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Piping and Instrumentation

Diagrams - II
CH 4034 – Design Project – II – 2013 Batch

Process Unit Control
Schemes

Objective
• To discuss few standard Process Unit Control Schemes

Refresher
• So we need to build relationships between input and
output to answer above questions
• Consider a water tank where water is drawn off at various
rates and instances.
• To facilitate users of water with continuous supply of
water at a good pressure we need to ensure that the tank
is always filled and tank level is a good level by supplying
make up water.
• Problems like these give rise to development of process
control schemes.
Refresher
• Therefore the necessity of control schemes start with:
• a disturbance (water draw off) to the system
• which creates an upset to the target parameters (level)
• which is required to be at a desired value (level set point)
• by changing a physical input (makeup water) to the system.

Refresher
• To perform the job of controlling such a process, we need
to know further if we change the input:
• Will the output rise or fall? - Quality
• How much response will we get? - Quantity
• How long will it take for the output to change? - Time
• What will be the shape of response curve? - Pattern

• Hence we need to build relationships between input and

output to answer above questions

For this process we can
write:

dH Q1 − Q2
=
dt A
Refresher

H
Q2 =
R
−t
H = R ∙ Q1 ∙ 1 − e RA

Using this equation we

can find if a change in
flow Q1 is applied to the
system, how the level will
rise.
Refresher - Terminology
• Control Modes: On–off / Modulating / Open loop /
Feedforward / Feedback
• Transfer functions: Conversion of differential
relationships to algebraic equations
for easily relate input to output
• Cascade Control: When the output of the first or
primary controller is used to
manipulate the SD of another or
secondary controller.

Refresher - Terminology

Split Range Control Cascade Control

Refresher - Terminology
• PID Controlling:

Refresher - Terminology
• PID Controlling:
• Pressure control requires proportional and integral; derivative is
normally not required.
• Level control uses proportional and sometimes integral,
derivative is not normally required.
• Flow control requires proportional and integral; derivative is not
normally required.
• Temperature control uses proportional, integral, and derivative
usually with integral set for a long time period.

Refresher - Control Loop Elements:

Refresher - Instruments
DP cell
installation for
flow
measurement

Principle of a
pneumatic DP cell
Refresher – Flow Instruments

(g) Gas Mass flow (Thermal)

Refresher – Flow Meter Types Comparison

Refresher – Level
Measurement

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Refresher – Level
Measurement

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Refresher – Pressure
Measurement

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Refresher – Temperature
Measurement

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Refresher – Temperature Common thermocouple metal combinations
Measurement

Refresher – Temperature
Measurement

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Refresher - Signal Conversion
• One legacy of the analogue era is the handling of
measurement and actuator signals in conventional ranges
such as:
• 4 – 20 mA;
• 3 – 15 psig; (20 – 100 kPag)
• With new field bus devices, instruments can communicate
with the computer control system digitally, avoiding the
need to convert current or pneumatic signals into the
accepted ranges.

Refresher – Signal Conversion
On large plants, these
analogue signals are
handled as close to the
associated plant equipment
as possible in signal
substations.

Signal conditioning (such as

smoothing) and A/D or D/A
(analogue to-digital or
digital-to-analogue)
conversion are handled
there, so that communication
with distributed and
centralized computer
facilities thereafter occurs
on digital buses (e.g. coaxial,
fibre-optic or ‘wireless’
transmissions).
Refresher – Controllers

Refresher – Controllers

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Refresher – Control Elements

Refresher – Control Elements

Control Scheme Examples – Kettle Reboiler

Control Scheme Examples – Pre. Vessel

Control Scheme Examples – P. V. with a Jacket