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Temperature Effects

Temperature Effects

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by Sungjin Bae

concrete structures such as chimneys, nuclear structures, and

liquefied gas containments. Internal stresses due to temperature

changes need to be estimated and accounted in design loads or

design strengths. These internal stresses vary with cracking of

concrete, yielding of reinforcement, and restraint conditions; thus,

accurate estimates of internal stresses due to temperature changes

involve complicated analysis procedures.

Due to the complexity of the problem, ACI 307, ACI 349, and

ACI 359 have developed different design approaches for tempera-

ture effects. The objective of this study is to examine these design

approaches and evaluate their performance on estimating thermal

effects. The influence of axial forces on thermal effects is discussed,

and recommendations are made. Fig. 1—Temperature distributions in concrete wall.

Keywords: containment; temperature; thermal; thermal gradient; thermal this paper discusses thermal effects on moment-curvature

strain.

responses and presents a method for estimating thermal

moments using moment-curvature responses. Comparison

INTRODUCTION

of thermal moments estimated using different methods is

Temperature changes in concrete members generate

provided, and limitations of each code method are identified.

volume changes of concrete and reinforcement. Volumetric

In this study, the importance of axial forces on thermal loads

changes cause deformations of members if they are free to

is revealed, and design recommendations for thermal effects

move. If members are restrained against thermally induced

are made. It should be noted that ACI 359-103 is known as

movements, internal stresses are developed. Temperature

ASME Section III, Division 2.

effects (or thermal effects) refer to responses of members

due to temperature changes.

RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE

Assessment of thermal effects becomes essential to the

This research is important for understanding tempera-

design of concrete structures such as chimneys, nuclear

ture effects and design methods presented in ACI 307-08,1

structures, and liquefied gas containments because of their

ACI 349-06,2 and ACI 359-10.3 Little research has been

exposure to considerable temperature changes. Accordingly,

conducted to examine code methods, even though the

ACI 307-081 (concrete chimneys), ACI 349-062 (nuclear

assessment of temperature effects is essential to designing

concrete structures), ACI 359-103 (nuclear concrete contain-

concrete structures such as chimneys, nuclear structures,

ments) and ACI 376-104 (liquefied gas containments) list

and liquefied gas containments. This study evaluates code

temperature effects as one of the important design loads and

methods for considering temperature effects in design, and

provide design provisions for thermal effects.

identifies their limitations. The results of this study can

Internal stresses due to thermal effects are different from

serve as a basis of future code changes and better design for

the stresses generated by mechanical loads. Internal stresses

temperature effects.

due to mechanical loads, which include dead load, live load,

and wind load, are generated to equilibrate applied loads.

TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON MEMBERS

Internal stresses due to thermal effects, however, are not

Change of temperature introduces temperature differ-

required for the equilibrium, but are generated by restraints

ential in a concrete member. Temperature distributions in

against thermal deformations. As a result, thermally induced

concrete walls will be either steady-state or transient-state

internal stresses are self-relieving, that is, stresses are reduced

conditions (Fig. 1). When ambient temperatures at both

or completely relieved with the decrease of restraints caused

inside and outside surfaces stay at constant levels for long

by cracking of concrete, yielding of reinforcement, creep,

durations, the temperature through the thickness becomes a

and relaxation. Thermal loads are called as secondary loads

to emphasize this nature. ACI Structural Journal, V. 111, No. 5, September-October 2014.

This paper investigates the influence of mechanical axial MS No. S-2013-073.R1, doi: 10.14359/51686818, was received May 17, 2013, and

reviewed under Institute publication policies. Copyright © 2014, American Concrete

forces and moments on thermal loads and the performance Institute. All rights reserved, including the making of copies unless permission is

obtained from the copyright proprietors. Pertinent discussion including author’s

of different code methods for thermal effects. In addition, closure, if any, will be published ten months from this journal’s date if the discussion

is received within four months of the paper’s print publication.

steady-state condition. The temperature distribution at this

condition is linear, as shown in Fig. 1(a). When ambient

temperature changes at either concrete surface or both, the

temperature distribution varies along time, which is a tran-

sient-state condition, and a nonlinear temperature distribu-

tion in Fig. 1(b) is obtained. The steady-state conditions can

be analyzed using well-established formulas,5 but comput-

er-based heat transfer analyses are required to get tempera-

ture distributions for transient-state conditions.5,6

Once temperature distributions are determined, uniform

temperature changes and thermal gradients are calculated

for concrete design. In case of nonlinear temperature distri-

butions, ACI 349-062 provides a method of converting a

nonlinear temperature distribution to an equivalent linear

temperature distribution. Free uniform strains and curva-

tures can be obtained from uniform temperature changes

and thermal gradients. Bae6 has examined the validity of

the equivalent linear temperature distribution method in

ACI 349-062 by comparing calculated uniform strain and

curvature with the results from heat transfer and structural

analyses using a finite element program.

Thermally induced uniform strains and curvatures Fig. 2—Temperature effect on moment-curvature relationship.

generate internal stresses when they are restrained against ACI 3071 for concrete chimneys

movements. The amount of thermal loads is dependent on Thermal stresses are calculated based on a cracked

the degree of restraints. For axisymmetric structures, which concrete and specified compressive strength fc′ of concrete

include chimneys, shield buildings, and containments, and specified yield strength fy of reinforcement are reduced

thermal curvatures are fully restrained, but restraints against by thermal stresses in this code. The nominal moment

uniform strains are trivial other than local boundaries. strength Mn and design moment strength φMn are calculated

Accordingly, thermal effects due to curvature are mainly using modified specified compressive strength fc′′ and yield

discussed in ACI codes1,2,7 and previous studies.8,9 Thermal strength fy′. In this manner, the design strength is reduced

effects due to uniform strains are often neglected or included for thermal effects, and the remaining concrete design is

in factored mechanical loads.7 performed using mechanical loads.

Figure 2 illustrates the effect of thermal curvature on a Equations (1) through (5) show the expressions for

moment and curvature response. A constant restrained thermal stresses of concrete and reinforcement. The deri-

thermal curvature φth is applied to various magnitudes of vation of equations is based on the following assumptions:

mechanical moments (M1, M2, and M3). Thermally induced 1) the free thermal curvature (φth = αΔT/t) is fully restrained;

moment Mth is the increase of moment due to restrained 2) concrete sections are cracked; and 3) the stress-strain

thermal curvature.8,9 Thermal moments (Mth,1, Mth,2, and distribution of concrete is triangular. Note that reinforce-

Mth,3) decrease with the increase of mechanical moments. ment in both compression and tension are transformed using

This is because the stiffness of a concrete section is reduced nEc, where n is the modular ratio.

after concrete cracking and reinforcement yielding. Equations (6) through (9) show modified specified

It is possible that a concrete member may be exposed strengths (or usable strengths) of concrete and reinforcement.

to temperature changes before mechanical loads. In this A load factor of 1.2 for temperature effect is not included for

case, the initial thermal moment will be large if the section the purpose of comparison with other codes. Interestingly,

remains uncracked. Thermal moment reduces once cracking the comparison of Eq. (7) and (9) shows that yield strength

of concrete occurs due to mechanical loads, however, of reinforcement in the vertical direction has modified differ-

because thermal loads are secondary loads. In other words, ently from that in the circumferential direction. The speci-

thermal loads are self-relieving with cracking of concrete fied yield strength of reinforcement in the vertical direction

and yielding of reinforcement. Thus, thermal loads are is reduced by the average of thermal tension stress in outside

always the least amount of loads that can be generated by face reinforcement and thermal compression stress in inside

given restrained thermal strains/curvatures. face reinforcement. This is due to the fact that ACI 307-081

calculates axial and moment strengths in the vertical direc-

REVIEW OF DESIGN CODE APPROACHES tion based on a whole concrete section. ACI 307-08 does not

ACI codes that contain design provisions and guidelines discuss thermal effects for serviceability.

for thermal effects are reviewed in this section. They are Vertical temperature stresses—At inside face of the

ACI 307-08,1 ACI 349-062/ACI 349.1R,7 and ACI 359-10.3 A chimney

summary of relevant provisions and guidelines is presented

and comparison is made. fCTV′′ = αc × DTEc (1)

fSTV′′ = α(c – 1 + γ2) × ΔTnEc (2) Further, Options 1 and 2 are not recommended because

Option 1 may be too conservative for estimating thermal

At outside face of the chimney effects by not considering the self-relieving nature associ-

ated with concrete cracking, and Option 2 requires compli-

fSTV = α(γ2 – c) × ΔTnEc (3) cated nonlinear and iterative analysis process for each

load combination. Accordingly, Option 3 is the preferable

Circumferential temperature stresses—At inside face of analysis approach.

the chimney ACI 349.1R-077 provides more detailed discussion on this

subject. For the use of Option 3, it recommends an elastic

fCTC′′ = αc′ × ΔTEc (4) FE analysis with a reduced modulus of 0.50Ec for concrete.

A value of 0.5Ec is based on past practice to account for

At outside face of the chimney various effects of cracking, creep, and yielding.

ACI 349.1R-077 also introduces an alternative simplified

fSTC = α(γ2′ – c′) × ΔTnEc (5) calculation method, which calculates thermal moment using

a set of formulas in Eq. (10) through (14). Note that the Pois-

Usable compressive strength of concrete and yield son’s effect is included in Eq. (12), and corrections/changes

strength of reinforcement—In the vertical direction are made in Eq. (11), (13), and (14). Details of corrections/

changes made to the original equations in ACI 349.1R-077

fc′′ = fc′ – fCTV′′ (6) are given in Appendix A.* Thermal moments are calculated

in the following steps:

f y′ =−

fy

1

(

1+ γ1 )

fSTV − γ 1 fSTV ′′ (7)

1. Determine the concrete compressive stress fcL at the

extreme fiber and the kL factor for the neutral axis produced

by mechanical forces (N and M) from Eq. (10) and (11);

2. Calculate the final compressive stress of concrete fc at

In the circumferential direction

the extreme fiber in Eq. (12) by adding the concrete stress

due to thermal gradient to the compressive stress fcL;

fc′′ = fc′ – fCTC′′ (8)

3. Find the k factor for the neutral axis from Eq. (13),

which equilibrates the axial force N and the resultant of the

fy′ = fy – fSTC (9)

stresses produced by N, M, and DT; and

4. Calculate the total moment M produced by N, M, and

ΔT using Eq. (14). The thermal moment is the change of

ACI 3492 for nuclear safety-related concrete

moments from the mechanical moment to the total moment,

structures

which can be expressed as Mth = M̄ – M.

Appendix E and Section RE of ACI 349-062 provide

Before ΔT

design guidelines for temperature effects. For strength design

requirements, thermally induced axial forces and moments

1 d′ 1

need to be estimated, factored, and combined with other N =+fcL bk L d 2ρ′ nbdfcL k L −

factored mechanical loads. Combined factored mechanical 2 d kL

(10)

and thermal loads are then examined with design strengths. 1

For serviceability, Section RE.3 of ACI 349-062 requires + ρnbdfcL ( k L − 1)

consideration of steady-state temperature conditions. Crack kL

control on the tensile face, strain limitations of the section,

and deflections need to be examined. 1 t kL d

M =−fcL bk L d

The challenge of this design approach is the dependence 2 2 3

of thermal loads on mechanical loads. In theory, thermal

loads need to be evaluated for each load combination d′ 1 t

+2ρ′ nbdfcL k L − − d ′ (11)

because thermal loads vary with mechanical axial forces and d k L

2

moments. In comparison, ACI 307-081 accounts for thermal

1 t

effects to design strength and, thus, avoids the problem of +ρnbdfcL ( k L − 1) − d

estimating thermal loads with other combined loads. k L

2

The following finite element (FE) analysis approaches for

estimating thermal loads are discussed in Section RE.3.3 of After ΔT

ACI 349-062: 1) analysis based on full uncracked concrete

sections; 2) analysis that considers concrete cracking and fcL αDT

reinforcing bar yielding for all combined forces; and 3) analysis fc =+

Ec kd (12)

that consider the effect of cracking on thermal forces only. Ec k L d t (1 − ν)

*

The Appendix is available at www.concrete.org/publications in PDF format,

appended to the online version of the published paper. It is also available in hard copy

from ACI headquarters for a fee equal to the cost of reproduction plus handling at the

time of the request.

1 d′ 1

N =+ fc bkd 2ρ′ nbdfc k −

2 d k

(13)

1

+ ρnbdfc ( k − 1)

k

1 t kd

M =−fc bkd

2 2 3

d′ 1 t

+ 2ρ′ nbdfc k − − d ′ (14)

d k 2

1 t

+ ρnbdfc ( k − 1) − d

k 2

Fig. 3—Details of concrete section. (Note: 1 in. = 25.4 mm;

1 in.2 = 645.16 mm2; 1 ksi = 6.895 MPa; 1 psi = 6.895 kPa.)

The solution of this method is valid only when the

calculated kL and k are in the range of 0.10 ≤ kL ≤ 1.0 ACI 3593 for nuclear concrete containments

and 0.10 ≤ k ≤ 1.0. These requirements are to ensure that ACI 359-103 is the design code for nuclear concrete

the obtained section is cracked, which is the assumption containments. Members subjected to axial forces and

involved in deriving Eq. (10) through (14). moments should not exceed allowable stress and strain

ACI 349.1R-077 permits thermal gradients less than limits. Design loads are categorized into: 1) factored primary

100°F (56°C) and uniform temperature changes less than loads; 2) factored primary and secondary loads; 3) service

50°F (28°C) to be ignored in concrete design. It states that primary loads; and 4) service primary and secondary loads.

changes in stresses and strains due to such small temperature Primary loads are those which require equilibrating applied

changes are minor and, hence, the reinforcement provided loads. Secondary loads are not required for equilibrating

for seismic forces (Eo or Ess) and minimum reinforcement the applied loads. Examples of secondary loads are internal

requirements will be sufficient for crack control. forces due to shrinkage and temperature changes.

It should be noted that design formulas in ACI 307-081 and Stress and strain limits are specified for each load cate-

in the simplified calculation method of ACI 349.1R-077 are gory. Accordingly, design allowable strengths are calculated

based on a cracked concrete section. The following observa- and compared with design loads for each load category.

tions can be made from the comparison of ACI 307-081 and However, ACI 359-103 does not provide guidelines for esti-

ACI 349.1R-077 design approaches: mating thermal loads. Design guides in ACI 349-062 and

• A cracked concrete section with a triangular concrete ACI 349.1R-077 are typically used in practice.

stress distribution is the basis of both design equations

for thermal effects in ACI 307-081 and ACI 349.1R-07.7 EVALUATION OF CODE-PREDICTED

The actual concrete relationship starts to deviate from THERMAL MOMENTS

the linear response beyond the concrete stress level of Design approaches for thermal effects in ACI 307-08,1

0.4fc′.10 Bae11 found that the use of triangular stress ACI 349-062 and ACI 349.1R-07,7 and ACI 359-103 were

distribution above this concrete stress level may over- discussed in the previous section. The performance of each

estimate moment strengths; code is evaluated by comparing thermal moments calculated

• Poisson’s effect is included in ACI 349.1R-077 for using different methods. A rectangular concrete section of

wall-type structures, but ignored in ACI 307-08.1 As a 36 x 12 in. (914 x 305 mm) in Fig. 3 is used for this purpose.

result, the restrained curvature in ACI 307-081 is under- This section is a part of an axisymmetric structure with fc′ =

estimated compared with that in ACI 349.1R-077 by 5 ksi (34 MPa) and fy = 60 ksi (414 MPa). The structure is

1/(1 – n); exposed to a thermal gradient of ΔT = 80°F (44°C) that is hot

• Compression reinforcement is transformed using inside and cold outside. Thermal curvatures are considered

a modular ratio of 2n in ACI 349.1R-077 and n in to be fully restrained due to the axisymmetric geometry.

ACI 307-08.1 An effective modular ratio of 2n is typi- The behavior of the member is analyzed for compressive

cally used for compression reinforcement in the working forces of 100, 500, and 1000 kip (445, 2224, and 4448 kN) to

stress design12 to account for the long-term effect of investigate the influence of axial forces on thermal moments.

concrete; and Note that tall concrete chimneys and prestressed concrete

• ACI 349-062 accounts for thermal effects by estimating containments are susceptible to high levels of compres-

thermal loads and combining them with other mechan- sive forces. The P-M interaction curve in Fig. 4 illustrates

ical loads. On other hand, ACI 307-081 includes thermal nominal moment strengths Mn and design moment strengths

effects to design strengths. φMn at each axial force level. Positive moment is defined as

one that produce tensile stress on the outside face. Because

the applied thermal gradient develops compressive stresses

Fig. 4—P-M interaction curve. (Note: 1 kip = 4.448 kN;

1 kip-ft = 1.356 kN-m.)

on the inside face due to the restraint, the thermal moment

is positive.

responses

Figure 2 illustrates the procedure for estimating thermal

moments from moment-curvature responses. The thermal

moment can be determined by measuring the change of

moment due to the restrained thermal curvature.

Moment-curvature responses are generated by sectional

analyses13,14 using Hognestad’s stress-strain relationship15

for concrete and an elasto-plastic stress-strain relationship

for reinforcement. Tensile strength of concrete is neglected

in this study. Hognestad’s concrete model in Eq. (15) and

(16) complies with requirements specified in ACI 307-08,1

ACI 359-10,3 and ASCE Manual No. 5816

2ε ε 2

fc = 0.85 fc′ c − c for ε c ≤ ε o (15)

ε o ε o

ε − εo

fc = 0.85 fc′ 1 − 0.15 c for ε c > ε o (16)

0.003 − ε o

where εo is 0.002.

Moment-curvature responses are generated for different Fig. 5—Thermal moments from moment-curvature relation-

axial forces, as shown in Fig. 5. The curvature due to thermal ship. (Note: 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 kip = 4.448 kN; 1 kip-ft =

gradient of ΔT = 80°F (44°C) is calculated as 1.356 kN-m.)

curvature of 15.3 × 10–6/in. (6.02 × 10–5/mm). Estimated

αDT (5.5 × 10 −6 / °F )(80°F )

φth = = thermal moments from moment-curvature responses are

t (1 − ν) (36 in.)(1 − 0.2) shown in Fig. 5.

= 15.3 × 10 −6 /in. (6.02 × 10 −5 /mm ) Figure 5 shows the dependence of thermal moments on

mechanical loads. Estimated thermal moments decrease

with the increase of mechanical moments and increase

It should be noted that Poisson’s effect is included in the

with the increase of axial forces. When the axial force is

estimated curvature.

small, thermal moments can be reduced to close to zero as

Because axisymmetric structures provide full restraints

the mechanical moment approaches the nominal moment

for thermal curvatures, moments will be developed by the

strength (Fig. 5(a)).

The nominal and design moment strengths (Mn and

φMn) calculated using the equivalent rectangular concrete

stress block are included in Fig. 5. An “x” mark represents

the nominal moment strength Mn based on the ultimate

concrete strain of 0.003 in a moment-curvature response.

Both nominal moment strengths agree well. It should be

noted that ACI 307-081 and 349-062 calculate nominal and

design moment strengths in a similar manner except that

ACI 307-081 has an additional requirement for the reinforce-

ment strain. The ultimate tensile strain of reinforcement is

0.07, which does not govern the nominal moment strength

in this problem.

Total required moment is the sum of mechanical moments

and thermal moments. Based on the fact that thermal

moments reduce with the increase of mechanical moments,

the minimum thermal moment that satisfies the code strength

requirement of Mu ≤ φMn is the thermal moment at which the

total moment is equal to the design moment strength φMn.

This minimum thermal moment is referred as design thermal

moment Mth′ herein. The use of design thermal moment

enables the calculation of a usable design moment strength,

which is defined as design moment strength minus (factored)

design thermal moment (φMn′ = φMn – γthMth′, where γth is a

load factor on temperature effects). As such, the remaining

concrete design can be conducted by comparing the usable

design moment φMn′ with mechanical moments, which is

similar to the design approach in ACI 307-08.1

It can be observed in Fig. 5 that design thermal moments

are similar at axial forces of –100 and –500 kip (–445 and

–2224 kN), which are Pcomp ≤ 0.2fc′Ag. The design thermal

moment, however, becomes large at axial force of

–1000 kip (–4448 kN) because high compressive forces

(Pcomp > 0.2fc′Ag) prevent cracking of concrete at design

moment strengths. The influence of axial forces and moments

on thermal moments was investigated by Gurfinkel,8 who

reported that maximum thermal moments occurs when axial

forces approach to near the balanced loads, which agrees

with the results shown in Fig. 5.

ACI 3071

Thermal effects predicted by ACI 307-081 are presented in

Fig. 6. Modified specified compressive strength of concrete

and tensile strength of reinforcement due to thermal effects

and resulting reduced design strengths are shown in this

figure. The difference between the original design strength

and the reduced design strength is the thermal moment

Fig. 6—Thermal moments from ACI 307. (Note: 1 in. =

predicted by ACI 307-08.1 It should be noted that thermal

25.4 mm; 1 kip = 4.448 kN; 1 kip-ft = 1.356 kN-m; 1 ksi =

moments in Fig. 6 are calculated using design equations in

6.895 MPa; 1 psi = 6.985 kPa.)

the circumferential direction because the concrete section in

Fig. 3 is a part of an axisymmetric structure rather than the (–445 kN) is contributed by the negligence of Poisson’s

whole section. effect in ACI 307-08.1 Because concrete members have

The estimated thermal moments are 57, 81, and 100 kip-ft relatively large deformation capacity at low axial loads

(77, 110, and 136 kN-m) for the axial forces of –100, –500, (Fig. 6(a)) and thermally induced moments are self-re-

and –1000 kip (–445, –2224, and –4448 kN), respectively. lieving, the underestimation of thermal moments can be

Comparison with the design thermal moments in Fig. 5 indi- accepted at low axial forces.

cates that ACI 307-081 underestimates thermal moments at On the other hand, the underestimation of thermal

axial forces of –100 and –1000 kip (–445 and –4448 kN). moment becomes more severe at the axial force of

The underestimation of thermal moment of 57 versus –1000 kip (–4448 kN), which is 100 versus 219 kip-ft

77 kip-ft (77 versus 104 kN-m) at the axial force of –100 kip (136 versus 297 kN-m). The thermal moment is underes-

timated by 54.3%. Design equations for thermal effects in

ACI 307-081 are based on a cracked concrete section with

a triangular concrete stress distribution. This is not valid,

however, when applied compressive forces are high enough

to prevent cracking.

In reality, the use of design equations in the circumferen-

tial direction can be justified because the level of axial forces

in the circumferential direction is small in concrete chim-

neys. More study is required to examine the effect of axial

forces on thermal loads in the vertical direction, particularly

for tall chimneys.

Two methods of estimating thermal loads are examined

herein. They are: 1) the elastic FE analysis method using a

reduced modulus of 0.5Ec; and 2) the simplified calculation

method using a set of design expressions in Eq. (10) though

(14). These are the recommended methods by ACI 349.1R-077

and in accordance with ACI 349-06.2

Thermal moments in the elastic FE analysis are

calculated as

αDT

M th ==

Ee I g φth Ee I g × (17)

t (1 − ν)

recommended value is 0.5Ec.

Figure 7 shows thermal moments calculated using the

reduced concrete modulus of 0.5Ec. Also included are

thermal moments using the uncracked concrete modulus

of Ec. Note that thermal moments estimated by the elastic

analysis method are not dependent on mechanical loads.

Figure 8 illustrates thermal moments calculated by the

simplified calculation method. The simplified calculation

method in ACI 349.1R-077 calculates thermal moments by

taking into account mechanical loads and thermal gradient.

Accordingly, this method captures the dependency of

thermal moments on mechanical loads. Calculated thermal

moments decrease with the increase of mechanical moments,

but increase with the increase of mechanical axial forces.

The results of the simplified calculation method, however,

are only valid when the corresponding neutral axis locations

satisfy the requirements of 0.10 ≤ kL ≤ 1.0 and 0.10 ≤ k ≤ 1.0.

Thermal moments are crossed out when they do not satisfy

these requirements, as shown in Fig. 8. The figure indi-

cates that the simplified calculation method cannot predict Fig. 7—Thermal moments using elastic analysis method:

thermal moments when mechanical moments are small or ACI 349/ACI 349.1R. (Note: 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 kip =

mechanical compressive forces are high. In addition, thermal 4.448 kN; 1 kip-ft = 1.356 kN-m.)

moments are overestimated at the occurrence of yielding of

tensile reinforcement, which can be seen in Fig. 8(a). This ACI 3593

can be fixed by adding a requirement that the stress in rein- As discussed previously, axial and moment strengths in

forcement should be less than or equal to its specified yield ACI 359-103 are calculated based on allowable stress and

strength. Otherwise, the results of the simplified calculation strain limits for each load category. Figure 9 presents calcu-

method show good agreement with the thermal moments lated moment strengths. A triangular concrete stress distri-

calculated from moment-curvature responses. bution is used to obtain moment-curvature responses for

service loads per the code requirement, which are shown as

dotted lines. The obtained responses for service loads are

close to the responses for factored loads.

Fig. 8—Thermal moments using simplified calculation Fig. 9—ACI 359-10 strength limits. (Note: 1 in. = 25.4 mm;

method: ACI 349.1R. (Note: Calculated moment is not 1 kip = 4.448 kN; 1 kip-ft = 1.356 kN-m.)

valid because kL (or k) is out of permissible range; 1 in. =

25.4 mm; 1 kip = 4.448 kN; 1 kip-ft = 1.356 kN-m.) for factored primary and secondary loads becomes less with

the increase of compressive forces. In summary, allowable

At the axial force of –100 kip (–445 kN), the inclusion stress and strain design in ACI 359-103 results in bigger

of thermal effects (or secondary loads) results in little/small strength increase, but less curvature capacity increase with

increase of moment strengths for both service and factored the increase of compressive forces for the factored load

loads. Interestingly, the curvature capacity for factored loads case. It is important to note that temperature effects can be

increases significantly when thermal effects are included. At examined with respect to both design strength and design

axial forces of –500 and –1000 kip (–2224 and –4448 kN), curvature capacity in ACI 359-10.3 ACI 359-103 permits the

moment strengths increase with the inclusion of thermal significant increase of curvature capacity for thermal effects

effects. On the other hand, the increase of curvature capacity at low axial forces.

Fig. 10—Comparison of predicted thermal moments at P = Fig. 11—Comparison of predicted thermal moments at P =

–100 kip (–445 kN). (Note: 1 kip-ft = 1.356 kN-m.) –500 kip (–2224 kN). (Note: 1 kip-ft = 1.356 kN-m.)

Comparison of code performance

Comparisons of predicted thermal moments are presented

in Fig. 10 through 12. The horizontal coordinate presents

mechanical moments and the vertical coordinate is total

moments, which are the summation of mechanical and

thermal moments. The difference between two coordinates

is the thermal moment.

Thermal moments from the moment-curvature response

are calculated by varying mechanical moments based on

moment-curvature relationships, shown in Fig. 5. Results

from moment-curvature responses suggest that thermal

moments reduce with cracking of concrete and further

decrease with yielding of tensile reinforcement. Yielding of

reinforcement, however, occurs above the design strength

φMn due to the strength reduction factor φ. As such, yielding Fig. 12—Comparison of predicted thermal moments at P =

of reinforcement cannot be used to reduce thermal moments –1000 kip (–4448 kN). (Note: 1 kip-ft = 1.356 kN-m.)

under the strength requirement (φMn ≥ Mu).

The design approach of ACI 307-081 is to reduce design In summary, the performance of all ACI methods for

moment strengths. The reduced amount of design moment thermal effects, which were discussed in this paper, is closely

strength is agreeable at compressive forces of –100 and related to the level of axial forces. High compressive forces

–500 kip (–445 and –2224 kN), but becomes too small at can suppress cracking of concrete, which significantly influ-

compressive force of –1000 kip (–4448 kN) due to the limita- ences the performance of ACI methods for thermal effects.

tion of code equations based on a cracked concrete section. Therefore, the selection of proper analysis and design should

Elastic analysis method using concrete modulus of be made by considering the influence of axial forces on

0.5Ec produces acceptable, yet conservative, estimates of thermal effects.

thermal moments at compressive forces –100 and –500 kip

(–445 and –2224 kN), except when mechanical moments are PROPOSED CHANGES TO ACI 3071 AND

small. The elastic analysis method using concrete modulus ACI 3492/ACI 349.1R-077

of 0.5Ec, however, becomes unconservative at a compres-

sive force of –1000 kip (–4448 kN). The opposite trend can ACI 3071

be observed for the elastic analysis method using uncracked Because concrete chimneys are circular wall structures, it

concrete modulus of 1.0Ec. Estimated thermal moments is recommended to include Poisson’s effect in the estimated

are overly conservative at compressive forces –100 and thermal curvature. Also, an effective modular ratio of 2n for

–500 kip (–445 and –2224 kN), but are in good agreement at compression reinforcement is recommended in accordance

a compressive force of –1000 kip (–4448 kN). with the allowable stress design in the ACI code.12

The simplified calculation method in ACI 349.1R-077

provides excellent predictions of thermal moments, but ACI 3492/ACI 349.1R7

cannot be used when the compressive force level is high (P = The elastic analysis method using the concrete modulus

–1000 kip [–4448 kN]) or mechanical moments are small of 0.5Ec produces acceptable, yet conservative, estimates

due to the limitation of the use of a cracked concrete section. of thermal moments for strength design when factored

Also, the predicted thermal moments become overestimated compressive forces are equal to or less than 0.3Agfc′. Caution

at the occurrence of yielding of tensile reinforcement. should be taken, however, when factored compressive forces

are greater than 0.3Agfc′. The use of concrete modulus of Ec

may be considered for members in which factored compres-

sive forces are greater than 0.3Agfc′.

The simplified calculation method provides reliable

estimates of thermal moments when the results meet the

required criteria of 0.10 ≤ kL ≤ 1.0 and 0.10 ≤ k ≤ 1.0. It is

recommended to require the stress in tensile reinforcement

to not exceed its specified yield strength.

ACI 349.1R-077 permits thermal gradients less than 100°F

(56°C) and uniform temperature changes less than 50°F

(28°C) not to be analyzed. The following statements are

provided for the explanation:

“If the reinforcement strain is equal to 0.9εy without the

thermal effect, the total strain with the thermal gradient

(of 100°F) will be approximately 1.2εy, or approximately

20% beyond yield. Such an exceedance is inconsequential

and will not reduce the capacity of the concrete section for

mechanical loads.” “Such a temperature change (of uniform

temperature change of 50°F) may cause up to approximately

0.0003 in./in. strain, which is only 10% of the maximum

design concrete strain of 0.003.”

Figure 5, however, demonstrates that thermal gradi-

ents less than 100°F (56°C) can cause significant thermal

moments when the compressive force level is high and,

thus, their thermal effects should not neglected in the design.

Also, it is important to note that yielding of reinforcement

occurs beyond the design strengths of ACI 349-06.2 Poten-

tial impacts of exceeding code design strengths are further

reviewed with respect to curvature and strength.

Figure 13 presents the thermal curvature demand compared

with curvatures at nominal strength and design strength at

different level of axial forces. The thermal gradient of 80°F

(44°C) applied to the section in Fig. 3 generates a constant

curvature of 15.3 × 10–6/in. (6.02 × 10–5/mm). This thermal

curvature demand is relatively small compared with the

curvature capacity reserved by the strength reduction factor.

Table 1 summarizes curvature demands for thermal gradients

of 80, 100, and 150°F (44, 56, and 83°C), and presents ratios

of thermal curvature to reserve curvature capacity. Thermal

curvatures consume small margins of reserve curvature

capacity when the compressive force is small. Because the

concrete member becomes less ductile with the increase of

compressive force, the reserve curvature capacity decreases

and, thus, thermal curvatures take a larger portion of the

reserve curvature capacity.

Similarly, thermal moments are estimated at design

moments for various thermal gradients, and ratios of thermal

moment to design moment φMn are presented in Table 2.

The exceedance of design strengths due to thermal moments

is less than 5.9% up to ΔT = 150°F (83°C) when the

Fig. 13—Thermal curvature due to ΔT = 80°F (44°C).

compressive force is small, but increases with the increase

(Note: 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 kip = 4.448 kN.)

of compressive forces.

Results in Tables 1 and 2 indicate that the level of permis- below 100°F (56°C), however, need to be analyzed when

sible thermal gradients without analysis should be deter- the factored compressive force is greater than Agfc′/10.

mined in relation to the axial force level. When the factored A similar statement can be made for uniform temperature

compressive force on the member is equal to or less than strains. Uniform temperature changes less than 50°F (28°C)

Agfc′/10, thermal gradients even greater than 100°F (56°C) are permitted without analysis if axial restraints are small.

can be permitted not to be analyzed. Thermal gradients Care should be taken otherwise.

Table 1—Comparison of thermal curvatures to design margin curvatures

Thermal curvature φth, × 10–6/in. (× 10–6/mm) Ratio of thermal curvature to design margin curvature

Curvature at Curvature at

(4) (4)/[(3) – (2)]

φMn, × 10–6/in. Mn, × 10–6/in.

P, kip (kN) (× 10–6/mm) (× 10–6/mm) ΔT = 80°F ΔT = 100°F ΔT = 150°F ΔT = 80°F ΔT = 100°F ΔT = 150°F

(1) (2) (3) (44°C) (56°C) (83°C) (44°C) (56°C) (83°C)

–100 (–445) 90.5 (3.56) 594.0 (23.39) 15.3 (0.60) 19.1 (0.75) 28.6 (1.13) 3.0% 3.8% 5.7%

–500 (–2224) 79.3 (3.12) 226.0 (8.90) 15.3 (0.60) 19.1 (0.75) 28.6 (1.13) 10.4% 13.0% 19.5%

–1000 (–4448) 29.8 (1.17) 124.8 (4.91) 15.3 (0.60) 19.1 (0.75) 28.6 (1.13) 16.1% 20.1% 30.1%

Mth at φMn, kip-ft (kN-m) Ratio of thermal moment to design moment strength

(3) (3)/(2)

φMn, kip-ft

P, kip (kN) (kN-m) ΔT = 80°F ΔT = 100°F ΔT = 150°F ΔT = 80°F ΔT = 100°F ΔT = 150°F

(1) (2) (44°C) (56°C) (83°C) (44°C) (56°C) (83°C)

–100 (–445) 539 (731) 29 (39) 30 (41) 32 (43) 5.4% 5.6% 5.9%

–500 (–2224) 739 (1002) 73 (99) 91 (123) 133 (180) 9.9% 12.3% 18.0%

–1000 (–4448) 469 (636) 178 (241) 212 (287) 284 (385) 38.0% 45.2% 60.6%

c = ratio of distance from extreme compression fiber to

ACI 349-062 permits yielding of tensile reinforcement neutral axis for vertical stresses to total thickness

for the following cases only: 1) redistribution of negative (ACI 307-08)

moments; 2) compatibility torsion; and 3) seismic design. c′ = c for circumferential stresses (ACI 307-08)

d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of

Accordingly, yielding of reinforcement is not permitted for longitudinal tension reinforcement

thermal effects. This becomes clear in Section E.3.3 of the d′ = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of

code, which lists concrete cracking but excludes yielding longitudinal compression reinforcement

Ec = elastic modulus of concrete

of reinforcement as a means of reducing thermal moments. Ee = effective elastic modulus of concrete

Therefore, a revision of ACI 349-06 will be required to use Eo = load effects of operating basis earthquake (OBE)

permissible thermal gradients and uniform temperature Es = elastic modulus of reinforcement

Ess = load effects of safe shutdown earthquake (SSE)

changes without analysis in the design. (EI)cr = cracked flexural stiffness

(EI)uc = uncracked flexural stiffness

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS fCTC′′ = maximum circumferential stress in concrete inside

chimney shell due to temperature effects (ACI 307-08)

The influence of mechanical moments and compres- fCTV′′ = maximum vertical stress in concrete inside chimney shell

sive forces on thermal effects was investigated. Various due to temperature effects (ACI 307-08)

methods in ACI 307-08,1 ACI 349-062/ACI 349.1R-07,7 fc = compressive stress in concrete (due to M, N, and ΔT in

Eq. (12) through (14))

and ACI 359-103 for predicting thermal moments were fc′ = specified compressive strength of concrete

discussed, and their performance was evaluated. It was fc′′ = specified compressive strength of concrete modified for

found that the level of axial forces is a key parameter on the temperature effects (ACI 307-08)

fcL = extreme fiber compressive stress in cracked section due

performance of ACI methods for predicting thermal effects. to M and N (ACI 349.1R-07)

Limitations of each method were identified, and proposed fSTC = maximum stress in outside circumferential reinforce-

changes of codes were made. A future study to experimen- ment due to temperature effects (ACI 307-08)

fSTV = maximum stress in outside vertical reinforcement due to

tally examine the effect of axial forces on thermal loads temperature effects (ACI 307-08)

would be recommended. fSTV′′ = maximum stress in inside vertical reinforcement due to

temperature effects (ACI 307-08)

fy = specified yield strength of reinforcement

AUTHOR BIOS fy′ = specified yield strength of reinforcement modified for

ACI member Sungjin Bae is a Senior Structural Engineer at Bechtel

temperature effects (ACI 307-08)

Corporation, Frederick, MD. He received his BS and MS from Hanyang

Ig = moment of inertia of gross concrete section about

University, Seoul, Korea, and his PhD from the University of Texas at

centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement

Austin, Austin, TX. He is Chair of Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 441, Rein-

k = ratio of depth of triangular compressive stress block to

forced Concrete Columns, and is a member of ACI Committee 349, Nuclear

depth d due to M, N and ΔT (ACI 349.1R-07)

Safety Structures; and Joint ACI-ASME Subcommittee 359 SC-3C, Working

kL = ratio of depth of triangular compressive stress block to

Group on Design (Concrete Containments for Nuclear Reactors). His

depth d due to M and N (ACI 349.1R-07)

research interests include performance-based design of concrete columns,

M (or Mm) = moment due to mechanical loads

high-strength concrete columns, temperature effects, and design of nuclear

M1

structures and dynamic equipment foundations.

(or M2, M3) = mechanical moment

Mn = nominal moment strength at section

NOTATION Mth = moment due to temperature effects

Ag = gross area of concrete section Mth,1

As = area of longitudinal tension reinforcement (or Mth,2, Mth,3) = thermal moment corresponding to mechanical moment

As′ = area of longitudinal compression reinforcement M1 (or M2, M3)

Mth′ = design thermal moment

N (or P) = axial force at section centerline due to mechanical loads 3. Joint ACI-ASME Committee 359, “Code for Concrete Containments

n = modular ratio of elasticity, Es /Ec (ACI 359-10),” Part of Division 2 of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel

Pcomp = compressive axial force Code, Section III, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI,

Tb = base (stress-free) temperature 2011, 27 pp.

t = thickness of section 4. ACI Committee 376, “Code Requirements for Design and Construc-

x = total moment due to M, N, and ΔT (ACI 349.1R-07) tion of Concrete Structures for the Containment of Refrigerated Liquefied

α = coefficient of thermal expansion. The recommended design Gases (ACI 376-10) and Commentary,” American Concrete Institute,

value is 5.5 × 10–6/°F (9.9 × 10–6/°C) in ACI 349-06 and 6.5 × Farmington Hills, MI, 2010, 165 pp.

10–6/°F (11.7 × 10–6/°C) in ACI 307-08. 5. Drysdale, D., An Introduction to Fire Dynamics, second edition, John

ΔT = temperature gradient Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1999, 451 pp.

εc = compressive stain in concrete 6. Bae, S., “Thermal-Induced Uniform Strains and Curvatures Calcu-

φ = strength reduction factor lated Using Equivalent Linear Temperature Distributions,” Nuclear Engi-

φ1 neering and Design, V. 250, Sept. 2012, pp. 42-52.

(or φ2, φ3) = curvature at mechanical moment M1 (or M2, M3) 7. ACI Committee 349, “Reinforced Concrete Design for Thermal

φlimit = curvature that corresponds to moment strength Effects on Nuclear Power Plant Structures (ACI 349.1R-07),” American

φm = curvature due to mechanical loads Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2007, 36 pp.

φth = curvature due to temperature effects 8. Gurfinkel, G., “Thermal Effects in Walls of Nuclear Containments—

φMn′ = usable design moment strength, which is design moment Elastic and Inelastic Behavior,” Proceedings of 1st Conference on Struc-

strength minus factored design thermal moment (φMn – γthMth′) tural Mechanics in Reactor Technology (SMiRT), J 3/7, Berlin, Germany,

γ1 = ratio of inside face vertical reinforcement area to outside face Sept. 1971, pp. 277-296.

vertical reinforcement area (ACI 307-08) 9. Kohli, T. D., and Gurbuz, O., “Optimum Design of Reinforced

γ2 = ratio of distance between inner surface of chimney shell and Concrete for Nuclear Containments, Including Thermal Effects,” Proceed-

outside face vertical reinforcement to total shell thickness ings of the Second ASCE Specialty Conference on Structural Design of

(ACI 307-08) Nuclear Plant Facilities, New Orleans, LA, 1975, pp. 1292-1319.

γ2′ = ratio of distance between inner surface of chimney shell 10. Nawy, E. G., Prestressed Concrete: A Fundamental Approach,

and outside face circumferential reinforcement to total shell second edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1996, 789 pp.

thickness (ACI 307-08) 11. Bae, S., “Concrete Stress Block Method for Nuclear Containments,”

γth = load factor on temperature effects ACI Structural Journal, V. 108, No. 4, July-Aug. 2011, pp. 434-443.

ν = Poisson’s ratio of concrete 12. ACI Committee 318, “Building Code Requirements for Reinforced

ρ = ratio of As to bd Concrete (ACI 318-63),” American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills,

ρ′ = ratio of As′ to bd MI, 1963, 144 pp.

13. Bae, S., “Seismic Performance of Full-Scale Reinforced Concrete

Columns,” PhD dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX,

REFERENCES Dec. 2005, 311 pp.

1. ACI Committee 307, “Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete 14. Collins, M. P., and Mitchell, D., Prestressed Concrete Structures,

Chimneys (ACI 307-08) and Commentary,” American Concrete Institute, first edition, Response Publications, 1997, 766 pp.

Farmington Hills, MI, 2008, 30 pp. 15. Hognestad, E., “A Study of Combined Bending and Axial Load in

2. ACI Committee 349, “Code Requirements for Nuclear Safety-Related Reinforced Concrete Members,” Bulletin Series No. 399, University of Illi-

Concrete Structures (ACI 349-06) and Commentary,” American Concrete nois Engineering Experiment Station, Urbana, IL, 1951, 128 pp.

Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2006, 153 pp. 16. Manual No. 58, “Structural Analysis and Design of Nuclear Plant

Facilities,” American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, 1980, 553 pp.

APPENDIX A – CORRECTIONS/CHANGES OF EQUATIONS FOR SIMPLIFIED

Chapter 4 of ACI 349.1R7 presents equations to calculate thermal moments for axisymmetric

structures in a relatively simple manner. The original form of equations in ACI 349.1R is given

below:

Before T

( ) [( ) ]( )

(4-9) of ACI 349.1R

[( ) ]( )

After T

̅ ( ) [( ) ]( )

(4-11) of ACI 349.1R

[( ) ]( )

Unfortunately, these equations contain many errors. Those errors are (1) the term is

missing after in Eq. (4-10); (2) the tension reinforcement ratio is misprinted by in

Eq. (4-11); and (3) the expression ( ) in Eq. (4-11) is incorrect. The correct expression is

Note that the present form of Eq. (4-8) through Eq. (4-11) is error-prone because different

expressions are used for tension reinforcement. More specifically, expressions of ( ) and

( ) are used in Eq. (4-8) and Eq. (4-10), respectively. However, the expression ( ) is

used in Eq. (4-10) and ( ) in Eq. (4-11) if it is corrected. The use of different expressions of

( ) and ( ) may also cause confusion to users. This potential confusion can be

avoided by changing the expression ( ) in Eq. (4-9) into ( ) and the expression

( ) into ( ) at the same time. Similar changes can be made to Eq. (4-11).

In addition, Section 4.3 of ACI 349.1R7 states that the Poisson’s effect should be included in

Eq. (4-7) of ACI 349.1R. The original equations of ACI 349.1R are rewritten as Eq. (10) through

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