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Let a0, a1, a2, ....., an be real numbers and x is a real variable. Then,

f (x) = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + ....... + anxn

is called a real polynomial of real variable x with real coefficient.

For Example :

f (x) = 2x2 + 3x + 1, f (x) = x + 3, f (x) = 5x4 + 3x2 – 4x – 1 are some examples of real polynomials.

Polynomial in x should be an expression in terms of various powers of x where every power should

be a positive integer.

1

For Example : f (x) = x + + 2, f (x) = x2 + x1/2 + 3,

x

–2 –1

f (x) = x – x + 1 are not polynomials.

The degree of a real polynomial is the highest power of x in the polynomial.

f (x) = anxn + an – 1 xn – 1 + an – 2 xn – 2 + ....... + a0 x0

is a polynomial of degree n as highest power of x is n where n is a positive integer and an 0.

For Example :

f (x) = x3 – 2x2 + x – 1 is a polynomial of degree 3.

f (x) = x5 + x2 – 1 is a polynomial of degree 5.

Linear Polynomial : Polynomial of degree one is known as linear polynomial.

For Example :

f (x) = 2x + 3, f (x) = – x + 5 are linear polynomials.

Note : f (x) = ax + b is a general degree one polynomial known as linear polynomial (a 0).

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

For Example :

Note : f (x) = ax2 + bx + c, a 0 is a general degree two polynomial known as quadratic polynomial.

If y = f (x) is a real polynomial of degree n, then f (x) = 0 is the corresponding real polynomial equation of

degree n.

For Example : If f (x) =x2 – 2x – 8 is a quadratic polynomial, then x2 – 2x – 8 = 0 is the corresponding

quadratic equation.

Roots of an equation in x are those values of x which satisfy the equation

OR

If f () = 0, then x =is the root of the equation f (x) = 0.

For Example :

x = 2, x = 3 are roots of x2 – 5x + 6 = 0 because when we replace x = 2 or x = 3 in the equation,

We get : 0 = 0. This implies x = 2 and x = 3 satisfy equation. Hence x = 2 and x = 3 are roots of the equation.

Note : Real roots of an equation f (x) = 0 are the x-co-ordinates of the points where graph of y = f (x)

intersects X-axis.

An equation of degree n has n roots. (not necessarily all real).

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

2.1 Introduction :

The standard form of the quadratic equation is :

ax2 + bx + c = 0 where a, b, c are real numbers and a 0.

2.2 Roots of a Quadratic Equation

Roots of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 (a 0, a, b, c R) are given by :

b b 2 4ac

=

2a

b

Sum of the roots = = –

a

c

Product of roots = =

a

2

Factorized form of ax + bx + c = a (x – ) (x – ).

If S be the sum and P be the product of roots, then quadratic equation is : x2 – Sx + P = 0.

Illustration the Concept :

(a) If and are the roots of equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, find the value of following expressions.

(i) 2 + 2 (ii) 3 + 3 (iii) 4 + 4 (iv) ( – )2 (v)4 – 4

SOLUTION :

In such type of problems, try to represent the given expression in terms of a + b (sum of roots) and ab

(product of roots). In the given problem :

b c

+= , =

a a

2 2c b2 2ac

2 2 2 b

(i) + = ( + ) – 2 =

a a a2

3 3

3 3 3 b 3 c b b 3 abc

(ii) + = ( + ) – 3 ( + ) = =

a a a a3

(iii) 4 + 4 = (2 + 2)2 – 222 = [( + )2 – 2]2 – 2 ()2

2

b 2 2ac c 2 (b 2 2ac)2 2c 2 a 2

= 2 2

a2 a a4

2 2 b 2 4c b 2 4ac

(iv) ( – ) = ( + ) – 4 =

a2 a a2

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

b 2 2ac b b 2 4ac D

= Using i and

a 2 a a

a2

b

= 4 (b 2 2ac) b 2 4ac

a

(b) If and are the roots of equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, form an equation whose roots are :

1 1 1 1 1

(i) , (ii) ,

SOLUTION :

We know that to form an equation whose roots are known we have to find sum and product of the roots.

1 1 ( ) b (a c)

(i) Sum (S) = = ( + ) +

ac

1 1 1 (c a ) 2

Product (P) = = + +2=

ac

1 1 1 (c a ) 2

Product (P) = = + +2=

ac

The equation is : x2 – Sx + P = 0

2

b (a c) x (c a )

x2 – =0

ac ac

acx2 + b (c + a) x + (c + a)2 = 0 is the required equation.

1 1 1 1 ( ) (ac b 2 )

(ii) Sum (S) = =

bc

1 1 1 1 a

Product (P) = = =

c

The equation is : x2 – Sx + P = 0

(ac b2 ) a

x2 – x = 0

bc c

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

Nature of roots of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 means whether the roots are real or complex. By

analyzing the expression b2 - 4ac (called as discriminant, D), one can get an idea about the nature of the

roots as follows :

1.(a) If D < 0 (b2 – 4ac < 0), then the roots of the quadratic equation are non – real i.e. complex roots.

(b) If D = 0 (b2 – 4ac = 0), then the roots are real and equal.

b

Equal root =

2a

(c) If D > 0 (b2 – 4ac > 0), then the roots are real and unequal.

2. If D i.e. (b2 – 4ac) is a perfect square and a, b and c are rational, then the roots are rational.

3. If D i.e. (b2 – 4ac) is not a perfect square and a, b and c are rational, then roots are of the form

m n and m n .

4. If a = 1, b, cI and the roots are rational numbers, then the roots must be integer.

5. If a quadratic equation in x has more than two roots, then it is an identity in x (i.e. true for all real values

of x) and a = b = c = 0.

Illustration the Concept :

Comment upon the nature of roots of the following equations :

(i) x2 a b x c2 0 (ii) a b c x2 2 a b x a b c 0

(iii) b c x2 c a x a b 0 (iv)

x 2 2 3a 5 x 2 9a 2 25 0

(v) y a y b y b y c y c y a 0

SOLUTION :

To comment upon the nature of roots of quadratic equation we have to find ‘D’ (Discriminant)

(i) Find discriminant (D).

2

2

D a b 4 1 c 2 a b 4c 2

2

(ii) D 4 a b 4 a b c a b c

2 2

4 a b a b c 2 4 c 2 2c 2

D 0 and also a perfect square, hence the roots are rational .

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

2

(iii) D c a 4 b c a b

2

c 2 a 2 2b 4ab 4bc 2ac (c a 2b) 2

D 0 and also a perfect square, hence the roots are rational .

(iv) 2

D 4 3a 5 8 9a 2 25 4 3a 5

2

(v) Simplifying the given equation

3 y 2 2 a b c y ab bc ca 0

2

Now D 4 a b c 12 ab bc ca

4 a 2 b2 c 2 ab bc ca

2 2 2

2 a b b c c a

2 2 2 1 2 2 2

Using : a b c ab bc ca a b b c c a

2

D 0 , so the root are real

Note : If D = 0, then a b 2 b c 2 c a 2 0

a=b=c if a = b = c, then the roots are equal

Consider two quadratic equations :

ax2 + bx + c = 0 and a' x 2 b' x c' 0

In such a case, two equations should be identical. For that, the ratio of coefficients of x2, x and x0 must

be same,

a b c

i.e. =

a b c

(b) For one common root :

Let be the common root of two equations. So should satisfy the two equations.

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

Solving the two equations by using Cramer’s Rule (or cross multiplication method) :

2 1

= =

bc bc ac ac ab ab

= , =

ab ab ab ab

This is the condition for one root of two quadratic equations to be common.

Note : To find the common root between the two equations, make the coefficient of 2 common and then

subtract the two equations.

Illustration - 1 The equation whose roots are squares of the sum and the diffrence of the roots of the

equation 2 x 2 2 m n x m2 n2 0 is :

2 2

(A)

x 2 4mnx m2 n 2 0 (B)

x 2 4mnx m 2 n 2 0

2 2

(C) x 2 4mnx m2 n2 0 (D)

x 2 4mx m2 n2 0

SOLUTION : (C)

Let , be the root of given equaiton.

m 2 n2

m n and

2

Now we have to make an eqution whose roots are 2 and 2

Product P 2 . 2 2 . 2 4

2

2

2

P m n m n 2 m 2 n 2 m 2 n 2

The equation is : x 2 Sx P 0

2

The requaired equation is x 2 4mnx m2 n2 0

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

Illustration - 2 The value of k, so that the equations 2x2 + kx – 5 = 0 and x2 – 3x – 4 = 0 may have one root

in common.

27 27

(A) 3, 1 (B) 3, (C) 1, 2 (D) 3,

4 4

SOLUTION : (B)

Let a be the common root of two equations.

Hence 22 + k – 5 = 0 and 2 – 3 – 4 = 0

Solving the two equations ;

2 1

= 8 5 = 6 k [ Using : [2.4 (b)]

4k 15

(–3)2 = (4k + 15) (6 + k) 4k2 + 39k + 81 = 0

k = – 3 or k = –27/4

Illustration - 3 If ax2 + bx + c = 0 and bx2 + cx + a = 0 have a root in common, find the relation between

a, b and c.

SOLUTION : (A)

Solve the two equations as done in last illustration :

ax2 + bx + c = 0 and bx2 + cx + a = 0

x2 x 1

= = [ Using : [2.4 (b)]

ba c 2 a 2 bc ac b 2

(a2 – bc)2 = (ba – c2) (ac – b2)

Simplify to get : a (a3 + b3 + c3 – 3 abc) = 0

a = 0 or a3 + b3 + c3 = 3 abc

This is the relation between a, b and c.

Illustration - 4 If the equations x2 – ax + b = 0 and x2 – cx + d = 0 have one root in common and second

equatio has equal roots, prove that ac is :

(A) b (B) 2b d (C) bd (D) bd

SOLUTION : (B)

The equation x2 – cx + d = 0 has equal roots.

D=0 D = c2 – 4d = 0 . . . . . . (i)

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

c 2 b

x= is the equal root of this equation. [As equal root of ax bx c 0 are x ]

2 2a

Now this should be the common root.

c

x will satisfy the first equation

2

c2 c

4

a b 0

2 c 2 4b 2ac 4d 4b 2ac [Using (i) ]

2( d b ) ac Hence ac 2( b d )

Illustration - 5 If the ratio of roots of the equation x2 + px + q = 0 be equal to the ratio of roots of the

equation x2 + bx + c = 0, then prove that p2c – b2q =

(A) 1 (B) 1 (C) 0 (D) None of these

SOLUTION : (C)

( )2 ( )2

Now, (Apply componendo-divideendo and take square on both sides)

( )2 ( )2

( )2 ( )2

( )2 ( )2 ( )2 ( )2

( )2 ( )2 p2 b2

p 2c b 2q.

4 4 4 q 4c

Illustration - 6 1 1 1 1

The condition that the equation x x b = m m b has real roots that are equal in

(A) b2 = m2 (B) b2 = 2m2 (C) 2b2 = m2 (D) None of these

SOLUTION : (B)

Clearly x = m is a root of the equation. Therefore, the other root must be – m. That is,

1 1 1 1

m m b = m mb

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

1 1 2 b mb m 2

bm bm = m b 2 m2

=

m

3.1 Inequalities

The following are some very useful points to remember :

ab Either a b or a b

a b and b c a c

a b a c b c c R

a b a b i.e. inequality sign reverses if both sides are multiplied by a negative number..

a b and c d a c b d a d b c

a b ma mb if m 0 and ma mb if m 0

0 a b a r b r if r 0 and a r b r if r 0

1

a 2 a 0 and equality holds for a 1 .

a

1

a 2 a 0 and equality holds for a 1 .

a

3.2 Interval

An infinite continuous subset of R is called an interval.

The set of real number between a and b (where a < b) also including the end points a and b called a closed

interval and is denote by [a, b]. Thus a,b x R : a x b

The set of real number between a and b (where a < b) also excluding the end points a and b is called on open

interval and denoted by (a, b). Thus a, b x : a x b .

The set of real number x such that a x b is called a semi - open or semi - closed interval and is denoted

by a,b . Similarly we have a,b x : a x b .

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

The number b – a is called length of the interval (a, b) or of [a, b]. The smallest and greatest elements in an

open interval (a, b) do not exist.

The set of all real numbers greater than a certain real number, say ‘a’ is an-infinite interval and is denoted by

a, . Thus a, x : x a , and a, {x : x a]

Similarly, we define ,a x : x a and ,a {x : x a]

The infinite intervals have infinite length. In writing them, we use the symbol as notation only. The sides of

and in writing infinite intervals must be kept open because a real number is never equal to or .

Note : In any interval the smaller value is to be written first. For example suppose we want to write set of real

numbers between 1 and 3 then we will denote it by (1, 3) and not by (3, 1).

4.1 Introduction

The quadratic polynomial in x is ax2 + bx + c ; where a, b, c are real numbers and a 0.

ax2 + bx + c is also known as the quadratic expression in x. Evidently ax2 + bx + c is a function in x. For

different real values of x, we get different real values of ax2 + bx + c.

So, in general quadratic expression is represented as : f (x) = ax2 + bx + c or y = ax2 + bx + c

f (x) = ax2 + bx + c (a 0)

To draw the graph of f (x), proceed according to following steps :

For a < 0, the parabola opens downwards.

(i) with X-axis

For D > 0

Parabola cuts X-axis in two points.

b D

The points of intersection are , = .

2a

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

For D = 0

Parabola touches X-axis in one point.

b

The points of intersection is = .

2a

For D < 0

Parabola does not cut X-axis at all i.e. no point of

intersection with X-axis.

The points of intersection with Y-axis is (0, c) {put x = 0 in the quadratic polynomial}

b D

The coordinates of V ,

2a 4 a

The line passing through vertex and parallel to the Y-axis

is called as axis of symmetry.

The parabolic graph of a quadratic polynomial is sym

metrical about axis of symmetry.

D b

fmin = – at x = – .

4a 2a

D b

fmax = – at x = – .

4a 2a

Note : Graph of any quadratic polynomial can be plotted by following steps (1) to (4)

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

Let f (x) = ax2 + bx + c where a, b, c R and a 0.

1. a > 0, D < 0 :

As a > 0, parabola opens upward.

2. a < 0, D < 0 :

As a < 0, parabola opens downward.

As D < 0, parabola does not intersect X-axis.

So f (x) < 0 for all x R.

i.e. f (x) is negative for all value of x.

3. a > 0, D > 0 :

As a > 0, parabola opens upward.

As D > 0, parabola intersect X-axis in two points say ,

( < ).

So f (x) 0 for all x (– , ] [, ) and f (x) < 0

for all x (, ).

i.e. f (x) is positive for some values of x and negative for

other values for x.

4. a < 0, D > 0 :

As a < 0, parabola opens downward.

As D > 0, parabola intersect X-axis in two points say ,

( < ).

So f (x) 0 for all x (– , ] [, ) and f (x) > 0

for all x (, ).

i.e. f (x) is positive for some values of x and negative for

other values of x.

5. a > 0, D = 0 :

As a > 0, parabola opens upward.

As D = 0, parabola touches X-axis.

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

i.e. f (x) is positive for all values of x except at vertex

where f (x) = 0.

6. a < 0, D = 0 :

As a < 0, parabola opens downward.

As D = 0, parabola touches X-axis.

So f (x) 0 for all x R.

i.e. f (x) is negative for all values of x except at vertex

where f (x) = 0.

Let f (x) = ax2 + bx + c where a, b, c R and a 0. To solve the inequations of type :

{ f (x) 0 ; f (x) < 0 ; f (x) 0 ; f (x) > 0}, we use the following precedure.

(a) D>0

Make the coefficient of x2 positive

Factorise the expression and represent the left hand side of inequality in the form

(x – ) (x ).

x (– , ) (, )

x (– , ] [, )

x (, )

x [, ]

(b) D < 0 and a > 0 : f (x) > 0 for all x R. (c) D < 0 and a < 0 : f (x) < 0 for all x R.

(d) D = 0 and a > 0 : f (x) 0 for all x R. (e) D = 0 and a < 0 : f (x) 0 for all x R.

(f) D 0 , a > 0 : f (x) 0 for all x R. (g) D 0, a < 0 : f (x) 0 for all x R

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

(a) If f (x) = x2 + 2x + 2, then solve the following inequalities :

(i) f (x) 0 (ii) f (x) 0 (iii) f (x) > 0 (iv) f (x) < 0

f (x) = x2 + 2x + 2

Let us find D

D = b2 – 4ac = (2)2 – 4 (1) (2) = -4 < 0 D<0

roots of the corresponding equation ( f (x) = 0) are non real.

f (x) cannot be factorized into linear factor.

As a > 0 and D < 0, we get : f (x) > 0 x R [Using result 3.5 (b)]

(i) f (x) 0 is true x R (ii) f (x) 0 is true for no value of x i.e., x { }.

(iii) f (x) > 0 is true x R. (iv) f (x) < 0 is true for no value of x i.e., x { }.

[Using results given in section 3.5, (b) and (c)]

(i) f (x) 0 (ii) f (x) 0 (iii) f (x) > 0 (iv) f (x) < 0

f (x) = x2 + 4x + 4 = (x + 2)2

Let us find D

D = b2 – 4ac = (4)2 – 4 (1) (4) = 0 D=0

roots of the corresponding equation ( f (x) = 0) are real and equal.

f (x) 0 x R [Using 3.5 (d) ]

(i) f (x) 0 is true x R. (ii) f (x) 0 is true x {– 2}

(iii) f (x) > 0 is true x R – {– 2} (iv) f (x) < 0 is true for no value of x i.e., x { }.

[Using results given in section3.5]

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

SOLUTION : (B)

x2 – 2x – 3 < 0

Let us find D D = b2 – 4ac = (– 2)2 – 4 (1) (–3) = 16 > 0 D > 0

Now factorize LHS using ‘Spliting the middle term’ method i.e.,

x2 – 3x + x – 3 < 0 (x – 3) (x + 1) < 0

x (–1, 3) [Using result mentioned in section 3.5 (a)]

1 5 5 1

(A) xR (B) x ,

2 2

1 5 5 1

(C) x , , (D) x

2 2

SOLUTION : (C)

x2 + x – 1 0 . . . . . . (i)

Let us find D

D = b2 – 4ac = 12 – 4 (1) (–1) = 5 > 0 D > 0.

LHS cannot be factorized using spliting the middle term method. We will find roots of the corresponding

equation (say and ) then use result ax2 + bx + c = a (x – ) (x – ), where and are roots of ax2 +

bx + c = 0. . . . . . . (ii)

Consider x2 + x – 1 = 0

b D 1 5

Using x = formula to find roots, we get x =

2a 2

1 5 1 5

Using (i), we get : x2 + x – 1 = x 2

x

2

. . . . . . (iii)

Illustration - 7

1 5 1 5

Combining (i) and (iii), we get : x2 + x 1 = x 2

x

2

0

1 5 5 1

x , 2

2

, [Using result given in section 3.5 (a)]

NOW ATTEMPT IN-CHAPTER EXERCISE-A BEFORE PROCEEDING AHEAD IN THIS EBOOK

16 Section 4 Self Study Course for IITJEE with Online Support

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

Let f (x) = ax2 + bx + c, a 0.

Case : I (a > 0) When a > 0, parabola opens upward.

From graph, vertex (V) is the lowest point on the graph.

b

y = f (x) possesses minimum value at x = .

2a

D b

ymin = f (x)min = at x =

4a 2a

As you can observe on graph,

Maximum value of f (x) is approaching to infinitely large value,

i.e., ymax = f (x)max = (not defined).

Case : II (a < 0)

When a < 0, parabola opens downward.

From graph, vertex (V) is the highest point on the graph.

b

y = f (x) possesses maximum value at x =

2a

D b

ymax = f (x)max = at x =

4a 2a

As you can observe from graph, minimum value of f (x) is

approaching to infinitely small value.

i.e., ymin = f (x)min = – (not defined).

Find f (max) or f (min) in the following polynomials over x R .

(i) f (x) = 4x2 – 12x + 15 (ii) f (x) = –3x2 + 5x – 4

As a=4>0 As a 3 0

f (x) has minimum value at vertex. f (x) has maximum value at vertex.

D b D b

fmin = at x= f max at x

4a 2a 4a 2a

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

fmin = = = 6 at x = – = f max at x

4 4 16 24 2 4(3) 12 2(3) 6

3 23 5

fmin = 6 at x= f max at x

2 12 6

fmax = f min

If x a y for x 0, a 0 and a 1, then logarithm for x with respect to the base a is defined to be y . In

symbols log a x y.

Note : If any of the condition viz. (i) x 0 (ii) a 0 (iii) a 1 is not fulfilled, logarithm is invalid.

y log a x, a 1 or x a y ; a 1

(i) When 0 < x < 1

x ay

We have to choose those values of y for which 0 a y 1

Since a 1, y 0 y ,0 .

(ii) When x = 1,

x ay

We have to choose those values of y for which

x becomes 1 y 0.

Since

(iii) When x > 1,

x ay

We have to choose those values of y for which x > 1.

Since a >1, 0 < y < .

y log a x, 0 a 1 or x a y , 0 a 1

We have to choose those values of y for which 0 a y 1

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

Since 0 a 1, y 0.

(v) When x = 1,

x ay

We have to choose those values of y for which x becomes 1

y0

We have to choose those values of y for which a y 1.

Since a 1, y 0

x

(i) log a xy log a x log a y. (ii) log a log a x loga y.

y

1 1

(iv) log n x log a x and log 2n x log a x

a n a 2n

1

(vii) log y x log y , where x, y 0, x 1, y 1

x

log z x

(viii) log y x log y , where x, y,z 0; x 1, y 1

z

Note : Whenever the base of a logarithmic term is not written, its base is assumed to be 10. Logarithm of x to the

base e is usually written in ln x.

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

y ax where a 1 or 0 a 1 is an exponential fuciton of x.

This function is the inverse of lagarithmic function i.e.

it can be obtainned by interchanging x and y in y loga x.

If 0 a 1, then y decreases as x increases.

Continuity :

everywhere.

The domain of the function f x is x R and range in y 0 .

Illustration the Concepts :

1 1

Prove that :

3 9 5 log5 3 2515

1 2

3 5 log log 5

L.H.S 9 53 315 3

1 1 2

log 5 1/ 3 log3 5

3 5 log 515

1 /

9 5

3

3

2

3 3

1 2 1 1

log 5

5 3

3

2 / 3

15

5 5 2

15 15

25 R.H.S

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

(A) exactly one real root (B) two real roots

(C) no real roots (D) infinite number of real roots

SOLUTION : (B)

The equation can be written as

2 log a log a 3 log a logb

Using log ab= loga

log x log (ax) log (a 2 x ) = 0 . . . . . . .(i)

As a > 0 and a 1, log a 0, (i) can be written as

2 1 3

y b y 2b y = 0 (where b = log a and y = log x)

Above equation is a quadratic in y. On solving, we get :

,

y= =–

12 3 2

As y = log x and b = log a

4 1

log x = – log a or – log a x = a–4/3, a–1/2 [Using : loga b = c b = ac]

3 2

Two real roots can exist.

Illustration - 10

If the graph of the polynomial : y = x2 + kx – x + 9 is above X-axis, then the possible values

of k are :

(A) k R (B) k 5 , 7 (C) k (D) k 7 ,9

SOLUTION : (B)

y = ax2 + bx + c has its graph above x-axis if : D = (k – 1)2 – 36 < 0, for graph to lie above x-axis

a 0 and D 0 (k – 7) (k + 5) < 0

Given y = x2 + (k – 1) x + 9 – 5 < k < 7{For graph to lie above x-axis}

2

Coefficient of x = a = 1 i.e. positive.

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

2

5 5 5 5 5

(A) 0, 1 (B) 1 ,1 (C) 0, 1 (D) 1 ,

2 2 2 2 2

SOLUTION : (D)

5 5

ax2 + x + a 2 x R a 0 and a ,1 1 ,

2 2

ax2 + x + (a – 2) 0 x R

5

coefficient of x2 > 0 and D 0 a 1 , .

2

aand 1-4a(a-2) 0

Illustration - 12

The least Integral value of ‘k’ for which (k – 2) x2 + 8x + k + 4 > 0 for all x R, is :

(A) 5 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) None of these

SOLUTION : (A)

Let f (x) = (k – 2) x2 + 8x + k + 4

f (x) > 0 a > 0 and D<0 [By using result 3.5 (b)]

k – 2 > 0 and 64 – 4 (k – 2) (k + 4) < 0

k>2 and 16 – (k2 + 2k – 8) < 0

k>2 and k2 + 2k – 24 > 0

k>2 and (k < –6 or k > 4)

As it can be observed that k can take value greater than 4

k > 4.

least integral value of k = 5.

(A) x < b or x < a (B) a<x<b (C) x < a or x > b (D) –b < x < – a

SOLUTION : (D)

x2 + -(a14+ b) x + ab < 0

Illustration

(x + a) (x + b) < 0 –b < x < – a

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

Illustration - 14 If a, b, c R and (a + b + c) c < 0, then the quadratic equation p (x) = ax2 + bx + c = 0 has:

(A) A negative root (B) Two real root (C) Two imaginary root (D) None of these

SOLUTION : (B)

p (x) = ax2 + bx + c = 0

Now , a + b + c p (1) and c p (0)

According to question

(a + b + c) c < 0 p (1) p (0) < 0

p (x) = 0 has atleast one root in (0, 1).

p x 0 has two real roots because if coefficients and any one root are real, then other root would also be

real.

Illustration - 15

Let a, b, c be three distinct real numbers such that each of the expression ax2 + bx + c, bx2

bc ca ab

+ cx + a and cx2 + ax + b is positive for all x R and let = then

a 2 b2 c 2

(A) <4 (B) <1 (C) > 1/4 (D) >1

SOLUTION : (B) & (C)

According to the given conditions a > 0, b2 < 4ac ; b > 0, c2 < 4ab ; c > 0, a2 < 4bc

a2 + b2 + c2 < 4 (bc + ca + ab) . . . . . . (i)

1 bc ca ab 1

< .

4 a2 b2 c 2 4

1

Also a2 + b2 + c2 – (bc + ca + ab) = [(b – c)2 + (c – a)2 + (a – b)2] > 0 . . . . . . (ii)

2

1

But b c 2 c a 2 a b 2 0 a 2 b 2 c 2 bc ca ab 0 [Using (ii)]

2

bc ca ab

1 1.

a 2 b2 c2

Illustration - 16 a, b, c R, a 0 and the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 has no real roots, then

(A) a + b + c > 0 (B) a (a + b + c) > 0 (C) b (a + b + c) > 0 (D) c (a + b + c) > 0

SOLUTON : (B) & (D)

Let f (x) = a x2 + bx + c. It is given that f (x) = 0 has no real roots. So, either f (x) > 0 for all x R or

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

f (x) < 0 for all x R i.e. f (x) has same sign for all values of x.

f (0) f (1) > 0 c (a + b + c) > 0.

Also, a f (1) > 0 a (a + b + c) > 0.

(A) f (x) > 0 for all x (B) f (x) 1 when x 0

(C) f (x) 1 when x – 4 (D) f (x) = f (–x) for all x

SOLUTION : (B) & (C)

Since f (x) is a quadratic expression having real roots. Therefore f (x) does not have the same sign for all x.

Now, f (x) 1 x2 + 4x + 1 1 x2 + 4x 0

x –4 or x0 (B) and (C) are correct.

f (–x) = x2 – 4x + 1 f (–x) f (x) (D) is wrong

(A) a < 0 (B) b2 < 4 ac

(C) c > 0 (D) a and b are of opposite signs.

SOLUTION : (A) & (D)

As it is clear from the figure that it is a parabola opening downwards i.e. a < 0.

(A) is correct.

It is y = ax2 + bx + c i.e. degree two polynomial.

2

Now, if ax + bx + c = 0 it has two roots x1 and x2 , as it cuts the axis at two distinct point x1 and x2.

Now, from the figure it is also clear that x1 + x2 > 0. (i.e. sum of roots are positive)

b b

>0 >0 a and b are of opposite sings. D is correct

a a

Illustration - 19 The diagram shows the graph of y = ax2 + bx + c. Then,

(A) a > 0 (B) b < 0

(C) c > 0 (D) b2 – 4 ac = 0

SOLUTION : (B) & (C)

As it is clear from the figure that it is a parabola opening downwards

i.e. a < 0.

It is y = ax2 + bx + c i.e. degree two polynomial.

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

Now, if ax2 + bx + c = 0 it has two roots x1 and x2 as it cuts the axis at two distinct point x1 and x2.

Now from the figure it is also clear that x1 + x2 < 0. (i.e. sum of roots are negative)

b b

. 0 0 b 0 B

a a

Rational function of x is defined as ratio of two polynomial of x, say P (x) and Q (x) where Q (x) 0. i.e.

P ( x)

If f (x) = Q ( x ) ; Q (x) 0,

Following are some examples of rational functions of x.

x 1 x2 x 2 x 4 x3 x 1

f (x) = ; f (x) = ; x 2, x 3 ; f (x) = ; x1

x2 x 1 x2 5x 6 ( x 1) 2

ax 2 bx c

Consider : f (x) = y = where x R , ,

px 2 qx r

Cross Multiply in (i) to get :

y (px2 + qx + r) = ax2 + bx + c (a – py) x2 + (b – qy) x + (c – ry) = 0

As x is real, D 0

(b – qy)2 – 4 (a – py) (c – ry) 0

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

Above relationship is an inequality in y. On solving the inequality we will get values y can take.

Case - I : y [A, B]

If y can take values between A and B, then,

Maximum value of y = ymax = B, Minimum value of y = ymin = A.

Case - II : y (–, A] [B, )

If y can take values outside A and B, then

Maximum value of y = ymax = i.e. not defined.

Minimum value of y = ymin = – . i.e. not defined.

Minimum value of y = ymin = – i.e. not defined.

Illustration - 20

x 2 34 x 71

If f (x) = 2 . x R, then f (x) can take values :

x 2x 7

SOLUTION : (B)

x 2 34 x 71

Let =k (17 – k)2 – (1 – k) (7k – 71) 0

x2 2 x 7

x2 (1 – k) + (34 – 2k) x + 7k – 71 = 0 (k – 5) (k – 9) 0

(34 – 2k)2 – 4 (1 – k) (7k – 71) 0 Hence k can never lie between 5 and 9

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

Illustration - 21

2x2 5x 3

The values of m for which the expression : can take all real values for

4x m

m

x R.

4

SOLUTION : (A)

2 x2 5 x 3

Let =k 2x2 – (4k + 5) x + 3 + mk = 0

4x m

As x R, discriminant 0

(4k + 5)2 – 8 (3 + mk) 0 16k2 + (40 – 8 m) k + 1 0

(40 – 8 m)2 – 4 (16) (1) 0 (5 – m)2 – 1 0

(m – 5 – 1) (m – 5 + 1) 0 (m – 6) (m – 4) 0

m [4, 6] [By using 3.5 (a)]

So for the given expression to take all real values, m should take values : m [4, 6].

Illustration - 22

x 2 mx 1

The values of m so that the inequality : < 3 holds for all x R.

x2 x 1

(A) m 1,8 (B) m , 1 5, (C) m 1,5 (D) None of these

SOLUTION : (C)

We know that| a | < b –b < a < b

x 2 mx 1 x 2 mx 1

Hence < 3. 3 3

x2 x 1 x2 x 1

x 2 mx 1

Case I : <3

x2 x 1

x 2 mx 1) 3 ( x 2 x 1) 2 x 2 (m 3) x 2

<0 0

2 3

x2 x 1 1

x

2 4

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

–2x2 + (m – 3) x – 2 < 0 (because denominator is always positive)

2x2 – (m – 3) x + 2 > 0

A quadratic expression in x is always positive if coefficient of x2 > 0 and D < 0.

(m – 3)2 – 4 (2) (2) < 0 m2 – 6 m – 7 < 0

(m – 7) (m + 1) < 0 m (–1, 7) . . . . . .(i)

x 2 mx 1 x 2 mx 1) 3 ( x 2 x 1)

Case II : –3 < <0

x2 x 1 x2 x 1

4x2 + (m + 3) x + 4 > 0

For this to be true for all x R, D < 0

(m + 3)2 – 4 (4) (4) < 0

(m + 3 8) ( m + 3 + 8) < 0 [Using a2 b2 = (a + b) (a b)]

(m – 5) (m + 11) < 0

m (–11, 5) . . . . . . .(ii)

We will combine (i) and (ii) because must be satisfied.

The common solution is m 1, 5 .

NOW ATTEMPT IN-CHAPTER EXERCISE-B BEFORE PROCEEDING AHEAD IN THIS EBOOK

5.3 Rational Algebraic Inequalities :

(a) Solving Quadratic Inequality :

A simple and quick method of solving quadratic inequarions is as follows :

Check for b2 4ac . If it is ngative then the solution is either all real x or no real x depending on the

inequality sign. If b 2 4ac 0 , then solve the given quardratic to get the real roots c1 and c2 where

c1 c2 .

If the final sign of the inequation is ‘ > ’ then the soluiton set is ,c1 c2 , and if the final sign is

The inequations are said to be equivalent if every solution of one is a solution of the other. For instance, the

x2

inequations x 2 x 3 0 and 0 are equivalent. The solution set to both inequations

x 3

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

is , 2 3, .

PROOF

x2

The inequation 0 makes sense if x 3. Multiplying by x 32 0 on both sides, we

x3

get x 2 x 3 0 whose soluiton set is easily seen to be , 2 3, .

x2

The student must note carefully that the inequations x 2 x 3 0 and 0 are NOT equiva-

x 3

lent. The former has solution set , 2 3, , while the latter has solution set , 2 3, .

x 1 x 2 0 and x 1 0

x 1 x 2 x 3 0 ;

x 3 x 2 x 3

are all equivalent, (See the section for solutions to the cubic inequations)

Suppose the inequation can be written as

x c1 x c2 x c3 0, where c1 c2 c3 .

The solution set c1 ,c2 c3 ,

If the sign in the above inequation is ‘ < ’, then the solution set is , c1 c2 ,c3

(d) Generalization :

The solution set to the inequation

Note : Dealing with inequations in an immatured manner leads to serious errors. The consequences are generally

(1) Allowing fake solutions. (2) Discarding correct ones.

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

Consider the following types of rational algebraic inequalities.

P ( x) P ( x) P ( x) P ( x)

> 0, < 0, 0,

Q ( x) Q ( x) Q ( x) Q ( x) 0

These inequalities can be solved by the method of intervals also known as sign method or wavy

curve method.

How to solve Rational Algebraic Inequality :

(a) Factorise P (x) and Q (x) into linear factors.

(b) Make coefficient of x positive in all factors.

(c) Equate all the factors to zero and find corresponding values of x. These values are known as critical

points.

(d) Plot the critical points on a number line. n critical points will divide the number line (n + 1) regions.

(e) In right most region, the expression bears positive sign and in other regions the expression bears

alternate positive and negative signs.

Illustration the Concepts :

(i) Solve x 2 5 x 6 0 .

Thus, the critical points are 2 and 3 and since the sign

(ii) Solve 28 3 x x 2 0

x 4 x 7 0

x 4 ,7

(iii) Solve 5 2 x 3 x 2 0

x 1 3x 5 0

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

5

x , 1,

3

(iv) Solve x 2 3x 1 0

inspection although they are real

3 13

Solving , x2 3x 1 0, we get as critical

2

points. Thus, the inequation can be written as

3 13 3 13 3 13 3 13

x x 0 Hence the solution set ,

2 2 2 2

3x 2

(v) Solve 0

5x 4

The critical point are 2/3 and 4/5 and therefore the

2 4

solution is ,

3 5

x 2 2 0 .

The given inequation is equivalent to x 3 0 and

x 2.

Now x 3 0 is obviously satisfied in (3, )

which does not include 2. Thus the required solution is (3, )

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

5 1

x , , , where x 3,

3 2

Hence, the required solution is :

5 1

, , 3 3,

3 2

(viii) Solve 1 / x 1

1 x 1

1 0 ; 0

x x

The critical points are –1 and 0

Hence, the required solution , 1 0,

(ix) Solve x 2 3 x 2 x 1 0

The critical pointsin the ascending order are –1,

2/3 and 2 using our algorithm for cubic inequation.

2

Hence, the required solution is , 1 , 2

3

Illustration - 23

8 x 2 16 x 51

Solve for x : >3

(2 x 3) ( x 4)

SOLUTION :

8 x 2 16 x 51

>3

(2 x 3) ( x 4)

8 x 2 16 x 51 3 (2 x 3) ( x 4) 2 x 2 x 15

>0 >0

(2 x 3) ( x 4) (2 x 3) ( x 4)

(2 x 5) ( x 3)

(2 x 3) ( x 4) > 0

Critical points are : x = – 4, –3, 3/2, 5/2

The solution from the number line is :

3 5

x (–, –4) 3, ,

2 2

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

Illustration - 24 4 2

Solve for x : 1 x 1 x < 1.

SOLUTION :

4 2

1 x 1 x < 1

x2 2 x 5

On solving the above inequality, we get : 0

(1 x) (1 x)

1

0 [As x2 – 2x + 5 > 0 for all x R (because D < 0, a > 0)]

(1 x) (1 x)

1

0 x (–, –1) (1, )

(1 x ) ( x 1)

Illustration - 25

2 1 (2 x 1)

Let y = ; find all the real values of x for which y takes real

x x 1 x 1 x3 1

2

values (i.e. find domain). are :

(A) x 1, 0 1, 2 (B) x , 1 0 , 1

SOLUTION : (B)

2 1 (2 x 1)

For y to take real values ; 0.

2

x x 1 x 1 3

x 1

2 ( x 1) ( x 2 1 x) (2 x 1) x2 x

0 0

x3 1 ( x 1) ( x 2 x 1)

x ( x 1)

0

( x 1) ( x 2 x 1)

Multiply both sides by x2 x + 1 to get,

[As x2 – x + 1 > 0 for all x R (because D < 0, a > 0) we can multiply both sides by x 2 x 1 ]

x ( x 1)

0

( x 1)

Critical points are x = 0, x = 1, x = –1.

Expression is negative for x (–, –1) [0, 1]

So real values of x for which y is real are x (–, –1) [0, 1].

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

NOW ATTEMPT IN-CHAPTER EXERCISE-C BEFORE PROCEEDING AHEAD IN THIS EBOOK

Let f (x) = ax2 + bx + c, where a, b, c R be a quadratic expression and k, k1, k2 be real numbers such that

b D

k1 < k2. Let , be the roots of the equation f (x) = 0 i.e. ax2 + bx + c = 0. Then =

2a

b D

and = , where D is the discriminant of the equation.

2a

6.1 Conditions for a number k to lie between the roots of a quadratic equation

If a number k lies between the roots of a quadratic equation f (x) = ax2 + bx + c = 0, then the equation must

have real roots and the sign of f (k) is opposite to the sign of ‘a’ as is evident from Fig. 1 and 2.

Fig. 1 Fig. 2

af ( k ) 0 ......(i ) af ( k ) 0 .....(ii)

Combining (i) and (ii), af (k) < 0 for k to lie between roots.

Note : For roots to be real, D 0. There is no need to take this condition as when af (k) < 0, then D will always

be positive i.e. D 0. Hence af (k) < 0 is necessary and sufficient condition for k to lie between roots.

Thus, a number k lies between the roots of a quadratic equation f (x) = ax2 + bx + c = 0

If af (k) < 0.

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

6.2 Conditions for both k1 and k2 to lie between the roots of a quadratic equation

If both k1 and k2 lie between the roots and of a quadratic equation, then f ( x ) ax 2 bx c 0 , then

sign of f (k1 ) and f (k2 ) should be positive or negative depending upon sign of a as it is evident from figure

3 and 4.

Fig. 3 Fig. 4

f (k1) < 0 and f (k2) < 0 . . . . . .(i) f (k1) > 0 and f (k2) > 0 . . . . . .(ii)

Combining (i) and (ii), af (k1) < 0 and af (k2) < 0

Hence for k1 and k2 to lie between roots, af (k1) < 0 and af (k2) < 0.

If a number k is smaller than the roots of a quadratic equation f (x) = ax2 + bx + c, then the equation must

have real and distinct roots and the sign of f (k) is same as the sign of ‘a’ as is evident from Figs. 5 and 6.

Also, k is less than the x-coordinate of the vertex of the parabola y = ax2 + bx + c i.e. k < – b/2a.

Fig. 5 Fig. 6

f (k) > 0 and xv > k . . . . . .(i) f (k) < 0 and xv > k . . . . . .(ii)

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

b

Combining (i) and (ii) we get : af (k) > 0, xv > k i.e. > k and D 0

2a

Thus, a number k is smaller than the roots of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, if

6.4 Conditions for a number k to be more than the roots of a quadratic equation

If a number k is larger than the roots of a quadratic equation f (x) = ax2 + bx + c, then the equation must

have real and distinct roots and the sign of f (k) is same as the sign of ‘a’ as is evident from Figs. 7 and 8.

Also, k is greater than the x-coordinate of the vertex of the parabola y = ax2 + bx + c i.e. k > – b/2a.

Fig. 7 Fig. 8

f (k) > 0 and xv < k . . . . . .(i) f (k) < 0 and xv < k . . . . . .(ii)

b

Combining (i) and (ii) we get : af (k ) 0, xv k i.e. k and D 0

2a

Thus, a number k is smaller than the roots of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, if

(i) D0 (ii) af (k) > 0 (iii) k > – b/2a.

6.5 Condition for both the roots of a quadratic equation to lie between numbers k1

and k2

If both these roots and of a quadratic equation f ( x ) ax 2 + bx+ c = 0, lie between number

k1 and k2 , then equation must have real roots, signs of f (k1 ) and f (k2 ) are same as sign of ‘a’ is evident

b

from fig 9. and 10. Also xv must be between k1 and k2

2a

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

Fig. 9 Fig. 10

f (k1 ) 0, f (k1 ) 0,

f (k2 ) 0, f (k2 ) 0,

k1 xv k2 .....(i ) k1 xv k2 ......(ii)

If both the roots of a quadratic equation lie between numbers k1 and k 2 , then

b

(i) D0 (ii) af (k1) > 0, af (k2) > 0 (iii) k1 < – < k2.

2a

6.6 Condition for exactly one root of a quadratic equation to lie in the interval (k1, k2),

where k1 < k2

If exactly one root of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 lies in the interval (k1, k2), then f (k1 ) and f (k2 ) must be

of opposite sign as shown in Figs. 11 and 12.

Fig. 11 Fig. 12

f (k1) > 0 and f (k2) < 0 . . . . . .(i) f (k1) < 0 and f (k2) > 0 . . . . . .(i)

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

Note : Exactly one root lie between k1 and k2. Therefore graph of quadratic polynomial will cross x-axis once

between k1 and k2. This implies signs of f (k1) and f (k2) would be different. Hence f (k1) f (k2) < 0

Thus, exactly one root of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 lies in the interval (k1, k2) if

(i) f (k1) f (k2) < 0

Both roots of f (x) = 0 are negative,

if sum of the roots < 0, product of the roots > 0 and D 0

b c

i.e. 0, 0, b2 4ac 0

a a

Both roots of f (x) = 0 are positive,

if sum of the roots > 0, product of the roots > 0 and D 0

b c

i.e. 0, 0, b2 4ac 0

a a

Roots of f (x) = 0 are opposite in sign,

c

if product of the roots < 0 i.e. <0

a

Illustration - 26 If the roots of the equations x 2 2ax a 2 a 3 0 are real and less than 3, then :

(A) a2 (B) 2a3 (C) 3a 4 (D) a4

SOLUTION : (A)

Let f x x 2 2ax a 2 a 3

As both roots of f (x) =0 are less than 3, we can take a f (3) > 0, -b /2a < 3 and D 0

[Using section 6.4]

Consider a f (3) > 0 :

1 9 6a a 2 a 3 0 a 2 5a 6 0

a , 2 3, . . . . . . . (i)

2a

Consider b / 2a 3 : 3

3

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

a3 . . . . . . . (ii)

2

Consider D 0 : 4a 4 a a 3 0 4 a 3 0 a3 0

a ,3 . . . . . . . (iii)

Illustration - 27 The values of p for which the roots of the equation (p – 3) x2 – 2px + 5p = 0 are real and

positive are:

15 15

(A) p 2, 3 (B) p 3, (C) p ,0 3, (D) p 2,

4 4

SOLUTION : (B)

The roots are real and positive if D 0, sum of the roots > 0 and product of the roots > 0.

[Using result 6.7] D 0:

4p – 20p (p – 3) 0 – 4p2 + 15p 0 4p2 – 15p 0 p [0, 15/4] . . (i)

2

2p p

p3 > 0 p3 > 0

p (p – 3) > 0 p (– , 0) (3, ) . . . . . . . (ii)

5p p

p3 > 0 p3 >0 p (p – 3) > 0 p (– , 0) (3, ) . . . . . . . (iii)

p (3, 15/4].

Illustration - 28 The values of a for which 2x2 – 2 (2a + 1) x + a (a + 1) = 0 may have one root less than a

and other root greater than ‘a’ are given by

(A) 1>a>0 (B) –1<a<0 (C) a 0 (D) a > 0 or a < – 1

SOLUTION : (D)

The given condition suggests that a lies between the roots. Let f (x) = 2x2 – 2 (2a + 1) x + a (a + 1). For a

to lie between the roots, we must have f (a) < 0

2a2 – 2a (2a + 1) + a (a + 1) < 0

– a2 – a < 0 a2 + a > 0 a > 0 or a < – 1

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

Illustration - 29 The values of ‘a’ for which both the roots of x2 – 4ax + 2a2 – 3a + 5 = 0 is greater than 2,

are :

(A) a (1, ) (B) a=1 (C) a (– , 1) (D) a (9/2, )

SOLUTION : (D)

Let f (x) = x2 – 4ax + 2a2 – 3a + 5. The conditions for both the roots to exceed 2 are

(i) D0 (ii) f (2) > 0 and (iii) xv 2

Now consider D 0

16a 2 4 2a 2 3a 5 0 2a 2 3a 5 0

(2a + 5) (a 1) 0

4 8a 2a 2 3a 5 0 2a 2 11a 9 0

2a 9 a 1 0

9

a , 1 , . . . . . .(ii)

2

4a

2 constant

2

a>1 . . . . . .(iii)

9

On combining (i), (ii) and (iii) , we get : a ,

2

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

7.1. Transformaiton of an equation into another equation whose roots are the

reciprocals of the roots of the given equation

be the given equation. Let x and y be respectively the roots of given equation and that of the transformed

equation.

1 1

Then, y x

x y

1

Putting x in (i), we get :

y

a0 a a a

n 1 2 ..... n 1 an 0 an y n an 1 y n 1 ..... a1 y a0 0

y y n 1 y n 2 y

Note : Thus, to obtain an equation whose roots are reciprocals of the roots of a given equaiton is obtained by

replacing x by 1/x in the given equation.

Illustration - 30 Find the condition that the roots of the equation x3 – px2 + qx – r = 0 be in H.P.h

SOLUTION : (B)

The equation whose roots are reciprocals of the roots of the given equation is given by

1 p q

r = 0 or rx3 – qx2 + px – 1 = 0 . . . . . . (i)

x3 x 2 x

Since the roots of the given equation are in H.P. so, the roots of this equation are in A.P. Let its roots be a

q q q

– d, a and a + d. Then, (a – d) + a + (a + d) = – 3a = a=

r r 3r

Since a is a root of (i), so,

3 2

q q q

ra3 – qa2 + pa – 1 = 0 r q p 1 = 0

3r 3r 3r

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

q3 q3 pq

2

2

1 = 0 q3 – 3q3 + 9pqr – 27r2 = 0 27r2 – 9pqr + 2q3 = 0

27r 9r 3r

7.2 Transformation of an equaiton into another equation whose roots are negatives

of the given equation.

Let the given equation be

Note : Let x be root of the given equation and y be a root of the transformed equation. Then y x or x y .

Thus the transformed equation is obtained by putting x y in f x 0 and is therefore f y 0

n

or a0 y n a1 y n 1 a2 y n 2 ..... 1 an 0

The equation whose roots are negative of the roots of the equation : x3 – 5x2 – 7x – 3 = 0

(–x)3 – 5 (–x)2 – 7 (–x) – 3 = 0 or – x3 – 5x2 + 7x – 3 = 0 or x3 + 5x2 – 7x + 3 = 0.

7.3 Transformation of an equation of another whose roots are squre of the roots of a

given equation

Let x be a root of the given equation and y be that of the trasformed equation. Then,

y x2 x y.

Note : Thus, an equation whose roots are squares of the roots of a given equation is obtained by replacing x

by x in the given equaiton

Form an equation whose roots are squares of the roots of the equation : x3 – 6x2 + 11x – 6 = 0.

x (x + 11)2 = 36 (x + 1)2 x3 – 14x2 + 49x – 36 = 0

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

7.4 Transformation of an equation into another equation whose roots are cubes of

the roots of the given equation.

Let x be a root of the given equation and y be that of the trasformed equation. Then, y x3 x y1/ 3

Note : Thus, an equation whose roots are cubes of the roots of a given equation is obtained by replacing x by x1 / 3 in

the given equaiton

Form an equation whose roots are cubes of the roots of equation : ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0.

Replacing x by x1/3 in the given equation, we get

a (x1/3)3 + b (x1/3)2 + c (x1/3) + d = 0 ax + d = – (bx2/3 + cx1/3)

(ax + d)3 = – (bx2/3 + cx1/3)3

a3 x3 + 3a2 dx2 + 3ad2 x + d3 = – {b3 x2 + c3x + 3bcx (bx2/3 + cx1/3)}

a3 x3 + 3a2 dx2 + 3ad2x + d3 = – {b3 x2 + c3 x – 3bcx (ax + d)}

a3 x3 + x2 (3a2 d – 3abc + b3) + x (3ad2 – 3bcd + c3) + d3 = 0

This is the required equation.

If 1, 2, 3, .... n are roots of the equation

f (x) = a0 xn + a1 xn – 1 + a2 xn – 2 + ... + an – 1 x + an = 0, then

f (x) = a0 (x – 1) (x – 2) (x – 3) ... (x – n)

a0 xn + a1 xn – 1 + a2 xn – 2 + ... + an – 1 x + an = a0 (x – 1) (x – 2) ... (x – n)

Comparing the coefficients of xn - 1 on both sides, we get :

a1 coeff. of x n 1

S1 = 1 + 2 + ... + n = i = a or, S1 = –

0 coeff. of x n

Comparing the coefficients of xn 2 on both sides, we get :

i a j a2 ( 1) 2 coeff. of x n 2

2

S2 = 1 2 + 1 3 + ... = = (– 1) a or, S2 =

i j 0 coeff. of x n

Comparing the coefficients of xn 3 on both sides, we get :

i j k a3

S3 = 1 2 3 + 2 3 4 + ... = = (–1)3 a

i jk 0

( 1)3 coeff. of x n 3

or, S3 =

coeff. of x n

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

an const term

Sn = 1 2 3 ... n = (–1)n a = (–1)n

0 coeff of x n

Here, Sk denotes the sum of the products of the roots taken k at a time.

Particular Cases :

Quaratic Equation : If , are roots of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, then

b c

+=– and =

a a

Cubic Equation : If , , are roots of a cubic equation

c c

ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0, then + + = – b/a, + + = (–1)2

a a

d d

and = (–1)3 =– .

a a

Biquadratic Equation : If , , , are roots of the biquadratic equation ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e = 0,

then

b

S1 = + + + = –

a

c c

S2 = + + + + + = (–1)2

a a

c

or, S2 = ( + ) ( + ) + + =

a

d d

S3 = + + + = (–1)3

a a

d e e

or, S3 = ( + ) + ( + ) = – and, S4 = = (–1)4 .

a a a

(A) pq = r (B) pr = q (C) qr = p (D) None of these

SOLUTION : (A)

Let the roots of the given equation be , , such that + = 0. Then,

( p )

++=– ++=p =p [ + = 0]

1

But is a root of the given equation. Therefore,

3 – p2 + q – r = 0 p3 – p3 + qp – r = 0 pq = r

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

Illustration - 32 Find the condition that the roots of the equation x3 – px2 + qx – r = 0 may be in A.P.

(A) 2 p3 9 pq 27 r 0 (B) p3 9 pq 27 r 0

(C) 2 p3 9 pq 27 r 0 (D) p3 9 pq 27 r 0

SOLUTION : (C)

Let the roots of the given equation be a – d, a, a + d.

Then,

( p )

(a – d) + a + (a + d) = a = p/3

1

Since a is a root of the given equation. Therefore,

3 2 p3 p3 qp

a – pa + qa – r = 0 –r=0 2p3 – 9pq + 27r = 0

27 9 3

This is the required condition.

NOW ATTEMPT OBJECTIVE WORKSHEET TO COMPLETE THIS EBOOK

THINGS TO REMEMBER

1. If ax2 + bx + c = 0 is a quadratic equation and , are its roots then

b b2 4 ac

Roots of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 (a 0, a, b, c R) are given by : , =

2a

b

Sum of the roots = + = –

a

c

Product of roots = =

a

ax2 + bx + c = a (x – ) (x – ).

2. If S be the sum and P be the product of roots, then quadratic equation is : x2 – Sx + P = 0

(a) If D < 0 (b2 – 4ac < 0), then the roots of the quadratic equation are non – real i.e. complex

root.

(b) If D = 0 (b2 – 4ac = 0), then the roots are real and equal.

b

Equal root =

2a

(c) If D > 0 (b2 – 4ac > 0), then the roots are real and unequal.

If D i.e. (b2 – 4ac) is a perfect square and a, b and c are rational, roots are rational.

Self Study Course for IITJEE with Online Support Things to Remember 45

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

If D i.e. (b2 – 4ac) is not a perfect square and a, b and c are rational, then roots are of the form

m n & m n .

If a = 1, b, c I and the roots are rational numbers, then the roots must be integer.

If a quadratic equation in x has more than two roots, then it is an identity in x (i.e. true for all real values of

x) and a = b = c = 0 .

Consider two quadratic equations :

ax2 + bx + c = 0 and ax2 + bx + c = 0

a b c

(a) For two common roots : =

a b c

(b) For one common root : (bc – bc) (ab – ab) = (ac – ac)2

Graph of a Quadratic Polynomial

f (x) = ax2 + bx + c (a 0)

I. The shape of the curve y = f (x) is parabolic.

II. For a > 0, the parabola opens upwards.

For a < 0, the parabola opens downwards.

III. Intersection with axes :

(i) with X-axis

For D > 0

Parabola cuts X-axis in two points.

b D

The points of intersection are , = .

2a

For D = 0

Parabola touches X-axis in one point.

b

The points of intersection is = .

2a

For D < 0

46 Things to Remember Self Study Course for IITJEE with Online Support

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

no point of intersection with X-axis.

The points of intersection with Y-axis is f (0) = c. i.e. (0, c)

{put x = 0 in the quadratic polynomial}

b D

The coordinates of V ,

2a 4 a

The line passing through vertex and

parallel to the Y-axis is called as axis of symmetry.

D b

f (x) has minimum value at vertex if a > 0 and fmin = – at x = – .

4a 2a

D b

f (x) has minimum value at vertex if a < 0 and fmax = – at x = – .

4a 2a

7. Quadratic Inequation :

Let f (x) = ax2 + bx + c where a, b, c R and a 0. To solve the inequations of type :

{ f (x) 0 ; f (x) < 0 ; f (x) 0 ; f (x) > 0}

(a) D > 0

Make the coefficient of x2 positive

Factorise the expression and represent the left hand side of inequality in the form (x – ) (x – ).

x (– , ) (, )

x (– , ] [, ]

x (, )

Self Study Course for IITJEE with Online Support Things to Remember 47

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

x [, ]

(c) D < 0 and a < 0 : f (x) < 0 for all x R.

(d) D = 0 and a > 0 : f (x) 0 for all x R.

(e) D = 0 and a < 0 : f (x) 0 for all x R.

(f) D 0,a>0 : f (x) 0 for all x R.

(g) D 0, a < 0 : f (x) 0 for all x R

Consider the following types of rational algebraic inequalities.

P ( x) P ( x) P ( x) P ( x)

Q ( x) > 0, Q ( x) < 0, Q ( x) 0, Q ( x) 0

where P (x) and Q (x) are polynomials in x.

These inequalities can be solved by the method of intervals also known as sign method or wavy

curve method.

(a) Factorise P (x) and Q (x) into linear factors.

(b) Make coefficient of x positive in all factors.

(c) Equate all the factors to zero and find corresponding values of x. These values are known as critical

points.

(d) Plot the critical points on a number line. n critical points will divide the number line (n + 1) regions.

(e) In right most region, the expression bears positive sign and in other regions the expression bears

alternate positive and negative signs.

ax 2 bx c

Consider : f (x) = y = where x R.

px 2 qx r

We will find maximum and minimum values f (x) can take by observing the following cases.

Case - I : y [A, B]

If y can take values between A and B, then,

Maximum value of y = ymax = B,

48 Things to Remember Self Study Course for IITJEE with Online Support

Vidyamandir Classes Quadratic Equations & Inequations

Case - II : y (–, A] [B, )

If y can take values outside A and B, then

Maximum value of y = ymax = i.e. not defined.

Minimum value of y = ymin = – . i.e. not defined.

Case - III : y (–, ) i.e. y R

If y can take all values, then

Maximum value of y = ymax = i.e. not defined.

Minimum value of y = ymin = – i.e. not defined.

I. Conditions for a number k to lie between the Roots of a Quadratic Equation is

(i) af (k) < 0

II. Conditions for both k1 and k2 to lie between the roots of a quadratic equation is

(i) af (k1) < 0 (ii) af (k2) < 0.

III. Conditions for a number k to be less than Roots of a Quadratic Equation is

(i) D0 (ii) af (k) > 0 (iii) k < xv = – b/2a.

IV. Conditions for a number k to be more than the roots of a quadratic equation is

(i) D0 (ii) af (k) > 0 (iii) k > – b/2a.

V. Condition for both the Roots of a Quadratic Equation to lie between numbers k1 and k2 is

b

(i) D>0 (ii) af (k1) > 0, af (k2) > 0 (iii) k1 < – < k2.

2a

VI. Condition for exactly one root of a quadratic equation to lie in the interval (k1, k2), where k1 < k2 is

(i) f (k1) f (k2) < 0

VII. Both roots of f (x) = 0 are negative,

b c

(i)

a

0 (ii)

a

0 (iii) b 2 4ac 0

VIII. Both roots of f (x) = 0 are positive,

b c

(i)

a

0 (ii)

a

0 (iii) b 2 4ac 0

IX. Roots of f (x) = 0 are opposite in sign,

c

(i) 0

a

Self Study Course for IITJEE with Online Support Things to Remember 49

Quadratic Equations & Inequations Vidyamandir Classes

I. To obtain an equation whose roots are reciprocals of the roots of a given equation is obtained by

replacing x by 1/x in the given equation.

II. To obtain an equation whose roots are negative of the roots of a given equation is obtain by replacing

x = y in f (x) = 0

III. To obtain an equation whose roots are square of the roots of a given equation is obtain by replacing x

by x in the given equation.

IV. To obtain an equation whose roots are cubes of the roots of a give equation is obtained by replacing x

by x1/3 in the given equation.

I. Quaratic Equation : If , are roots of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, then

b c

+=– and =

a a

II. Cubic Equation : If , , are roots of a cubic equation

c c

ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0, then + + = – b/a, + + = (–1)2

a a

d d

and = (–1)3 =– .

a a

III. Biquadratic Equation : If , , , are roots of the biquadratic equation ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx +

e = 0, then

b

S1 = + + + = – a

c c

S2 = + + + + + = (–1)2

a a

c

or, S2 = ( + ) ( + ) + + =

a

d d

S3 = + + + = (–1)3

a a

d

or, S3 = ( + ) + ( + ) = –

a

e e

and, S4 = = (–1)4

a a

50 Things to Remember Self Study Course for IITJEE with Online Support

Vidyamandir Classes

My Chapter Notes

Vidyamandir Classes

Illustration - 1

Vidyamandir Classes

Vidyamandir Classes

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