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544 The Open Civil Engineering Journal, 2015, 9, 544-549

Open Access

Stress Analysis of Gas Pipeline Under Seismic Action in Tunnel

Liqiong Chen1, Xiaoyu Han1*, Yuchao Chen1, Yu Lu1, Jie Xu 2, Lingxiao Li3

School of Petroleum Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan,China
NO. 2 Mud Logging Company, BHDC, Renqiu, Hebei, China
College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

Abstract: Nowadays, the stress analysis mostly aimed at general buried pipelines. And few of the gas pipelines in tunnel
(especially under the seismic action) were analyzed. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the stress distribution of gas
pipeline under seismic action in tunnel. In this paper, CEASAR II software was used to establish the stress model of
China-Myanmar XX tunnel pipeline under seismic action, based on the seismic spectrum. A pipeline dynamic stress
analysis was performed by inputting spectral parameters of gas pipeline, and the results indicated whether or not the
pipeline displacement and stress under a violent seismic action would conform to specification. We came to that: (1) In
general, the most dangerous section of the pipe is the bend. Measures to control stress should be taken to reduce the stress.
(2) Axial seismic action and comprehensive seismic action effected by greater impact on pipelines. Therefore, the stress
variation at the axial seismic and comprehensive seismic action should be focused on. (3) Through the displacement
checking of the pipeline, the effect of axial seismic action and comprehensive seismic action to displacement was larger.
(4) Unlike buried pipeline, the axial displacement was large compared to other two direction displacement. And
strengthening the monitoring efforts was necessary.
Keywords: Tunnel, gas pipeline, seismic, stress analysis, CEASAR II, spectrum analysis.

1. INTRODUCTION During the 1930s, researchers applied structure mecha-
nics to analyze and solve the pipeline’s internal force [5, 6].
China-Myanmar oil and gas pipeline is one of the major
To improve the calculation accuracy, a calculation method
pipeline projects in China. It is also the fourth largest energy
based on an indeterminate structure was used to solve the
importer channel after the Central Asian oil and gas
pipeline’s internal force and taking into account both the
pipelines, the China-Russia crude oil pipeline and the sea
uniform load and concentrated load on the pipeline. Then, in
channel being completed. With dramatic characteristics, like
the 1960s, the longitudinal displacement was founded that it
frequent seismic activity and highly earthquake intensity, the
had great effect on buried pipelines [7]. The former Soviet
tunnel crossing engineering is used to cross complex
Union’s Bukhara-Ural Large Diameter Gas Transportation
mountains. Pipeline under the action of a strong earthquake
Pipeline’s design was based on the assumption that the gas
is more likely to have been severely disrupted, especially the
transportation pipeline would be fully constrained by the
pipeline without seismic design and seismic reliability
surrounding soil.
analysis. Therefore, how to ensure pipeline safe and reliable
under the possibility seismic action in the future and improve In recent years, scholars have increasingly taken the
the seismic performance of this pipeline has become the stress analysis of piping which must be carried out to ensure
urgent task to engineering design and management the safety. In 2012, Hu Meilin analyzed the stress variation
departments [1-3]. of gas pipeline in sloping tunnel [8]. In 2012, Huang Kun’s
stress analysis model elastic laying pipelines should be used
Stress analysis can meet the requirements of pipeline
in mountainous area [9]. Since 2013, many scholars have
design strength and flexibility, and ensure the safety of the
paid special section on the pipe stress special conditions
pipeline under various conditions. For ensuring pipeline
analysis, including through the swamp section, landslide area
safety operation and reducing the security hidden danger, to
and fault area. However, there is little research about stress
carry out the stress analysis of pipeline under seismic action
and displacement of gas pipelines under the seismic action in
is of great significance to design of pipeline, operational
safety and engineering construction [4].
In this paper, CEASAR II software was used to analyze
the stress and displacement of China-Myanmar XX tunnel
*Address correspondence to this author at the School of Petroleum pipeline under seismic action based on the theory of seismic
Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chendu, Sichuan, China; spectrum analysis method and finite element analysis.

1874-1495/15 2015 Bentham Open

of which Besides. the methods of stress analysis of pipeline And axial displacement shall not be more than 0. the running more than 0. (1) [19] and the mainly aimed at the lateral displacement and axial longitudinal profile of pipeline in tunnel is shown in Fig. Because of the structure. complex terrain.[19] The pipe frame is set every 10m and to the occasional load cases. Spectrum Analysis Method pipeline. (2).Stress Analysis of Gas Pipeline Under Seismic Action in Tunnel The Open Civil Engineering Journal. displacement. The parameters of pipeline and bends are shown in Table 1 (2) and Table 2 respectively [20]. it is are situated in high earthquake intensity area where the more conservative. which belongs pipeline overhead. Gas pipeline in tunnel adopts the method of laying (1) Checking of stress Earthquakes is random. the tunnel inlet has a 15 m long horizontal line. the spectrum analysis 3.6. the (1) slope angle is 23.27°. m. In this way. this kind of phenomenon. The tunnels of watery Loads for Buildings and Other Structures” [13.4 times under seismic action mainly include static analysis (the of the length of the pipe bracket. 14] of the surrounding rocks are more than 90%. is the maximum axial displacement of the steel Considering the structure dynamic characteristics and the pipeline. Standards for Stress and Displacement of Pipelines km. they require that the lateral displacement shall not be X80 steel pipe is used for the gas pipeline. Piping (2) Checking displacement: The checking of displacement schematic diagram is shown in Fig.4 g. 11]. and the grade-Ⅴand Ⅵ surrounding rocks are more usually with reference to the ASCE 7 “Minimum Design than 50% of the total length of tunnel.03 times of diameter. and the calculation of effect became The China-Myanmar pipeline is located in the Hengduan easily [12]. The slope angle of the last two pipes of where. CASE STUDY uses the static theory method to turn dynamic motion to static analysis subtly.1. Fig. Along the direction of fluid strength and temperature coefficient. Most tunnels 50011 "Code for Seismic Design of Buildings” [15]. axial stress produced by occasional load To truncate the influence of the outer pipe tunnel. which is elastic static method and the static elastoplastic analysis method) and dynamic analysis (the seismic spectrum (3) analysis method and time history analysis method) [10. Volume 9 545 2. According to the regulation the friction coefficient between the block and pipeline is 0. giving: flow. More than 70% of the American Society of Civil Engineers. earthquake magnitude is higher than Ⅶ degrees [3]. m. The length of China-Myanmar XX tunnel is about 1. and the length of the pipe are 540 m and 585 m respectively.9 2.2. The surrounding rocks of tunnel Spectrum designing and values of the spectrum are are poor. THEORY AND METHOD where is the maximum lateral displacement of the steel pipeline. Near the tunnel. Nowadays.17°. 2015. There are about 17 tunnels appearing time history analysis method.8 [16] . The schematic of pipeline in tunnel [19]. fixed pier may not exceed the product of the minimum yield 1 and 2 are set. and B is the length of the pipe bracket. Then followed by a steep slope in the tunnel laying pipeline. m. for more regular Mountains and the Yunnan-Guizhou plateau. the spectrum analysis method is generally used. In engineering calculation. which is temperature is 38°C and the operating pressure is 10 MPa. if the condition of precision meets the requirements the total length is 81 km. m. it makes the complex 3.43° and 6. Where. of B31. . the karst of analysis. and D is the average diameter of the steel 2. F=1. respectively. (1). Compared with GB tunnels are located in high ground stress area.1 Project Introduction seismic action simple. relationship between the ground motion characteristics and application of the static theory fully. According to GB 50251 “Code for Design Earthquake intensity is 9 degrees.0 for gas pipelines which angle are smaller are 7. “Design Specification for Industrial Metal Piping” [18]. spectrum analysis method is simpler than the development is strong. there are a lot of mountain tunnels. and the basic seismic of Gas Transmission Pipeline” [17] and GB 50316 acceleration is 0.

9 26.5 1. S1 4. the fixed pier on either side of the pipeline is for Seismic Design of Buildings” [15] and ASCE7-05 [14].0 1. 15]. Analytic result of response spectrum.1 0.1. displacement of either side on pipeline is mutually tion and seismic data.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Period(sec) Fig.784 551 Table 2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION is acceleration of one second cycle design response 4. The longitudinal profile of tunnel.46 3.4 0. displacement. Parameters of bends [20]. the boundary of the model.3 1. the parameters of the required value in independent. 3. The most important Site coefficient Ss S1 Response modification factor coefficient of component Fa Fv 1. And the stress pier needs to set for a pipeline on both sides to limit the distribution is given in Fig. fixed stress value and the allowed stress value. 2015. as shown in Table 3.58 0. influence on movement of the buried pipeline.546 The Open Civil Engineering Journal. stress for gas pipelines under seismic action in the tunnel.5 . (2). and the change of stress cannot pass through spectrum analysis would be detected from GB50011 "Code fixed pier. then stress. Seismic Analysis and Load Combinations According to the China-Myanmar XX tunnel construc.4 38 10 0. Volume 9 Chen et al. Stress Analysis spectrum. The Table 1.2 drain 0. So. Parameters of response spectrum [14. (3). Ss is acceleration of short cycle design response spectrum.3 Ф1016 Gas pipeline 0. 3. (4).3. (3). where the ratio represents the percentage of Due to the large displacement of pipeline in tunnel. and the load combinations CEASAR II software was used to analyze the dynamic are shown in Table 4.2.5 Spectral Response Acceleration(g) 0. constraints conditions were output. 0. The spectrum analysis results responded by CEASAR II are shown in Fig. Parameters of pipeline [20]. Fig. where the Fa and Fv are site coefficient. Wall Wall Minimum thickness of thickness of Temperature Fluid Pipeline Material Diameter/mm Pressure/MPa yield stress straight Pipe (°C) density/kg/m3 /MPa pipe/mm bend/mm Gas X80 1016 22. Bend Type Remark Bend 1 Hot bending elbow R=6D Bend 2 Hot bending elbow R=6D Bend 3 Cold bending elbow R=40D Table 3. Boundary Condition Table 5 shows the stress checking of the gas pipeline under seismic action.

(7). Fig. In displacement of these three seismic directions. Operating conditions Representation in CAESAR II Remark Static continuous condition W+P A result of gravity and pressure Axial seismic action W+P+D1 - Lateral seismic action W+P+D2 - Longitudinal seismic action W+P+D3 - Comprehensive seismic action W+P+D1+D2+D3 The combination of three direction seismic action Table 5. According to the requirement of the axial displacement (cm) 4 and lateral displacement in GB50251 and GB50316. In Fig. dramatically under seismic action. by brackets that restrict the lateral displacement. Pipeline Maximum peak stress /MPa Requirement/MPa Ratio (%) Gas 441. the following can be concluded: 6 1. to buried pipeline. without any supports set in pipeline in tunnel. and highly increased in bend 2. (5) to Fig. (5).95 555 79. 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 4. It should be monitored. Checking of Displacement Axial seismic action 14 Lateral seismic action ) Table 6 shows the displacement variation of gas pipeline Longitudinal seismic action 12 Comprehensive seismic action in tunnel under the different action of seismic. lateral and longitudinal seismic. Stress check of gas pipeline. 350000 2. 3. The reason why displacement of gas pipeline in tunnel is different from 4. the axial . Pipeline length (m) Along the flow direction. However. the displacements are changing the lateral displacement should be strengthened. maximal under seismic action. and the monitoring efforts should be 50000 strengthened. Load combinations. lateral displacement is Fig. Axial displacement distribution of gas pipeline. Stress distribution of gas pipeline under seismic action. stress decreases gradually.63 According to Table 5 and Fig. checking of stress under the action of an axial seismic and comprehensive seismic should be 100000 focused on pipe. 300000 which is the tunnel at the bottom of a steep hill. axial Pipeline length (m) displacement is maximal and the lateral displacement is minimal. (5). The stress of tunnel pipeline under seismic action Comprehensive seismic action 400000 conforms to the requirements. (4). (4). Bend 1 and bend 2 are steep slope section of tunnel. (5) to Fig. (5) to Fig. Fig. Axial displacement 8 According to Table 6 and Fig. (7). 250000 Stress KPa) 3. the following can be Axial seismic action concluded: Lateral seismic action 450000 Longitudinal seismic action 1. 4.2. and especially the efforts that restrict bend 2 and bend 3. according to the study of Wu Xiaonan [13]. Volume 9 547 Table 4. (7) show the distribution of displacement under the 10 action of axial.Stress Analysis of Gas Pipeline Under Seismic Action in Tunnel The Open Civil Engineering Journal. It is important to check the axial displacement of gas 5. Therefore. From Fig. 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2. The axial seismic action and comprehensive seismic buried pipeline is that gas pipeline in tunnel is restrained action have great impact on displacement of gas pipeline. The dangerous section of this gas pipeline is bend 2. axial seismic action and 200000 ( comprehensive seismic action have a greater influence on 150000 the pipe. 2015. the axial displacement and lateral displacement of gas 2 pipeline in tunnel conform to the requirements. For tunnel pipeline.

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