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LIPID DIGESTION

Ike Dhiah R.
OVERVIEW

Lipid consumption 60-150 gram lipid/day

90% consumed is Tri Acyl Glycerol (TAG)

Cholesterol, Cholesterol ester, phospholipid, free fatty


acids unesterified

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LIPID DIGESTION
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STOMACH

Catalyzed by an acid stable lipase (lingual lipase)

TAG molecules (short and medium long fatty acids) are


the primary target

TAGs are also degraded by a separate gastric lipase

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EMULSIFICATION
IN SMALL INTESTINE

Emulsification

Detergent properties of bile


salts

Mechanical mixing due to


peristalsis

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DEGRADATION BY
PANCREATIC ENZYME

Cholesterol Ester
TAG Degradation
Degradation

Phospholipid Control of Lipid


Degradation Digestion

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TAG DEGRADATION

TAG molecules — too large (to be taken up by mucosal


cells of villi)

Pancreatic lipase (removes the fatty acids at carbons 1


and 3)

The primary products of hydrolysis : a mixture of 2-


monoacylglycerol and free fatty acids

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CHOLESTEROL ESTER
DEGRADATION
Cholesterol esters are hydrolyzed by pancreatic
cholesterol ester hydrolase (cholesterol esterase) —-
produces cholesterol plus free fatty acids

Cholesterol ester hydrolase activity is increased in the


presence of bile salts

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PHOSPHOLIPID
DEGRADATION
Pancreatic juice is rich in the proenzyme of
phospholipase A2

Phospholipase A2 removes one fatty acid from carbon 2


a phospholipid, leaving a lysophospholipid

The remaining fatty acid at carbon 1 may be excreted in


the feces, further degraded or absorbed

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CONTROL OF LIPID
DIGESTION

Cells in the mucosa


of the duodenum and
jejunum produce a
small peptide
hormone:
cholecystokinin
(CCK)

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Free fatty acids, free cholesterol, and 2-
monoacylglycerol are the pri- mary products of
lipid digestion in the jejunum. These, plus bile
salts and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K),
form mixed micelles

Hydrophobic groups in the


inside and
Hydrophilic on the outside

ABSORPTION OF LIPID BY INTESTINAL


MUCOSAL CELLS (ENTEROCYTES)
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The mixture of lipids absorbed by the enterocytes migrates to the
endoplasmic reticulum where biosynthesis of complex lipids takes
place.

SECRETION OF CHYLOMICRONS
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USE OF DIETARY LIPIDS BY TISSUE

Enter muscle cells or adipocytes;


Fate of free
transported into the blood (by
fatty acids
albumin) until taken by cells

used almost exclusively by the liver to


Fate of free produce glycerol 3-phosphate, which
glycerols can enter either glycolysis or
gluconeogenesis by oxidation to
dihydroxyacetone phosphate

Fate of
remaining The chylomicrons remnant binds
chylomicrons to receptors on the liver
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REFERENCES
Ballantyne C. Clinical Lipidology: A Companion to
Braunwald Heart Disease. 2009. Saunders Elsevier

Kimble K. Applied Therapeutics. 9th edition. 2013

Frayn KN. Metabolic Regulation: A Human Perspective.


3rd edition. 2010. Wiley Blackwell

Harvey RA. Lippincott Illustrated Biochemistry. 5th


edition. 2011. Lippincott William Wilkins