light green to grey in colour. The full-grown nymphs are yellowish brown and the nymphs resemble the adults and possess welldeveloped wing pads. Damage : The nymphs and adults suck the plant sap usually from the underside of the leaves. The damage first appears as scattering of small white spots (Pic. 106). In case of severe infestation, the affected leaves turn yellow, gradually start curling, become brown and ultimately fall down. It is also responsible for an indirect loss by producing honeydew, which serves as a substrate for the growth of sooty mould fungus on foliage and fruits and which affects the production and quality of grapes. Maximum damage occurs during JulyAugust. Life history : This pest builds up a heavy population during a short period. Female inserts eggs in

the veins on the underside of the leaf which hatch in about two weeks. There are five nymphal instars before attaining the adult stage. Nymphs become full-grown in 3-5 weeks. The pest remains active on vines from mid-February to mid-November but the highest multiplication occurs during September-October. There are two to three generations of the pest in the season. Control : Spray the vines with 500 ml of Folithion/Sumithion/Accothion 50 EC (fenitrothion) or 1.5 kg of Sevin/Hexavin 50 WP (carbaryl) in 500 litres of water/acre to check its infestation. WASP Polistes hebraceus, Vespa orientalis This type of wasps are commonly found in plains of Northern India and cause damage to various ripe fruits such as grape, peach, pear and plum. Identification : The adults of P. herbraeus are either yellow or fulvous-brown while V. orientalis are larger in size, light chestnut-red with third and fourth abdominal segments pale-sulphur yellow which gives it a shiny appearance. Damage : The adult wasps inflict damage to different kinds of ripe fruits but the attack is most serious in grapes (Pic. 107). They also attack the honeybees and cause nuisance during harvesting by stinging the human beings. Wasps live in colonies in the combs (Pic. 107a). Life history : The wasps remain active during summer months and hibernate as fertilized queens during the winter in cracks and crevices in the ground or in the other places of protection. They emerge from their hideouts during spring and lay eggs in the cells of an old or new nest in March. The larvae on hatching remain in the cells and are fed and reared by the queen. The first generation adults are only workers. The foraging and brood rearing activities are performed by workers. The full-grown larvae pupate in the cells, which are then capped by the workers. The adults on emergence bite their way out of the capped cells. The brood rearing continues till autumn. The last brood consists of both the males and females. The workers and males die during the winter. The fertilized females hibernate till the next spring. There are several overlapping generations of wasp in a year. Control : 1. To avoid damage buy wasps, cover the grape bunches with muslin bags. 2. Burn or smoke the wasp nests on hedges or trees, etc. at sun set.

MANGO

MANGO HOPPER Amritodus atkinsoni, Idioscopus clypealis These hoppers are widely distributed and serious pests of the entire mango growing regions of India. There are two mango hoppers. A. atkinsoni is comparatively more abundant in North India while I. clypealis is more serious in South. The pest remains active throughout the year but maximum damage is inflicted during February-April. During the extreme climate only adults are met with. It is mainly a pest of mango. Identification : Eggs and nymphs of two species are difficult to distinguish from each other. Young nymphs are wedge shaped, whitish in colour and have two small red eyes. At each moulting the colour changes to yellow, yellowish green, green and ultimately to greenish brown. Nymphs of I. clypealis are dust yellow and less active, wheareas nymphs of A. atkinsoni are pale yellow and more active. Adults are wedge shaped and greenish brown body and pale yellow vertex. Forewings are thicker than hind wings. The adult of I. clypealis is smaller and has three dark brown spots on head, a prominent white median band and two black spots on pronotum. Besides, back triangular marking on scutellum and a central longitudinal dark streak dilated both anteriorly and posteriorly is noticeable identification mark of this species. Whereas, the adult of A. atkinsoni is without central longitudinal streak on scutellum. This species, however, possesses two spots on scutellum in adult stage. Damage : The damage is inflicted by both nymphs and adults through sucking cell sap. The nymphs are found clustering on the inflorescence and suck the sap during spring. The infested flowers shrivel, turn brown (Pic. 108) and ultimately fall off. These hoppers also excrete honeydew, which encourages the growth of soothymould on leaves, branches and even on fruits. Heavy egg laying within florets and stalklets cause physical injury, resulting in withering of affected parts. These hoppers can cause a loss upto 40-60 per cent. Life history : Adults are available throughout the year under bark of the tree. With the onset of winter season, insect appears in large umbers. Female lays 200 eggs singly in flowering shoots, flower buds or tender leaves from end January till March which hatch in about 4-7 days. After moulting thrice, the nymphs turn into adults in 8-13 days. The total life cycle from egg to adult varies from 18-20 days. There are two broods in a year viz. spring brood (February to April) and summer brood (June to August). The spring brood is more destructive as the hoppers feed on inflorescence. Hoppers prefer damp and shady places and multiply in large numbers in neglected orchards. The pest hibernates in adult stage. Control : 1. In dense orchards, prune some of the branches during winter to have better light interception. 2. Do not go for high density planting.

3. Spray twice, once in the end of February and second time during the end of March with 1 Kg Hexavin 50 WP (carbaryl) or 800 ml of Malathion 50 EC or 700 ml Thiodan 35 EC (endosulfan) in 500 litres of water per acre. MEALY BUG Drosicha mangiferae Earlier, it was considered as pest of mango in U.P. and Bihar. At present, it is widely distributed in Northern India. Apart from mango, it feeds on ber, citrus, falsa, fig, grapevine, guava, jamun, litchi, peach, plum, pomegranate, apricot, cherry, jackfruit, papaya, pear, mulberry, banyan, tec. Identification : Both the nymphs and adult females are flat, oval, waxy-whitish and sometimes mistaken for fungal growth (Pic. 109). Females are wingless while males are crimson red colour bugs with two dark brownish black wings. Damage : Soon after hatching, the nymphs start crawling up the tree trunks and clusters of population can be seen these may be seen sucking the cell sap from young shoots, panicles and fruits (Pic. 109a). These are more active during sunny day. Only the nymphs are destructive and cause the tender shoots and flowers to dry up. The young fruits also become juiceless and drop off pre-maturely. During heavy attack, the trees retain absolutely no fruit. Males are harmless creatures. Life cycle : The winged males mate with apterous females only once. The gravid females soon crawl down the trees during end of March to end May and enter the soil 8 to 15 cm deep, wherein they excrete whitish foam in which the eggs ranging between 400-500 are deposited within 7 to 16 days. Soon after completing the oviposition, the females die. The eggs remain in diapause from end May to December. The hatching starts in early December and continues till January. After passing through three nymphal instars, the nymphs turn into adults. Total life cycle is 65-120 days in case of males and 75 to 135 days in case of females. There is only one generation of the pest during the year. Control : 1. Dig or plough around mango trees during summer to kill the hibernating eggs. 2. Nymphs should be prevented from crawling up the trunk by applying a slippery band by mid December. The slippery band consists of 15-20 cm wide sheet of alkathene to be applied the basal end of the stem and secure both its upper and lower edges with 1-3 nails (2 cm). The lower end should be covered with compact soil so as to prevent nymphs from climbing up the tree trunk. Occasional wiping of the band during rains is also desirable. In case of large-scale emergence of nymphs, apply 50 gm Follidol 2% dust (methyl parathion) on the compact soil around the tree trunk to kill the nymphs.

STEM BORER Batocera rufomaculata The beetles have been recorded as serious pests of mango, fig and other trees. Besides these, it also infests jackfruit, papaya, apple, rubber, eucalyptus, mulberry etc. Identification : Full-grown grub is 6 cm long, white, stout, yellowish-ivory and fleshy with well defined body segmentation and dark head. The adult beetles are stout, dark brown longicorn with yellowish-green pubescence; prothorax with two large kidney shaped orange spot and a short thick spine like projection on either side. The antennae are long extending from the head to tie tip of abdomen. Elytra is provided with dull yellowish spots. Besides, two crescent orange yellow spots are present on pronotum. Damage : The borer is not very common, yet when it appears in the main trunk or a branch, it generally kills the host. On hatching, the grubs make zig-zag burrows beneath the bark and tunnel into the trunks or main stems and move upwards and continue feeding, on the internal tissues. The attack of the pest is known from the frass that comes out of the entrance hole made by the grub (Pic. 110). The adult beetles damage by feeding on the bark of young twigs and petioles. The pest causes considerable damage during MarchApril. Life history : The adults appear during monsoon. Eggs are deposited after mating under the loose bark in a wounded or diseased portion of the tree trunk. The grubs after hatching bore into the woody tissues or even the roots. The winter is passed in grub stage in burrows and starts feeding as soon as the weather warms up and remains active for 140-160 days. The full-grown larvae pupate within the cell and pupal stage lasts for one month. The adult longevity is around 60-100 days. The life cycle is completed in 1-2 years. Control : Removal of frass followed by injection of spray fluid (4 ml of methyl parathion 50 EC dissolved in a litre of water) into the hole with wash bottle and plugging with mid is advocated to control the pest. MANGO SHOOT BORER Chlumetia transversa With the introduction of grafted varieties of mango in the state, the shoot borers have gained importance in mango orchards. Their attack is more pronounced in nurseries and young grafted seedlings. Litchi is another host plant of shoot borer. Identification : Young larvae are yellowish-orange in colour with characteristic dark brown prothoracic shield whereas grown up caterpillars are dark pink with dirty spots and

measure 20-24 mm in length. Adult moth has thorax and abdomen clothed with rufous and grey scales. Forewings are dark grey beautifully patterned with wavy designs. Hind wings are fuscous, apical side being darker than proximal side. Damage : Freshly hatched caterpillars bore into midribs of tender leaves or the tender shoots near the growing point, tunneling downwards, leaving excreta outside the entrance hole (Pic. 111, 11a). Leaves of affected shoots wither and droop down and are conspicuous from a distance. Young grafted seedlings are severely affected and may even be killed. The pest is active from August to October. Life history : The activity of the pest can be seen from August to October. Eggs are laid on tender leaves. Freshly hatched larvae bore into midribs of tender leaves and feed for a few days there. Subsequently, they come out and bore into the growing shoots moving downward. The larval stage lasts for about 14 days. They pupate for 15 to 21 days in the bark or dried inflorescence or crevices in the soil. Borer remains active from July to October and from October to March. It over winters in pupal stage. It has four overlapping generations during the year. Control : 1. Removal and burning of the dried up shoots reduces population pressure of pest. 2. Spray the new growth with 700 ml of Thiodan 35 EC (endosulfan) in 500 litres of water per acre to check the spread of attack subsequently. 3. MANGO SCALE Aspidiotus destructor The scale insect becoming a serious pest of mango. It also causes damage to citrus, guava, jamun and banana. Grafted mangoes are the preferred ones. The pest is active during summer and affects the fruit setting adversely. Identification : The nymphs of the scale are oval, translucent, yellowish-brown crawlers and can be located on tender shoots and on the underside of leaves which remain covered with waxy material and are sessile. As a result, the infested leaves turn light pale and the scales can be easily scraped off the leaf surfaces. The females are circular, semi-transparent and pale brown. Damage : Nymphs generally suck the sap from the leaves, twigs (Pic. 112, 112a) and occasionally from the fruits. The chlorophyll of the attacked portion is destroyed and attacked spot appears yellow. In case of severe infestation, the sooty mould develops, which greatly retard the photosynthetic activity of the plant. The scales can be easily removed from the attacked part of the tree.

Life history : The reproduction in scales is through oviparity. A female lays about 30 eggs and after hatching, the crawlers crawl a bit in search of succulent spot. The movement of the pest is through wing. Total life cycle is completed in 32 to 35 days. Control : Spray of 500 ml of methyl parathion 50 EC in 500 litres of water/acre in March and September to control infestation of scale insects.

PEACH, PEAR AND PLUM PEACH LEAF CURL APHID Brachycaudus helichrysi Apart from peach, it is also found on apricot, almond, plum and pear. Local cultivars of peach are comparatively more susceptible to the attack of this aphid than the American cultivars. It appears in February in the plains and after May in the cooler regions. Identification : Nymphs are dark green in colour and the adult that fees on leaves are green or yellow, while those feed on bark are chocolate coloured. Adult has dark stripes on head. Damage : Both the nymphs and adults suck the cell sap from leaves, blossoms, leaf petioles and fruits. Leaves infested with aphid acquire a characteristic curly appearance (Pic. 113) generally from March to May in the plains. Blossoms wither and fruits do not develop into normal size. Heavily infested plants bear very limited number of fruits. Life history : Though, it is a pest of crop during winter season, yet it cannot withstand severe cold, which it passes in egg stage. With the rise in temperature, there is rapid multiplication. Reproduction is sexual as well as parthenogenetic, depending upon climatic factors. A female gives birth to about 50 young ones in her lifetime of two weeks. Female requires 10 days to mature and reproduce during March-April. After producing 3 to 4 asexual generations, the winged aphids migrate to alternate hosts to pass summer. Control : Spray 800 ml of Rogor 30 EC (dimethoate) in 500 litres of water/acre immediately after fruit-set. Repeat spraying, after 15 days, if necessary. PEACH GREEN APHID Myzus persicae It has a wide host range and apart from pear, it also attacks apple, almond, cherry, peach, plum, and apricot.

Identification : The aphids are usually green in colour but may be pale brown or pinkish. Antennae are as long as the body. Siphunculi are fairly long and clavate. Adults appear as alate and apterous forms at different times of the year depending upon environmental and climatic conditions. The alate have a characteristic dark sclerotic patch on the mid abdominal dorsum. Damage : The colonies of aphid may be seen sucking the sap from the young leaves, flowers buds and young-fruits (Pic. 114, 114a). The infestation usually occurs during flowering stage and the fruit setting is adversely affected. The infested leaves become pitted and curled; flower-buds wither and young fruits shrivel and drop off prematurely. Apart from feeding on the foliage, the pest causes great loss by transmitting around 120 plant viruses. Life history : The winged forms return to pear and peach in October. In November when the trees shed their leaves, the aphids migrate to young-trees or nursery plants till mid-February. The aphid migrates to cool and shady places in May and again appear on pear and peach plants in autumn. Control : Spray 500 ml Rogor 30 EC (dimethoate) in 500 litres of water per acre for the management of aphid. PEAR APHIDS Schizaphis spp., Toxoptera spp. In recent years, pear trees are being infested heavily by aphids during February-April. Detailed identification and life history have not been studied yet. Identification : Damage : Aphids cause damage to tender, growing shoots, flowers buds, flowers (Pic. 115), leaves (Pic. 115a) and fruits. The sootymould growing on honeydew affects the photosynthetic activity of the plant. Life history : For its management, spray 1250 ml Rogor 30 EC (dimethoate) or 695 ml Nuvacron 36 SL (monocrotophos) or 1000 ml Metasystox 25 EC (oxydemeton methyl) in 500 litres of water per acre. FRUIT FLY Bactrocera dorsalis

Fruit fly causes serious damage to peaches and pears. On peaches, its infestation occurs during May-June while on pears, it is active from mid June to July (for identification, nature of damage (Pic. 115b, 115c) and life history, see under guava). Control : 1. Plant early maturing ultivars i.e. Partap, Florda Prince, Earli Grande Flordasun and Shan-e-Punjab. 2. Harvest the ripening fruits and do not allow the ripe fruits to continue on the tree. 3. Regular removal of fallen fruits from the ground and bury the infested fruits atleast at 60 cm depth. 4. Shallow ploughing with cultivator immediately after harvest is effective in exposing and killing the pupating larvae/pupae which are mostly present at 4-6 cm depth. 5. In orchards of pear, only with history of severe fruit fly infestation, spray 1250 ml Sumicidin 20 EC (fenvalerate) in 500 litres of water/acre in the end of June and repeat the spray at weekly intervals, if required while, it can be sprayed on peaches in mid May. PLUM CASE WORM Cremastopsychae pendula In recent years, case-worm has become a serious problem on plum and pear in Punjab. This pest is also found on peach, guava, ber, grapes, mango, loquat, etc. Identification : Male moth is small delicate with dusky or hyaline wings with prominent pectinate antennae but proboscis is absent. Female moth is wingless and remains in the larval case. The anterior portion of larvae is broad while posterior part is tapering. Damage : The larva hides in the self-made small, triangular, silken case and, only the trained eye knows the presence of insects, as the caseworm mimics buds on the branches. The larva protrudes the anterior region including its thoracic legs through the anterior opening and crawls about dragging along its case, which is firmly held over its body. It nibbles on the base of tender twigs, branches and stem (Pic. 116). The gum oozes out of the affected sites. The severely attacked parts show profuse gummosis. The afftected sites. The severely attacked parts show profuse gummosis. The affected plants are unable to bear foliage and fruit-bearing buds, which reduces the yield. The pest starts its activity from March onwards and remains active till October. Life history : The female lays egg within the larval case. Each female lays 500 to 1000 small eggs. The eggs hatch in 10-15 days after oviposition. The small larvae creep out of the mother’s case and begin to feed on the leaf tissues. Each larva begins to construct its own protective case. The larval period lasts 8-10 months. When full-grown, the male larva closes its case and pupates therein with head downward. The female larva moults inside

the larval case and pupates therein. The moth emerges through the lower end of the larval case. Control : i) Prunning of severly-infested twigs should be done. ii) The damaged materials alongwith the larval cases must be destroyed or burnt. iii) Spray 1 kg of Sevin 50 WP (carbaryl) or 570 ml Thiodan 35 EC (endosulfan) in 500 litres of water/acre for its management. FLAT HEADED BORER Sphenoptera dadkhani In recent years, the flat-headed borer has become a major pest of peach. It also infests plum, apricot, cherry, almond, apple, pear, loquat, etc. Identification : The adults are bronze coloured, the female usually bigger than the male. Both sexes are sturdy, elongated, flattened and round at both the ends. Eggs are generally oval shaped and black in colour. Full-grown grub is club shaped and is shining-white with a broad head and thorax and a narrow abdomen. Damage : Both the grubs and the adults are harmful but the grubs make shallow, broad, irregular galleries which make the bark loose and block the flow of sap thus causing the death of limb above it (Pic. 117). Oval exit holes appear on the bark after the emergence of beetles (Pic. 118). Badly riddled bark breaks, loose after sometimes, exposing the wood (pic. 119). In case of severe infestation, the branches and even the entire tree die. The attacked branches are easily broken by the strong wind. Pest is active throughout the year. Life history : This pest hibernates in winter under the bark either as a larva or pre-pupa. The adults start emerging in March. After mating the beetles start laying white and oval eggs are laid on cracks and sides of the branches. The eggs hatch in about 15 days. The larval stage is completed in 67 to 192 days. The full-grown grub constructs a cylindrical chamber in the wood and pupates for 8-16 days. Total development period varies from 77 to 206 days. This pest passes through three overlapping generations i.e. first form March to July, second from June to September and third from September to April. Control : 1. Heading back of severely infested trees and destruction of dead wood should be done in February. 2. The grubs of flat headed borer be effectively controlled by drench spray of 1000 ml Durmet 20 EC (chlorpyriphos) or 1000 ml Kanodane 20 EC (lindane) in 500 litres of water/acre during February-March and September-October.

BER BER FRUIT FLY Carpomyia vesuviana It is a specific pest of ber both on cultivated and wild varieties and is active during January to March. Identification : Eggs are dull-creamy-white and spindle shaped. Full grown maggots are creamy white in colour, while pupae are barrel shaped. Adult flies are small brownish-yellow, with brown longitudinal stripes on the thorax, surrounded by black spots. Wings are hyaline and transparent with four yellowish cross bands. Damage : The female files puncture the ripening fruits and lay eggs inside the epidermis. The attacked frit assumes rugged appearance and does not readily fall on the ground. The maggots feed on pulp of the fruit (Pic. 120) making galleries running towards the centre and rendering fruit unfit for human consumption. Numerous legless maggots can be seen after dissecting the fruit. As many as 18 maggots have been recorded in a fruit. Fleshy and late muting varieties are comparatively more susceptible. Maximum damage is during January to March. Life history : The female fly punctures the ripening fruit during February-March and lays eggs inside the epidermis (1 mm deep). The eggs hatch in about 2-3 days. The maggots after feeding on fruit pulp become fully fed in 7-10 days. They pupate in the soil and the pupal period is 30 days. Life cycle is completed in about 24 days. There are 3-4 generations in a year. The pest is active from November to April. Hibernation of pest is in the pupal stage form April to August. Control : 1. Clean cultivation/sanitation of orchards by picking an destroying the infested fruit. 2. To escape egg laying on fruits, harvest green and firm stage fruits and do not allow the fruits to ripe on the tree. 3. Ranking of the soil around the trees during summer to expose the pupae to head and natural enemies is a useful practice. 4. Spray 500 ml of Rogor 30 EC (dimethoate) in 300 litres of water/acre during February-March. Stop spraying at least 15 days before fruit picking. LAC INSECT Kerria lacca In India, lac insect flourishes well in Bihar and Madhya Pradesh, but also found in Punjab. In Bihar and Madhya Pradesh, it is used for commercial lac production. The host plants of this pest are ber, kusum, palas and khair.

Identification : Lac is a resinous material secreated mostly by the females, but young males also secrete, the raw lac in the form of scales, which covers and protects the individuals. The females are highly degenerated with an irregular globular body enclosed in a thick resinous cell. The antennae and legs are reduced. Damage : Lac cause scale like appearance on twigs and infested twigs usually dry up (Pic. 121). The fruit yield is considerably reduced. Life history : Tiny young lac insects called crawlers move freely about after hatching from eggs and settle down on the bark of the host shoot. Once they are settled on the shoot, they cannot move from there. It immediately starts secreting a resinous cover or lac. The nymphs of both male and female undergo three moults before reaching adult stage. The males come out and mate with the females for 3 to 4 days. The females lay eggs under the cover. Its peak periods of activity are January-February and June-July. Control : 1. Remove and destroy the infested dry parts and scrape of the infested twigs before treatment. 2. Spray of 250 ml of Rogor 30 EC (dimethoate) in 250 liters of water/acre in April and again in September.

GUAVA FRUIT FLY Bactrocera dorsalis There are four species of fruit flies present in Punjab and out f which B. dorsalis is predominant. It has a wide range of fruit host plants and attacks peach, guava, mango, pear, plum, citrus, loquat, melon, etc. Identification : Maggot is legless, cylindrical and yellow in colour and measures 5-8 mm in length. The adult is stout and possesses brown body, yellow legs, dark red thorax and hyaline transparent wings. Thorax is without yellow middle stripe. Damage : The adult female punctures the rind of near ripe fruit at colour break stage with its needle like ovipositor. The infested fruits show depressions with dark greenish punctures (Pic. 122). The maggots after hatching, bore and feed on soft pulp (Pic. 123). The infested fruits rot and fall down and are unfit for human consumption. Unripe fruits are rarely attacked. Fruit files are serious during rainy season.

Life history : The female fly lays eggs in small cluster, just underneath the skin of the fruit, 1-4 mm deep in the rind. Eggs hatch in about 1-4 days. Larval stage lasts for 4-5 days. Maggots pupate in soil and pupal period is about 7-13 days. Te total life cycle is completed in 15 to 75 days depending upon the season. There are many overlapping generations in a year. The pest is more active during May to August especially on peach and guava. The insect over winters in adult stage. Control : 1. Avoid taking rainy season crop only in orchards with history of severe fruit fly infestations. 2. Regular removal and burying of fallen fruits at least at 60 cm depth is advocated. 3. Shallow ploughing with cultivator immediately after harvest is effective in exposing and killing the pupating larvae/pupae which are mostly present at 4-6 cm depth. 4. Spray 1250 ml Sumicidin 20 EC (fenvalerate) in 500 litres of water/acre at weekly intervals on ripening fruits commencing from July onwards till the rainy season is over. GAVA SHOOT BORER Microcolona technographa Guava shoot borer is active on nursery and young plantations of guava from March to December. Detailed identification and life history have not been studied yet. Damage : Larva damages the tender shoots of nursery/adult trees of guava (Pic. 124, 124a) which result in side sprouting of the vegetative buds just below the larval gallery which impairs the quality of the seedlings as the buds below the damaged portion produce lateral shoots and give the plants a bushy look. Secondly, infested shoots dry up which can be located from a distance by the presence of fine black frass on the leaves/shoot beneath the site of infestation. Peak activity is between March to December. Control : Spray the nursery plants with 280 ml Monocil 36 SL (monocrotophos) or 500 ml Durmet 20 EC (chlorpyriphos) or 400 ml Ekalux 25 EC (quinalphos) in 100 litres of water/acre. CASTOR CAPSULE BORER Dichocrocis punctiferalis It is a polyphagous pest and is serious in guava orchards during rainy season. It is a key pest of castor crop and also feed on mango, sorghum, peach, cacoa, pear, avocado, cardamom, ginger, turmeric, arrowroot, mulberry, sunflower, cotton, tamarind, hollyhock and jacks.

Identification : Eggs are flat, oval and pinkish in colour. Full-grown caterpillars are 25-30 cm long, dark pinkish-brown with spiny wrats all over and pale stripes on lateral sides. Moths are medium sized, uniformally brownish-yellow with numerous black marking on the wings. Damage : Eggs are laid on fruits, buds and tender shoots. On hatching the caterpillars bore into fruit, bud or shoot and feed within, on pulp and seeds or soft tissues (Pic. 125, 126, 127). The affected shoots wilt and dry away. Buds do not open and the fruits fall prematurely. Serious damage occurs during July to September. Life history : The pest is active form April to October. Egg incubation period is 5-7 days while larval and pupal durations vary from 2-3 weeks and 1-2 weeks, respectively. Longevity of moths vary form 3-7 days. Life cycle is completed in 30-37 days. There are three generations in a year. Control : 1. Remove and destroy the infested fruits, buds and shoots. 2. In case of severe infestation, spray the crop with 1 Kg Sevin 50 WP (carbaryl) in 250 litres of water/acre and repeat the sprays at an interval of 15 days.

PAPAYA APHID Aphis gossypii This aphid is polyphagous and causing serious damage to papaya. (For identification, and life cycle, see under citrus). Damage : Nymphs and adults inject their saliva in the plant tissues and suck the cell sap and cause serious damage to papaya trees. Besides, this aphid acts as a vector of papaya mosaic virus (Pic. 128), which affects the trees phenomenal and the affected trees seldom recover from the disease and gradually die away. Control : It is quite easy to control the pest with usual chemical protection. However, it is very difficult to control when aphids act as vector of virus. It is, therefore, important to give the prophylactic spray to saver the trees. For its control, the following practices of control measures should be adopted: 1. Spray 250 ml Malathion 50EC in 250 litres of water/acre before the insect attack begins. 2. Uproot and destroy the infected plants, immediately. WHITEFLY

Bemisia tabaci It is a polyphagus pest and causes a substantial damage to papaya trees. Identification : Eggs are pear shaped, stalked and stand upright on the leaves. Nymphs are oval, scale like and greenish-white in colour. Adults are minute yellow files with poor wing veination, body covered with a white waxy bloom. Damage : Tiny-white scale-like objects cluster in between the veins on ventral surface of leaf. Shake the leaf slightly and a herd of tiny whiteflies flutter out for a few seconds and resettle rapidly on the leaf. As a result of their sucking the sap from leaves, the affected leaves become yellowish, curl downwards, wrinkle and there is early shedding of such leaves. In addition, this whitefly also acts as vector by leaf curl virus (Pic. 129). The pest activity is more common during dry season and declines rapidly with the onset of rains. Life history : Eggs are laid on undersigned of the young leaves. Incubation period of eggs is 3-5 days in summer and 7-16 days during winter. Nymphal and pupal periods are 17-73 and 2-8 days, respectively. There are about 12 overlapping generations in a year. Control : (See under aphid.)

POMEGRANATE FRUIT BORER Deudorix isocrater Fruit borer popularly known as anar butterfly is a serious pest of pomegranate. It has a wide rang of host plants like citrus, guava, litchi, peach, pear, ber, etc. Identification : Full grown caterpillars are dark brown with short hairs and body covered with whitish patches. Adults are glossy-bluish-violet (males to brownish-violet (females) with an conspicuous orange patch on the forewings. Damage : Caterpillars feed inside the fruit and riddle through the ripening seeds. The infested fruits are prone to bacteria and fungal infection Pic. 130, 131, 132), which leads the fruits to rot. The fruits fall pre-maturely and give offensive smell. Life history : Eggs are shiny white, oval shaped laid singly on calyx of flowers and on small fruits. The young larvae bore in fruits. Larval period varies from 2-7 weeks. Pupation occurs in

fruits or outside the fruit and last for 1-5 weeks. There are 4-5 overlapping generations. Control : 1. Bagging of fruits before maturity should be done in isolated small scale pest incidence. 1. Collection and destruction of infested fruit is useful. 2. Spray 700 ml Thiodan 35 EC (endosulfan) in 500 litres of water/acre during MayJune at 15 days interval. In all, 2-3 sprays are enough during the season. LITCHI LITCHI NUT BORER Gatesclarkeana erotias, Blastobasis sp. In recent years, it has become an important pest of litchi and thus reduces the market value of the fruit. The detailed identification and life history are yet to be worked out. Damage : The creamy white caterpillars bore into the developing fruits and tunnelling through the pulp, attack the seeds and feed inside (Pic. 133). The tunnel gets filled with the excreta of caterpillars which initiates fruit rot (Pic. 134). The entrance hole of the newly attacked fruit often heals. The infested fruit may, thus apparently appear healthy. The pest feeds on the nut (Pic.135) and in that process damage the edible fleshy part of the fruit. The fully ripe fruits, because of serious damage, sometimes begin to ooze. Serious damage of the pest is from May-July. Life history : The pest starts its activity in March and is on the peak during May-July. The pest passes winter in fallen fruits known as ‘mummies’. Control : 1. Clean cultivation i.e. collecting and destroying the affected/fallen fruits is useful to prevent the carryover of the pest. 2. Ploughing the orchards aloso destroys the pest population considerably. 3. Two sprays of 625 ml Sumicidin 20 EC (fenvalerate) or 715 ml Thiodan 35 EC (endosulfan) in 400 litres of water/acre at fruit setting stage followed by another spray 20 days, thereafter check infestation of pest.

POLYPHAGOUS PESTS TERMITE OR WHITE ANT Termites or white ants, as they are popularly called, are serious enemies of fruit crops grown in sandy and sandy loam soils. They are social insects and their colonies consist of several castes known as king, queen, workers and soldiers. Their nests may be under or above the ground.

Identification : Termites are yellowish soft bodies insects. The queen is biggest member of the colony. The king is much smaller then queen, but is bigger than soldiers and workers. The soldier has large head and produces some secretions. The workers are smaller and constitute the main population of the colony. Damage : Only the workers of white ants are destructive. The termites at first attack the dead bark and then the major trunk and the branches (Pic. 13). The damage is evident from March to October when mud galleries are found on the infested trees (Pic. 137). The young plants in fruit nursery may die quickly as white ants eat their roots (Pic. 138). The major causes of high infestation in fruit trees are (i) undisturbed soil for long time (ii) non-usage of soil pesticides, (iii) use of unrotten Farm Yard Manure, and (iv) sufficient of organic matter. Life history : The winged reproductive castes leave the nests in swarms during rainy season. After pairing, they shed their wings and start building up a colony into the ground. A queen can lay 30,000 eggs per day during her life span of 6-8 year, eggs hatch in one week and within 6 weeks the larvae develop to form workers or soldiers. The reproductive castes mature in 1-2 years. Control : 1. White ant incidence can be reduced by cultural practices such as clean cultivation, frequent irrigations, hoeing and avoiding use of partially decomposed farm yard manure. 2. Spray of 1000 ml Durmet 20 EC (chlorpyriphos) per acre followed by irrigation, protects the fruit trees from white ants. BARK EATING CATERPILLAR Indarbela quadrinotata The bark-eating caterpillar is a polyphagous in nature and feed on citrus, mango, guava, jaman, loquat, mulberry, pomegranate, ber, drumstick, litchi, amla, rose and a number of forest and ornamental trees. Identification : The freshly hatched larvae are dirty brown, while the full-grown caterpillars have pale brown bodies with dark brown heads. The adults are stout and pale brown moths with brown spots and streaks on forewings and whitish hind wings. Moths have rufous head and thorax. Damage : Thick, ribbon like, silken webs are seen running on the bark of the main stem especially near the forks. The larvae have the habit of making webs (Pic. 139) along the feeding galleries and above the holes where they bore deeper into the wood. The galleries

and the webs above them have a zig-zag shape and contain wooden frass and excreta. The larvae make as many as 16 holes on a tree and generally one caterpillar or pupa occupy at each hole. Severe infestation may result in the death of the attacked stem but not of the main trunk. There may be interference with the translocation of cell sap and thus arresting the growth of the tree, and considerable reduction in its fruiting capacity. Life history : With the start of the summer season the moths emerge and become active. The females start laying eggs in clusters in cuts and crevices present in the bark. The freshly hatched larvae nibble at the bark. The larvae take as many as 9-11 months to complete development. When full-grown, they make holes into the wood and pupate inside. The moths emerge in summer and they are short lived. Only one generation is completed in a year. Control : 1. Treat all alternate host plants in the vicinity the orchard. 2. Treating the holes with kerosene gave complete control to the pest. Best time for its control is September-October and again in January-February. CHAFFER BEETLE Adoretus duvanceli Defoliating beetles are general feeders of fruit plants, but they have preference for grapes, ber, peach an plum. Identification : The adult beetle is brick red in colour. Full-grown creamy white coloured grub measures 15 mm in length. Damage : Only the adults are destructive. The beetles are attracted to light and appear in large numbers late in the spring and again during the monsoon. They destroy the leaves at night by skeletonizing or biting holes in them (Pic. 140). The attack of beetles can be ascertained by their presence of irregular, zig-zag holes in the leaves. Life history : The pest is active during summer and passes the winter in larval stage. The females lay white, smooth, elongate eggs singly in the soil near the host plants during May-August. The eggs hatch in 6-8 days. The grubs feed on soil humus, roots of grasses and other vegetative matter. The full-fed grub rests in earthen cells, until April, when it turns into pupa. There is a single generation of this pest in a year. Control : Spray in the evening, 1 kg of Hexavin 50 WP (carbaryl) in 500 litres of water/acre as soon as the damage starts. Repeat the spray after 5 or 6 days, if the attack of beetles continues or the insecticidal deposit is washed away by rain.

HAIRY CATERPILLAR Euproctis fraternal Hairy caterpillars attack a variety of fruit plants like plum, ber, peach pear, apricot, pomegranate, grape-wines, citrus, amla (Pic. 141), etc. Other hairy caterpillar species like E. lunata and E. faba also attack the fruit plants and their life cycle and mode of attack is more or less the same as that of E. fraternal Identification : The full-grown larva has a red head, redish brown body with white hairs surrounding the head. The moth is yellow with pale transverse lines on the fore wings. Damage : The young caterpillars feed gregariously and scrape off the epidermis and the mesophyll, leaving behind a network of veins and the tissues beyond them. The grown up larvae consume the whole leaf (Pic. 142). The presence of corky patches on the fruit is an indication of the damage by this pest (Pic. 143, 143a). They also possess glandular hairs, which cause unpleasant irritation to the workers. Life history : The over-wintering caterpillars slowly grow and feed on the bark. The moths appear by end of April and lay flat, circular and yellow eggs in masses covered with buff brown coloured hairs, generally on the lower side of the leaf. The larvae are full grown in 29-35 days during summer. The larva aestivates as pre-pupa in webbed up mass of buff brown silken coverings with leaves. The pupation is completed in 10-12 days. The total life cycle lasts 45-57 days during active period of this pest. There are three generations of this insect in a year. Control : 1. In case of low infestation, the egg masses and gregarious caterpillars should be picked up and destroyed. 2. When the caterpillars have scattered all over the orchard, the fruit trees should be sprayed with 700 ml Thiodan 35 EC (endosulfan) or 1.5 kg Hexavin 50 WP (carbaryl) in 500 litres of water/acre as soon as the damage is noticed. BROWN MITE Eutertranychus orientalis It is more prevalent in arid zone than sub-montane areas, whereas attack is moderate in central zone. It has a wide rang of fruit host plants but is more serious on peach, pear, citrus, almond, etc. Identification : The newly hatched larva is a light yellowish-brown in colour and has three pairs of

legs which become four during course of development. The protonymph is orange brown and develops into deutonymph with a greenish tinge. The adult is orange or dark red in colour with deep brown patches on the dorsal side of its body. Damage : Both nymphs and adults abrade the surface and suck the cell contents from the upper surface of the leaves, bark of tender shoots and fruits (Pic. 144). Affected surface loses normal colour. Become yellowish-brown and tend to collect lot of dust (Pic. 145), which impairs photosynthetic activity of leaves (Pic. 146). Life history : The female mite lays egg on underside of the leaves deep into the leaf tissues along the midribs and other prominent veins. The entire life cycle takes 17 to 20 days. The population of this mite reaches at it peak during monsoon period. It is active from April to October. There are several overlapping generations in a year. Control : Spray 500 ml Rogor 30 EC (dimethoate) or 1000 ml Kelthane 18.5 EC (dicofol) or 500 ml Fosmite 50 EC (ethion) in 500 litres of water/acre.

WEEDS DESCRIPTION OF IMPORTANNT WEEDS KHABAL OR DOOB GRASS (BERMUDA GRASS) Cynodon dactylon An evergreen perennials grass grows in crop field, lawns, orchards, waste places and uncultivated fallow places. Stem prostrate and creeping, branching, with short wiry flattened culms. Leaves flattened, ligule with wings of whitish hairs. Spikes one-sided about 4 cm long, 3-5 in one cluster, spiklets single flowered and sessile, seed about 1.5 mm long oval orange red. This grass grows throughout the year. It flowers and fruits almost throughout the year but vegetative grand growth period is during summer i.e. from April to October. It is very good fodder especially for horses. The plants can grow up to an elevation of 8000ft. (Pic. 147). MOTHA OR DILLA (NUT GRASS / NUT SEDGE) Cyperus rotundus It is most common obnoxious perennial weed growing in crops, lawns, orchards and uncultivated lands. Stem erect, simple, triangular, 10-60 cm high, emerges form perennial tuber bearing rootstock. Leaves in 3 rank, narrow, grass like, shorter than the stem with closed sheaths, mostly basal. Spiklets brown of several flowers flattened, 2 ranked, in more or less compound terminal umbels. Seeds linear, oblong, 3 angled 1.5 mm long, olive grey or brown, covered with a net work or grey lines. Under ground tubers are

torpedo shaped and seldom larger than 1.5 cm, buried up to a depth of 30 cm or even more. It propagates through tubers, rhizomes and seeds. The over wintering tubers start sprouting with the onset of favorable temperature conditions in spring. A single parent plant produce large number of secondary plants, rhizomes and tubers in a single season. It flowers from May to October. Most of the tuberization takes place from September to November when the day length shortens. Seeds remain viable in the soil for more than five years. (Pic. 148). BARU (JOHNSON GRASS / EGYPTIAN GRASS) Sorghum halepense It is a most serious and common perennial grassy weed of kharif season. It grows in abundance on bunds, channels, fallow and uncultivated fields and open places. Stem stout, erect, 1-3 high, 1-2 cm in diameter and base pith with a sugary juice, nodes and internodes quite distinct. Leaves with sheath and blades 30-50 cm long, broad, smooth and flat. Panicles large, loose with whorl of spreading branching, spiklets in groups of 3, the central one sessile and fertile, seed about 2.5 mm long, oval reddish brown in colour. It perpetuates through underground rhizomes which have distinct nodes and internodes. It makes rapid growth with the onset of monsoon, flowers from September to November. During the hot months of April to June it makes slow growth. Cattle feeding on it before the plant reaches the flowering stages, develop tympeny due to high hydrocynic acid contents in the foliage at this stage. It is a good fodder at maturity. Its seeds may remain viable for more than 4 years in the soil. (Pic. 149). NILAM (GOAT WEED) Ageratum conyzoides A soft, erect, branched, hairy plant up to about 1 m tall, stem often purplish. Leaves opposite, petiolate, broadly ovate, subacute; margins crenate and ciliate; base cuneate; hairy; about 2-8 cm long and 1.5-4 cm wide. Flower heads white, or very pale blue, faintly pinkish-purple, fragrant, discoid arranged in terminal corymbs. Achenes angled, black Pappus of 5 scales. It is an annual weed found growing almost throughout year. Flowers and fruits mainly from December to June. Very common especially along the canal bank and irrigation channels, often gregarious. It also grows abundantly as under growth in fruit orchards, road side and waste places with enough moisture. In India it is found growing up to an altitude of 1300 m. This weed generally occurs on medium to heavy soils with sufficient moisture or high rainfall. (Pic. 150). ITSIT / CHUPATI/PATHERCHATA/ SANTHI (HORSE PURSLANE) Trianthema portulacastrum A very common weed of kharif field crops and orchards. It favours rich soils. Stem prostrate, glabrous, succulent with forked branches, often purplish tinged. Leaves unequally paired. Flowers pinkish, solitary, in pouch like petiolar sheaths. Capsule 5x3 mm with 5 to 7 seeds. Seeds black with concentric lines. Flowers and fruits from March to October. Plants show germination with rise of temperature i.e. from April and goes on

germinating up to October end. It flowers and fruits throughout its growth period. The mature seeds shatters on ground and germinates immediately after rainfall or irrigation. (Pic. 151). JANGLI CHULAI (SLENDER AMARANTHUS) Amaranthus viridus An erect, glabrous, branching plant with deeply grooved stem, about 30-60 cm tall. Leaves simple, 2.5-7.5 cm long and 2.5 cm broad, alternate, ovate or deltoid-ovate obtuse with cuneate or trinicate base. Flowers pale green, sessile, arranged in axillary on terminal spike like racemes, male and female flowers mixed. Fruits acute, bicular, rugose. Seeds lenticular, black, shining and 1 x 1 mm in size. (Pic. 152). WILD SENJI (YELLOW SWEET CLOVER) Melilotus indica An erect herb with slender stem and pale branches, up to 35 cm tall. Leaves pinnately 3-foliate; leaflets obovata or oblanceclate, retuse, toothed. Flowers yellow, small, in dense flowered racemes. Pods glabrous; single seeded, sometimes 2 seeded. A common annual weed in rabi crops like wheat, barley, gram lentil, lucerne and also in sugarcane, vegetable crops and orchards. Prefers moist heavy soils. Also found growing in fallow fields, along water channels and canals and in orchards. Flowers and fruits from December to May. Propagation is by seeds. (Pic. 153). SAFAD SENJI (WHITE SWEET CLOVER) Melilotus alba An erect or decumbent robust herb. Leaflets obovate or oblanceclate, retuse or emarginate, distantly serrulete. Flowers white, half to full pendulone in racemes about 810 cm long. Pods round-oblong, sometimes 2-seeded about 5 mm long. Plant is very fragrant when drying. It is a common annual weed in Rabi season Prefers moist heavy soils. Also found growing in fallow fields, wet places, orchards and along canal banks. Flowers and fruits form December to April. Propagation is by seeds. (Pic. 154). HULHUL (SPIDER FLOWER) Cleome viscosa A common weed of kharif season. It mostly grows on roadsides and waste places and in orchards. It favours the sandy soils. Stem erect stout, branching, glandular pubescent, 10-60 cm tall. Leaves compound, 3 to 5 foliate, variable in shape. Flowers yellow, solitary, axillary or in leaf bearing, terminal racemes. Capsules sticky-pubescent, erect straight or subarached. Seeds dark brown in colour. It covers up soon after the first monsoon showers, flowers and fruits from September to November. (Pic. 155). KAON MAKKI

Commelina benghalensis A kharif weed especially associated with field crops and also orchards. It prefers sandy loam soils. Stem branches, diffuse or straggling, creeping or rooting below. Leaves ovate to oblong, broader, obtuse, rounded, cuneate or cordate at the base. Flowers dimorphic, blue to bluish violet, Capsules 5 seeded. Seeds wrinkled, pitted. Underground flowers bisexual, usually solitary. The seeds start germinating in July and the plant completes its life cycle by the end of September to early October. (Pic. 156). GULLI DANDA / SITTI (SMALL CANARY GRASS) Phalaris minor An erect or decumbent grass of rabi season. Culms branched, nodes swollen. Leaves glabrous, finely pointed, linear, lanceolate, about 15-25 x 0.7-1.2 cm in size. Panicles spike like, contracted, cylindric in outline, erect, about 10 x 25 cm in size. Spikelets strongly laterally compressed, flattened, single flowered and with 1-2 reduced scales or imperfect glumes below the floral glumes. Empty glumes boat-shaped, strongly keeled; keel broadly winged. Floral glumes about had the length of empty glumes, keeled. Grains free, shining. Flowers and fruits from February to April. Propagation is by seeds. (Pic. 157). GHUIEN (ANNUAL BLUE GRASS) Poa annua A tufted, glabrous, prostrate or sub erect, grass 15-25 cm tall profusely tillering from the base. Leaves linear, flat, flaccid, with scaberlous margins. Panicles ovate or lax, up to 8 cm long, smooth with filiform branches. Spiklets 4-6 x 2 mm long in size oblong, ovate or lower lanceolate, usually green, 3-7 flowered. Flowers flumes oblong, Palea with ciliate keels caryopsis oblong. A very common annual weed in the lawns, gardens, parks, orchards, around buildings especially in cool shady places near hedges and water channels. It forms a bright green, handsome turf on the grounds by its dense growth, but soon withers with the advent of summer Flowers and fruits from December to March. MADHANA (GOOSE GRASS OR CROW FOOT GRASS) Eleusine indica Stem erect or documbent, variable in habit, culms rooting at base. Leaves distichous, narrowly linear, flat spikes 2-6. Spikelets densely crowded, spreading at right angles to the rachis. Lower involucrae glume cuspidate; upper awned. Seed obovoid globose, rugulose. Plant appear in fields with the onset of monsoon in July and complete its life cycle by the end of October. It is a good fodder. (Pic. 159). CHIRIA KA DANA (LOVE GRASS) Eragrostis tenella

It is common kharif season weed. An annual, erect or obscoding, tufted grass. Culms smooth and glabrous. Leaves narrowly linear and tapering to a fine point. Panicles plumose, loose, green or purplish. Spiklets ovate, 5-7 flowers, often tinged with red colour. (Pic. 160). WILD DHANIA (CORN SPURRY) Spergula arvensis A small, glabrous, diffuse, branching, pubescent or glandular herb of Rabi season. Stem branching from the root, geniculate. Leaves linear-rubulate, in false whorls. Flowers white, rubumbellate cymes; pedicels slender, spreading or deflexed. Sepals 5, ovate, obtuse slightly shorter than the petals. Petals 5, white. Capsules 5-valved; valves entire, opposite and longer than the sepals, subglobose. Flowers and fruits from December to March. Propagation is by seeds. Seeds black shining. (Pic. 161). CHOTTA TACKLA (FORKED CATCHFLY) Silene conoidea An erect glandular, pubescent herb, dichotomously branched about 15-45 cm long, Leaves connate at the base, 5-10 cm long lowermost spathulate, upper oblong linear lanceolate, acute. Calyx about 5 cm long, inflated, ovoid in fruit, finely grooved, 30 ribbed; tech teeth 1/3rd of the length of the tube, linear-lanceolate; petals pink, small, auricled at the base, limb obovate, entire on toothed. Capsule sessile, ovoid, contracted above, crustaceous shining. Seeds brown cochleate, with 5-6 dorsal and as many lateral rows of tubercles. It grows during Rabi season in orchards planted on light textured soils. (Pic. 162). WILD HALLON (GARDEN CRESS) Lepidium sativum An erect glabrous herb. Radical leaves, long petioled, 2-pinnetifid, cauline, sessile often entire. Flowers white or pinkish, small in long racemes. Pods oblong-orbicular notched, 2-seeded, valves margined, about 5 x 3.5 mm in size. This is very troublesome weed during winter months and grows under all soil types. Flowers and fruits from February to May. Propagation is by seed. (Pic. 163). RARI/REWARI (MEADOW PEA) Lathyrus aphaca A small herb with slender wingless much-branched stems; leaves reduced to tendrils at the base of which the large hastate ovate foliaceous stipules perform the functions of leaflets which are about 3x2 cm in size. Flowers yellowish, 1-2 axillary on long peduncles. Calyx-teeth equal, lanceolate, exceeding the tube; corolla twice the calyx. Pods, linear-oblong, sub-falcate, wingless, 4-6 seeded about 2.5-3 x 0.6 cm in size. Seeds black, smooth and compressed. It is an annual and common Rabi season weed. It is found growing in moist waste places rich in organic matter. Flowers and fruits from January to

March. Propagation by seeds. (Pic. 164). BUTTON WEED (LITTLE MALLOW) Malva parviflora A semi spreading, decumbent or nearly erect herb upto 60 cm long. Under competitive conditions it can grow still longer. Roots deep. Leaves roundish more or less 5-7 lobed. Flowers white or pinkish, tinged, small in axillary clusters; bracteoles linear. Calyx accrecent, petals hardly exceeding sepals. Carpels 10-12, single seeded. Flowers wither quickly. A common annual Rabi season weed of orchards planted in high organic matter content soils. Flowers and fruits from February to March. Propagation is by seeds. (Pic. 165). PIAZI / BHOGAT (WILD ONION) Asphodelus tenuifolius A small, stemless succulent plant about 30-45 cm tall. Leaves radical, linear, hollow with sheathing basis, appearing to be arising as a bunch from the soil. Scapes several, simple or branched above. Flowers pinkish white, distant, present in the axils of bracts, grouped into laxy-racemes, situated on ‘scapes’. Roots fibrous and slender. Capsules globose, loculicidal. Seeds black rugose. A very vommon weed of Rabi season growing in all types of orchards. It is an annual and flowers and fruits from January to June. (Pic. 166). SATYANASI (PRICKLY PEAR) Argemone mexicana A prickly, robust, bushy, undershrub, branching divaricately from below, characterized by yellow milky latex, 30-90 cm tall. Leaves simple about 25 cm long and 9 cm wide, sessile, alternate, exstipulate, glaucous, with prickles all over and lobed, half amplexicaule with white spots. Flowers solitary, terminal, yellow with prickly penduncles. Capsules spiny, erect, elliptic, with a ring of holes on top, through which mustard like seeds get dispensers. Seeds small, scrobiculate black or dark brown when ripe. It has been reported that a single plant can produce about 4000 seeds weighing 2.2 g/1000 seeds. A native of Mexico, generally occurs as a winter annual but has been observed growing under cool shady places during most part of the year. It prefers low lands semi-arid regions. However, it is a common weed in waste places, roadsides rail tracks. It is a problem in grazing ground because of its spiny nature. Flowers and fruits from October to May. (Pic. 167). KUTTA GHAS (SANDBUR) Cenchrus catharticus It is an erect or geniculately ascending simple or branching grass. Leaves lanceolate, finely acuminate. Racemes 6-12 cm long solitary, cylinderic. Involucels 2 to 1 flowered bristles thick, lanceolate-subulate, erect dorsally flattened, the outer short, spreading or

reflexed, the inner of hard sharp spines. Caryopsis ovoid-oblong, pale and regulose. An annual very troublesome weed in summer season. It grows profusely in fallow lands, farms road side and open lands, it prefers sandy soil. Flower and fruits from August to November. Propagation is by seeds. (Pic. 168). PANJPHULI (LANTANA) Lantana camara A straggling or scandant, aromatic shrub, with small recurved, prickles on most of the branches. Leaves ovate or ovate lanceolate, crenata-serrate, scabrid, petiolate, about 2.57.5 x 2.5-5.0 cm in size. Flowers usually orange, varying to white and purple in axillary long-penduncled, spicate heads; bracts distinct, much exceeding calyse. Calyse 4-5 tothed. Corrolla 4-lobed tubular. Fruit a drupe, greenish-blue or black, shining with 2 (one seeded) pyrenes. It is an ornamental plant found growing in the submountaneous areas. Around 1860, it was introduced as an ornamental plant in the Hawiian Islands, Escaping from the gardens, it was controlled there, by biological methods. A nature of Tropical America was introduced in India as an ornamental plant by the Britishers. It is a prominent weed in submountaneous areas and also in forests. Flowers and fruits almost all the year round. Propagation by seeds. Spreads to other areas through birds who feed on the fruit of this weed and fly to other places. The seeds pass through their alimentary canal undigested and viable. (Pic. 169). SIRU / DHABI (CONGO GRASS / LALANG GRASS) Imperata cylindrical An erect, simple, slender, coarse grass upto 60 cm tall with creeping stoloniferous rootstocks. Leaves hairy throughout, much branched herb 20-60 cm tall stem 4 angled, deeply grooved. Leaves subsessile, linear or oblong, subentire or cranate 5-8 cm long. Flowers white, sub-sessible, in terminal and axillary whorls, upto 2.5 cm across bracts nearly as long as the calyx, linear, acute and tipped with a, briateia, margins ciliate calyx tube curved, lobes unequal. Corolla white, enlarged and hairy above, annulate within; under lip densely white-woolly; lower longer than upper. Nutlets oblong smooth, brown. A common weed in uncultivated fallow fields and also gardens. Grows over a variety of soils, prefers light fertile soils. Flowers and fruits from August to October. Propagation is by seeds. (Pic. 170). GUMMA Leucas aspera An erect, diffuse, hairy throughout, much branched herb 20-60 cm tall stem 4 angled, deeply grooved. Leaves subsessile, linear or oblong, subentire or cranate 5-8 cm long. Flowers white, sub-sessible, in terminal and axillary whorls, upto 2.5 cm across bracts nearly as long as the calyx, linear, acute and tipped with a, briateia, margins ciliate calyx tube curved, lobes unequal. Corolla white, enlarged and hairy above, annulate within; under lip densely white-woolly; lower longer than upper. Nutlets oblong smooth, brown. A common weed in uncultivated fallow fields and also gardens. Grows over a variety of

soils, prefers light fertile soils. Flowers and fruits from August to October. Propagation is by seeds. (Pic. 171). BEL / GHIA BEL (MORNING GLORY) Ipomoea pestigridis A slender, diffuse, spreading or twinning, clothed with spreading hairs. Leaves deeply palmate 5 to 7 lobed, rarely 3 lobed, 2.5-1.5 cm long. Long petioled, lobes lanceolate or elliptic acute or acuminate. Flowers sessile white or pinkish, in long-peducled heads, funnel shaped. Bracts consipicuous, outer ones larger. Capsules globose, smooth, concealed in the calyx. Seeds pubescent. Grows on a variety of soils irrigated as well as unirrigated climbing on hedges and shrubs. Does not tolerate high alkaline conditions. (Pic. 172). OONTCHARA (WILD HELIOTROPE / WHITE WEED / DEVIL WEED Heliotropiun eichwaldi A very common weed all over the Punjab. It grows in uncultivated fields, roadsides, waste places and water channels and orchards. Stem erect or decumbent, branched clothed with small, white, silky hair. Leaves elliptic-oblong or obovate, glabrous to touch, narrowed towards the base. Flowers white, paired in shot, helicoids at the apar when young. The plants appear in the month of February flowers and fruits from April to August. This weed is found growing during most part of the year except the severe winter monsoon. (Pic. 173). BADI DODHAK (SPURGE) Euphorbia hirta A very common weed of lawns, gardens and playgrounds. Stem prostrate or semi-erect, hairy and branching from the root stock. Plant contains a milky juice. Leaves dark green or reddish above, white-villows beneath, alliptic or ovate oblong. Cynthia auxiliary and terminal, clustered in dense crowded cymes, Capsule about 1 mm in size, breaking into 3 cocii. Seeds reddish brown, trigonous. The plant grows throughout the year, its growth is dormant during severe winter months. It does not grow above 4000 ft elevation. (Pic. 174). JUNGLI JUTE (WILD JUTE) Corchorus tridens A very common weed of waste places, uncultivated lands and open areas of orchards. Stem erect, smooth, woody and usually branching from lower parts. Leaves lanceolate or linear oblong. Flowers yellow 1-4 flowered peduncles. Capsules angled and 2-7 cm long. The plants mostly appear in July and mature from September to October. A coarse fibre can be extracted from the mature plant. (Pic. 175).

BHAKRA (PUNCTUREVINE) Tribulus terrestris A very noxious weed of kharif season. It grows in all kharif crops as well as fallow and uncultivated fields, roadside and orchards, etc. it prefers sandy soils. Stem prostate, branching from the base; branches hairy, 30-200 cm long. Leaves mostly opposite pinnately compound with 4-8 pairs of oval leaflets. Flowers axillary on small peduncles of yellow colour. Mature carpels about 6-8 cm long with 2-4 stiff spreading spines upto 7 mm long. The spines are hard enough to puncture automobile tyres. The plants start appearing initially in May and remain green up to November. The plants flowers and fruits simultaneously throughout its period of growth. The spines help in the dispersal of this weed and also protect from the cattle grazing. Its seed buried in the soil may remain viable for more than 8 years. (Pic. 176). PERENIAL ITSIT / BISHAPRA / ROADSIDED ITSIT (SPIDERLING) Boerhaavia diffusa A perennial herb growing mainly during Kharif season. It is a common weed of waste places, roadsides, uncultivated lands and orchards. Stem creeping, much branched, woody and smooth. Tap root system. Leaves in unequal pairs, broad ovate or suborbicular cerdata. Flowers pink or whitish and small. Plant remains green throughout the year. (Pic. 177). GAJJAR SHAS/SAFAD TOPI/CONGRESS GRASS (PARTHENIUM/WHITE WEED/RAGWEED) Parthenium hysterophorus An erect, aromatic, much branched, hairy herb, about 50-100 cm tall. Leaves alternate, pinnated, 8-12 cm long. Inflorescence a much branched panicles. Flowers white about 4 mm long in diameter. Fruit black about 2 mm long. Germination rate of mature seeds is about 20% after 14 days if sown in moist soil. Plant takes about 4 weeks to reach the flowering stage. It is native of Tropics and sub tropics of America. An fast spreading weed, first noticed in India at Poona in 1956, Jammu in 1964 at Delhi in 1968 and at Ludhiana in 1975. It grows mostly on roadside, waste places, orchards and now introducing in field crops also. Dissemination of seed is by wind, water and roadtransport can take it to long distances. Flowers and fruits from August to September, propagation is by seeds. (Pic. 178). PUTHKANDA (PRICKLYCHOFF FLOWER) Achyranthes aspera An erect or subscandent herb about 0.8 – 1.5 m tall with straight pubescent branches somewhat 4 sided. Leaves large, on short petioles, opposite, ovate, acute or acuminate, glabrous pubscent. Flowers greenish – white, many, deflexed in long terminal spikes. Bracts and bracteoles persistent ending in a spine. Capsule 5 seeded and redish in color. Seeds brown and sub-cylindrical. A troublesome weed when in fruit because of its

spinous bracteoles and provided tepals which also help in its dissemination to distant places by man and animals. An annual weed, flower and fruits throughout the year, however, the peak season is early in winter months. Found growing in fallow fields on bunds and water channels, along canals and roadside in garden and waste places. It grows in all the subtropical regions of India ascending to an altitude of 1000 m in the submontane areas, can successfully grow even in poor soils with low moisture contents. It grows on wider large of climatic conditions of temperate and tropical regions. (Pic. 179). KAHI / KANS (TIGER GRASS / WILD SUNFLOWER) Saccharum spontaneum A deep rooted, coarse, very variable, densely tufted grass. The height of the stem varies from 1.2 – 4.5 feet depending upon soil and climate conditions. Leaves very long narrow, linear, acuminate, coriaceous. Flowering panicles about 30-60x5-10cm, conical or lanceolate to oblong; branches shorled, spreading or slightly ascending, with the callus hairs closely appressed to the branches; peduncle softly sticky just below the panicle. Spiklets paired, one pedicellate, the other sessile, single flowered, hermaphrodite. A perenicious perennial weed found growing on cultivated and uncultivated lnads. It is also a common weed around canals, river, banks and along roadsides, in orchards and rail roads. Flowers and fruits from September to January. Propagation is by seeds and underground rhizomes. The tropical structure of the fruit helps its dissemination by wing. (Pic. 180). PATASA BEL Rhyncosia capitata A slender plant with wide trailing hairy stems. Leaves 3-foliate, leaflets variable in shape, roundish, minutely gland-dotted beneath, with a cuneate base. Petiole about as long as the leaves. Flowers yellow, in 6-20 flowered racemes, ultimately becoming twisted and forming round head of flowers. Peduncles longer than the leaves. Calyx segments long, subulate, pods sub compressed, with transverse veins and terminated by the hooked base of the style, laxly pilosa, 2 seeded. Prefers sandy light irrigated or un irrigated soils. Also found in fallow and uncultivated fields and sometimes even around the road side. Flowers and fruits from September to October. Propagates by seed. (Pic. 181). BHAMBOLA Physalis minima An erect or somewhat prostrate, herbaceous plant. Stem striate, oftern viscidly pubscent. Leaves petioled, thin, long, ovate, acute, entire or distantly crenate, more or less pubescent about 4-10 x 2.5-6.5 cm long in size. Flowers solitary light yellow, on slender deflexed pedicel, calyx flower 5 mm long, not angular. Corolla often spotted at the base within. Berries enclosed within the inflated about 5-10 mm ribbed calyx. Berries round about 8-11 x 8-13 mm in size, seeds discoid or reniform, murriculate. It grows on a variety of soil types, however prefers loamy soil. It is also found growing on uncultivated,

waste places and in orchards. Flowers and fruits from August to November. Propagation is by seeds. (Pic. 182). MAKOH (BLACK NIGHT SHADE) Solanum nigrum An erect, diffused, much branched, shrubby herb. Leaves dark green, petioled ovate, sinuate or lobed about 4-8 x 2.5-4 cm long in size. Flowers small, white in dropping, subumbellate, extra axillary cymes. Berries red or black at maturity, smooth polished about 8x8 mm in size. Seeds yellow. It is found growing in orchards waste and shady places. Prefer soil with high organic matter. Flower and fruit from June to September. Propagation by seeds. (Pic. 183). JANGLI SARSON / KHUB KALAN (WILD MUSTARD) Sisymbrium irio A prostrate, ascending or erect, highly variable herb about 20-60 cm tall. Stem 2-10 mm thick, glabrous or slightly pubescent below. Leaves stalked, runicinate or pinnatifid, lobes not auricled, distant, spreading, toothed, terminal large, sometimes hastate. Flowers minate, in lax racemes yellow in colour. Pedicels slender. Petals with long claws. Siliquas over topping the racemes, when young erect glabrous, subtorulose; valves 3 nerved, pedicels ascending, covered. It is non crop land weed of winter season. (Pic. 184). JANGLI PALAK (SOUR DOCK) Rumex dentatus A erect, glabrous, deep rooted herb upto 1 m tall. Roots red-coloured. Stem groved and usually tinged with red colour. Radicle leaves much longer than cauline about 10-15 x 3-7 cm n size, oblong, sometimes linear, lanceolate obtuse, round or cordate. Flowers greenish, bisexual, in leafy or leafless, whorls. Perianth about 5 x 3 mm in size, biseriate, inner segments tubercled on the back; the teath much enlarged in fruit turning to brownish-red. Nutlets acutely trigonous, brown. An annual, found growing most part of the year in moist waste filaces, around canals, ponds, drainage ditches, in orchards, in low lying moist areas along roadsides. Flowers and fruits from January to July. Propagation is by seeds. (Pic. 185). LEH (CANADA THISTLE) Cirsium arvense It is a winter season perennial weed of heavy textured soils; with more water holding capacity especially riverbed soils. Leh (Canada thistle) spreads through root stock which readily produces new shoots. Seeds are blown away by the wing to long distance and infest the new area. Roots deep and may penetrate the depth of 2 metre. Canada thistle plants are of two sexes; male plants bearing only stamens and female plants bearing only pistils. If the patches of male and female plants are not near by, no fertilization will take place. It is a weed of winter cereals waste lands and orchards. (Pic. 186).

BILLI BOOTI / NILI BOOTI (BLUE PIMPERNEL) Anagalis arvensis Stem erect or procumbent with 4 angled branches. Flowers very pretty blue on slender peduncles. Capsule about 5 mm in diameter. Seeds trigonous. It is a weed or rabi crops/vegetables of irrigated area, as well as orchards. Due to its small size, this weed is not very serious competitor. (Pic. 187). BHANG (INDIAN HEMP) Cannabis sativa A robust, herbaceous or shrubby, smelling annual. Leaves 3-8 foliolate, long petioled. Flowers dioecious. Male plants: flowers axillary, short panicled cymes. Female plants: flowers crowded with leafy bracts. The male plants are found more commonly than the female plants. Flowering in cold seasons. Weed of non-crop land areas and now introducing in orchards and field crops. This weed is very tall growing and highly competitive weed and is toxicant plants. (Pic. 188). GUT PUTNA (COCKLEBUR) Xanthium strumatium An annual herb, 30-90 cm height. Female involucres, burr-like, 12.5 to 25 mm long closely covered with hooked spines, male heads at the top of the inflorescence or stem 5 mm in diameter with prominent exserted anthers. Flowers and fruit from October to April. Weed of cotton, sugarcane (ratoon) non-crop land areas and orchards. It is highly vigorous weed plant. (Pic. 189). CHIBBER Cucumis trigonus A procumbent and trailing kharif season seed, scarcely climbing, with scabrous stems. Leaves scabrous on both sides. Flowers yellow. Male flowers sometimes solitary. Fruit usually ellipsoid, rarely ovoid-globose, striped green and white or green and paler green, quite smooth becomes yellowish on ripening. Flowers and fruits during rainy season. Found growing in crops including sugarcane, cotton, groundnut and maize crop when grown in light textured soils. It is also a very serious weeds of orchards planted on light textured soils. (Pic. 190). BATHU (LAMBSQUARTER/GOOSE FOOT) Chenopodium album A common weed found abundantly in all rabi crop including wheat, barley, oats, raya, gram, winter vegetables and orchards. It also appears in rain fed winter crops. It is an erect annual herbs, leaves smooth upper surface dark green. Stem angled, variegated (striped green, red and purple). Flowers in clusters, green, very minute and flowers from

March-May. Seed numerous, minute and shiny. The plants have a strong and deep tap root system. Seeds shed during previous year germinates in October-November. (Pic. 191). MAINA (BUR CLOVER) Medicago denticulate It is a small prostrate plant with trailing branches. Leaves alternate, compound and trifoliate. Flowers small, bright yellow in colour, in clusters and appear from January to March. Propagate through seed. It germinates in irrigated rabi crops usually after the first irrigation. It is also a very serious weed of orchards. Fruits coiled, spiny, containing minute seeds. Dispersed by canal water, sheep, goats, dogs etc. (Pic. 192). PITPAPRA / SHAHTARA (FUMATORY) Fumaria parviflora It is a winter season weed associated commonly with Rabi crops and orchards planted on medium to high textured soils. Even it can appear under limited soil moisture condition. It is a delicate spreading herb with spikes of minute pink flowers. The plant is having weak trailing stem bearing small finely lobed leaves. Leaves bitter in taste. Root system very shallow. Propagates through seed. (Pic. 193). TANDLA (DIGERA) Digera arvensis It is a common pot herb 1-2 feet high. It is quite a serious weed in kharif crop and orchards. The plants are erect and slender. The lower branches are prostrate. Leaves are simple, alternate, flowers red and small and it flowers and fruits from July to September. It propagates through seeds. Grows abundantly in fallow and cultivated fields. Also used as pot herb. (Pic. 194). TACKRI GHAS (CRAB GRASS) Digitaria sanguinalis Annual, sometimes perennial, when growing in a perennial crop (orchards), usually tall growing and attains the height varying from 90 to 100 cm. Well branched from the base but during initial stages of growth remains spreading and assumes upright growth in the later stages. Rooting from the nodes and sometimes forming extensive mats. Propagation by seeds and runners (stems rooting at lower nodes). Grow actively during rainy season but can also grow well in semi dry regions. It is found in orchards namely Citrus, Pear, Peach, Palm, Mango, Litchi, Grapes etc. and in field crops including sugarcane, lucern, maize, sorghum etc. (Pic. 195). JANGLI GOBHI (DENDELON) Launea asplenifolia

A perennial, glabrous herb. Floral shoots many from base, paniculately branched. Heads paniculate. Flowering and fruiting during winter months. A very common weed of non cropped lands and orchards also. It is less competitive plant. (Pic. 196).

WEED CONTROL MEASURES As compound to field crops, weed management in orchards is difficult task due to the following reasons : 1. Exposed (vacant) area is more in orchards which adds to continuous weed problem throughout the year. 2. There is very less or even no smothering effect of young trees plants on weeds. 3. Regeneration of weeds or their germination in different flushes is very common due to no scarcity of radiation. 4. Selection of herbicide is very difficult in orchards because direct mortality or development of chronic type of toxicity can do great damage to orchard grower. 5. With wind or vapour drift, orchard plants may also be damaged. Weed management is very important in orchards particularly in 1.5 to 2.0 m diameter around the fruit tree because in this area weeds instead of competing with orchard plants also interfere with fruit picking, tree pruning and other horticultural operations. Also weeds in orchards provide shelter to casual organism of some diseases, insect pests, snakes etc. It is very difficult to keep orchards free from weeds throughout the year with the adoption of only one method of weed control. In order to achieve desirable control of weeds, integrated weed management approach is the best option. Prevention Preventive method could be used more easily and effectively for fruit crops since weed infection through impure crop seeds does not exist as in field crops. Tree samplings should be free from the reproductive parts of perennial weeds. In case any new annual or perennial weed develop in close vicinity of a newly panted sampling, it must be eradicated. So keep a close watch on appearance of a new weed species in your area. Also seed production of annual or perennial weeds should be discouraged or prevented by mechanical mowing or by any other method. Reduced seed bank will make weed control much easier for next years. Physical control Physical methods include had hoeing, mechanical cultivation, mulching, mowing and slashing, burning and solarization. Weeds from young orchards can be very effectively controlled with mechanical cultivations as and when required. However, this practice in grown up orchards can do damage of feeding roots as well as of foliage including flowers

and fruit buds. Somethering with straw, saw dust or other mulches provides some control of weed establishment from seed but is ineffective against established perennials, however, use of plastic sheets or tarpaper is very effective for the control of small infestations of perennial weeds. Cultural control Although a limited number of cultural techniques can be employed in orchards but growing of inter crops is the best cultural technique in these crops. Selection of quick growing and less exhaustive crops such as cowpeas, moong, mash, sengi, metha, oats, peas, gram, guara etc. can help in smothering weeds particularly in inter row areas of young orchards which have not started bearing apart from these some vegetable crops like onion, tomato, cabbage, reddish, beans, and leafy vegetables can also be grown. Avoid intercropping of tall growing exhaustive crops like cotton, sorghum, bajra, maize, sugarcane, okra etc. if under compelling circumstances, few exhaustive crops are to be raised, then take care of their nutritional as well as irrigation requirements separately. Timely management of fertilization and watering in the orchard could be also a good measure to control weeds. Keeping sod (living mulch) on entire orchard floor or between tree rows is a common weed management practice in orchards. The sod is usually suppressed by mechanical or chemical mowing to keep weed controlled without competing with fruit trees for nutrients and water and in such a way that weeds are unable to produce seeds. Biological control Biological control includes classical (inoculative) approach, bioherbicide (inundative) approach and herbivore management. Insects, mites, nematodes, plant pathogens and herbivorus are major weed control biotic agents. DEVINE, a bioherbicide (Phytophthora palmivora Buff.), has been used to control strangler vine (Morrenia odorata Lindl.) in Florida from citrus groves. After the initial treatment, there would be no need to retreat the grove for 10 or more years. Using grazing animals could be a good practice to control weeds in orchards. Examples of grazing animals as biological control agents are sheep, goat and geese. It has been reported that geese are used to control weeds in orchards and vineyards in California and Oregon. Some allelochemicals isolated from plants and microbial compounds can be exploited as herbicides. For example residues from Lantana camara L. shoots significantly reduced the growth of velvet leaf and virginia pepper weed. Chemical control The bases of the fruit trees are not easily accessible to mechanical cultivation as it may do harm to shallow feeding roots as well as to lower fruiting branches. So, use of herbicides especially for ring weeding under the fruit trees is very useful. Weeds which are growing in between the tree. Rows can be controlled mechanically or chemically. There has been considerable progress in the development and use of herbicides in orchards for the control of weeds. The selectivity of herbicides may be achieved in the following ways : 1. The inherent tolerance of the plant to the herbicide e.g. apple can tolerate

application of simazine, grapes and ber to diuron. 1. Directed and protected application of herbicide on weeds only e.g. glyphosate and paraquat. 2. Selection of herbicides with minimum leaching behavior such as dichlobenil. The more persistence nature of herbicide will lead to more chances of herbicide hazards to orchard trees. So, such herbicides should be avoided in orchards particularly when trees are in bearing stage. Apart from this the sprayers used for herbicides should never be used to spray insecticides or fungicides on the fruit trees. Selection of herbicides in orchards should be made with great caution so that safety of trees can be ensured. Following herbicidal treatments are recommended by Punjab Agricultural University in different types of orchards to keep them free from weeds. Citrus Application of Glycil 41Sl or Round-up 41 SL (glyphosate) at 1.6 lit/acre can be done in the end of March when weeds have germinated. This spray is repeated in the month of July. Glyphosate is very effective herbicide for the control of actively growing annual and perennial weeds. If perennial weeds are not present, Gramoxone 24 WSC (paraquat) at 1.2 lit/ac. can be used as a substitute to glyphosate. Use 150-200 lit. of water for spraying these herbicides. Pear Remove the well established weeds and spray Hexuron 80 WP (diuron) at 1.6 kg/acre in the first fortnight of March. Alternatively on grown up weeds (15-20 cm height) apply Glycil 41 SL/Round-up 41 SL or Gramoxone 24 WSC at 1.2 lit/acre during March and can also be repeated during monsoon period. Dissolve these herbicides in 150-200 lit. of water for spraying. Peach Remove all weeds mechanically during 1st week of March. Apply Hexauron 80 WP (diuron) at 2.0 kg/ha by dissolving in 500 lit of water. On grown up weeds Glycil/Roundup or Gramoxone can be applied at 1.5-2.0 lit/ha during the month of March and it can also be repeated if need be during rainy season. Grapes Apply Hexuron 80 WP at 1.2 kg/acre during the first fortnight of March after removing the germinated weeds. On grown up weeds (15-20 cm high) apply Glycil 41 SL/Round-up 41 SL or Gramoxone 24 WSC at 1.6 lit/acre by dissolving in 200 lit. of water. Guava Apply 1.6 kg/acre of Hexuron 80 WP (diuron) during first fortnight of March for rainy season crop and in the first fortnight of September for winter season crop. Spray should be done before the germination of weeds and after removing the grown up weed plants. Alternatively Glycil 41 SL/Round-up 41 SL at 1.6 lit/acre during last fortnight of March and September for rainy and winter season crops respectively, on the actively growing

weeds when they are 15-20 cm tall, after dissolving in 200 lit/acre of water. Ber Uproot all grown up weeds during the first fortnight of August and apply Hexuron 80 WP (diuron) at 1.2 kg/ac as pre-emergence to weeds. Alternatively Glycil/Round-up or Gramoxone at 1.2 lit/acre can be sprayed on actively growing weeds after dissolving any one of these herbicides in 200 lit. of water. NOTE – If Hexuron brand of diuron is not available, then Karmex 80WP or Klass 80WP can be used. Precautions – - Always use flat fan of flood zet nozzle for spraying. Do not use cone type nozzle. - Do not move the nozzle too and fro. Always spray in bands. - Always spray on clam day. - Do calibration before applying the herbicide. - Use of spray hood is beneficial in orchard. - Always use recommended dose of herbicide. - Do not use herbicide contaminated spray pump for spraying insecticides or fungicides in orchards. - Do not store the left-out herbicides in the insecticide store/shelve. - Do not go for any intercropping in the herbicide sprayed zone (except glyphosate and paraquat) HERBICIDE TOXICITY Due to faulty (wrong) application of herbicides, an orchard grower has to bear more economic loss, as compared to the farmer growing field crops. So, selection of herbicides to control weeds in orchards must be made very wisely so that there should not be any toxic effect on fruit trees and at the same time weeds must be controlled satisfactorily. Safe use of herbicide will depend upon type and age of fruit tree, kind of herbicide and its dose, frequency and method of its application etc. in general young fruit plants due to their shallow root system are more prone to herbicide toxicity as compared to the aged trees. Under certain situations following type of toxicity symptoms may be observed : ATRAZINE TOXICITY : Atrataf 50 WP (atrazine) belong to S-triazine group of herbicide is commercially available in the market and is comparatively cheap herbicide. Depending upon the dose, soil type and environmental conditions it can persist in the soil from 2-6 months. This herbicide provides good control of all annual grasses and broad leaf weeds. This group of herbicide inhibits photosynthesis by blocking hill reaction which is very vital step in the process of photosynthesis. So, the affected plants, mostly tender tissues first show chlorosis and with the passage of time necrosis of leaves will take place. Under high toxicity situation, drying up of leaves along with growing meristems will take place. The uptake of atrazine is mainly through the roots, however, shoot absorption also

takes place. So, while spraying this herbicide, a part of spray fluid can be intercepted by young orchard plants or lower branches of grown up trees. On the other hand with irrigation or rainfall this herbicide can be taken up by the roots of fruit trees. Sometimes due to misuse of this herbicide by the orchard growers few tree plants may show herbicide toxicity symptoms. For instance, a young guava plant (as shown in Pic. 197) shows severe toxicity symptoms of higher dose of atrazine. The plant leaves shows loss of dark green colour followed by necrosis especially on tips and leaf margins and ultimately death of leaves and growing meristems will tak place. Similarly as shown in Pic. 198 a grown up peach tree showing toxicity symptoms of atrazine. The colour of green leaves of peach fruit tree turn to light green and with passage of time to yellow and ultimately bleaching followed by necrosis of leaves. DIURON TOXICITY Diuron 80 WP (Hexauron/Karmex/Klass) is very effective and widely used herbicide in many orchards for controlling the weeds chemically. It belong to the substituted urea group of herbicides and is of moderate persistence in nature. Like atrazine, diuron inhibits photosynthesis in the sensitive plants. Its uptake is through roots so applied as preemergence to weeds. Toxicity symptoms resembles with that of Triazine herbicides i.e. yellowing followed by bleaching and ultimately death of plant tissues. Appearance of these type of symptoms will depend upon type and age of fruit tree type of soil, o.m. content of soil, dose of herbicide, frequency of application of herbicide, amount of rainfall, prevailing temperature etc. Toxicity symptoms of diuron on peach trees are shown in Pic. 199. This herbicide is taken up by the tree through roots and via xylem vessels it is translocated to foliage which is the site of action of this herbicide. As in inhibits photosynthesis, the affected plants loose their green colour (chlorophyll pigments) and ultimately scortching of leaves takes place. Damage to fruit tree may depend upon age of tree, dose applied, time and method of application prevailing climatic conditions etc. 2, 4-D TOXICITY 2, 4-d is the oldest chemical known for its activity as weed killer. This herbicide belongs to phenoxy group and is very safe to monocot plants whereas dicots and sedges are very susceptible to this herbicide. At very low rates (ppm) 2, 4-D acts as growth regulator, at moderate rates (0.5 to 2 kg/ha) as herbicide and very higher rates it acts as soil sterillant. 2, 4-D is available as sodium salt and ethyl esters. It is foliar uptake herbicide, so generally applied as post-emergence. This herbicide is very cheap herbicide and is recommended in many field crops. However, in orchards, if need be, it can be used as directed spray. The main risk in the use of this herbicide is that it is very volatile in nature and even small amounts (traces) of this herbicide can destroy sensitive crops. So, avoid to spray on windy days and in fields which are close to broad leaf crops, vegetables, orchards, etc. During hot months of May and June even vapour drift of 2, 4-D is also very common phenomenon. 2, 4-D is primarily responsible for excessive and abnormal cell elongation leading to epinastic growth with abnormal growth of leaves. For instance an papaya plant (Pic. 200) and guava plant (Pic. 201) are showing typical symptoms of 2, 4-D which may be either due to drift of 2, 4-D or its direct application in orchards. The phloem vessels are blocked

due to abnormal cell growth, so blocking the transport of carbohydrates to lower portion of plants. This abnormal leaf growth is primarily due to abnormal cell differentiation in sensitive plants due to 2, 4-D. These type of symptoms appear even with wind/vapour drift or with the use of contaminated pump or containers. With the passage of time growth affected plants will return to normal growth which may be due to dilution effects. The only cheap and best remedial measure to reduce adverse effect of 2, 4-D is plucking the affected portion of plant(s). 2, 4-D affected plants will remain green and the plant part joining stem with root will show swelling. 2, 4-D is not common herbicide for weed control in orchards. However, to control root suckers chemically in few orchards trees especially pear, sodium salt of 2, 4-D can be used as directed spray only on root suckers on a very calm day. This herbicide provides very effective control of root suckers in Pear (Pic. 202) without harming the main orchard trees. GRAMOXONE TOXICITY Gramoxone (paraquat) is a non-selective herbicide and very effective for the control of annual grasses and broad leaf weeds in any type of orchards. This herbicide can be used in orchards of every age provided it should not come in direct contact with growing meristem. The use of spray hood should be made while using paraquat in young orchards. Only the plant or plant part which will come in direct contact with this herbicide will be killed. As paraquat is non-translocated herbicide, so, perennials are not killed as these weeds show resprouting from the deep underlying root stocks. However, above ground foliage of perennials is killed temporarily. Toxicity symptoms due to paraquat includes complete burning (drying) of foliage coming in contact with this herbicide. Some times, while spraying on windy days, drift of paraquat falls on lower branches or leaves of trees showing there by necrotic spots on the leaves particularly of young Guava plants. Guava leaves are showing necrotic spots due to drift of paraquat with wind (Pic. 203). The plant is not going to suffer much due to slight drift of paraquat provided its growing point is intact. Another good point of this herbicide is that it is non-residual herbicide and it has absolutely no carry over effects in soil, thus, it is very safe to orchard trees as well as intercrops, if a farmer wants to grow. GLYPHOSATE TOXICITY Like paraquat, glyphosate is also contact herbicide but the main difference is that the former is non-translocated herbicide while the latter one is translocated in nature. So, glyphosate had an edge over paraquat that it controls perennial weeds by destroying their food reserves in the underground reproductive parts. So, to control all types of weeds glyphosate at 1 to 2.0 lit per acre (of commercial product) can be sprayed on actively growing weeds. Its application can be repeated as and when required. Glyphosate is very widely used herbicide in orchards throughout the world. However, its direct contact with foliage should be avoided otherwise chronic type of toxicity may appear particularly in young trees. A plant of Guava showing toxicity symptoms of glyphosate (Pic. 204) due to its direct application or due to drift. Better to use spray hood while using glyphosate in order to avoid its direct contact with leaves and even with the green colour stem (trunk).

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