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Psychophysiology, •• (2015),••–••.

544–554.

WileyWiley Periodicals,

Periodicals, Inc. Printed

Inc. Printed in the in the USA.

USA.

C 2014 Society for Psychophysiological

Copyright ©

V Psychophysiological Research

Research

10.1111/psyp.12367

DOI: 10.1111/psyp.12367

The distinct impact of fluid and numerical intelligence

Department of Psychology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, & Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Berlin, Germany

Abstract

This study investigates cognitive resource allocation dependent on fluid and numerical intelligence in arithmetic/

algebraic tasks varying in difficulty. Sixty-six 11th grade students participated in a mathematical verification paradigm,

while pupil dilation as a measure of resource allocation was collected. Students with high fluid intelligence solved the

tasks faster and more accurately than those with average fluid intelligence, as did students with high compared to average

numerical intelligence. However, fluid intelligence sped up response times only in students with average but not high

numerical intelligence. Further, high fluid but not numerical intelligence led to greater task-related pupil dilation. We

assume that fluid intelligence serves as a domain-general resource that helps to tackle problems for which domain-

specific knowledge (numerical intelligence) is missing. The allocation of this resource can be measured by pupil dilation.

Descriptors: Phasic pupil dilation, Arithmetic, Algebra, Fluid intelligence, Numerical intelligence, Individual

differences

Fluid intelligence (FI) plays a crucial role in mathematical achieve- Pupillary Response as an Indicator of Cognitive Load

ment. FI refers to abilities that are required in order to execute

reasoning processes successfully. It allows people to think flexibly The task-evoked pupil dilation (PD) is a measure of processing

and to solve new problems effectively (Cattell, 1987). This implies load (Beatty & Lucero-Wagoner, 2000). PD increases with increas-

that FI enables people to identify complex relations by selecting ing task difficulty (Karatekin, 2004; Landgraf, van der Meer, &

relevant and inhibiting irrelevant information. Individuals with Krüger, 2010). Two theories that explain this relationship between

high FI solve reasoning tasks faster than individuals with average pupil diameter and processing load are:

FI (van der Meer, 1996). Gallagher (1989) found that the perfor- 1. Changes in pupil diameter are related to activation changes

mance on the mathematical subtest of the Scholastic Aptitude Test of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system

(SAT Mathematics) was predicted best out of several variables (FI, (Steinhauer, Siegle, Condray, & Pless, 2004). Although the

visual-spatial abilities, learning style, and verbal subtest of the structures for regulation of pupil size, such as the Edinger-

SAT) by FI, as measured through Raven’s advanced progressive Westphal nucleus, are subcortical, their activity is modulated by

matrices (RAPM; Raven, 1958). However, it remains unclear how cortical regions. Steinhauer et al. (2004) investigated the influ-

FI allows subjects to perform better. Van der Meer et al. (2010) ence of sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways on the

point to FI-related differences in the allocation of cognitive pupillary response during less (add 1) or more (subtract 7)

resources—indicated by the pupillary response—that underlie per- cognitively demanding processing. They were able to identify

formance differences in a geometric analogy task. Their findings the neural dynamics behind this effect: direct cortical and

suggest that pupillometry might be an appropriate measure to indirect corticothalamic-hypothalamic pathways inhibit the

investigate sources of individual differences in mathematical Edinger-Westphal complex of the oculomotor nucleus in the

cognition. midbrain. This leads to the relaxation of the parasympathetically

driven sphincter muscles and thereby to the dilation of the pupil

(Lowenstein, 1955). The authors ascertained that one part of

change in pupil diameter was associated with sympathetic acti-

vation and another with the inhibition of the parasympathetic

This research was supported by grants from the German pathway. Beyond that, an additional component of parasympa-

Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF; Programme: Neu-

roscience Instruction Learning). We thank Nicole Nowacka and Dorothea thetic inhibition was detectable, although only in the cognitive

Reiter for support in data acquisition, and Jan Ries for technical advice. demanding condition, which most probably requires frontal cor-

This work benefited from valuable discussions with Manja Foth, Gesa tical functioning.

Schaadt, and Boris Bornemann. The authors thank Gesa Schaadt, Boris 2. The adaptive gain theory of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine

Bornemann, and Christin Arndt for language editing.

(LC-NE) function (Aston-Jones & Cohen, 2005) proposes that

Address correspondence to: Annika Dix, Institut für Psychologie,

Kognitive Psychologie, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Rudower the pupil diameter probably indexes LC activity. There are two

Chaussee 18, 12489 Berlin, Germany. E-mail: annika.dix@hu-berlin.de modes of LC activity that control neuromodulatory effects

544

1

Arithmetic

2 and algebraic problem solving 545

A. Dix and E. van der Meer

of norepinephric projections on the neocortex and thereby rules as well (Menon, 2010). Neural efficiency most likely emerges

influence task engagement. The tonic activity of the LC-NE after the acquisition of appropriate task-solving strategies

system supports the exploration of the environment by high base (Neubauer & Fink, 2009). For instance, Grabner et al. (2007) dis-

rate neuron firing, allowing sensitivity to all kinds of stimuli covered that individuals with higher numerical intelligence (NI)

(low task engagement). The phasic activity selectively facili- rely more strongly on fact retrieval when solving multiplication

tates responses to task-relevant processes by accentuated firing problems. Ahern and Beatty (1979) reported a more efficient pro-

while filtering responses to irrelevant events (high task cessing of simple, overlearned multiplication tasks across all levels

engagement). of difficulty—measured by phasic PD—by more intelligent indi-

viduals (measured by SAT). In contrast and in accordance with the

We argue that these two theories are not independent, but

resource hypothesis, in the pupillometric study of van der Meer

interrelated with each other. Actually, the same hypothalamic path-

et al. (2010), students with high FI outperformed controls with

ways that drive the sympathetic nervous system are the major

average abilities mainly in the most demanding problems of a

afferents to the LC (Aston-Jones, Ennis, Pieribone, Nickell, &

geometric analogy task, to which they allocated more cognitive

Shipley, 1986) suggesting that both systems function parallel to

resources than average FI controls. This emphasizes the importance

each other.

of investigating the roles of task type and prior knowledge when

Altogether, PD reflects cognitive resource allocation and is

trying to understand how high-FI individuals allocate cognitive

related to LC activity, which excites the cortex and concomitant

resources. Therefore, the current study aimed at testing (a) whether

sympathetic arousal, as well as parasympathetic inhibition, which

the findings of van der Meer et al. (2010) can be generalized to

is the result of frontal cortical activity. In this study, we used the

other mathematical subdomains (cf. Bornemann et al., 2010),

pupillary response to investigate cognitive resource allocation. Our

namely, arithmetic and algebra, and (b) whether they are only

first aim was to figure out how individuals with high FI allocate

specific for FI or also for NI.

cognitive resources compared to individuals with lower FI, when

they are solving different mathematical tasks.

The Current Study

FI and Cognitive Resources The main goal of the current study was to characterize the relation-

There are three hypotheses that put cognitive resources into relation ship between FI, NI, mathematical performance, and resource

with FI and superior performance: First, the efficiency hypothesis allocation. We compared individuals with high and average FI

considers efficiency in neural functioning as the defining criterion and NI in the processing of arithmetic and algebraic tasks with

of FI (Brand, 1984) and, hence, more fluid intelligent individuals varying difficulty. We contrasted the effects of FI (measured by

are expected to spend less mental effort for solving a problem than RAPM; Raven, 1958) with those of NI (measured by Berliner

less fluid intelligent individuals. In other words, they make efficient Intelligenzstruktur-Test, BIS; Jäger, Süß, & Beauducel, 1997) to

use of their resources. Second, the effort hypothesis assumes a compare their impact on solving different mathematical problems.

reverse correlation between FI and the allocation of cognitive Both intelligence measures are partly related to each other (for

resources. That is, more fluid intelligent individuals spend more details concerning the link between FI and NI, see Beauducel,

mental effort for solving a problem than less fluid intelligent indi- Brocke, & Liepmann, 2001; Beauducel & Kersting, 2002), and are

viduals. They put more effort (resources) into the task. Third, the associated with mathematical abilities. Due to this overlap, one

resource hypothesis states that differences in the amount of could expect similar effects of NI and FI not only on task perfor-

invested resources depend on task difficulty (for review, see Just, mance, but also on cognitive resource allocation in mathematical

Carpenter, & Miyake, 2003). More fluid intelligent individuals cognition. On the other hand, findings on resource allocation and

invest more cognitive resources than less fluid intelligent individ- its relation to intelligence are contradictory and might be specific to

uals, but only for solving demanding problems. Findings of van der the intelligence facet and the mathematical domain assessed. As

Meer et al. (2010), who applied a geometric analogy task, concur outlined above, higher NI was associated with higher neural effi-

with this resource hypothesis. ciency in arithmetic problems (Grabner et al., 2007), whereas

Early studies mostly confirmed the efficiency hypothesis higher FI led to the allocation of more cognitive resources, that is,

(Ahern & Beatty, 1979). However, more recent studies reveal some lower neural efficiency in geometric analogy tasks (van der Meer

important moderator variables, such as task difficulty, novelty, et al., 2010). Thus, we assume that NI supports a more efficient

and method (for review, see Neubauer & Fink, 2009). Briefly, processing of simple mathematical tasks, whereas FI enables an

neural efficiency is assumed to be present only in tasks of low to individual to allocate more cognitive resources to solve difficult

moderate task difficulty and most often seems to concern frontal tasks.

brain regions (Preusse, van der Meer, Deshpande, Krüger, & In this study, we made the following predictions: First, we

Wartenburger, 2011; Preusse et al., 2010). With this in mind, it assumed that individuals with high FI and NI would outperform

appears to be crucial to inspect the impact of task demands and individuals with average FI and NI (shorter response times, fewer

other potential moderating factors on the relationship between FI errors). Second, task difficulty was manipulated so that the most

and resource allocation in mathematical cognition in more detail. difficult tasks were constituted of a combination of the easier ones.

Therefore, we expected the performance on difficult tasks to be

Mathematical Cognition, Numerical Intelligence, and partly predictable by the performance on their constituents—the

Cognitive Resources easier tasks. We also assumed an additional distinct impact of FI,

but not NI, on the performance in the difficult tasks, because FI

In order to examine cognitive resource allocation as one source of allows for greater flexibility especially when dealing with new

individual difference in mathematical performance, one should requirements compared to NI. Third, we aimed at extending find-

also consider other influencing factors apart from FI. Actually, ings of van der Meer et al. (2010) on resource allocation in geo-

mathematical cognition depends on retrieval of learned facts and metric analogy tasks to other mathematical subdomains. Thus, we

546

Arithmetic and algebraic problem solving A. Dix and E. van der Meer3

expected individuals with high FI to allocate more cognitive were assigned to the group with higher NI (high-BISnumerical of

resources (greater phasic PD) than individuals with average FI (at high-RAPM: M = 107.6, SD = 3.1). For those with average FI, 16

least in difficult tasks). These findings would support the effort participants scored below the BISnumerical group mean of M = 100.4

hypothesis (or resource hypothesis), but not the efficiency hypoth- and were assigned to the group of individuals with lower NI

esis. Differences in NI are also related to differences in the amount (average-BISnumerical of average-RAPM: M = 95.9, SD = 2.9),

of cognitive resources allocated to the tasks. However, we expected whereas 16 participants scored above the BISnumerical group mean of

a reverse direction of this relationship compared to FI, namely, M = 100.4 and were assigned to the group with higher NI (high-

the allocation of less cognitive resources by individuals with BISnumerical of average-RAPM: M = 104.9, SD = 3.9). The resulting

higher NI, supporting the efficiency hypothesis (cf. Ahern & two groups for the whole sample, namely, high and average FI with

Beatty, 1979; Grabner et al., 2007). This should be reflected in a lower NI (average-BISnumerical: M = 97.3, SD = 3.2) and high and

smaller phasic PD for individuals with higher NI than individuals average FI with higher NI (high-BISnumerical: M = 106.3, SD = 3.7)

with lower NI. differed significantly in their numerical BIS scores, t(64) = −10.41,

p ≤ .001, one-tailed, r = .79.

After this procedure, the classification of participants according

Method to RAPM IQ and to the numerical BIS score did not correlate any

Participants longer (coefficient of contingency φ = −.03, p = .41, one-tailed)

excluding confounding factors of the overlap between FI and NI for

Originally, 91 Grade 11 students of three Berlin schools that spe- further analyses.

cialized in mathematics and natural sciences participated. Alto-

gether, 66 participants were included in the analysis (13 female; Experimental Paradigm

age: M = 15.1 years, SD = 0.5). Reasons for exclusion are

described below. All of them had normal or corrected-to-normal The test consisted of a control condition—number/symbol identity

vision, no history of neurological or psychiatric diseases, and were task—and an experimental condition (see Figure 1).

not taking any medication. The students and their parents gave In the control condition, participants received an instruction

informed written consent prior to the investigation. Students were about the number/symbol identity task. They had to compare two

paid for their participation. one-digit or two-digit numbers, or two algebraic terms (each

consisting of one variable) and evaluate their identity. We imple-

Psychometric Tests mented the task to control for visual and motor activity. After

performing four practice trials, participants had to complete the

The screening test was accomplished 1 year prior to the experiment 28 trials of this condition (14 numbers and 14 algebraic terms;

and included the following psychometric tests: FI was measured by 50% identical, i.e., target items and 50% different, i.e., distractor

the RAPM (Raven, 1958; Heller, Kratzmeier, & Lengfelder, 1998). items).

The numerical subtests of the four operations facets (processing In the experimental condition, participants were instructed to

capacity, memory, fluency, and processing speed) of the BIS (Jäger mentally solve mathematical problems belonging to one of six

et al., 1997) were applied in order to assess NI. problem types as quickly and accurately as possible (probe).

Considering the association between FI and NI mentioned Afterwards, they had to evaluate the correctness of a given can-

above (see Beauducel et al., 2001; Beauducel & Kersting, 2002), didate answer (see Figure 2). Task material was designed so that,

we expected a positive correlation between the ascertained scores first, problem types differed in their difficulty and, second, the

of FI and NI. Pearson’s bivariate correlation revealed a moderate most difficult problem type f was composed of task features of the

relationship between the RAPM IQ and the numerical BIS score easier problem types c and e. Accordingly, we assumed the per-

(r = .32, p ≤ .01, one-tailed). formance on problem type f to be predictable by the performance

To investigate the impact of FI and NI on mathematical perfor- on its constituent parts c and e. Each problem type was explained

mance and resource allocation in detail, we divided our sample into separately prior to the experimental phase and consisted of 28

two groups of students differing in their RAPM scores and two items, 14 targets (correct candidate answers) and 14 distractors

groups of students differing in their BIS scores. First, participants (incorrect candidate answers). The problem types were practiced

were divided into two groups based on their RAPM scores (whole in four practice trials directly after instruction and repeated until a

sample: M = 118.4, SD = 16.5): 32 participants scored in the range hit ratio of 75% was reached. Afterwards, the overall 168 items of

of 85–115 IQ points and were assigned to the average FI group the experimental condition were presented in pseudorandomized

(average-RAPM; M = 103.8, SD = 7.6), whereas 34 participants order (self-paced pauses after 28 trials). Stimuli were presented

scored above 115 IQ points and were assigned to the high FI group in black color with a mean luminance of 36.5 cd/m2 (36.2–

(high-RAPM; M = 132.2, SD = 8.9). The two groups differed sig- 36.8 cd/m2 for the six different problem types) on a light gray

nificantly in their RAPM IQ, t(64) = −13.92, p ≤ .001, one-tailed, background with a mean luminance of 39.5 cd/m2. The whole test

r = .87, as well as in their numerical BIS scores, t(64) = −1.72, took about 1 hr to complete. Response times (RTs) and PD for

p ≤ .05, one-tailed, r = .21. probes reflecting the computation time and the amount of cogni-

To consider the correlation between FI and NI (r = .32), our tive resources allocated to the task, as well as RTs and error rates

second classification of participants was realized by dividing each for targets (see Figure 2), were recorded as dependent variables.

RAPM group into two groups according to their numerical BIS Because of the variety of reasons that can lead to incorrect com-

scores (whole sample: M = 101.7, SD = 5.7): 18 participants with putational results, we focused only on the correctly solved tasks

high FI scored below the BISnumerical group mean of M = 102.8 and for the analyses of RTs and PD. In addition, it is not necessary to

were assigned to the group of individuals with lower NI (average- generate the correct solution of the task in order to identify a

BISnumerical of high-RAPM: M = 98.6, SD = 3.1), whereas 16 par- distractor as incorrect. Thus, calculation errors cannot always be

ticipants scored above the BISnumerical group mean of M = 102.8 and detected. Altogether, this led us to only analyze the data for cor-

Arithmetic

4 and algebraic problem solving 547

A. Dix and E. van der Meer

target target

distractor distractor

Experimental condition

target target

a. d.

distractor distractor

target target

b. e.

distractor distractor

target target

c. f.

distractor distractor

Figure 1. Examples of arithmetic and algebraic expressions (left) and correct (target) and incorrect (distractor) candidate answers (right).

Control condition: one- or two-digit numbers (left), algebraic terms (right). Experimental condition: arithmetic problem types with increasing task difficulty:

a. multiplication of two one-digit numbers, b. canceling down of two one- or two-digit numbers, c. operations with fractions (a and b combined); algebraic

problem types with increasing task difficulty: d. simplifying basic algebraic expressions, e. simplifying advanced algebraic expressions; combined arithmetic

and algebraic problem type: f. simplifying complex algebraic expressions (c and e combined).

rectly solved target items (items with correct candidate answers, each participant, a calibration was performed to obtain a transfor-

which were recognized as such). mation from the measured pupil size in pixels into pupil size in

millimeters: a black dot of a fixed diameter of 5 mm was placed on

Data Acquisition the closed right eyelid. Its pixel size was registered and then used

to determine an exchange ratio for converting pixels to pupil diam-

Participants were tested separately in a quiet, moderately eter in millimeters.

illuminated room (background luminance 500 lx). To control for

pupil-influencing factors (e.g., drug consumption, medication, psy- Data Analyses

chiatric and neurological dysfunction; cf. Loewenfeld, 1993), par-

ticipants completed a corresponding pen-and-paper questionnaire Data analysis for behavioral data (RTs, error rates) was computed

(simultaneous background luminance adaptation). Then, they were with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 15 (SPSS Inc.,

seated in front of a computer screen (size of the display: 19″, Chicago, IL). First, an outlier analysis was conducted: correct trials

display resolution: 1,024 × 768) at a distance of 60 cm. The testing for which RTs for probe and/or target1 were two SDs above or

was conducted on a computer using the software Presentation 9.01 below the sample mean of the regarded item as well as items on

(Neurobehavioral Systems Inc., Albany, CA) running on a which RTs for probe and/or target were two SDs above or below the

Microsoft Windows XP operating system. This computer, which sample mean of the regarded problem type were removed. Thereby,

recorded the behavioral data, was connected to a second computer 11.64% of the trials were eliminated. The occurrence of outliers

using an iViewX Hi-Speed system (SensoMotoric Instruments was independent of the problem type. Afterwards, the responses

GmbH, Teltow, Germany) that recorded a measurement of the pupil were averaged for each condition and participant. MATLAB 7.1

diameter of the right eye with a sampling frequency of 240 Hz. The (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA) and SPSS 15 were used for

pupillometer (infrared light source with λ = 700–1,049 nm and

video camera sensitive to infrared light) was attached to a stand 1. We wanted to ensure that participants did not calculate once again by

with a chin rest and forehead support to stabilize the participant’s inspecting the RTs for targets. Hence, trials with long RTs for target were

head. All instructions and tests were presented on a screen. For discarded.

548

Arithmetic and algebraic problem solving A. Dix and E. van der Meer5

Probe (self-paced)

Candidate answer

(self-paced)

t

Figure 2. Trial scheme: A centered fixation cross (the last 200 ms were used to measure the pretrial pupil baseline diameter) was followed by the

mathematical problem (experimental condition; probe) or the number/variable (control condition; probe). The candidate answer (target/distractor) was

requested by pressing a button. Responses about the correctness of the candidate answer were given by pressing the left (right index finger) or right (right

ring finger) arrow key (assignment of keys—correct vs. incorrect—was counterbalanced). To keep the luminance of the stimuli constant over the whole trial,

the remainder of the mathematical equation was blurred during the presentation of the probe and later the candidate answer. After the second response, a

blurred mask of the whole item appeared followed by a blank screen (relaxation phase).

pupillary data. Before the statistical data analysis, pupillary linear regression approach to predict RTs (only probe) of problem

data were cleaned following standard procedures (Beatty & type f: first, including RTs of the constituent problem types c and e;

Lucero-Wagoner, 2000; Granholm, Asarnow, Sarkin, & Dykes, second, the peak PD of these problem types; and, third, FI and NI

1996): trials with excessive blinking were discarded. There was no to capture their additional impact independent of that already

systematic distribution of pupillary artifacts across the problem covered by RTs and PD. Significant main effects of our analyses

types of the experimental condition. Small blinks were replaced by were further analyzed by separate t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank

cubical interpolation. An average of 79% of all trials remained after tests. For all analyses, a rejection criterion of p ≤ .05 was chosen

discarding errors, outliers, and artifacts. The pupillary responses (Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons).

were baseline corrected for each trial subtracting the average pupil

diameter of a 200-ms period before stimulus onset (pretrial base-

line correction). We computed a response-locked (first button press Results

after presentation of the probe)2 pupillary response, smoothed by

Behavioral Data

an unweighted 5-point moving average filter, for each problem type

and participant. To extract a reliable measurement of pupillary Number/symbol identity task (control condition). Descriptive

response and to reduce noise in data for the statistical analyses, we statistics for this task are displayed in Table 1a, including means

only allowed an average of at least seven trials per problem type and standard deviations of RTs and error rates dependent on FI and

and participant. As a result, we retained 66 participants with an NI. One participant reversed the assignment of keys in the number/

available pupillary response for all problem types. The groups symbol identity task and was therefore excluded from this com-

classified according to the intelligence scores did not differ in the parison. A 2 (GroupRAPM: high vs. average FI) × 2 (GroupBIS-numerical:

number of losses. The peak PD of the computational process (i.e., higher vs. lower NI) ANOVA on RTs as dependent variable was

probe), defined as the maximal dilation until 1,000 ms after the first performed. It revealed a statistically significant main effect of

button press, was determined for each condition and participant. groupRAPM, F(1,61) = 4.89, p ≤ .05, η2 = .07. Participants with high

Assumptions for the statistical data analyses were tested. Error FI performed significantly faster than participants with average FI.

rates were not normally distributed (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). The main effect of groupBIS-numerical, F(1,61) = 1.02, p = .32,

Thus, nonparametric procedures were performed. For repeated η2 = .02, and the interaction GroupRAPM × GroupBIS-numerical,

measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs), degrees of freedom F(1,61) = 1.03, p = .31, η2 = .02, did not reach significance. The

were Greenhouse-Geisser corrected, if the assumption of sphericity error rate did not differ with respect to FI (Mann-Whitney

was violated. We computed factorial and repeated measures U = 484.00, p = .46, two-tailed) and NI (Mann-Whitney

ANOVAs for RTs (only probe) and peak PD, and Kruskal-Wallis U = 601.50, p = .20, two-tailed).

test and Friedman test for error rates. We applied a hierarchical

2. Stimulus-locked results were analyzed as well. Results are consis- Table 1b, including means and standard deviations of RTs and error

tent with the response-locked results reported below. rates for all six problem types dependent on FI and NI.

Arithmetic

6 and algebraic problem solving 549

A. Dix and E. van der Meer

High-RAPMa Average-RAPMa

High-BISnumericalb Average-BISnumericalb High-BISnumericalb Average-BISnumericalb

RTs

M (ms) 796.68 796.45 842.18 919.11

SD (ms) 132.39 154.45 150.00 171.93

Error rates

M (%) 1.34 3.57 1.42 1.79

SD (%) 2.88 5.05 2.96 3.19

Peak PD

M (mm) 0.37 0.42 0.36 0.25

SD (mm) 0.17 0.19 0.15 0.16

a

Comparison of individuals with high FI (high-RAPM) and individuals with average FI (average-RAPM).

b

Comparison of individuals with higher NI (high-BISnumerical) and individuals with lower NI (average-BISnumerical).

RTs. A 2 (GroupRAPM: high vs. average FI) × 2 (GroupBIS-numerical: Difficulty just failed to reach significance, F(1.40,86.83) = 2.91,

higher vs. lower NI) × 6 (Task Difficulty: six problem types) p = .08, η2 = .05. RTs increased for more difficult tasks and

repeated measures ANOVA on RTs as dependent variable was individuals with high FI performed faster than individuals with

performed. It revealed statistically significant main effects of task average FI except in tasks of problem type a (multiplication; see

difficulty, F(1.40,86.83) = 906.80, p ≤ .001, η2 = .94; groupRAPM, also Figure 3). Individuals with higher NI were faster than individ-

F(1,62) = 9.73, p ≤ .01, one-tailed, η2 = .14; and groupBIS-numerical, uals with lower NI. The difference for problem type e was statisti-

F(1,62) = 12.66, p ≤ .01, one-tailed, η2 = .17; as well as a significant cally larger than the differences for problem types a (z = 1.60,

interaction of GroupRAPM × Difficulty, F(1.40,86.83) = 8.94, p ≤ .01, p ≤ .05), d (z = 2.20, p ≤ .05), and f (z = 1.78, p ≤ .05). As a trend,

η2 = .13; and GroupBIS-numerical × Difficulty, F(1.40,86.83) = 5.39, high FI speeds up RTs only for participants with lower NI. In

p ≤ .05, η2 = .08. There was no significant interaction of contrast, higher NI speeds up RTs for participants with average FI in

GroupRAPM × GroupBIS-numerical, F(1,62) = 2.27, p = .14, η2 = .04. all problem types and for participants with high FI in problem types

Also, the interaction of GroupRAPM × GroupBIS-numerical × Task b, c, and e.

High-RAPMb

High-BISnumericalc (N = 16) Average-BISnumericalc (N = 18)

a

Problem type a b c d e f a b c d e f

RTs (probe)

M (ms) 1,637 1,476 4,735 2,086 4,685 13,311 1,707 1,822 5,714 2,318 5,851 13,939

SD (ms) 568 281 965 490 986 2,850 410 428 1,902 720 1,600 3,174

Error rates

M (%) 1.786 1.786 10.268 1.339 4.018 16.517 5.159 2.778 15.873 2.778 3.571 18.254

SD (%) 3.194 3.194 5.813 2.879 4.494 8.539 6.845 4.984 9.969 4.341 5.614 10.741

Peak PD

M (mm) 0.318 0.389 0.419 0.355 0.434 0.530 0.343 0.351 0.517 0.369 0.468 0.568

SD (mm) 0.172 0.173 0.183 0.157 0.185 0.210 0.175 0.171 0.208 0.166 0.211 0.227

Average-RAPMb

High-BISnumerical (N = 16)

c

Average-BISnumericalc (N = 16)

Problem typea a b c d e f a b c d e f

RTs (probe)

M (ms) 1,633 1,632 5,290 2,352 5,125 14,588 2,131 2,091 6,857 2,754 6,872 18,363

SD (ms) 563 463 962 489 1,044 2,808 642 507 1,810 723 1,493 4,772

Error rates

M (%) 1.905 1.429 14.286 7.142 13.810 20.000 2.232 2.232 15.625 5.357 12.500 24.107

SD (%) 4.240 2.957 8.099 11.454 16.744 11.197 3.419 3.419 11.434 6.650 12.372 11.331

Peak PD

M (mm) 0.289 0.295 0.378 0.316 0.393 0.491 0.264 0.246 0.345 0.252 0.322 0.440

SD (mm) 0.125 0.099 0.160 0.138 0.210 0.177 0.141 0.147 0.150 0.162 0.133 0.138

a

Problem type: a = multiplication of two one-digit numbers; b = canceling down of two one- or two-digit numbers; c = operations with fractions;

d = simplifying basic algebraic expressions; e = simplifying advanced algebraic expressions; f = simplifying complex algebraic expressions.

b

Comparison of individuals with high FI (high-RAPM) and individuals with average FI (average-RAPM).

c

Comparison of individuals with higher NI (high-BISnumerical) and individuals with lower NI (average-BISnumerical).

550

Arithmetic and algebraic problem solving A. Dix and E. van der Meer7

F(1,62) = 5.69, p ≤ .05, η2 = .08. Peak PD increased for more

difficult tasks (Figure 4), and individuals with high FI exhibited

a larger peak PD than individuals with average FI. The main effect

of groupBIS-numerical, F(1,62) < 1, as well as the interactions

of Task Difficulty × GroupRAPM, F(3.85,238.46) < 1, Task

Difficulty × GroupBIS-numerical, F(3.85,238.46) = 1.23, p = .30,

GroupRAPM × GroupBIS-numerical, F(1,62) = 1.13, p = .29, and

GroupRAPM × GroupBIS-numerical × Task Difficulty, F(3.85,238.46) < 1,

were not statistically significant.

Table 2 contains the model fit and the included predictor variables

Figure 3. Experimental condition: RTs dependent on FI and NI for all six for different models for RTs on tasks of problem type f. The

problem types (a. multiplication of two one-digit numbers, b. canceling regression model for the whole sample included the RTs on opera-

down of two one- or two-digit numbers, c. operations with fractions, tions with fractions (problem type c) and simplifying advanced

d. simplifying basic algebraic expressions, e. simplifying advanced algebraic expressions (problem type e) as predictor variables and,

algebraic expressions, f. simplifying complex algebraic expressions). Light additionally, the peak PD exhibited during these two problem

gray rectangles on bars of different problem types mark the same task types. Thereby, 68% of the performance variance could be

difficulty of these problem types; all other comparisons revealed explained. For individuals with average FI, only the speed (RTs) in

statistically significant differences in RTs (Bonferroni corrected). simplifying advanced algebraic expressions (problem type e)

showed a predictive value for the performance in the mixed arith-

metic and algebraic problem type f. On the contrary, the regression

Error rates. A Friedman test on error rates revealed a statisti- model of individuals with high FI contained the RTs as well as

cally significant main effect of task difficulty, χ2(5) = 191.25, the PD in both math problems. A reverse difference concerning

p ≤ .001, two-tailed. Paired comparisons by sign test identified the predictor variables was observed for the comparison

problem types a, b, and d to be solved most accurately, followed by of the regression models dependent on NI: RTs on problem types

problem types c and e. Most of the mistakes were made in tasks of c and e, as well as PD for problem type e and FI, showed a

problem type f. A Mann-Whitney U test showed a significant dif- predictive value for the performance in problem type f for individ-

ference concerning the error rates depending on FI (U = 378.50, uals with lower NI, whereas the regression model of individuals

p ≤ .05, one-tailed) and NI (U = 404.00, p ≤ .05, one-tailed) with with higher NI contained only the RTs of both problem types c

fewer errors for individuals with high FI (M = 5.95%, SD = 3.07) and e.

and higher NI (M = 6.63%, SD = 4.73) than individuals with

average FI (M = 8.85%, SD = 5.67) and lower NI (M = 8.04%, Discussion

SD = 4.67).

The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationship

Pupillary Data between task difficulty, fluid (FI) and numerical intelligence (NI),

resource allocation, and mathematical performance across two

Number/symbol identity task (control condition). Descriptive mathematical domains. Participants were presented with arithmetic

statistics for this task are displayed in Table 1a including means and algebraic problems differing in task composition and difficulty.

and standard deviations of peak PD dependent on FI and NI. A 2 We assessed RTs and error rates as well as phasic pupil dilation

(GroupRAPM: high vs. average FI) × 2 (GroupBIS-numerical: higher vs. (PD; Aston-Jones & Cohen, 2005).

lower NI) ANOVA on peak PD as dependent variable was per- The main results of our study can be summarized as follows:

formed. It revealed a statistically significant main effect of First, the arithmetic and algebraic problems were solved faster and

groupRAPM, F(1,60) = 3.89, p = .05, η2 = .06. The main effect more accurately by individuals with high compared to average FI

of groupBIS-numerical, F(1,60) < 1) and—if only just—the interaction while individuals with high FI showed greater PD. Second, indi-

of GroupRAPM × GroupBIS-numerical, F(1,60) = 3.14, p = .08, η2 = .05, viduals with higher NI outperformed individuals with lower

did not reach significance. Individuals with high FI exhibited sig- NI behaviorally, but PD did not differ between these two groups.

nificantly greater peak PD than individuals with average FI. Third, RTs in the more difficult tasks were (only) partly predictable

However, the marginally significant interaction effect might indi- by the performance in the easier tasks, of which they were

cate that this greater peak PD is only observable among those composed. PD was an additional predictor of performance in

individuals with high FI that are at the same time characterized by the more difficult tasks only for individuals with high FI and

a lower NI (see Table 1a). lower NI.

Experimental condition. Descriptive statistics for the experimen- Impact of Intelligence (FI vs. NI) on Mathematical

tal condition are displayed in Table 1b including means and standard Performance

deviations of peak PD for all six problem types dependent on FI and

NI.A2 (GroupRAPM: high vs. average FI) × 2 (GroupBIS-numerical: higher We discovered that individuals with high FI and higher NI solved

vs. lower NI) × 6 (Task Difficulty: six problem types) repeated the arithmetic and algebraic problems more accurately than indi-

measures ANOVA on peak PD as dependent variable yielded viduals with average FI and lower NI. This meets our first hypoth-

statistically significant main effects of task difficulty, esis and is in accordance with previous findings showing that errors

Arithmetic

8 and algebraic problem solving 551

A. Dix and E. van der Meer

0,6

high-RAPM: High diﬃculty high-BIS: High diﬃculty

average-RAPM: High diﬃculty average-BIS: High diﬃculty

high-RAPM: Medium diﬃculty high-BIS: Medium diﬃculty

0,5

average-RAPM: Medium diﬃculty average-BIS: Medium diﬃculty

high-RAPM: Low diﬃculty high-BIS: Low diﬃculty

average-RAPM: Low diﬃculty average-BIS: Low diﬃculty

0,4

Pupil Dilaon (mm)

0,3

0,2

0,1

0

-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1

Figure 4. Experimental condition: pupillary responses (response-locked) dependent on FI (high-RAPM: individuals with high FI, average-RAPM:

individuals with average FI) and difficulty (low difficulty comprises tasks from problem types a. multiplication of two one-digit numbers, b. canceling down

of two one- or two-digit numbers, and d. simplifying basic algebraic expressions; medium difficulty comprises tasks from problem types c. operations with

fractions, and e. simplifying advanced algebraic expressions; high difficulty comprises tasks from problem type f. simplifying complex algebraic

expressions); peak PD between problem types did not differ within each level in this graduation of difficulty, but between these levels (Bonferroni corrected).

might arise from a lack of relevant knowledge, for instance, of distinct levels of FI do not differ in basic learned mathematical

logical schemes, or even out of a malfunction of control mecha- fact retrieval as in multiplication up to 100. Higher NI, by con-

nisms (Moutier & Houdé, 2003). Low factual and procedural trast, is indeed associated with increased arithmetic fluency—a

knowledge in mathematics is associated with low NI, whereas FI is higher familiarity with corresponding declarative knowledge—

particularly related to executive control processes such as the inhi- leading to shorter RTs even in the easiest problem type a. Alto-

bition of prepotent responses (Friedman et al., 2008), for instance, gether, our first hypothesis about a better performance in

due to the intrusion of earlier, less effective strategies, which have individuals with high compared to average FI and NI has been

been shown to influence performance on algebraic word problems mostly confirmed. Moreover, different impacts of FI and NI on

(Khng & Lee, 2009) and mathematical achievement in adolescents performance could be characterized: FI compared to NI allows for

(Latzman, Elkovitch, Young, & Clark, 2010). faster responses especially in a new task.

Concerning RTs, individuals with high FI were, besides the Regarding the relationship between these impacts, it seems

lower error rate, also faster than individuals with average FI in that higher NI speeds up RTs for participants with average and

processing the tasks except in the easiest problem type a, involv- high FI, whereas high FI speeds up RTs only for participants with

ing only fact retrieval. Individuals with higher NI outperformed lower, but not with higher, NI. This appears quite reasonable,

individuals with lower NI in every task type. If individuals with when thinking of FI as a compensational ability for a lack of

high FI cope better with the task format in general than individ- relevant declarative and procedural knowledge by providing alter-

uals with average FI, we would have expected an advantage in all native procedures for problem solving (cf. Blair, 2006). How this

problem types, even in problem type a. Hence, the FI-related might be reflected in resource allocation and in the performance

advantage must be specific to another characteristic of the par- on tasks with different task demands will be discussed in the

ticular tasks. That individuals with high FI, but not higher NI, following sections.

were already faster in the control condition replicates previous

results (Neubauer, 1997; van der Meer et al., 2010) and supports Task Demands

the idea that FI, but not NI (Longstreth, Walsh, Alcorn,

Szeszulski, & Manis, 1986; Nettlebeck, Edwards, & Vreugdenhil, The second aim of our study was to predict the performance on

1986), allows individuals to deal faster particularly with new more difficult tasks by the performance on their constituent parts,

tasks. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that individuals with and in this context to additionally determine the impact of FI and

552

Arithmetic and algebraic problem solving A. Dix and E. van der Meer9

Table 2. Linear Regression Models for Problem Type f assumed to indicate further task demands beyond those that are

(Simplifying Complex Algebraic Expressions) already present in the constituent conditions. The need to gain a

broader overview, to plan more processing steps, to maintain a

Problem type fa number of interim results in memory, as well as the monitoring of

Predictor variables b

B SE of B βc r2 the complex calculating process and its results are possible candi-

dates. Further research is needed to shed light on these additional

Linear regression model for the whole sample (R2d = .68) processes. About 5 percent of the performance variance was

Step 1 (ΔR2 = .63, p ≤ .001)

Constant 3,154.53 1,190.68 explained by differences in peak PD and might reflect coping with

RTs problem type ca 0.64 0.28 .27* .03 these additional processes. We hypothesized that the performance

RTs problem type ea 1.46 0.30 .57*** .14 in the easier tasks and FI, but not NI, have an impact on

Step 2 (ΔR = .05, p ≤ .05)

2

the performance in the difficult tasks. As peak PD is related to

Constant 3,640.87 1,517.55

RTs problem type c 0.73 0.27 .31* .04

FI, but not NI—as we describe below—our expectation is fully

RTs problem type e 1.39 0.30 .54*** .11 confirmed.

e

PPD problem type c −7,194.82 2,365.43 −.34** .05

PPD problem type e 5,917.93 2,310.19 .29* .03

Intelligence and Allocation of Cognitive Resources

Linear regression model for individuals with average FI (R2 = .61)

Step 1 (ΔR2 = .61, p ≤ .001) Our third aim was to examine the role of resource allocation indi-

Constant 3,473.29 1,968.95 cated by PD dependent on FI and NI in mathematical cognition.

RTs problem type e 2.17 0.32 .78*** .61

Three contrasting hypotheses on the relationship between task

Linear regression model for individuals with high FI (R = .71)

2

difficulty and allocation of cognitive resources dependent on

Step 1 (ΔR2 = .63, p ≤ .001)

Constant 4,912.64 1,265.35 intelligence were described in the introduction: the efficiency,

RTs problem type c 0.76 0.34 .40* .06 effort, and resource hypothesis. In the experimental condition,

RTs problem type e 0.89 0.37 .43* .07 peak PD as an indicator of processing load (Beatty &

Step 2 (ΔR2 = .08, p ≤ .05) Lucero-Wagoner, 2000) was sensitive to task difficulty. Peak PD

Constant 4,592.42 1,443.19

RTs problem type c 0.81 0.31 .43* .07

increased with increasing task difficulty. Furthermore, as hypoth-

RTs problem type e 0.97 0.34 .47* .08 esized, individuals with high FI outperformed individuals with

PPD problem type c −7,239.36 2,613.77 −.48** .08 average FI while allocating more cognitive resources (higher PD)

PPD problem type e 6,848.19 2,677.90 .45* .07 to all tasks independent of task difficulty and composition. These

Linear regression model for individuals with lower NI (R2 = .77) findings support the effort hypothesis. Steinhauer et al. (2004)

Step 1 (ΔR2 = .61, p ≤ .001) found that parasympathetic inhibition, which results in the dila-

Constant 1,980.71 2,065.23 tion of the pupil and is related to frontal cortical functioning, only

RTs problem type e 1.74 0.47 .62*** .17

Step 2 (ΔR2 = .10, p ≤ .05) occurs in cognitively demanding tasks. However, as discussed in

Constant 2,680.43 2,543.49 the introduction, higher PD also goes hand in hand with sympa-

RTs problem type c 0.88 0.38 .37* .05 thetic activity and locus coeruleus activation, leading to higher

RTs problem type e 1.35 0.46 .48** .09 cortical activation and a stronger task focus (Aston-Jones &

PPD problem type c −11,761.50 3,894.70 −.52** .09

PPD problem type e 11,038.62 4,031.78 .47** .08

Cohen, 2005). Moreover, sympathetically driven differences in

Step 3 (ΔR2 = .06, p ≤ .05) task engagement might be associated with the better performance

Constant 9,393.18 14,575.90 we found for individuals with high FI.

RTs problem type c 0.75 0.35 .32* .04 The result of a higher resource allocation in students with high

RTs problem type e 1.25 0.43 .45** .07 compared to average FI is contradictory to the findings of Ahern

PPD problem type e 8,982.80 3,840.10 .38* .05

f

RAPM score −82.20 31.87 −.30* .06 and Beatty (1979), who reported a more efficient processing of

multiplication tasks in more intelligent individuals. This might be

Linear regression model for individuals with higher NI (R2 = .64)

Step 1 (ΔR2 = .64, p ≤ .001) due to the fact that the authors compared the resource allocation

Constant 1,340.90 1,785.13 of individuals based on SAT scores. This standardized test for

RTs problem type c 1.16 0.40 .40** .11 college admission in the United States includes a verbal subtest

RTs problem type e 1.38 0.38 .50*** .16 related to crystallized intelligence and a mathematical subtest that

a

Problem type: c = operations with fractions; e = simplifying advanced do not only stress FI, but also emphasize several trained skills

algebraic expressions; f = simplifying complex algebraic expressions. mainly associated with NI, such as knowledge about prime

b

B = unstandardized beta coefficient; SE = standard error; β = standardized numbers or the binomial theorem, to a large extent. As expected

beta coefficient; r2 = semipartial correlation coefficient. and in line with this, our study did not find high NI to be related

c

Significance of t value marked: *< .05; **< .01; ***< .001.

to a higher phasic PD. Actually, the absolute values of the peak

d

ΔR2 = improvement in the amount of variance in RTs explained by the

model. PD are—in line with Ahern and Beatty (1979), albeit not signifi-

e

PPD = peak PD. cantly—lower for individuals with higher NI compared to indi-

f

RAPM score = FI. viduals with lower NI. Altogether, our hypothesis concerning the

allocation of cognitive resources dependent on FI (effort or

resource hypothesis) and NI (efficiency hypothesis) has generally

been confirmed. Our results extend findings of van der Meer et al.

NI. The regression model of RTs for the most difficult problem (2010) to tasks with different levels of difficulty and of other

type f explained 68% of the performance variance. Differences in mathematical subdomains, namely, arithmetic and algebra.

the performance on tasks of problem types c and e—the constituent Furthermore, they point to the relevance to consider different

parts of problem type f—already predicted 63% of the performance intelligence facets and their specific relationship to neural effi-

differences in problem type f. The unexplained remainder is ciency when investigating higher cognition. The dissociation in

Arithmetic

10 and algebraic problem solving 553

A. Dix and E. van der Meer

cognition suggests that the allocation of more resources by indi-

viduals with high FI is in fact one source underlying individual This study provided new insights into arithmetic and algebraic

differences in mathematical abilities, as we will discuss in more cognition and its relationship to FI and NI as sources of individ-

detail below. ual differences. We were able to demonstrate a central role of FI

for the allocation of cognitive resources in mathematical cogni-

tion. Moreover, in our study, high FI allows for a better perfor-

FI: A Compensational Mechanism? mance in arithmetic and algebraic tasks by allocating more

Looking at our results in more detail, we suppose FI to be a cognitive resources. This could be observed for all levels of task

compensational mechanism for a lack of relevant declarative and difficulty. Our results are consistent with the findings of van der

procedural knowledge as already shown by the interaction effect of Meer et al. (2010) on a geometric analogy task in the way that

FI and NI on RTs. This consideration is further supported by individuals with high compared to average FI allocate more cog-

several additional findings of this study. nitive resources. Though the amount of resources also depends on

First, PD was only included as a predictor for RTs in the regres- the task type and its difficulty, a higher resource allocation first of

sion model for participants with high, but not for participants with all contradicts the efficiency hypothesis. Interestingly, NI is also

average FI. Conversely, PD only predicted RTs of individuals with positively related to mathematical performance in our study and

lower, but not higher NI. This finding can be linked to the shorter even gives additional advantage for individuals with high FI;

RTs of individuals with high compared to average FI, which was however, it does not affect the amount of cognitive resources allo-

revealed as a trend only for lower NI. It suggests that only individ- cated to task processing. This strongly argues in favor of seri-

uals with lower NI employ procedures associated with greater PD ously considering the specific facet of intelligence (e.g., FI vs.

and FI, leading to better performance, whereas individuals with NI) when interpreting related differences in neural efficiency.

higher NI are able to employ task-relevant declarative and pro- Further, we were able to predict the computation time in the most

cedural knowledge. difficult task condition by using the performance on the easier

Second, individuals with high FI generally allocated more tasks to a remarkable degree.

cognitive resources than individuals with average FI. This was Therefore, the following conclusions can be drawn: In the

even shown for the number/symbol identity task, but only for field of mathematical cognition, high NI—meaning a high avail-

individuals with lower NI. This finding raises the question of ability of knowledge of relevant schemes and procedures for

which processes are reflected in the PD in response to our tasks. solving mathematical problems—allows for superior perfor-

Possible candidates are math-supportive operations associated mance, as one would have expected. In contrast, FI seems to

with frontal activity and math-specific operations associated with become relevant more likely when required knowledge is missing

parietal activity (Dehaene, Piazza, Pinel, & Cohen, 2003). due to high task demands or a lack of abilities (e.g., low NI). The

Steinhauer et al. (2004) reported parasympathetic inhibition that greater resource allocation in individuals with high FI indicated

is related to PD only in demanding tasks requiring frontal cortical by greater PD might reflect a stronger activation of the IPS and

functioning. Since we found differences in resource allocation for subsequently an increased reliance on language-independent

all tasks, the PD in response to our tasks does not seem to be numerical operations. Due to the difficulty of our tasks,3 individ-

linked mainly to this parasympathetic inhibition and frontal func- uals with high FI seem to apply these operations to all tasks

tioning, but rather to the sympathetic pathway. We cannot pre- leading to a generally greater PD and better performance com-

clude a contribution of frontal activity to this pathway. However, pared to individuals with average FI.

Landgraf et al. (2010) found the pupil not to be sensitive to Altogether, our study made the crucial point that the investiga-

frontal activity, but to activity in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). tion of mathematical cognition can be enriched by combining dif-

The IPS is proposed as a language-independent representational ferent methods (psychometric tests, traditional behavioral

system of numerical quantity (Dehaene et al., 2003). We can measures like RTs and error rates, and psychophysiological param-

speculate that IPS activity is reflected in PD and hence that FI eters like phasic pupillary response), facets of intelligence (FI vs.

is supportive for corresponding processes (e.g., complex direct NI), and levels of analysis (task performance vs. resource alloca-

calculation). By contrast, NI might support linguistically tion). This allows for supporting or rejecting results on different

mediated operations (e.g., fact retrieval) associated with activity levels of scientific analysis. Also and most importantly, this com-

of the angular gyrus (AG). This explanation is based on positive bination is a powerful approach to shed light on dependencies and

correlations found between FI and IPS activity in a geometric interactions of factors that impact mathematical cognition. Future

analogy task (Preusse et al., 2011) and between NI and AG activ- studies should consider individual strategies for solving math-

ity even in tasks solely requiring the mapping between symbols ematical problems (e.g., using eye movement analyses; cf.

and numerical magnitude (Grabner et al., 2007). In our study, Vigneau, Caissie, & Bors, 2006) and explicitly investigate the

a greater PD in individuals with high FI might reflect a more impact of learning and automatization as one moderator variable

extensive activation of the IPS already present in the number/ proven to influence the relationship between the amount of cogni-

symbol identity task. It could have facilitated the representation tive resources invested and the behavioral performance (Neubauer

of numerical quantity, but only in individuals with lower NI. & Fink, 2009).

Individuals with higher NI rely on AG activity more strongly

(Grabner et al., 2007), which might not be reflected in

PD.

Altogether, we assume that FI acts as a compensational mecha-

nism that becomes especially relevant when task demands exceed

available knowledge or abilities (e.g., in low NI individuals). In this 3. Even simple multiplication tasks are rather demanding in this age

context, more research is needed. class—due to a lack of training.

554

Arithmetic and algebraic problem solving A. Dix and E. van der Meer

11

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