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The geography of food and health

➔ Assessing the health of a country or population through indicators:
◆ Infant/child mortality rate​:
● IMR= Under five years old.
● Reflects social (especially health), economic, and environmental
● MDG.
● Measured in "per thousand".
● World average: 44.
○ Pros:
◆ Reflects household income, nutrition, maternal age and
education, housing condition and sanitation.
○ Cons:
◆ Data may be unreliable if collected by household
surveys, or national birth/death registrations.
◆ Calculations have to account for death in epidemics,
civil wars and migrations.
◆ Life expectancy​:
● Spatial variation within countries (urban X rural), between them
(sub-Saharan Africa X Canada/Japan), and between social and ethnic
groups (in the US black minority groups live 5 years fewer than white
● Male life expectancy is shorter.
○ Higher incidence of degenerative illness.
◆ Smoking, alcohol, more exposure to pollutants.
○ Violence, road accidents and suicide, especially between
19-24 years of age.
● Increased significantly since 1950.
○ Greater food production.
○ Cleaner water.
○ Better living conditions and health care.
● AIDS in Africa made it fall.
○ Pros:
◆ Social, economic, medical advancements and living
○ Cons:
◆ Only length of life, and disconsiders the years which
are spent in ill state.
◆ Disconsiders age-specific mortality rates.
◆ Data may be unreliable. Since some countries may not
measure from birth.
◆ Calorie intake​:
● Newly industrialized countries-- rising calorie intake.
● Shows access to food.
○ Cons:

○ Medication. ○ Limitations for economic development. ◆ Doesn't take nutrient consumption into account. ◆ Hence. ● Provides a deeper insight into health than life expectancy. per 10000 people. ◆ Health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE)​: ● Overall health of a population. ● Gap between rural and urban in some countries. ◆ Prevention relative to treatment: ● Reflection of public funds and priorities. ○ Low income countries need to double their increase to reach the target. ● Slowest improvement in Africa. ● Three key aspects.. to which patients may vary in access. ● Affects child mortality a lot.. as it asses not only quantity. ● Shows the life expectancy spent in full health. hepatitis). but quality of life. ○ Developing countries: ◆ Tend to exclude poorer sectors of population. which is a consequence of lack of water. ◆ Not everyone needs the same calorie intake (cold X warm). ● Inadequate sewage. adjusting the severity of disabilities. per 10000= failure to achieve coverage rates prioritized by MDG. ● Less than 23 physicians. ◆ Access to health services​: ● Measured as number of doctors etc. ○ Excessive use of labor to obtain water.. which makes them more susceptible to disease etc. ● To improve: ○ Provision of water.. nurses. ● Access may depend on ability to pay and accessibility. ○ Therapies. ● Calculated using official mortality and disability data. ○ Health professionals. . ● Has been increasing. ● Lack of water leads to: ○ Health problems. leads to infections (cholera. much more difficult to cure once illness is established. so you can't compare countries. ○ Education on hygiene and non-wastefulness. ○ Cons: ◆ Lack of reliable data (especially from low-income countries) on mortality and morbidity. ◆ Access to safe water: ● Directly related to poverty and sanitation. will reach MDG if trend continues.

prevention: ○ Minimize spread of infection. will increase resistance and limit transmission. ◆ Decrease in soil fertility (unsustainable). . hard-working and skilled workforce. ● Biotechnology​: ○ Carried out mostly in developed countries. ○ Pros: ◆ Yields are better and higher. ● Needs water supply and sanitation. ◆ Increasing food output: ● Genetically engineered. ◆ Better access to food. due to rising cost for example. ○ Pay farmers properly.. ​high-yielding varieties​ (HYVs). safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. ◆ Green revolution: ● Science and technology to increase food production. ​food entitlement deficit​-.due to technology. ● Markets/human productivity​: ○ Guaranteed prices and markets lead to bigger production from farmers. ◆ Less hunger. ◆ Health education. ○ Cons: ◆ Rural unemployment. at all times. to keep more educated. ● Irrigation​ maximizes yields. ➔ Areas of food sufficiency: ◆ World food has managed to keep pace with population growth-. ◆ Dependence of developing deficiency due to lack of access. ◆ Contraception to avoid HIV. hunger was seen in areas with food and production. have access to deficiencies are caused by local shortages due to physical factors. ➔ Global availability of food: ◆ Food security​= All people. and allows for agriculture in arid locations. ● Artificial ​fertilizers​ and pesticides. ◆ However. ● Increasing ​scale of operations​. ◆ Food availability deficit​-. ● Therefore. ◆ Hence. ◆ Hygiene.. ◆ Education and public awareness of diseases. (Green revolution).

● Speculative trading in agricultural commodities: ○ Fluctuations in market prices which do not follow demand and supply. ● Rising demand​ from global population growth or emerging economies. ● Climate change​: ○ Changing rain patterns. ○ To stimulate production= farm subsidies (guaranteed prices and markets). ◆ May not be beneficial for some farmers. Somallia. ● Trading blocs and farm subsidies: ○ Trading bloc= arrangement between countries to allow free trade amongst themselves. ◆ Led to overproduction. ○ In the 2010 decade. and eastern Africa suffered droughts which caused crop failure and led to hunger. ● Free trade​: ○ Countries trade competitively and fairly amongst themselves. ◆ Bad for local farmers.➔ Areas of food deficiency: ◆ Food shortages are caused by: remember to consider long. May lead to increased cost. ○ Water shortages. ● Soaring oil and energy prices​. short. due to the end of subsidizes. which increase cost of food production. ● Farming may be inefficient. . South Sudan. ● Biofuels​ competing for arable land. ◆ Bad for local farmers. ◆ Leads to imports and exports. medium terms. ○ Protectionism is the contrary. which is usually good for commerce. ◆ May increase price in short term. ● Bilateral arrangements: ○ Arrangements between two countries to import goods. ● Underinvestment in agriculture. ● Multilateral arrangements: ○ Arrangements between countries to imports goods from other countries. ➔ Food production and markets: ◆ Political/economical factors which affect the production and availability of food. restrictions to trade. ◆ May decrease price in long term. due to competition. ● Natural hazards​ may disrupt production.

○ Trade reform: ◆ Free trade.. economically and environmentally responsible trade. ○ Produce more with less. ● Socio-economic solutions: ○ Agricultural investment: ◆ Increased yields given more investment. ○ Expanding irrigation. ○ Modifying micro-climate. ◆ Needs a lot of water. as well as energy subsidies​ (those not obtained by the sun).. due to economies of scale. ◆ The environmental costs of increasing food production (unsustainable): ● Dependence on​ fertilizers and pesticides. ○ Appropriate technology. ◆ Fairer prices for products.➔ Alleviating food shortages: ◆ Solutions to food insecurity: ● Technical solutions: ○ GM crops. ○ Sustainable practices: ◆ Using technology and avoiding pollution to conserve resources. ◆ More present in MEDCs. ○ Fair trade: ◆ Socially. ◆ Ensures profitability. ○ Better credit​: ◆ More money for equipment.". ➔ Sustainable agriculture: ◆ Ability to produce food without causing irreversible damage to ecosystems. "Give a man a fish. ● Increasing livestock yield​: . ○ Shows sustainability. ○ Food aid. ◆ Good in short term. ○ Genetically modified​ seeds and fertilizers. ○ Land reform: ◆ Spread land amongst farmers to increase productivity. which'll likely lower prices. ● Increasing crop yield​. ● Production through ​profit maximization​ has often put profit before environmental issues. ○ Seeds and fertilizers. ◆ Prevents degradation. so no one cares about the environment. ● See dependence on energy subsidies via ​energy efficiency ratio. ○ Improved infrastructure. bad in long.

◆ Degenerative diseases prevail in MEDCs. ● Heart disease. ● Reducing energy subsidies. ○ Harmful ​insecticides​. vulnerable. ● Food miles: ○ Distance food travels from producer to consumer​. inefficient.. ● Associated with old age. ◆ Organic farming: ● Manure ​rather than inorganic fertilizers. since none reproduced. ● Free roam of livestock. ● Exposure to pollution in cities. high-energy diet. ◆ Low priority to animal welfare. (factory farming). ◆ May affect humans. ◆ Sustainable yield: ● Amount of food which can be taken from land. ➔ Global patterns of disease: ◆ Infectious diseases prevail in LEDCs. stroke. ● Close human contact or vectors. ○ If all fish are removed. cheaper. ● Crop rotation ​to maintain soil fertility. ○ Lesser. ◆ Energy efficiency ratios: ● Energy input/energy output. ● Modifying landscape and reducing biodiversity: ○ Intensive commercial farming: ◆ Leads to ​microclimatic modifications. low levels of physical activity. chronic or degenerative diseases: ● Diseases of affluence. ● Related to use of energy subsidies. schistosomiasis. ○ Food industry dependant on crude oil due to transportation. ● Eliminating competitors (pests). chronic respiratory failure and cancer. but now impact young people too. better. HIV-AIDS. ● Malaria. ○ Selective breeding​ to "create" the best animals. . next year there will be no fish. ◆ Infectious or communicable diseases: ● Diseases of poverty. ◆ Damage environment and ecosystem.. ● Spread rapidly in overcrowded and unsanitary locations. without reducing its productive abilities. ● Deforestation. ● Radiation leads to cancer. ◆ Unreliable. ○ Smoking. and high alcohol consumption. ◆ Non-communicable.

◆ Person with HIV migrates elsewhere. ➔ The spread of disease. ◆ Epidemiological transition: ● When countries become more urbanized. leaving old one behind. . ◆ Disease diffusion= spread of disease into new locations. ○ Network diffusion​: ◆ Diffusion through transportation and social networks. ● High indexes may be both in low and high income countries. ● Can push families into poverty due to high treatment costs. ◆ Kills up to 3 million people annually. ○ Capacity of a country to contain a disease. ◆ From poorer classes to more affluent ones. ➔ Geographic factors and impacts: malaria: (infectious disease of poverty). ◆ 40% of the world's population is at risk of catching. ◆ Infected mosquitoes. and spread out of it due to international travel. ○ China loses a lot of money due to this. ● Types of diffusion: ○ Expansion​ diffusion: ◆ Diffuses from initial source into new areas. ● Areas closer to the initial source as more impacted. ○ Relocation​ diffusion: ◆ Diffusion into new areas. for example. ● Healthcare costs to the state as well. ● Life expectancy may be rising. ○ International travel in MEDCs. their population suffers from lifestyle changes which generate chronic disease. but HALE may not be. ○ Mixed diffusion​: ◆ Both contagious and hierarchical diffusion. ◆ 80% in sub saharan africa. ● Mexico: ○ Swine flu originated from Mexico. poor medical infrastructure in LEDCs. ◆ From urban to rural areas. ◆ HIV in southern Africa amongst transfer routes. ◆ Pandemic risk index: ● Measured by: ○ Risk of a disease emerging in a country. ○ Hierarchical​ diffusion: ◆ Diffusion through ordered sequence of classes or places. ○ Contagious​ diffusion: ◆ Spread through direct contact with infected people. ○ Risk of disease spreading to and within a country. ● Extreme risk in China.

◆ 80% of children in southern Tanzania are infected before six months. . ◆ Low-income countries​ with underdeveloped health services (Some parts of Asia and Africa). ◆ Stagnant water. dehydration. ○ Drug treatment. ● Appear after 10-15 days. ◆ Control: ● Protect humans from mosquito bites. ◆ Prevention: ● Good nutrition and adequate fluid oral rehydration. ● Doctors. ● Vomit. ➔ Geographic factors and impacts: measles: (infectious disease of poverty). ● Loss of productivity for employers. ◆ Spread by coughing and sneezing. ● Disrupts blood supply to vital organs. ● Unable to work. ● Vaccination. ◆ Symptoms: ● Fever. ◆ Low immune system and children are the biggest victims. ◆ 10% end in death among populations with malnutrition. brain swelling. ◆ Must beat resistance of mosquitoes. ◆ Blindness. ◆ 20 million people infected per year. ● Dams. ○ Bed nets. ● Reduce population of mosquitoes. ◆ Costs: ● Medication. ○ Safe. cost-effective and inexpensive. ● Headache. mostly in subsaharian Africa). ◆ Leading causes of death among young children. ● Preventive measures. ◆ Human enhancements to Malaria: ● Conflicts and war. ● Mining. ○ Killing mosquito larvae. ● Public health costs. ​Personal contact.. ◆ Flu-like symptoms and a rash. ● Agricultural projects. ➔ Geographic factors and impacts: HIV and AIDS: (infectious disease of poverty.. ◆ Humid locations.

. ○ Income on tobacco instead of food etc. ● Childhood obesity. ● Generates diabetes. ◆ Diabetes: ● Incurable. ○ Insulin shots. obesity. ○ Need to have food to have obese people. ● Economic impact on families and the government. ○ Easy access to transport and services. ○ A quarter of smokers die. ◆ Loss of productivity. ○ Worstened diet with more fat. heart disease and cancer. ○ Cancer and malnutrition. (type 1) . ● Prevention: ○ Monitoring of blood sugar levels. ● USA. ● Urban residence. ➔ Geographic factors and impacts: diseases of affluence: consequences of smoking. diabetes. ◆ Smoking: ● Main causes of death in the 20th century. ● Wealth: ○ Changes in lifestyles which leads to less activity and health (​the epidemiological transition​). ● Cardiovascular disease and blindness are examples of consequences.​ Mexico. ○ Some don't develop immunity. ● Most deaths in low and middle income countries. ● More common in MEDCs. and many become ill. ◆ Global obesity: ● 65% of countries have more overweight and obesity deaths kill more people than underweight. ● Deaths are likely to double. ○ Bothin middle and high income countries. ◆ More successful in MEDCs than LEDCs. most of the deaths were in low-middle income countries. ○ By 2010. ● Low activity patterns lead to obesity. ○ Bangladesh. therefore 2 shots. ○ Globally recognized as extremely important. ● India​. ◆ Risk factors for degenerative diseases: ● Age: ○ More prevalent among the ​elderly​. ○ Anti-smoking campaigns. ● Increasing numbers of people. in rich countries.

○ Avoid tobacco. ○ Physical activity.○ Medication. . ○ Healthy body weight. ○ Healthy diet.