You are on page 1of 34

Section 12.

(1) Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall have
the right to be informed of his right to remain silent and to have competent and independent
counsel preferably of his own choice. If the person cannot afford the services of counsel, he
must be provided with one. These rights cannot be waived except in writing and in the
presence of counsel.
(2) No torture, force, violence, threat, intimidation, or any other means which violate the free
will shall be used against him. Secret detention places, solitary, incommunicado, or other
similar forms of detention are prohibited.
(3) Any confession or admission obtained in violation of this or Section 17 hereof shall be
inadmissible in evidence against him.
(4) The law shall provide for penal and civil sanctions for violations of this section as well as
compensation to the rehabilitation of victims of torture or similar practices, and their families.

I. Custodial Investigation, In General

A. Definition
1. People Pavillare, GR 129970, April 5, 2000
2. People v. Bandula - 232 SCRA 566
3. Navallo v. Sandiganbayan - 234 SCRA 175
4. Sebastian v. Garchitorena, GR 114028, October 18, 2000
5. OCA v. Sumulong, 271 SCRA 316
6. People v. Almanzor, GR 124918, July 11, 2002 (no need for counsel)
7. People v. Valdez, GR 129296, September 25, 2000
8. People v. Marra - 236 SCRA 565
9. People v. Labtan, G.R. No. 127493, December 8, 1999
10. Manuel v. NC Construction – 282 SCRA 326
11. People v. de la Cruz, GR 137405, Sept. 27, 2002
12. *People v. Camat- 256 SCRA 52
13. People v. Evangelista - 256 SCRA 611
14. People v. Andan – 269 SCRA 95
15. People v. Artellero, GR 129211, October 2, 2000
16. People v. De Jesus – 213 SCRA 345
17. People v. Legaspi, GR 117802, April 27, 2000

B. Rationale
18. Miranda v. Arizona 384 US 436
19. People v. Canton, GR 148825, Dec. 27, 2002

II. Instances of Custodial Investigations


20. People v. Isla- 278 SCRA 47
21. People v. Salazar – 266 SCRA 607
22. People v. Casimiro, GR 146277, June 20, 2002
23. People v. Castro – 274 SCRA 115
24. People v. Bolanos – 211 SCRA 262
25. People v. Lim - 196 SCRA 809

III. Rights When Under Custodial Investigations

1
A. Procedural Requirements
26. *Miranda v. Arizona- 384 US 436
27. People v. Mahinay – GR 122485 February 1, 1999
28. People v. Camat - 256 SCRA 52

B. Duty of an Officer During Custodial Investigation


29. People v. de la Cruz, GR 137405, Sept. 27, 2002
30. People v. Salcedo – 273 SCRA 473

C. When the Rights of Custodial Investigation May Be Invoked


31. People v. Loveria - 187 SCRA 47
32. Sebastian v. Garchitorena, GR 114028, October 18, 2000
33. People v. Tan – 286 SCRA 207

D. The Right to Remain Silent


34. People v. Bandin – 226 SCRA 299
35. People v. Lacbanes – 270 SCRA 193
36. People v. Morico – 246 SCRA 214
37. People v. Ang Chun Kit – 251 SCRA 660
38. People v. De Las Marinas – 196 SCRA 504
39. People v. Castro – 274 SCRA 115
40. People v. Enriquez – 204 SCRA 674
41. People v. De Castro, G.R. No. 171672

E. The Right to Counsel

a. When to Invoke
42. People v. Sunga, GR 126029, Mar. 29, 2003
43. People v. Labtan, G.R. No. 127493, December 8, 1999
44. People v. Sapal, GR 124526, March 17, 2000
45. People v. Lamsing - 248 SCRA 471
46. People v. Maqueda - 242 SCRA 565
47. People v. Macam – 238 SCRA 306
48. People v. De Jesus – 213 SCRA 345
49. People v. Dimaano – 209 SCRA 819
50. People v. Compil - 244 SCRA 135
51. People v. Loveria - 187 SCRA 47

b. When Presence of Counsel is Required


52. People v. Rodriguez - 232 SCRA 227
53. Estacio v. Sandiganbayan – 183 SCRA 12
54. People v. Bandula - 232 SCRA 566
55. People v. Isla- 278 SCRA 47
56. People v. Jimenez - 204 SCRA 719
57. People v. Cortes, 323 SCRA 131

2
58. People v. Rous - 242 SCRA 732
59. People v. Espanola – 271 SCRA 689
60. People v.Zuela, 325 SCRA 589
61. People v. Macabalang 508 SCRA 282
62. Almendras, Jr. v. Almendras, GR No. 179491, 2015
63. Ibanez v. People, G.R. No.190798, January 27, 2016

c. Effective and Vigilant Counsel Defined


64. *People v. Sunga, GR 126029, March 27, 2003
65. People v. Velarde, GR 139333, July 18, 2002
66. People v. Culala, GR 83466, October 13, 1999
67. People v. Gerolago – 263 SCRA 143
68. People v. Paule – 261 SCRA 649
69. People v. Delmo, GR 130078, Oct. 4, 2002
70. People v. Lucero - 249 SCRA 425
71. People v. Espanola – 271 SCRA 689
72. People v. Bacor – GR 122895 April 30, 1999
73. People v. Sahagun – 274 SCRA 208
74. People v. Taliman, GR 109143, October 11, 2000
75. People v. Espiritu – GR 128287 February 2, 1999
76. People v. Barasina - 229 SCRA 450
77. People v. Alegria - 190 SCRA 122
78. People v. Suarez – 267 SCRA 119
79. People v. Parojinog - 203 SCRA 673
80. People v. Baello – 224 SCRA 218
81. Galman v. Pamaran – 138 SCRA 295
82. People v. Jerez – 285 SCRA 393
83. People v. Ranis, GR 129113, Sept. 17, 2002
84. People v. Dumalahay, 380 SCRA 37
85. People v. Pamon – 217 SCRA 501
86. People v. Cabiles – 284 SCRA 199
87. People v. Gallardo, 323 SCRA 318
88. People v. Base, GR 109773, March 30, 2000
89. People v. Obrero, GR 122142, May 17, 2000
90. Cariaga v. People – 626 SCRA 231

d. Independence
91. People v. Porio, 376 SCRA 596

e. Competence
92. People v. Suela, supra, 373 SCRA 163
93. Uyboco v. People Of The Philippines, G.R. No. 211703, December 10, 2014

f. Assistance After Start of Custodial Investigation


94. People v. Suela, supra.

3
g. Valid Confession with Counsel
95. People v. Tablon, 379 SCRA 280
96. People v. Principe, GR 135862, May 2, 2002
97. People v. Oranza, GR 127748, July 25, 2002
98. People v. Canicula, GR 131802, Aug. 6, 2002

h. Confession Without Counsel


99. People v. Casimiro, GR 146277, June 20, 2002
100. People v. Ochate, GR 127154, July 30, 2002
101. People v. Mendez, GR 147671, Nov. 21, 2002 (reiterates P. v. Morada)
102. *People v. Lauga – 615 SCRA 548
103. Lumanog v. People – 630 SCRA 42
104. People v. Tumaco – 610 SCRA 350l
105. People v. Bokingo – 655 SCRA 313
106. *People v. Uy – 649 SCRA 236

i. Failure to Object to Confession Made Without Counsel


107. People v. Gonzales, GR 142932, May 29, 2002
108. People v. Tamayo, GR 137856, July, 30, 2002
109. People v. Samus, GR 135957, Sept. 17, 2002
110. People v. Avendano, GR 137407, Jan. 28, 2003
111. People v. Mole, GR 137366, Nov. 27, 2003

j. Right to Be Informed
112. People v. Manriquez, GR 122510-11, March 17, 2000
113. Magtoto v. Manguera - 63 SCRA 4
114. *People v. Camat- 256 SCRA 52
115. People v. Alegria - 190 SCRA 122
116. People v. Sabban – 260 SCRA 630
117. People v. Barlis - 231 SCRA 426
118. People v. Agustin - 240 SCRA 541
119. People v. Samolde, GR 128551, July 31, 2000
120. People v. Sevilla, GR 124077, September 5, 2000
121. People v. Muleta – GR 130189 June 25, 1999
122. People v. Tizon, GR 133228, July 30, 2002
123. People v. Llenaresas - 248 SCRA 629
124. People v. Cajara, GR 122498, September 27, 2000
125. People v. Manriquez, GR 122510-11, March 17, 2000
126. People v. Samolde, GR 128551, July 31, 2000

IV. Waiver of Rights

A. Requisites of a Valid Waiver


127. People vs. Jara 1986
a. Must Be in Writing and in the Presence of Counsel
128. People v. Taliman, GR 109143, October 11, 2000

4
129. People v. Gomez – 270 SCRA 432
130. People v. Cabintoy – 247 SCRA 442
131. People v. Corullo – 289 SCRA 481
132. People v. Olivarez – GR 77865 December 4, 1998
133. People v. Ruelan - 231 SCRA 650
134. People v. Simon - 234 SCRA 555
135. Malacat v. CA – (supra, Warrantless Arrests)
136. People v. Bacor, 306 SCRA 522
137. People v. Quidato – GR 117160 or 6 October 1, 1998

b. Must Be Voluntary, Knowing and Intelligent


138. People v. Nicolas - 204 SCRA 191
139. People v. Agustin - 240 SCRA 541

V. Extrajudicial Confessions
A. Difference Between Admission and Confession
140. Ladiana v. People, GR 144293, Dec. 4, 2002
141. People v. Maqueda - 242 SCRA 565

B. Requisites for Valid Extrajudicial Confession


142. People v. Dano, GR 117690, September 1, 2000
143. People v. Pagaura – 267 SCRA 17
144. People v. Calvo – 269 SCRA 676
145. People v. Tan – 286 SCRA 207
146. People v. Olivarez – GR 77865 December 4
147. People v. Base, GR 109773, March 30, 2000
148. People v. Continente, GR 100801-02, August 25, 2000
149. People v. Naag, 322 SCRA 710
150. People v. Fabro – 277 SCRA 19
151. People v. Sinoc – 275 SCRA 357
152. People v. Alicando - 251 SCRA 293
153. People v. Maneng, GR 123147, October 13, 2000
154. People v. Llanes, GR 140268, September 18, 2000
155. People v. Deang, GR 128045, August 24, 2000
156. People v. Avendano, GR 137407, Jan. 28, 2003
157. People v. Espanola – 271 SCRA 689
158. People v. Nicolas, GR 135877, Aug. 22, 2002
159. People v. Sabalones – 294 SCRA 751
160. People v. Mahinay, 302 SCRA 455
161. People v. Lising – 285 SCRA 595
162. People v. Obrero, GR 122142, May 17, 2000
163. People v. Capitle – 639 SCRA 373
164. Jesalva v. People – 640 SCRA 253
165. People v. Capitle – 639 SCRA 373

C. Voluntariness
166. People v. Santos – 283 SCRA 443

5
167. People v. Alvarez, GR 140388-91, Nov. 11, 2003
168. Astudillo v. People - 509 SCRA 302
169. Jesalva v. People – 640 SCRA 253

D. Presumptions
170. People v. Alicando - 251 SCRA 293
171. People v. Camat- 256 SCRA 52
172. People v. Figueroa, GR 134056, July 6, 2000
173. People v. Dano, GR 117690, September 1, 2000
174. People v. Maneng, GR 123147, October 13, 2000
175. People v. Vallejo, GR 144656, May 9, 2002
176. People v. Sahagun – 274 SCRA 208
177. People v. Sabban – 260 SCRA 630
178. People v. Ranis, GR 129113, Sept. 17, 2002
179. People v. Rous - 242 SCRA 732
180. People v. Parojinog - 203 SCRA 673
181. People v. Montiero – 246 SCRA 786
182. People v. Ruelan - 231 SCRA 650
183. People v. Aquino – GR 123550-51 July 19, 1999
184. People v. Tolentino, 423 SCRA 448
185. People v. De Vera, G.R. No. 128966, August 18, 1999
186. People v. Santos – 283 SCRA 443
187. Santos v. Sandiganbayan, GR 71523-25, December 8, 2000
188. People v. Magdamit – 279 SCRA 423
189. People v. Aquino, GR 130742, July 18, 2000
190. People v. Hernandez – (supra, Warrantless Arrests)
191. People v. Sabalones – 294 SCRA 751
192. People v. Calvo – 269 SCRA 676
193. People v. del Rosario, G.R. No. 131036, June 20, 2001

E. To Whom Such Confession Can Be Used Against


194. People v. Lising – 285 SCRA 595
195. Santos v. Sandiganbayan, GR 71523-25, December 8, 2000
196. Tan v. People, G.R. No. 134298, August 26, 1999

F. Lawyer Given by Police Investigator; Valid Confession


197. Aquino v. Paiste, 555 S 255

G. Exceptions
VI. When Custodial Investigations May Not Apply
A. Preliminary Investigation
198. People v. Judge Ayson - 175 SCRA 216

B. Voluntary Surrender
199. People v. Taylaran – 108 SCRA 373

C. Audit Examination

6
200. Navallo v. Sandiganbayan - 234 SCRA 175
201. Kimpo v. Sandiganbayan - 232 SCRA 53

D. Administrative Investigation
202. Manuel v. NC Construction – 282 SCRA 326
203. Remolona v. Civil Service Commission, G.R. No.13747, August 2, 2001
204. Sebastian v. Garchitorena, GR 114028, October 18, 2000
205. Escleo v. Durado, AM no. P-99-1312, July 31, 2002

E. Not in Police Custody


206. OCA v. Sumulong, 271 SCRA 316

F. Police Line-up
General Rule
207. People v. Piedad, GR 131923, Dec. 5, 2002 (no need for counsel)
208. People v. Lamsing – 248 SCRA 471
209. People v. Frago - 232 SCRA 653
210. *Gamboa v. Judge Cruz - 162 SCRA 675
211. People v. Salvatierra – 276 SCRA 55 (supra, Warrantless Arrests)
212. People Pavillare, GR 129970, April 5, 2000
213. People v. Timple - 237 SCRA 52
214. People v. Dimaano – 209 SCRA 819
215. People v. Loveria - 187 SCRA 47
216. People v. Tolentino, 423 SCRA 448
217. People v. Martinez, 425 SCRA 525
218. People v. Sultan, GR 130594, July 5, 2000
219. People v. Escordial, 373 SCRA 585 (line- up after custodial investigation starts,
requires counsel)

Exceptions
220. People v. Hatton – 210 SCRA 1
221. People v. Gamer, 326 SCRA 660
222. *People v. Teehankee, Jr. – 249 SCRA 54 (supra, Procedural)
223. People v. Meneses – 288 SCRA 95

G. Spontaneous Statements
224. People v. Barrientos – 285 SCRA 221
225. Arroyo v, CA - 203 SCRA 750
226. People v. Andan – 269 SCRA 95
227. People v. Dumantay, 307 SCRA 1
228. People v. Morada – GR 129723 May 19, 1999
229. People v. Dano, GR 117690, September 1, 2000
230. People v. Ulit, 423 SCRA 374

H. Marked Money
231. *People v. Linsangan – 195 SCRA 784

7
I. Booking Sheets
232. *People v. Ang Chun Kit – 251 SCRA 660

J. Paraffin Test
233. People v. Gamboa – 194 SCRA 372

K. When Body of the Accused is Examined


234. People v. Sinoc – 275 SCRA 357
235. People v. Piedad, GR 131923, Dec. 5, 2002 (no need for counsel)
236. Gutang v. People, GR 135406, July 11, 2000
237. People v. Paynor – 256 SCRA 611

L. Taking of Pictures
238. People v. Gallarde, 325 SCRA 835

M. Incident to a Lawful Arrest


239. People v. Enriquez – 204 SCRA 674
240. Marcelo v. Sandiganbayan – GR 109242 January 26, 1999

VII. The Exclusionary Rule

A. Violation of Rights
241. People v. Simon - 234 SCRA 555
242. People v. Hermoso, GR 130590, October 18, 2000
243. People v. Pinlac - 165 SCRA 675
244. People v. Bacamante - 248 SCRA 47
245. People v. Andan – 269 SCRA 95
246. People v. Montes – GR 117166 December 13, 1998
247. People v. Salcedo – 273 SCRA 473
248. People v. Macoy – 275 SCRA 1
249. People v. Arceo - 202 SCRA 170
250. People v. Atrejenio – GR 120160 July 13, 1999
251. Tan v. People, G.R. No. 134298, August 26, 1999
252. People v. Binamira – 277 SCRA 232
253. People v. Turingan – 282 SCRA 424
254. People v. Pagaura – 267 SCRA 17
255. People v. Quidato – GR 117401 October 1, 1998
256. People v. Sequino – 264 SCRA 79
257. People v. Alicando - 251 SCRA 293
258. People v. Agustin - 240 SCRA 541
259. People v. Paglinawan, 324 SCRA 97
260. People v. Alegria - 190 SCRA 122
261. People v. Bravo, GR 13562
262. People v. Bariquit, GR 122733, October 2, 2000
263. People v. Malimit – 264 SCRA 167
264. People v. Rivera – 245 SCRA 421
265. People v. Meneses – 288 SCRA 95

8
266. People v. Figueroa, GR 134056, July 6, 2000
267. People v. Paburada, GR 137118, December 5, 2000
268. People v. Lapitaje, GR 132042, Feb. 19, 2003

B. Immunity against Self-Incrimination


269. *Galman v. Pamaran – (supra, Custodial Investigation)

C. Re-enactments
270. People v. Suarez – 267 SCRA 119

D. Applicability to Aliens
271. People v. Wong Chuen Ming - 256 SCRA 182

E. Verbal Confessions
272. People v. Deniego – 251 SCRA 626
273. People v. Bonola – 274 SCRA 238
274. People v. Suela, 373 SCRA 163 (confession to private party)
275. People v. Taboga, 376 SCRA 500 (confession to private party)
276. People v. Baloloy, GE 140740, Apr. 12, 2002 (res gestae)
277. People v. Guillermo, 420 S 326

F. Co-Accused not Bound


278. People v. Camat- 256 SCRA 52

G. Who May Raise the Question


279. People v. Balisteros - 237 SCRA 499

H. When Must the Objection Be Raised


280. People v. Samus, GR 135957, Sept. 17, 2002
281. People v. Montilla – 285 SCRA 703
282. People v. Salvatierra – 276 SCRA 55
283. Gamboa v. Judge Cruz - 162 SCRA 675
284. Macasiray v. People – 291 SCRA 154

I. Admissible Evidence
285. People v. Espiritu, 302 SCRA 533
286. People v. Lumandong, 327 SCRA 650

VIII. Rights After Custodial Investigation


287. People v. Alicando - 251 SCRA 293
288. People v. De Guzman - 194 SCRA 191

Section 13. All persons, except those charged with offenses punishable by reclusion perpetua
when evidence of guilt is strong, shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, or
be released on recognizance as may be provided by law. The right to bail shall not be impaired
even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended. Excessive bail shall not be
required.

9
I. Right to Bail
289. Lavides v. CA, 324 SCRA 321
290. People v. Gako, GR 135045, December 15, 2000
291. *Yap v. CA, GR 141529, June 6, 2001
292. Fortuna v. Sitaca, AM No. RTJ-01-1633, June 19, 2001
293. Jinggoy Estrada v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 148965, February 26, 2002
294. Gov’t of USA v. Hon Purganan, GR 148571, Sept. 24, 2002
295. Serapio v. Sandiganbayan, GR 148468, Jan. 28, 2003
296. *Gov’t of Hongkong v. Hon. Olalia, April 19, 2007
297. People v. Sandiganbayan – 529 SCRA 764
298. Juan Ponce Enrile v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 213847, August 18, 2015
299. Jinggoy Estrada v. Office of the Ombudsman, G.R. Nos. 212140-41, January 21,
2015
300. Balanay v. Judge White, A.M. No. RTJ-16-2443, January 11, 2016
301. People v. Piad, G.R. No. 213607, January 25, 2016
302. Enrile v. Sandiganbayan, Resolution on MR, G.R. No. 213847, July 12, 2016
303. People v. Villanueva, G.R. No. 210798, September 14, 2016
304. People v. Sobrepena, G.R. No. 204063, December 5, 2016

II. Waiver of the Right


305. People v. Judge Donato & Rodolfo Salas – 198 SCRA 130
306. People v. Mapalao - 197 SCRA 79

III. Excessive Bail


307. *De La Camara.v. Enage - 41 SCRA 3
308. Chu v. Dolalos – 260 SCRA 309
309. Magsucang v. Judge Balgos, AM no. MTJ- 02- 142, Feb. 27, 2003

IV. Right to Bail of Military Personnel


310. Commendador v. Gen. de Villa - 200 SCRA 80

V. Aspects of the Right to Bail


311. Sule v. Biteng - AM MTJ-95-1018, 243 SCRA 524
312. Paderanga v. CA – 247 SCRA 741
313. Asst. Provincial Prosecutor Chin v. Judge Gustilo, et al. "AM No- RTJ-94-1243, 247
SCRA 175
314. People v. Nitcha – 240 SCRA 283
315. Padilla v. CA – 260 SCRA 155
316. Parada v. Veneracion – 269 SCRA 371
317. Obosa v. CA – 266 SCRA 281
318. Moslares v. CA – 291 SCRA 440
319. Catiis v. CA 482 SCRA 71

Section 14. (1) No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process
of law.

10
(2) In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be presumed innocent until the contrary is
proved, and shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel, to be informed of the
nature and cause of the accusation against him, to have a speedy, impartial, and public trial,
to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to secure the attendance
of witnesses and the production of evidence in his behalf. However, after arraignment, trial
may proceed notwithstanding the absence of the accused provided that he has been duly
notified and his failure to appear is unjustifiable.

Due Process
320. People v. Boras, GR 127495, December 22, 2000
321. People v. Horio, GR 137842, August 23, 2001
322. Macapagal-Arroyo v. People of the Philippines, G.R. No. 220598, July 21, 2016

Military Tribunal
323. Olaguer v. Military - 150 SCRA 144
324. Tan v. Barrios - 190 SCRA 685

Presumption of Innocence
325. People vs. Dramavo 1971
326. Alejandro vs. Pepito 1980
327. *United States v. Luling - 324 PHIL. 725
328. People v. Mingoa - 92 PHIL. 856
329. *Dumlao v. COMELEC - 95 SCRA 392
330. Pamintuan v. People - 234 SCRA 63
331. Marquez v. COMELEC – 243 SCRA 538
332. Hizon v. CA – 265 SCRA 517
333. People v. Caranguian, GR 124514, July 6, 2000
334. People v. Aquino, GR 130742, July 18, 2000
335. People v. Guillermo, GR 111292, July 20, 2000
336. People v. Balacano, GR 127156, July 31, 2000
337. People v. Mansueto, GR 135196, July 31, 2000
338. Soriano v. Angeles, GR 109920, August 31, 2000
339. People v. Fajardo, GR 128583, November 22, 2000
340. Rueda v. Sandiganbayan, GR 129064, November 29, 2000
341. People v. Baulite, G.R. No. 137599, October 8, 2001
342. Office of the Court Administrator v. Judge Ruiz, A.M. No. RTJ-13-2361 [Formerly
OCA IPI No. 13-4144-RTJ], February 2, 2016
343. People v. Yepes, G.R. No. 206766, April 6, 2016
344. People v. Garrucho, G.R. No. 220449, July 4, 2016
345. Derilo v. People, G.R. No. 190466, April 18, 2016

Right to Be Heard and to Production of Evidence


346. Maliwat v. CA - 256 SCRA 718
347. People v. Buemio – 265 SCRA 582
348. People v. Ramilla – GR 127485 July 19, 1999
349. Marquez v. Sandiganbayan – 641 SCRA 175

11
350. Suyan v People, GR No. 189644, 729 SCRA, 1 July 2, 2014
351. Ejercito v. Hon. Comelec, GR No. 212398, 742 SCRA 210, Nov. 25 2014
352. Nacion v. COA, March 17, 2015

Right to Counsel
353. *People v. Holgado - 86 PHIL. 752
354. United v. Ash - 413 U. S. 300
355. People v. Rio – 201 SCRA 702
356. Salaw v. NLRC - 202 SCRA 7
357. Carillo v. People - 229 SCRA 386
358. People v. Macagaling - 237 SCRA 299
359. De Guzman v. Sandiganbayan - 256 SCRA 171
360. People v. Cuizon - 256 SCRA 329
361. People v. Cabodoc – 263 SCRA 187
362. People v. Echegaray – 267 SCRA 682
363. Reyes v. CA – 267 SCRA 543
364. People v. Serzo – 274 SCRA 553
365. Dans v. People – 285 SCRA 504
366. Amion v. Chiongson – AM No. RTJ-97-1371 January 22, 1999
367. People v. Caralipio, GR 137766, Nov. 27, 2002
368. Sia v. People 504 SCRA 507
369. Villanueva v. People – 644 SCRA 356
370. Ibanez v. People, G.R. No.190798, January 27, 2016
371. Inacay v. People, G.R. No. 223506, November 28, 2016

Absence of Violation
372. People v. Aquino, GR 129288, March 30, 2000
373. Villanueva v. People, GR 135098, April 12, 2000

Presence of Violation
374. People v. Nadera, 324 SCRA 490
375. Callangan v. People 493 SCRA 269

Right to Be Informed
376. *People v. Regala – 113 SCRA 613
377. Enrile v. Salazar - 186 SCRA 217
378. People v. Taguba - 229 SCRA 188
379. People v. Barte - 230 SCRA 401
380. People v. Vitor - 245 SCRA 392
381. Sabiniano v. CA – 249 SCRA 24
382. People v. Reyes - 242 SCRA 264
383. People v. Legaspi - 246 SCRA 206
384. People v. Ramos - 245 SCM 405
385. People v. Namayan - 246 SCRA 646
386. Pecho v. People – 262 SCRA 518
387. People v. Laurente - 255 SCRA 543
388. People v. Rosare – 264 SCRA 398

12
389. People v. Evangelista - 256 SCRA 611
390. People v. Cruz – 259 SCRA 109
391. People v. De Guzman – 265 SCRA 228
392. Salud Imson-Souweha v. Rondez – 279 SCRA 258
393. People v. Manansala – 273 SCRA 502
394. People v. Palomar – 278 SCRA 114
395. People v. Ortega – 276 SCRA 166
396. People v. Antido – 278 SCRA 425
397. People v. Sadiosa – 290 SCRA 92
398. People v. Villamor – GR 12444 October 7, 1998
399. People v. Rosare – 264 SCRA 398
400. People v. Llaguno – 285 SCRA 124
401. People v. Bugayong – GR 126518 December 2, 1998
402. People v. Manalili – 294 SCRA 220
403. People v. Dimapilis – GR 128619 December 17, 1998
404. People v. de Guzman – 289 SCRA 470
405. People v. Quitlong – 292 SCRA 360
406. People v. Perez – GR 122764 September 24, 1998
407. People v. Renido – 288 SCRA 369
408. People v. Venerable – 290 SCRA 15
409. People v. Lozano – GR 125080 September 25, 1998
410. People v. Padilla – GR 126124 January 20, 1999
411. People v. Acosta, G.R. No. 142726, October 17, 2001
412. People v. de la Pena G.R. No. 138358-59 Nov. 19, 2001
413. People v. Abino, G.R. No. 137288, December 11, 2001
414. People v. Tan, GR 116200-02, June 21, 2001
415. People v. Tagana, GR 137608-09, July 6, 2001
416. People v. Alcalde, GR 139225, May 29, 2002
417. People v. Mejeca, GR 146425, Nov. 21, 2002
418. People v. Esurina, 374, SCRA 429
419. People v. Togud, 375 SCRA 291
420. People v. Espejon, 377 SCRA 412
421. People v. Lavador, 377 SCRA 424
422. People v. Hermanes, 379 SCRA 190
423. People v. Portugal, 379 SCRA 212
424. People v. Baluya, 380 SCRA 533
425. People v. Arofo, 380 SCRA 663
426. People v. Cana, GR 139229, June 6, 2002
427. People v. Soriano, GR 135027, July 3, 2002
428. People v. Radam, GR 138395, July 18, 2002
429. People v. Abala, GR 135858, July, 23, 2002
430. People v. Romero, GR 137037, Aug. 5, 2002
431. People v. Magtibay, GR 142985, Aug. 6, 2002
432. People v. Miclat, GR 137024, Aug. 7, 2002
433. People v. Guardian, GR 142900, Aug. 7, 2002
434. People v. Ocampo, GR 145303, Aug. 7, 2002
435. People v. del Ayre, GR 139788, Oct. 3, 2002

13
436. People v. Caliso, GR 131475, Oct. 14, 2002
437. People v. Buado, GR 137341, Oct. 28, 2002
438. People v. Alemania, GR 146221, Nov. 13, 2002
439. People v. Terible, GR 140635, Nov. 18, 2002
440. People v. Victor, GR 127904, Dec. 5, 2002
441. People v. Velasquez, 377 SCRA 219
442. People v. Lachica, GR 143677, May 9, 2002
443. People v. Sajolga, GR 146684, Aug. 21, 2002
444. People v. Ramos, GR 142577, Dec. 27, 2002
445. People v. Mascarinas, GR 144034, May 28, 2002
446. People v. Sanchez, 375 SCRA 355
447. People v. Abayon, GR 142874, July, 31, 2002
448. People v. Gavina, GR 143237, Oct. 28, 2002
449. People v. Orbita, GR GR 136591, July 11, 2002
450. Dado v. People, GR 131421, Nov. 18, 2002
451. Santos v. People, GR 14761, Jan. 20, 2002
452. People v. Bon, GR 149199, Jan. 28, 2003
453. People v. Llanto, GR 146458, Jan. 20, 2003
454. People v. Migrante, GR 147606, Jan. 14, 2003
455. People v. Dy, GR 115326-37, Jan. 16, 2003
456. People v. Lapitaje, GR 132042, Feb. 19, 2003
457. People v. Ostia, GR 131804, Feb. 26, 2003
458. People v. Ganete, GR 142930, Mar. 28, 2003
459. Garcia v. People, GR 144785, Sept. 11, 2003
460. People v. Villanueva, GR 138364, Oct. 15, 2003
461. Burgos v. Sandiganbayan, GR 123144, Oct. 15, 2003
462. People v. Rote, GR 146188, Dec. 11, 2003
463. People v. Rata, GR 145523-24, Dec. 11, 2003
464. Andaya v. People 493 SCRA 539
465. People v. Estrada – 583 SCRA 302
466. People v. Abella – 610 SCRA 19
467. People v. Pangilinan – GR 183090, November 14, 2011
468. People v. Padit, G.R. No. 202978, February 1, 2016
469. People v. Ballacillo, G.R. No. 201106, August 3, 2016

Relationship
470. People v. Talan, GR 177354, November 14, 2009
471. People v. Estrada – 610 SCRA 222
472. People v. Corpuz – 577 SCRA 465
473. People v. Regino – 582 SCRA 189

Nature of Offense: Different Offense; Same Offense;


474. People v. Paglinawan, 324 SCRA 97
475. People v. Paramil, GR 128056-57, March 31, 2000
476. Evangelista v. People, GR 108135-36, August 14, 2000
477. People v. Puzon, GR 123156-59, August 29, 2000
478. People v. Valdesancho, G.R. NO. 137051-52, May 30, 2001

14
479. People v. Dawisan, G.R. No. 122095, September 13, 2001
480. Mapas v. People, 544 S 85
481. Pactolin v. Sandiganbayan, 554 S 136
482. People v. Hu, 567 S 697

Absence of Qualifying Circumstance


483. People v. Ronato, G.R. No. 124298, October 11, 1999
484. People v. Bayron, G.R. No. 122732, September 7, 1999
485. People v. Abella, G.R. No. 131847, September 22, 1999
486. People v. Gallo, G.R. No. 124736, September 29, 1999
487. People v. Panique, G.R. No. 125763, October 13, 1999
488. People v. Aguinaldo, G.R. No. 130784, October 3, 1999
489. People v. Tabion, G.R. No. 132715, October 20, 1999
490. People v. Torio, G.R. No. 132216, November 7, 1999
491. People v. Alfanta, G.R. No. 125633, December 9, 1999
492. People v. Flores, G.R. No. 123599, December 13, 1999
493. People v. Ramon, G.R. No. 130407, December 15, 1999
494. People v. Villar., 322 SCRA 390
495. People v. Bernaldez, 322 SCRA 762
496. People v. Flores, 322 SCRA 779
497. People v. Palanco, 322 SCRA 790
498. People v. Bacule, 323 SCRA 734
499. People v. Bartolome, 323 SCRA 836
500. People v. Bayona, 327 SCRA 190
501. People v. Siao, 327 SCRA 231
502. People v. Bayzo, 327 SCRA 771
503. People v. De los Santos, GR 121906, August 5, 2000
504. People v. Fraga, GR 134130-33, April 12, 2000
505. People v. Licanda, GR 134084, May 4, 2000
506. People v. Sabredo, GR 126114, May 11, 2000
507. People v. Alicante, GR 127026-27, May 31, 2000
508. People v. Traya, GR 129052, May 31, 2000
509. People v. Mamac, GR 130332, May 31, 2000
510. People v. Decena, GR 131843, May 31, 2000
511. People v. Lomibao, GR 135855, August 3, 2000
512. People v. Canonigo, GR 133649, August 4, 2000
513. People v. Cruz, GR 128346-48, August 14, 2000
514. People v. Watimar, GR 121651-52, August 16, 2000
515. People v. Gabiana, GR 123543, August 23, 2000
516. People v. Banihit GR 132045, August 25, 2000
517. People v. Gutierrez, GR 132772, August 31, 2000
518. People v. Villanueva, GR 135330, August 31, 2000
519. People v. Melendres, GR 133999-4001, August 31, 2000
520. People v. Mendez, GR 132546, July 5, 2000
521. People v. Alarcon, GR 133191-93, July 11, 2000
522. People v. Baybado, GR 132136, July 14, 2000
523. People v. Surilla, GR 129164, July 24, 2000

15
524. People v. Campaner, GR 130500, July 26, 2000
525. People v. Balacano, GR 127156, July 31, 2000
526. People v. Villaraza, GR 131848-50, September 5, 2000
527. People v. Baniguid, GR 137714, September 8, 2000
528. People v. Bali-Balita, GR 134266, September 15, 2000
529. People v. Cajara, GR 122498, Sepember 27, 2000
530. People v. Nogar, GR 133946, September 27, 2000
531. People v. Magtrayo, GR 133480-82, October 4, 2000
532. People v. Taguba, GR 112792-93, October 6, 2000
533. People v. De la Cuesta, GR133904, October 5, 2000
534. People v. Arves, GR 134628, October 13, 2000
535. People v. Baldino, GR 137269, October 13, 2000
536. People v. Baltazar, GR 130610, October 16, 2000
537. People v. Francisco, GR 136252, October 20, 2000
538. People v. Sarmiento, GR 134768, October 25, 2000
539. People v. Gallarde, 325 SCRA 835
540. People v. Crispin, 327 SCRA 167
541. People v. Paramil, GR 128056-57, March 31, 2000
542. People v. Gallego, GR 130603, August 15, 2000
543. People v. Tejada. G.R. No. 126166, July 10, 2001
544. People v. Lalingjaman, G.R. No. 132714, September 6, 2001
545. People v. Mercado, G.R. No. 139904, October 12, 2001
546. Estrada v. Sandiganbayan G.R. No. 148560, Nov. 19, 2001
547. People v. Marahay, GR 120625-29, Jan. 28, 2003
548. People v. Montemayor, GR 124474, Jan. 28, 2003
549. People v. Delim, GR 142773, Jan. 28, 2003
550. People v. Acosta, GR 140402, Jan. 28, 2003
551. People v. Caloza, GR 138404-06, Jan. 28, 2003
552. People v. Layoso, GR 14773-76, Jan. 22, 2003
553. People v. Baldogo, GR 128106-07, Jan. 24, 2003
554. People v. De la Cruz, GR 175954, December 16, 2008
555. People v. De la Cruz, GR 174371, December 11, 2008
556. Andres v. People – 588 SCRA 830
557. Sambilon v. People – 591 SCRA 405
558. Valenzuela v. People – 596 SCRA 1

Difference of Commission of Crime


559. People v. Capinpin, GR 118608, October 30, 2000

Number of Offenses
560. People v. Tresballes, G.R. No. 126118, September 21, 1999
561. People v. Gerona, G.R. No. 126169, December 21, 1999
562. People v. Pambid, GR 124453, March 15, 2000
563. People v. Alvero, GR 134536, April 5, 2000
564. People v. Guiwan GR 117324-8, April 27, 2000
565. People v. Surilla, GR 129164, July 24, 2000
566. People v. Rama, 379 SCRA 477

16
567. People v. Cuyugan, GR 146641, Nov. 18, 2002
568. People v. Montinola, 543 SCRA 412

Date of Commission of Crime


569. People v. Narito, G.R. No. 132058, October 1, 1999
570. People v. Magbanua, G.R. No. 12888, December 3, 1999
571. People v. Ladrillo, G.R. No. 124342, December 8, 1999
572. People v. Ferolino, GR 131730-31, April 5, 2000
573. People v. Gianan, GR 135288-93, September 15, 2000
574. People v. Trelles, GR 137659, September 19, 2000
575. Sumbang v. General Court Martial PRO- Region 6, GR 140188, August 3, 2000
576. Arambulo v. Laqui, GR 138596, October 12, 2000
577. People v. Tagana, G.R. Nos. 137608-09, July 6, 2001
578. People v. Bidoc 506 SCRA 481
579. People v. Ceredon, 542 SCRA 550
580. People v. Pascual, 569 SCRA 534
581. People v. Aure, 569 SCRA 836
582. People v. Diocado, GR 170567, November 14, 2008
583. People v. Canares – 579 SCRA 582
584. People v. Aboganda – 585 SCRA 1
585. People v. Jimenez – 586 SCRA 580
586. People v. Lazaro – 596 SCRA 587

No Violation
587. People v. Escoro, 376 SCRA 670
588. People v. Pascual, 379 SCRA 235
589. People v. Conde, 380 SCRA 159
590. People v. Miranda, GR 142566, Aug. 8, 2002
591. People v. Roque, GR 130569, Aug. 14, 2002
592. People v. Segovia, GR 138974, Sept. 29, 2002
593. People v. Caralipio, GR 137766, Nov. 27, 2002
594. People v. Cantomayor, GR 145522, Dec. 5, 2002
595. People v. sarazan, GR 123269-72, Jan. 22, 2003
596. People v. Taperla, GR 142860, Jan. 16, 2003
597. People v. Lizada, GR 143468-71, Jan. 24, 2003
598. People v. Dy, GR 115326-37, Jan.16, 2003
599. Batulanan v. People 502 SCRA 35
600. v. Corpuz 482 SCRA 435
601. Soledad v. People – 644 SCRA 258
602. Torres v. People – 655 SCRA 720

Right to Speedy Trial


603. People v. Sesbreno, G.R. No. 121764, September 9, 1999
604. Tai Lim v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 131483, October 26, 1999
605. *Conde v. Rivera - 45 PHIL. 650
606. Nepomuceno v. Sec. of National Defense - 108 SCRA 658
607. People v. Gines - 197 SCRA 481

17
608. Abadia v. CA - 236 SCRA 676
609. Gonzales v. CA - 232 SCRA 667
610. Cadalin v. POEA – 238 SCRA 721
611. People v. Tampal – 244 SCRA 202
612. Dacanay v. People - 240 SCRA 490
613. Guerrero v. CA - 257 SCRA 703
614. Dizon v. Lopez – 278 SCRA 483
615. Luzarraga v. Meteoro, AM 00-1572, August 3, 2000
616. Solar Entertainment and People v. Hon. How, GR 140863, August 22, 2000
617. De Zuzurregui v. Rosete, GR AM no. MTJ-02-1426
618. People v. Dy, GR 115326-37, Jan. 16, 2003
619. Lumanlaw v. Peralta 482 SCRA 396
620. Padilla v. Apas 487 SCRA 29
621. People v. Hernandez 499 SCRA 688
622. Uy v. Adriano 505 SCRA 625
623. Benares v. Lim 511 SCRA 100
624. Gaas v. Mitmug, 553 SCRA 535
625. Albert v. Sandiganbayan – 580 SCRA 279
626. Tan v. People – 586 SCRA 139
627. Tallo v. People – 588 SCRA 520
628. Olbes v. Buemio – 607 SCRA 336
629. Jacob v. Sandiganbayan – 635 SCRA 94
630. Barcelona v. Lim, G.R. No. 189171, June 3, 2014

Right to Impartial Trial


631. *Mateo. Jr, v. Villaluz - 50 SCRA 18
632. People v. CA – 262 SCRA 452
633. Maliwat v. CA – 256 SCRA 718
634. Tabuena v. Sandiganbayan – 268 SCRA 332
635. People v. Adora – 275 SCRA 441
636. Cosep v. People – 290 SCRA 378
637. People v. Castillo – 289 SCRA 213
638. People v. Vaynaco – GR 126286 March 22, 1999
639. People v. Estrada, GR 130487, June 19, 2000

Impartiality of a Judge
640. Soriano v. Angeles, GR 109920, August 31, 2000
641. Almendra v. Asis, AM RTJ-1550, April 6, 2000
642. People v. Zheng Bai Hui, GR 127580, August 22, 2000
643. People v. Genosa, GR 135981, September 29, 2000
644. Uy v. Judge Flores, RTJ-12-2332, 2014

Right to a Public Trial


645. In Re Oliver -333 U. S. 237
646. Garcia v. Domingo - L-30104
647. Jaylo v. Sandiganbayan (First Division) G.R. No. 183152-54, January 21, 2015

18
Compulsory Process
648. Fajardo v. Garcia - 98 SCRA 514
649. People v. Yambot, GR 120350, October 13, 2000
650. Relative to CA, G.R. SP NO. 108807 OCA IPI No. 14-220-CA-J, March 17, 2015

Right to Confrontation, to Cross-Examine, or to Meet Witness Face to Face


651. Caamic vs. Galapon 237 SCRA 390
652. Roco vs. Contreras G.R. No. 158275 June 28, 2005
653. *Tampar v. Usman - 200 SCRA 652
654. People v. Digno - 250 SCRA 237
655. People v. Miyake – 279 SCRA 180People v. Narca – 275 SCRA 696
656. People v. Quidato – GR 117401 October 1, 1998
657. People v. Crispin, 327 SCRA 167
658. People v. Libo-on, G.R. NO. 136737, May 23, 2001
659. Carriaga v. C.A., G.R. No. 143561, June 6, 2001
660. People v. Rivera, G.R. No. 139180, July 31, 2001
661. People v. Monje, GR 146689, Sept. 27, 2002
662. Victorino v. People 509 SCRA 483
663. Herrera v. Sandiganbayan – 579 SCRA 32
664. Ho Wai Pang v. People – GR 1716229, October 19, 2011

Trial in Absentia; Right to Be Present


665. Borja vs. Mendoza 1977
666. Gimenez vs. Nazareno 1988
667. *Carredo v. People - 183 SCRA 273
668. People v. Ravelo - 202 SCRA 655
669. People v. Rivera - 242 SCRA 26
670. People v. Tabag – 268 SCRA 115
671. Parada v. Veneracion – (supra, Right to Bail)
672. Senit v. People, G.R. No. 192914, January 11, 2016

Admissibility of Evidence
673. People v. Morial, G.R. No. 129295, August 15, 2001
674. People v. Tulin, G.R. No. 111709, August 30, 2001

Section 15. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in cases
of invasion or rebellion when the public safety requires it.

Section 16. All persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases before all
judicial, quasi-judicial, or administrative bodies

Right to Speedy Disposition of Cases


675. People v. Sesbreno, G.R. No. 121764, September 9, 1999
676. *Binay v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 120681, October 1, 1999
677. Gonzales v. Sandiganbayan - 199 SCRA 299 (no violation)
678. Socrates v. Sandiganbayan - 253 SCRA 773 (no violation)

19
679. Bolalin v. Occiano – 266 SCRA 203 (violation)
680. Angchangco v. Ombudsman – 268 SCRA 301 (violation)
681. Lambino v. De Vera – 275 SCRA 60
682. Duterte v. Sandiganbayan – 289 SCRA 721(preliminary investigation, violation)
683. Marcos v. Sandiganbayan – GR 126995 October 6, 1998 (violation)
684. Roque v. Ombudsman – GR 129978 May 12, 1999 (violation)
685. Cervantes v. Sandiganbayan – GR 108595 May 18, 1999 (violation)
686. Dansal v. Fernandez, 327 SCRA 145 ( no violation )
687. Domingo v. Sandiganbayan, 322 SCRA 655 (no violation)
688. Castillo v. Sandiganbayan, GR 109271, March 14, 2000 (no violation)
689. Raro v. Sandiganbayan, GR 108431, July 14, 2000
690. Dela Pena v. Sandiganbayan, G. R. No. 144542, June 29, 2001
691. Lopez v. Ombudsman, G.R. No. 140529, September 6, 2001
692. Lee v. People, Gr137914, Dec. 4, 2002
693. People v. Monje, GR 146689, Sept. 27, 2002
694. Ty-Dazo v. Sandiganbayan, 374 SCRA 200
695. Guiani v. Sandiganbayan, GR 146897, Aug. 6, 2002 (delay in
preliminaryinvestigation)
696. Avilla v. Reyes 479 SCRA 334
697. Enriquez v. Office of OMB, 545 SCRA 618
698. OMB v. Jurado, 561 SCRA 135
699. Perea v. People, 544 SCRA 532
700. Gaas v. Mitmug, 553 SCRA 335
701. Roquera v. Chancellor – 614 SCRA 723
702. Lumanog v. People – 630 SCRA 42
703. Almeda v. Office of the Ombudsman, G.R. No. 204267, July 25, 2016
704. Torres v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. Nos. 221562-69, October 5, 2016

Section 17. No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.

Right Against Self-Incrimination


705. *United States v. Navarro - 3 PHIL. 143 (rationale)
706. *United States v. Tan Teng - 23 PHIL.145
707. *United States v. Ong Siu Hong - 36 PHIL. 73 (discharge)
708. *Villaflor v. Summers - 41 PHIL. 62 (pregnancy test)
709. *Beltran v. Samson - 53 PHIL. 570 (writing)
710. Bermudez v. Castillo - 64 PHIL. 483
711. Chavez v. CA – L- 29169, Aug.19, 1968
712. *Cabal v. Kapunan, Jr. - L-19052
713. **Pascual, Jr. v. Board of Medical Examiners - L-25018
714. People v. Gamboa - 194 SCRA 372 (paraffin test)
715. People v. Canceran - 229 SCRA 581 (paraffin test)
716. People v. Tranca - 235 SCRA 455 (x-ray, not a violation)
717. Almonte v. Vasquez – 244 SCRA 286
718. People v. Go – 237 SCRA 73
719. Regala v. Sandiganbayan – 262 SCRA 122
720. People v. Malimit – 264 SCRA 167

20
721. Galman v. Pamaran – (supra, Custodial Investigation)
722. People v. Banihit, GR 132045, August 25, 2000 (relate to Tan Teng)
723. People v. Besonia, 422 SCRA 210
724. Sabio v. Gordon 504 SCRA 704
725. **Standard Chartered v. Senate – 541 SCRA 546
726. Dela Cruz v. People of the Phil. GR No. 200748, July 23 2014

Section 18. (1) No person shall be detained solely by reason of his political beliefs and
aspirations.
(2) No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as a punishment for a crime
whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.

727. Imbong v. Ochoa, GR 204819, April 8, 2014

Section 19. (1) Excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel, degrading or inhuman
punishment inflicted. Neither shall death penalty be imposed, unless, for compelling reasons
involving heinous crimes, the Congress hereafter provides for it. Any death penalty already
imposed shall be reduced to reclusion perpetua.
(2) The employment of physical, psychological, or degrading punishment against any prisoner
or detainee or the use of substandard or inadequate penal facilities under subhuman
conditions shall be dealt with by law.

Cruel, Degrading or Inhuman Punishment; Excessive Fines


728. Legarda vs. Valdez 1902
729. People vs. Estoista 1953
730. People vs. Echagaray 1997
731. *People v. Estoista - 93 PHIL. 647
732. People v. Dapitan - 197 SCRA 378
733. Baylosis v. Chavez - 202 SCRA 405 (modified by Robin Padilla)
734. People v. Munoz - 170 SCRA 107
735. People v. Amigo - 252 SCRA 43
736. *People v. Echegaray – 267 SCRA 682 (death penalty)
737. People v. Tongko – 290 SCRA 595
738. Echegaray v. Secretary of Justice – 12 LR 32 N’98
739. Padilla v. CA – (supra, Right to Bail)
740. People v. Alicante, GR 127026-27, May 31, 2000
741. Lim v. People, GR 149276, Sept. 27, 2002
742. Pagdayawon v. Sec. of Justice, GR154569, Sept. 23, 2002
743. Perez v. People, 544 SCRA 532

Section 20. No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a poll tax.

Imprisonment for Debt


744. **Lozano v. Martinez - 146 SCRA 323 (check)
745. Caram Resources v. Contreras - 237 SCRA 724 (check).
746. Tiomico v. CA – GR 122539 March 4, 1999 (trust receipt)

21
747. Recuerdo v. People, GR 133036, Jan. 22, 2003 (Check)

Section 21. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense. If
an act is punished by a law and an ordinance, conviction or acquittal under either shall
constitute a bar to another prosecution for the same act.

748. De la Cruz v. People, G.R. No. 209387, January 11, 2016


749. People v. Bayker, G.R. No. 170192, February 10, 2016
750. People v. Comboy, G.R. No. 218399, March 2, 2016
751. People v. Jugueta, G.R. No. 202124, April 5, 2016

Dismissal at Preliminary Investigation; No Jeopardy


Attachment of jeopardy
752. *People v. Ylagan - 58 PHIL. 851
753. People v. Balisacan - L-26376
754. Cinco v. Sandiganbayan - 202 SCRA 726
755. People v, Vergara - 221 SCRA 560
756. Navallo v. Sandiganbayan - 234 SCRA 175
757. Galvez v. CA - 237 SCRA 685
758. Cunanan v. Arceo - 242 SCRA 88
759. People v. Tampal - 244 SCRA 202
760. People v. Montesa - 248 SCRA 641
761. De La Rosa v. CA – 253 SCRA 499
762. People v. Leviste - 255 SCRA 238
763. People v. Cawaling – 293 SCRA 267
764. Cudia v. CA – 284 SCRA 173
765. Tecson v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 123045, November 16, 1999
766. Dimatulac v. Villon – GR 127107 October 12, 1999
767. People v. Maquiling – GR 128986 June 21, 1999
768. People v. Nitafan – GR 707964-66 February 1, 1999
769. Binay v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 120681, October 1, 1999
770. Limpangog v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 134229, November 26, 1999
771. Flores v. Joven, GR 129874, Dec. 27, 2002
772. Miranda v. Tuliao 486 SCRA 377
773. Cabo v. Sandiganbayan 491 SCRA 264
774. Romualdez v. Marcelo 497 SCRA 89
775. People v. Terrado, 558 SCRA 84 (acquittal not reviewable)
776. People v. CA – 626 SCRA 352
777. People v. CA, G.R. No. 183652, 2015

Termination of Jeopardy; Existence; Non-Termination


778. *Bulaong v. People - 17 SCRA 746
779. Bustamante v. Maceren - 48 SCRA 155
780. People v. Obsania - L-24447
781. Rivera, Jr. v, People - 189 SCRA 331
782. Dizon-Pamintuan v. People - 234 SCRA 63
783. COMELEC v. CA - 229 SCRA 501

22
784. People v. Bans - 239 SCRA 48
785. State Prosecutors v. Muro - 236 SCRA 505
786. People v. Bellaflor - 233 SCRA 196
787. Guerrero v. CA - 257 SCRA 703
788. Teodoro v. CA - 258 SCRA 603
789. Cuidia v. CA – 284 SCRA 173
790. People v. Lising – 285 SCRA 595
791. People v. Araneta, GR 125894 December 11, 1998, 95 OG 4556
792. Cuison v. CA – 289 SCRA 159
793. People v. CA, GR 128986 June 21, 1999
794. People v. Serrano, G.R. No. 135451, September 30, 1999
795. Barangan v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 123307, November 29, 1999
796. People v. Velasco, GR 127444, September 13, 2000
797. Tupaz v. ULEP, G.R. No. 127777, October 1, 1999
798. People v. Verra, GR 134732
799. Merciales v. CA, 379 SCRA 345
800. Poso v. Mijares, AM No. RTJ-02-1693, Aug. 21, 2002
801. People v. Alberto, GR 132374, Aug. 22, 2002
802. Condrada v. People, GR 141646, Feb. 28, 2003
803. People v. Romero, GR144156, March 20, 2003
804. People v. Espinosa, GR 153714, Aug. 15, 2003
805. Oriente v. People – 513 SCRA 348
806. Pacoy v. Cajigal – 534 SCRA 338
807. Summerville v. Eugenio – 529 SCRA 274
808. Herrera v. Sandiganbayan – 579 SCRA 32
809. Javier v. Sandiganbayan – 599 SCRA 324
810. Co v. Lim – 604 SCRA 702
811. Lejano v. People – 639 SCRA 760
812. Bangayon v. Bangayon, GR 172777, October 19, 2011
813. Goodland v. Co, GR 196685, December 18, 2011

Rule on “Supervening Facts”


814. *Melo v. People - 85 PHIL. 766
815. *People v. Buling - 107 PHIL. 712

Same Offenses
816. *People v. Tiozon - 198 SCRA 368
817. Lamera v. CA - 198 SCRA 186
818. Gonzales v. CA - 232 SCRA 667
819. People v. Turda - 233 SCRA 702
820. People v. Manungas - 231 SCRA 1
821. People v. Deunida - 231 SCRA 520
822. People v. Fernandez - 239 SCRA 174
823. People v. Quijada – 259 SCRA 191
824. People v. Ballabare – 264 SCRA 350
825. People v. Calonzo – 262 SCRA 534
826. People v. Benemerito – 264 SCRA 677

23
827. People v. Tobias – 266 SCRA 229
828. People v. Manoyco – 269 SCRA 513
829. People v. Tan Tiong Meng – 271 SCRA 125
830. People v. Sadiosa – 290 SCRA 92
831. People v. Sanchez – 291 SCRA 333
832. People v. Saley – 291 SCRA 715
833. People v. Juego – GR 123162 October 13, 1998
834. People v. Ganadin – GR 129441 November 27, 1998
835. People v. Balasa – GR 106357 September 3, 1998
836. Paluay v. CA – 293 SCRA 358
837. People v. Mercado 304 SCRA 504
838. People v. Yabut, G.R. No. 115719, October 5, 1999
839. People v. Ong, 322 SCRA 38
840. People v. Meris, GR 117145-50, March 28, 2000
841. People v. Logan, G.R. No. 135030-33, July 20, 2001.
842. Potot v. People, GR 143547, June 26, 2002
843. People v. CA, 423 SCRA 605
844. Ramiscal v. Sandiganbayan 499 SCRA 375
845. People v. Comila – 517 SCRA 153
846. Diaz v. Davao – 520 SCRA 481
847. Merencillo v. People – 521 SCRA 31
848. Lapasaran v. People – 578 SCRA 658
849. *Ivler v. Modesto – 635 SCRA 191
850. People v. Ocden – 650 SCRA 124
851. People v. Lalli, GR 195419, October 12, 2011 (trafficking in person)

No Appeal from Acquittal; Instances of Void Acquittal


852. People v. Sandiganbayan, 376 SCRA 74
853. Yuchengco v. CA, 376 SCRA 531
854. San Vicente v. People, GR132081, Nov. 26, 2002
855. People v. CA, GR 132396, Sept. 23, 2002
856. People v. Sandiganbayan 491 SCRA 185
857. People v. CA – 516 SCRA 383
858. People v. Laguio – 518 SCRA 393
859. People v. Dumlao – 580 SCRA 409 (void acquittal)
860. Tiu v. CA – 586 SCRA 118
861. People v. De Grano – 588 SCRA 550
862. People v. Nazareno – 595 SCRA 438
863. People v. Duca – 603 SCRA 159 (void acquittal)
864. *Mupas v. People, GR 189365, October 12, 2011 (void order on demurrer)

Parties
865. Metrobank v. Meridiano, G.R. No. 118251, June 29, 2001

Ordinance and Statute


866. *People v. Relova - 148 SCRA 292

24
Applied to Impeachment
867. *Estrada v. Desierto, GR 146710-15 and GR 146738, March 2, 2001and MR-GR
868. 146710-15 and 146738, April 3, 2001
869. People v. Logan, G.R. No. 135030-33, July 20, 2001.

Section 22. No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted.

Ex Post Facto Laws and Bills of Attainder


870. Mekin vs. wolfe 1903
871. In re Kay Villegas Kami 1970
872. Phil. National Bank vs. Ruperto 1960
873. US vs. Gomez 1908
874. Montenegro vs/ Castaneda 1952
875. Cummings vs. Missouri 1867
876. US vs. Brown 1965
877. *People v. Ferrer - 48 SCRA 382
878. *Virata v. Sandiganbayan - 202 SCRA 680
879. Trinidad v. CA - 202 SCRA 106
880. People v. Taguba - 229 SCRA 188
881. People v. Sandiganbayan – 211 SCRA 241
882. Co v. CA – 227 SCRA 444
883. Rosales v. CA - 255 SCRA 123
884. Subido v. Sandiganbayan – 266 SCRA 379
885. Sesbreno v. CBAA – 270 SCRA 360

END OF BATCH FOUR

886. People v. Burton – 268 SCRA 531


887. *Lacson v. Executive Secretary, GR 128096 January 20, 1999
888. People v. Nitafan, GR 107964-66 February 1, 1999
889. Fajardo v. CA, GR 128508 February 1, 1999
890. People v. Valdez, GR 127663 March 11, 1999
891. People v. Ringor, G.R. No. 123918, December 9, 1999
892. People v. Magbanua, G.R. No. 128888, December 3, 1999
893. Republic v. Desierto, GR 136506, Aug. 23, 2001
894. People v. Torres - 501 SCRA 591
895. Salvador v. Mapa - SCRA 34 [2008]
896. Republic v. Eugenio - 545 SCRA 384
897. Valeroso v. People - 546 SCRA 450
898. Presidential v. Desierto - 548 SCRA
899. Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG) v. Carpio Morales, 740
SCRA 368 (2014)

25
Article IV. CITIZENSHIP

Section 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines:


1. Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution;
2. Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines;
3. Those born before January 17, 1973, of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine citizenship
upon reaching
the age of majority; and
4. Those who are naturalized in accordance with law.

900. Valles v. COMELEC, GR 137000, August 9, 2000


901. Ong Chia v. Republic, GR 127240, March 27, 2000

Children of Filipino fathers or mothers


902. *Gatchalian v. Board of Commissioners – 197 SCRA 853
903. *Tecson v. Comelec, 423 SCRA 277
904. Go v. Ramos – 598 SCRA 266
905. Gonzales v. Rennisi – 614 SCRA 292
906. Cabiling v. Fernandez – 625 SCRA 566

Paragraph (3)
907. *Co. v. Electoral Tribunal - 199 SCRA 692
908. *Republic v. Sagun – 666 SCRA 321

Paragraph (4)
909. So v. Republic – 513 SCRA 267
910. Go v. Republic, G.R. No. 202809, 729 SCRA 138, July 2 2014
911. Republic of the Philippines v. Huang Te Fu, G.R. No. 200983, 2015

Loss of Citizenship
912. *Yu v. Defensor-Santiago - 169 SCRA 364
913. Frivaldo v. COMELEC - 174 SCRA 245
914. *Frivaldo v. COMELEC – 257 SCRA 727
915. Labo, Jr, v. COMELEC - 176 SCRA 1
916. *Labo, Jr, v. COMELEC – 211 SCRA 297
917. Aznar v. Osmena - 185 SCRA 703
918. *Mercado v. Manzano – GR 135083 May 26, 1999
919. Tabaso v. CA 500 SCRA 9
920. David v. Agbay, G.R. No. 199113, March 18, 2015
921. Poe-Llamanzares v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 221697, March 8, 2016

No Collateral Attack
922. Vilando v. HRET – 656 SCRA 17

Section 2. Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the Philippines from birth
without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship. Those

26
who elect Philippine citizenship in accordance with paragraph (3), Section 1 hereof shall be
deemed natural-born citizens.

923. Bengson v. HRET – GR 142840, May 7, 2001


924. In re Mallare 59 SCRA 344
925. Chen Teck Lao v. Republic 55 SCRA 1
926. Cordero v. COMELEC – 580 SCRA 12

Section 3. Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law.

Section 4. Citizens of the Philippines who marry aliens shall retain their citizenship, unless by
their act or omission they are deemed, under the law, to have renounced it.

Section 5. Dual allegiance of citizens is inimical to the national interest and shall be dealt
with by law.

RA 9225 “An Act Making the Citizenship of Philippine Citizen who Acquire Foreign
Citizenship Permanent”

927. *AASJS-Calilung v. Datumanong, G.R. No. 160869, May 11, 2007

Article V. SUFFRAGE

Section 1. Suffrage may be exercised by all citizens of the Philippines not otherwise
disqualified by law, who are at least eighteen years of age, and who shall have resided in the
Philippines for at least one year and in the place wherein they propose to vote for at least six
months immediately preceding the election.No literacy, property, or other substantive
requirement shall be imposed on the exercise of suffrage.

Section 2. The Congress shall provide a system for securing the secrecy and sanctity of the
ballot as well as a system for absentee voting by qualified Filipinos abroad.
The Congress shall also design a procedure for the disabled and the illiterates to vote without
the assistance of other persons. Until then, they shall be allowed to vote under existing laws
and such rules as the Commission on Elections may promulgate to protect the secrecy of the
ballot.

928. *Macalintal v. COMELEC, GR 157013, July 10, 2003


929. *Nicolas-Lewis v. COMELEC 497 SCRA 649
930. Labo, Jr, v. COMELEC – (supra, Citizenship)
931. Romualdez v. RTC – 226 SCRA 408
932. The Diocese of Bacolod v. Comelec, GR No. 205728, 747 SCRA 1, Jan 21, 2015

Special Registration Before General Elections


933. Akbayan v. COMELEC, GR 147066, March 26, 2001

Article XIII. SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS

27
Section 1. The Congress shall give highest priority to the enactment of measures that protect
and enhance the right of all the people to human dignity, reduce social, economic, and
political inequalities, and remove cultural inequities by equitably diffusing wealth and political
power for the common good.
To this end, the State shall regulate the acquisition, ownership, use, and disposition of
property and its increments.

Policy to Remove Inequities


934. *International School Alliance of Educators v. Quisumbing, GR 128845, June 1,
2000

Section 2. The promotion of social justice shall include the commitment to create economic
opportunities based on freedom of initiative and self-reliance.

LABOR
Section 3. The State shall afford full protection to labor, local and overseas, organized and
unorganized, and promote full employment and equality of employment opportunities for
all.
It shall guarantee the rights of all workers to self-organization, collective bargaining and
negotiations, and peaceful concerted activities, including the right to strike in accordance with
law. They shall be entitled to security of tenure, humane conditions of work, and a living wage.
They shall also participate in policy and decision-making processes affecting their rights and
benefits as may be provided by law.
The State shall promote the principle of shared responsibility between workers and
employers and the preferential use of voluntary modes in settling disputes, including
conciliation, and shall enforce their mutual compliance therewith to foster industrial peace.
The State shall regulate the relations between workers and employers, recognizing the right
of labor to its just share in the fruits of production and the right of enterprises to reasonable
returns to investments, and to expansion and growth.

935. Eagle Security v. NLRC - 173 SCRA 479


936. SSS Employees v. CA – (supra, Right to Form Association)
937. De Vera v. NLRC – 200 SCRA 439
938. Republic v. CA - 180 SCRA 428
939. MPSTA v. Laguio (supra, Right to Form Association)
940. Union v. Nestle – 192 SCRA 396
941. Jacinto v. CA – 281 SCRA 657
942. Telefunken Employees Union v. CA, GR 143013-14, December 18, 2000
943. Lanzaderas v. Amethyst Security, GR 143604, June 20, 2003
944. Standard Chartered Bank Employees v Confesor, GR 114974, June 16, 2004
945. Agabon v. NLRC, GR 158693, Nov. 17, 2004

Agrarian Reform
Section 4. The State shall, by law, undertaken an agrarian reform program founded on the
right of farmers and regular farmworkers, who are landless, to own directly or collectively the
lands they till or in the case of other farmworkers, to receive a just share of the fruits thereof.
To this end, the State shall encourage and undertake the just distribution of all agricultural

28
lands, subject to such priorities and reasonable retention limits as the Congress may
prescribe, taking into account ecological, developmental, or equity considerations, and
subject to the payment of just compensation. In determining retention limits, the State shall
respect the right of small landowners. The State shall further provide incentives for voluntary
land-sharing.

Section 5. The State shall recognize the right of farmers, farmworkers, and landowners, as
well as cooperatives, and other independent farmers' organizations to participate in the
planning, organization, and management of the program, and shall provide support to
agriculture through appropriate technology and research, and adequate financial,
production, marketing, and other support services.

Section 6. The State shall apply the principles of agrarian reform or stewardship, whenever
applicable in accordance with law, in the disposition or utilization of other natural resources,
including lands of the public domain under lease or concession suitable to agriculture, subject
to prior rights, homestead rights of small settlers, and the rights of indigenous communities
to their ancestral lands.
The State may resettle landless farmers and farmworkers in its own agricultural estates which
shall be distributed to them in the manner provided by law.

Section 7. The State shall protect the rights of subsistence fishermen, especially of local
communities, to the preferential use of the communal marine and fishing resources, both
inland and offshore. It shall provide supportto such fishermen through appropriate
technology and research, adequate financial, production, and marketing assistance, and other
services. The State shall also protect, develop, and conserve such resources. The protection
shall extend to offshore fishing grounds of subsistence fishermen against foreign intrusion.
Fishworkers shall receive a just share from their labor in the utilization of marine and fishing
resources.

Section 8. The State shall provide incentives to landowners to invest the proceeds of the
agrarian reform program to promote industrialization, employment creation, and
privatization of public sector enterprises. Financial instruments used as payment for their
lands shall be honored as equity in enterprises of their choice.

946. *Assn. of Small Landowners v. Sec. of Agrarian Reform - 175 SCRA 343
947. Tanaka v. Japan - 7 Minshui 1523
948. *Luz Farms v. Sec. of Agrarian Reform – 192 SCRA 51
949. Natalia v. DAR – 225 SCRA 278
950. Phil. Veterans Bank v. CA, GR 132767, January 18, 2000
951. Daez v. CA, GR 133507, February 17, 2000
952. Bautista v. Araneta, GR 135829, February 22, 2000
953. Corpus v. Grospe, GR 135297, June 8, 2000
954. Heirs of Santos v. CA, GR 109992, March 7, 2000
955. Padunan v. DARAB, GR 132163, Jan. 28, 2003
956. *Hacienda Luisita v. PARC – GR No. 171101, July 5, 2011

Urban Land Reform

29
Section 9. The State shall, by law, and for the common good, undertake, in cooperation with
the private sector, a continuing program of urban land reform and housing which will make
available at affordable cost decent housing and basic services to underprivileged and
homeless citizens in urban centers and resettlement areas. It shall also promote adequate
employment opportunities to such citizens. In the implementation of such program the State
shall respect the rights of small property owners.

957. Dee v. CA, GR 108205, February 15, 2000


958. Reyes v. NHA, GR 147511, Jan. 20, 2003

Section 10. Urban or rural poor dwellers shall not be evicted nor their dwelling demolished,
except in accordance with law and in a just and humane manner.
No resettlement of urban or rural dwellers shall be undertaken without adequate
consultation with them and the communities where they are to be relocated.

959. Macasiano v. NHA – 224 SCRA 236


960. Jumawan v. Eviota – 234 SCRA 524
961. Filstream v. CA – 284 SCRA 716
962. **People v. Leachon – GR 108725 September 25, 1998 (just and humane manner)
963. Kalipunan ng Damayang Mahihirap v. Jessie Robredo, GR No. 200903, 730 SCRA
322, July 22, 2014

Human Rights
Section 17. (1) There is hereby created an independent office called the Commission on
Human Rights.
(2) The Commission shall be composed of a Chairman and four Members who must be
natural-born citizens of the Philippines and a majority of whom shall be members of the Bar.
The term of office and other qualifications and disabilities of the Members of the Commission
shall provided by law.
(3) Until this Commission is constituted, the existing Presidential Committee on Human Rights
shall continue to exercise its present functions and powers.
(4) The approved annual appropriations of the Commission shall be automatically and
regularly released.

964. *CHR Employees v. CHR 496 SCRA 226

Section 18. The Commission on Human Rights shall have the following powers and functions:
(1) Investigate, on its own or on complaint by any party, all forms of human rights
violations involving civil and political rights;
(2) Adopt its operational guidelines and rules of procedure, and cite for contempt for
violations thereof in accordance with the Rules of Court;
(3) Provide appropriate legal measures for the protection of human rights of all
persons within the Philippines, as well as Filipinos residing abroad, and provide for
preventive measures and legal aid services to the underprivileged whose human
rights have been violated or need protection;
(4) Exercise visitatorial powers over jails, prisons, or detention facilities;

30
(5) Establish a continuing program of research, education, and information to enhance
respect for the primacy of human rights;
(6) Recommend to the Congress effective measures to promote human rights and to
provide for compensation to victims of violations of human rights, or their families;
(7) Monitor the Philippine Government's compliance with international treaty
obligations on human rights;
(8) Grant immunity from prosecution to any person whose testimony or whose
possession of documents or other evidence is necessary or convenient to
determine the truth in any investigation onducted by it or under its authority;
(9) Request the assistance of any department, bureau, office, or agency in the
performance of its functions;
(10) Appoint its officers and employees in accordance with law; and
(11) Perform such other duties and functions as may be provided by law.

Section 19. The Congress may provide for other cases of violations of human rights that
should fall within the authority of the Commission, taking into account its recommendations.

Powers of the Commission on Human Rights


965. *Carino v. CHR - 204 SCRA 483 (no adjudicating power, no contempt)
966. EPZA V. CHR, et. al. – 208 SCRA 125 (no injunctive power)
967. *Simon v. CHR – 229 SCRA 117 (no injunctive power)

Article XIV – Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture and Sports

Section 1. The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at
all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all.

Natural and Primary Right of Parents


968. Meyer v. Nebraska - 262 US 390
969. Pierce v. Society of Sisters - 262 US 510
970. Wisconsin v. Yoder - 406 US 205
971. Ginsberg v. New York - 390 US 629

Quality and accessibility of educational system


972. *DECS v. San Diego - 180 SCRA 534
973. Non v. Judge Dame - 185 SCRA 523

Section 3. (1) All educational institutions shall include the study of the Constitution as part of
the curricula.
(2) They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster lover of humanity, respect for
human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the
country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values,
develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking,
broaden scientific and technological knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency.
(3) At the option expressed in writing by the parents or guardians, religion shall be allowed to
be taught to their children or wards in public elementary and high schools within the regular

31
class hours by instructors designated or approved by the religious authorities of the religion
to which the children or wards belong, without additional cost to the Government.

Duty of Institutions
974. *Miriam College v. CA, GR 127930, December 15, 2000

Section 5. (1) the State shall take into account regional and sectoral needs and conditions and
shall encourage local planning in the development of educational policies and programs.
(2) Academic freedom shall be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning.

975. Cudia v. PMA GR No. 211362, February 24, 2015

(3) Every citizen has a right to select a profession or course of study, subject to fair,
reasonable, and equitable admission and academic requirements.
(4) The State shall enhance the right of teachers to professional advancement. Non-teaching
academic and non- academic personnel shall enjoy the protection of the State.
(5) The State shall assign the highest budgetary priority to education and ensure that teaching
will attract and retain its rightful share of the best available talents through adequate
remuneration and other means of job satisfaction and fulfillment.

Academic freedom of “institutions of higher learning".


976. DLSU vs. Ca G.R. No. 127980 December 19, 2007
977. Guingona vs. Carague 1991
978. *Garcia v. Faculty Admission, 68 SCRA 277
979. BME v. Judge Alfonso - 176 SCRA 304
980. Lupangco v. CA - 160 SCRA 848
981. *University of San Carlos v. CA - 166 SCRA 570
982. Capitol Medical Center v CA - 178 SCRA 493
983. Reyes v. CA – 194 SCRA 402
984. Tan v. CA – 199 SCRA 212
985. Camacho v. Coresis, GR 134372, Aug. 22, 2002
986. Civil Service Commission v. Sojor – 554 SCRA 160
987. Regino v. Pangasinan Colleges of S&T, GR 156109, Nov 18, 2004

Language

Section 6. The national language of the Philippines is Filipino. As it evolves, it shall be further
developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages. Subject to
provisions of law and as the Congress may deem appropriate, the Government shall take steps
to initiate and sustain the use of Filipino as a medium of official communication and as
language of instruction in the educational system. Section 7. For purposes of communication
and instruction, the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino and, until otherwise
provided by law, English.
The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as
auxiliary media of instruction therein.
Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis.

32
Section 8. This Constitution shall be promulgated in Filipino and English and shall be
translated into major regional languages, Arabic, and Spanish.

Section 9. The Congress shall establish a national language commission composed of


representatives of various regions and disciplines which shall undertake, coordinate, and
promote researches for the development, propagation, and preservation of Filipino and other
languages.

Science and Technology

Section 10. Science and technology are essential for national development and progress. The
State shall give priority to research and development, invention, innovation, and their
utilization; and to science and technology education, training, and services. It shall support
indigenous, appropriate, and self- reliant scientific and technological capabilities, and their
application to the country's productive systems and national life.

Section 11. The Congress may provide for incentives, including tax deductions, to encourage
private participation in programs of basic and applied scientific research. Scholarships, grants-
in-aid, or other forms of incentives shall be provided to deserving science students,
researchers, scientists, inventors, technologists, and specially gifted citizens.

Section 12. The State shall regulate the transfer and promote the adaptation of technology
from all sources for the national benefit. It shall encourage the widest participation of private
groups, local governments, and community-based organizations in the generation and
utilization of science and technology.

Section 13. The State shall protect and secure the exclusive rights of scientists, inventors,
artists, and other gifted citizens to their intellectual property and creations, particularly when
beneficial to the people, for such period as may be provided by law.

Arts and Culture

Section 14. The State shall foster the preservation, enrichment, and dynamic evolution of a
Filipino national culture based on the principle of unity in diversity in a climate of free artistic
and intellectual expression.

Section 15. Arts and letters shall enjoy the partronage of the State. The State shall conserve,
promote, and popularize the nation's historical and cultural heritage and resources, as well
as artistic creations.

Section 16. All the country's artistic and historic wealth constitutes the cultural treasure of
the nation and shall be under the protection of the State which may regulate its disposition.

Section 17. The State shall recognize, respect, and protect the rights of indigenous cultural
communities to preserve and develop their cultures, traditions, and institutions. It shall
consider these rights in the formulation of national plans and policies.

33
Section 18. (1) The State shall ensure equal access to cultural opportunities through the
educational system, public or private cultural entities, scholarships, grants and other
incentives, and community cultural centers, and other public venues.
(2) The State shall encourage and support researches and studies on the arts and culture.

Sports

Section 19. (1) The State shall promote physical education and encourage sports programs,
league competitions, and amateur sports, including training for international competitions,
to foster self-discipline, teamwork, and excellence for the development of a healthy and alert
citizenry.
(2) All educational institutions shall undertake regular sports activities throughout the country
in cooperation with athletic clubs and other sectors.

ARTICLE XV THE FAMILY

Section 1. The State recognizes the Filipino family as the foundation of the nation.
Accordingly, it shall strengthen its solidarity and actively promote its total development.

Section 2. Marriage, as an inviolable social institution, is the foundation of the family and shall
be protected by the State.

988. Ronulo v. People GR No. 182483

Section 3. The State shall defend:


(1) The right of spouses to found a family in accordance with their religious
convictions and the demands of responsible parenthood;
(2) The right of children to assistance, including proper care and nutrition, and
special protection from all forms of neglect, abuse, cruelty, exploitation and
other conditions prejudicial to their development;
(3) The right of the family to a family living wage and income; and
(4) The right of families or family associations to participate in the planning and
implementation of policies and programs that affect them.

Section 4. The family has the duty to care for its elderly members but the State may also do
so through just programs of social security.

34