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15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9 15.10 15.11 15.12 15.13 15.14 15.15 15.16 15.17 15.18 15.19 15.20 15.21 15.22 INTRODUCTION FUNDAMENTALS ENGINE PERFORMANCE AIR INTAKES COMPRESSORS COMBUSTION SECTION TURBINE SECTION EXHAUST BEARINGS AND SEALS LUBRICANTS AND FUELS LUBRICATION SYSTEMS FUEL SYSTEMS AIR SYSTEMS STARTING AND IGNITION SYSTEMS ENGINE INDICATING SYSTEMS POWER AUGMENTATION SYSTEMS TURBOPROPELLER ENGINES TURBOSHAFT ENGINES AUXILIARY POWER UNITS POWERPLANT INSTALLATION FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS ENGINE MONITORING & GROUND OPERATION ENGINE STORAGE & PRESERVATION (B1) (B1) (B1) (B1) 3 15 30 44 58 65 74 83 91 95 106 119 128 138 150 153 163 177 188 206 211 226
Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC .
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Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC
MODULE 15. GAS TURBINE ENGINE
INTRODUCTION The conquest of air by powered flight was ever the aim of man, and a great step forward was made by the Wright Brothers at Kittyhawk, America by their historic flight in 1903. Since this early date, aircraft have developed steadily and, in 1939, aircraft speeds of 464 mph were achieved by production aircraft. Aircraft could climb 56 000 feet and fly distances up to 7 000 miles non stop. At this time, international records in speed, altitude and endurance had all been set by Great Britain. In attempts to improve aircraft performance, engines were increased in both size and power output, with various configurations being tried (e.g. various in-line and radial engines with from 7 to 36 cylinders per engine). Superchargers with coolers, water-methanol injection systems and many aids to performance were introduced. However, piston engines and propeller combinations suffered a loss in performance at high forward speeds and high altitudes; clearly a new type of aircraft propulsion unit was needed if aircraft performance was to advance even more; thus the jet engine (gas turbine) was born. It is generally acknowledged that, in Great Britain, Sir Frank Whittle of the Royal Air Force designed and developed the first British gas turbine engine that was suitable for aircraft propulsion. Sir Frank was born in 1907 and he entered the Royal Air Force as an apprentice. As an apprentice he gained a cadetship to Cranwell College and, whilst there, he become interested in the prospect of jet propulsion for aircraft. He produced design drawings for a gas turbine engine and his first engine ran on static tests in 1937. In 1941 the Whittle gas turbine engine powered the Gloster E28/39 aircraft and many of the present-day Rolls-Royce Aero engines are developments of Sir Frank's design. Aero gas turbine engines have been the foundation, which has made modern high performance aircraft possible. PRINCIPLES OF JET PROPULSION SIR ISAAC NEWTON Jet propulsion is a practical application of Sir Isaac Newton's third law of motion which states "For every force acting on a body, there is an equal and opposite reaction". A fireman's hose is an example where reaction is felt. When a powerful jet of water is ejected from a hose, the hose tends to react and move away from the water jet and, so great is the reaction, that sometimes two men are needed to hold the hose and direct the water jet.
Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC .
HERO'S ENGINE (Fig 1) The earliest known example of jet reaction occurred during the use of a toy called 'Hero's engine'. In 120 BC this toy showed how the momentum of steam issuing from a number of jet outlets could impart an opposite reaction to the jets themselves, and in doing so cause the engine to revolve. When this principle is applied to aircraft propulsion, the 'body' upon which the force acts is the atmosphere. Air is introduced into the intake duct of the gas turbine engine and then a force is applied to cause the air to accelerate within the engine. The force which accelerates the air reacts in the opposite direction on the engine and moves the engine away from the accelerating column of air in the same manner as the fireman's hose moved away from the water jet.
Hero’s Engine Figure 1.1 JET REACTION Jet reaction is an internal phenomenon and it is not, as sometimes assumed, the result of the jet efflux impinging upon the atmosphere. The jet engine is designed to accelerate a stream of air to an exceptionally high velocity and to obtain useful thrust from the reaction. There are many ways of increasing the velocity of the air but, in all cases, the resultant reaction is the propulsive thrust exerted on the engine. The thrust obtained is proportional to the mass of air passing through the engine and to the velocity increase of the mass of air flow, i.e. momentum = mass × velocity. Thus, the same amount of propulsive thrust can be obtained by either: • Accelerating a large mass through a small increase in velocity. Or: • Accelerating a small mass through a large increase in velocity
Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC
heat and kinetic energy. In this process of transformation. This energy. This is demonstrated by the simple equation: Energy = ½mv2 (Where ‘m’ is the mass of the object and ‘v’ is its speed in feet or metres per second) All forms of energy convert into other forms by appropriate processes.2 FUNDAMENTALS POTENTIAL ENERGY Potential energy is the stored energy possessed by a system. Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . The magnitude of that energy depends on both the mass and speed of the object. (see below). because of the relative positions of the components of that system. Potential energy can be found in forms other than weights and height. resulting from the motion of that object. The amount of this energy a system possesses is equal to the work done on the system previously. either form of energy can be lost or gained but the total energy must remain the same. KINETIC ENERGY Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by an object.Jet Reaction Figure 1. An explosive substance has chemical potential energy that is released in the form of light. waiting to be released is called potential energy. 5 . when detonated. Electrically charged components contain potential (electrical) energy because of their position within an electric field. energy will be stored in that object in the form of the gravitational force. If work done raises an object to a certain height.
whilst in a gas turbine engine it occurs at a constant pressure. the combustion in a piston engine occurs at a constant volume. SECOND LAW This law states that the acceleration produced in a mass by the addition of a given force is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass. Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 6 . the pressure energy is first of all increased. (or kinetic energy). BRAYTON CYCLE A gas turbine engine is essentially a heat engine using a mass of air as a working fluid to provide thrust. the mass of air passing through the engine has to be accelerated. Also. compression. of the air is increased. before final conversion back to kinetic energy in the form of a high velocity jet efflux. ignition and exhaust in both cases. but as a reminder.NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION The full details of Newton’s Laws of Motion were covered in Module 2 (Physics). To obtain this increase. unless acted upon by some outside force. followed by the addition of heat energy. The working cycle of the gas turbine engine is similar to that of the four-stroke piston engine. although the process is continuous in a gas turbine. they are listed below: FIRST LAW This law states that a body at rest tends to stay at rest and a body in motion tends to remain in uniform motion. To achieve this. It can be demonstrated by the formula: FORCE = MASS X ACCELERATION THIRD LAW This law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite re-action. which means that the velocity. There is induction. (straight line).
B. provides the propulsive force.C and D on the previous graph show the action of the pressure and volume of the charge during the cycle. 7 . the remainder on its discharge to atmosphere. turbo-propeller engines will be covered which reverse the above statement. C: Combustion with heat being added. leaving little residual thrust. some of the energy in the expanding gasses is turned into mechanical power by the turbine. which is represented by the pressure/volume diagram. Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . to drive the propeller.The cycle. Later in the notes. shown below. the turbine(s) remove the majority of the power from the exhaust. With these engines. The Brayton Cycle Figure 1. A B B: Compression from atmospheric at ‘A’ to maximum at ‘B’. upon which the engine functions. C D: Expansion through the turbine and jet pipe. During the C D part of the cycle.3 The points A. in its simplest form. is the Brayton cycle.
The Watt is equal to 1/746 hp. (Newton-Metre). (m/s2). The Newton is the force required to accelerate a mass of 1 kilogram (kg) at 1 metre per second. work. but the Horsepower is defined as 550 ft-lb. 746Watts equals 1hp.). The foot pounds per second are self explanatory. VELOCITY It is common to find people confusing the terms velocity and speed when describing how fast an object is moving. velocity and acceleration were covered during Module 2 (Physics). Horsepower and Watts. per second or 33. (Imperial). One Joule therefore being 1Nm. It is the work done per unit time and could be shown as the formula: Power = Work done Time to do the work Work can be expressed in a number of units such as foot-pounds per second. (Metric) and the Pound. power. they are ALL either potential or kinetic. It can be demonstrated by the simple formula shown below: Work (W) = Force (F) x Distance (D) The Metric system unit is the Joule. (One Joule being a force of 1N acting through 1m). WORK Work is the application of force to a body and the displacement of that body in the direction of the force. per second. The units of force are the Newton. FORCE Force may be defined as a push or a pull upon an object. potential and kinetic. the Imperial measurement being the foot-pound (ft-lb. The next section will be a revision of those physics notes. whilst Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 8 . Whilst there are many different types of energy. therefore. As mentioned earlier.000ft-lb/min. ENERGY The term energy is defined as the capacity for doing work. The difference is that speed is a scalar quantity. POWER The rate of doing work.PHYSICS TERMINOLOGY The relationship between force. energy. there are two forms of energy.
Velocity/Speed Diagram Figure 1. has an actual velocity of 200 mph in an East-Northeast direction. it has negative acceleration. it has positive acceleration. if it decreases in speed. when it is called angular acceleration. and the direction of the change. which is referred to a linear acceleration and it can apply to rotating objects whose speed of rotation is increasing. Acceleration can be in a straight line. over time. A reference to Newton’s Second law of Motion will explain the principles of acceleration. The simple diagram below shows how the aircraft. The full definition of velocity is that it is the rate at which its position changes.the term velocity refers to both speed and direction of an object. (a speed of 350 mph).4 ACCELERATION This term describes the rate at which velocity changes. which flies the irregular path from ‘A’ to ‘B’ in an hour. Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . If an object increases in speed. (or decreasing). 9 .
rotating unit. The simplest turbojet engine is the unit shown below with a single centrifugal(Double Entry)compressor and a single stage turbine. they have been superseded by engines with axial compressors and multiple stage turbines. This type of engine can still be found in certain special installations but generally. the compressor. the combustion section and the turbine. The advantages and disadvantages of the two types of compressor will be discussed in depth later in this module Simple Centrifugal Gas Turbine Engine Figure 1.CONSTRUCTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS TURBOJET ENGINE The simplest form of gas turbine engine is the turbojet engine. which has three major parts.5 Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 10 . A shaft connects the compressor and the turbine to form a single. These engines produce thrust in the manner described in the Brayton Cycle.
SINGLE-SPOOL AXIAL FLOW TURBO-JET The illustration below shows the inner workings of a single-spool axial flow turbo-jet. have generally superseded them. It will be noticed that it has. the next engine in the development of gas turbines.6 TWIN-SPOOL TURBO-JET A low-pressure section consisting of a compressor and a turbine assembly and a high-pressure section. low by-pass type is shown below which. 11 . An engine of the twin-spool. The by-passed air joins the exhaust from the turbine section. A large number of this type of engine are still in service. which helps to improve the propulsive efficiency of the engine. also consisting of a compressor and turbine. although high by-pass engines which are covered later. 17 compressor stages and 3 turbine stages. to produce better specific fuel consumption and to make it a little quieter. which passes some of the air from the rear of the first compressor around the combustion and turbine sections of the engine. This type of construction allows the two sections to run at different and more efficient rotational speeds. Single Spool Axial Flow Turbojet Figure 1. with re-heat (afterburner) can be found installed on Concorde. in this example. Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . BY-PASS ENGINE Some engines of this twin spool construction can also be found with a by-pass duct.
the engine is of a triple-spool construction. the Low pressure (LP). the three main rotating parts of this engine all rotate at their optimum speeds. which means that there are three compressors and three turbines. mounted on their respective spools. Basically. are installed in aircraft varying from small business-jets to the largest transport aircraft including the Boeing 777 and the Airbus A340. has a large fan in front of the intermediate compressor. The turbofan accelerates a smaller mass of air than a propeller but it does accelerate a much larger mass of air than earlier pure turbojet or low by-pass engine designs. Intermediate pressure (IP) and High pressure (HP) units. Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 12 . illustrated overleaf. giving an even greater thrust and efficiency than the two spool designs. Triple Spool Turbo-Fan Figure 1.8 Turbo-fan engines in a range of sizes.7 TURBO-FAN ENGINE A turbo-fan engine is an advanced development of both the conventional propeller and the by-pass principle previously mentioned.Twin Spool By-Pass Turbojet Figure 1. a low-pressure compressor. As with the twin-spool set-up. The turbo-fan engine. The high mass of air that passes only through the fan gives the engine a very high by-pass ratio. and is in effect.
the ‘free-turbine’ design is the more widely used. or free power turbine. The primary purpose of this design of engine is to produce shaft horsepower. This allows ground runs and other work to be carried out with the engines running.9 Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . which extracts power from the exhaust gasses and. in this design.TURBO-SHAFT ENGINE Turbo-shaft engines are different from the previous types of engine mentioned. which. Whilst both type of turbo-shaft engines have been used most successfully to power helicopters. The illustration below shows a twin-spool turbo-shaft engine with a two-stage free ‘power’ turbine.(Direct Coupled) the output shaft does not have a separate power turbine. Twin-Spool Turbo-Shaft (With Free-Power Turbine) Figure 1. drives a shaft through the engine. ‘power’ turbine. but is simply connected to the engine’s own turbine(s). leaving the drive connection on the ‘front’ of the engine. Many engines of this type are modifications of turbo-propeller and turbo-fan engine designs. which can be dangerous to personnel on the ground. is connected via a reduction gearbox. On some designs of turbo-shaft engines. This is often obtained by the addition of an extra. but with the rotors. to an output shaft. These all produce power through a driveshaft. stationary. This is due to the fact that the engine can be started whist the rotors are held stationary by a rotor brake mechanism. This means that the output shaft will be rotating whenever the engine is rotating. 13 . which is used to drive gearboxes when they are installed on helicopters. (Turbo-propeller engines will be covered later).
10 Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 14 . Twin-Spool Axial Flow Turbo-Propeller Figure 1.The final design that will be considered is the turbo-propeller engine. as shown below. except the output shaft is usually driven through a reduction gearbox and connected to a propeller. This design is very similar to the turbo-shaft engine. often called the turbo-prop.
Calculation of the thrust is achieved using the following formula: Thrust = ( A × P ) + Where A P W VJ g Wv J g = = = = = Area of flow section in sq. in. pressures. per sec.2 ENGINE PERFORMANCE (level B1 only) METHOD OF CALCULATING THE THRUST FORCES The thrust forces or gas loads can be calculated for the engine. per sec.15. per sec. or for any flow section of the engine. 15 . Pressure in lb. Mass flow in lb. Gravitational constant 32. however the pressure difference between the inlet to and the outlet from the particular flow section will have an effect on the overall thrust of the engine and must be included in the calculation.e. Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . per sq. provided that the areas. The distribution of thrust forces shown in the figure can be calculated by considering each component in turn and applying some simple calculations. Velocity of flow in feet per sec. in.2 ft. Newton’s Second Law of Motion). The thrust produced by the engine is mainly the product of the mass of air passing through the engine and the velocity increase imparted to it (i. the resultant thrust being the difference between the two values obtained. velocities and mass flow are known for both the inlet and outlet of the particular flow section. To calculate the resultant thrust for a particular flow section it is necessary to calculate the total thrust at both inlet and outlet.
CALCULATING THE THRUST OF THE ENGINE When applying the above method to calculate the individual thrust loads on the various components it is assumed that the engine is static. in. of thrust in a forward direction. Compressor casing To obtain the thrust on the compressor casing. in. COMPRESSOR Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 16 . Therefore. per sec. given that the compressor – OUTLET Area (A) = 182 sq. The effect of aircraft forward speed on the engine thrust will be dealt with later. per sq. Pressure (P) = 94 lb. per sec. Since the pressure and the velocity at the inlet to the compressor are zero. The thrust = ( A × P) + Wv v −0 g 153 × 406 −0 32 = (182 × 94 ) + = 19. In the following calculations ‘g’ is taken to be 32 for convenience.049lb. Mass flow (W) = 153 lb. (gauge) Velocity (vj) = 406 ft. it is only necessary to consider the force at the outlet from the compressor. it is necessary to calculate the conditions at the inlet to the compressor and the conditions at the outlet from the compressor.
International Standard Atmosphere Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . 17 .
h. which would be found under I.h. K Atmospheric temperature in deg.h.S. changes in ambient pressure and temperature considerably influence the thrust of the engine. is: S. standard sea level pressure (in Hg) I.A.) (observed) x Where P0 30 3 0 P O = atmospheric pressure in inches of mercury (in Hg) (observed) = I. The correction for jet thrust is the same as that specified earlier.S. conditions. C (observed) I. standard sea level temperature in deg. or at different altitudes.p.A.S. This is important as the changes in ambient temperature and pressure encountered at high altitudes considerably influence the thrust of the engine. An increase in mass airflow may be obtained by using water injection and increases in jet velocity by using after-burning.p. but due to the rating being in s. (observed) × 30 273 +15 × PO 273 + TO atmospheric pressure (in Hg) (observed) atmospheric temperature in deg.A.p. the correction for s.p. This is because of the way they affect the air density and hence the mass of air entering the engine for a given engine rotational speed.A. correction factors must be applied to the calculations to return the observed values to those. and not in pounds of thrust the factors are different.S.p. Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 18 . As previously mentioned.S. Modern test facilities are available to simulate atmospheric conditions at high altitudes thus providing a means of assessing some of the performance capability of a turbo-jet engine in flight without the engine ever leaving the ground. standard sea level pressure (in Hg) The observed performance of the turbo-propeller engine is also corrected to I. For example. For example.) (corrected) = thrust (lb. conditions. Considering the formula for thrust under “choked” nozzle conditions: Thrust = ( P − P0 )A + W J v g It can be seen that the thrust can be further affected by a change in the mass flow rate of air through the engine and by a change in jet velocity.h.ENGINE THRUST ON THE TEST BENCH The thrust of the turbo-jet engine on the test bench differs somewhat from that during flight. (corrected) Where P0 T0 30 273 + 15 273 + T0 = = = = = = s.h. To enable the performance of similar engines to be compared when operating under different climatic conditions. K In practice there is always a certain amount of jet thrust in the total output of the turbo-propeller engine and this must be added to the s.A. the thrust correction for a turbo-jet engine is: Thrust (lb.
5 h.6 lb. is expressed as 550 ft . since the turbo-propeller engine receives its thrust mainly from the propeller.p. it will be helpful to define these terms: Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . to 5 h. would be 5. it is necessary to take into account the speed of the aircraft.h.000 375 F V However.p. that is. 2. if the same thrust was being produced by a turbo-propeller engine with a propeller efficiency of 55 percent at the same flight speed of 600 m.h.h.h.. equivalent to the net jet thrust.h.h.h.h. an extra turbine stage may be required if more than a certain proportion of the total power is to be provided at the shaft. the higher the aircraft operating speed the larger may be the required proportion of total output in the form of jet thrust.h. The total equivalent horsepower is denoted by t. is equivalent to approximately 2.6 The ratio of jet thrust to shaft power is influenced by many factors.p.000 lb.p.h.p.p.h.p.p.p.p. one s. it is usual to refer to them as s. 19 .p. of thrust V = aircraft speed (ft.h. a comparison can be made by converting the horse-power developed by the engine to thrust or the thrust developed by the turbo-jet engine to t. and thrust horsepower (t. or one pound of thrust is equal to one t.h.lb. However. = s.p.h. plus the s. The t.h.p. per sec Where F = lb. Comparison between thrust and horse-power Because the turbo-jet engine is rated in thrust and the turbo-propeller engine in s.. per sec. at 375 m.p. Therefore: t. (sometimes e. For instance.000 × 600 = 8.) and is the s.e. turbo-propeller aircraft provide one pound of thrust for every 3. is equivalent to 375 miles per hour. then the t. under sea level static conditions. For estimation purposes it is taken that.000 × 100 = 14 .p.p.1515 m.p.h. by converting work to force or force to work.p.h. of net thrust at an aircraft speed of 600 m. it can be seen from the above formula that one lb. at 325 knots.h. per sec) Since one horsepower is equal to 550ft.p. Alternatively. the t. no direct comparison between the two can be made without a power conversion factor.p. Thus if a turbo-jet engine produces 5. of thrust is the equivalent of about 3 t. would be: 8.p. of jet thrust.h.h.p.. In general. of thrust equals one t.). ENGINE THRUST IN FLIGHT Since reference will be made to gross thrust. per sec. momentum drag and net thrust. It is also common to quote the speed in knots (nautical miles per hour).p.h.h.p.545 55 Thus at 600 m. For this purpose. + jet thrust lb .e. one lb. one knot is equal to 1. and 550 ft.To distinguish between these two aspects of the power output.
From the definitions and formulae stated earlier under flight conditions.) Gravitational constant 32. G = Gravitational constant 32. per sec) Static pressure across propelling nozzle (lb. Per sq.Gross or total thrust is the product of the mass of air passing through the engine and the jet velocity at the propelling nozzle. in) Aircraft speed (ft. these terms are defined as follows: Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 20 .) Jet velocity at propelling nozzle (ft. The net thrust or resultant force acting on the aircraft in flight is the difference between the gross thrust and the momentum drag. expressed as: ( P − P )A + 0 W J v g W V g The momentum drag is the drag due to the momentum of the air passing into the engine relative to the aircraft velocity. per sec. the net thrust of the engine. Per sec. can be expressed as: M entum om W V D rag = ⇒ G ⇐ ross Thrust g wv J = ( P − Po ) A + g W J V om ⇐M entum Thrust = g ⇐Pr essure Thrust = ( P − PO ) A All pressures are total pressures except P. expressed as where: W = Mass flow in lb. in) Atmospheric pressure (lb. simplifying. which is static pressure at the propelling nozzle W VJ P PO A V G = = = = = = = Mass of air passing through engine (lb. Per sq. per sec.2 ft. in) Propelling nozzle area (sq. per sec.2 The balance of forces and expression for thrust and momentum drag Effect of forward speed Since reference will be made to ‘ram ratio’ and Mach number. V = Velocity of aircraft in feet per sec. per sec.
extra air is taken into the engine so that the mass airflow and also the jet velocity increase with aircraft speed. 21 . independent of aircraft speed.0 therefore represents a speed equal to the local speed of sound. From the thrust equation. due to the ‘ram ratio’ effect from the aircraft forward speed. Mach number is an additional means of measuring speed and is defined as the ratio of the speed of a body to the local speed of sound. it is apparent that if the jet velocity remains constant.Ram ratio is the ratio of the total air pressure at the engine compressor entry to the static air pressure at the air intake entry. A typical curve illustrating this point is shown in the figure. then as the aircraft speed increases the thrust would decrease in direct proportion. The effect of this tends to offset the extra intake momentum drag due to the forward speed so that the resultant loss of net thrust is partially recovered as the aircraft speed increases. Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . Mach 1. However.
or the return obtained in terms of pressure rise at entry to the compressor in exchange for the unavoidable intake drag. this rate of pressure rise will rapidly decrease unless a suitably designed air intake is provided. the ‘ram ratio’ effect.Obviously. Above speeds of Mach 1. Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 22 . as a result of the formation of shock waves at the air intake. especially at high speeds. an efficient air intake is necessary to obtain maximum benefit from the ram ratio effect. is of considerable importance to the turbo-jet engine.0.
p. as shown by the curves for a typical turbo-jet engine in the figure. the end result is an increase in specific fuel consumption (s. s. and fuel consumption are illustrated. however.p. Since the maximum permissible turbine entry temperature is determined by the temperature limitations of the turbine assembly. to prevent over-stressing. better utilisation is made of every pound of air flowing through the engine. With an increase in forward speed. At altitudes above 36. This augmentation of basic thrust is of greater advantage for certain specific operating requirements. Graphs showing the typical effect of altitude on thrust.f. Effect of altitude With increasing altitude the ambient air pressure and temperature are reduced. The fuel control system adjusts the fuel pump output to match the reduced mass airflow. the ram air temperature rises rapidly consistent with the basic gas laws. Effect of afterburning on engine thrust At take-off conditions.As aircraft speeds increase into the supersonic region.p.). Under flight conditions. This temperature rise affects the compressor delivery air temperature proportionally and. The fall in air temperature increases the density of the air. since the momentum drag is the same with or without after-burning and. so maintaining a constant engine speed. Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . the fuel flow is automatically reduced to limit the engine speed and airflow. the momentum drag of the airflow through the engine is negligible. so that the mass of air entering the compressor for a given engine speed is greater.617 feet. due to the ram effect. and the thrust or s.089 feet and up to 65. This affects the engine in two inter-related ways:The fall of pressure reduces the air density and hence the mass airflow into the engine for a given engine speed. 23 . the temperature remains constant. the ‘ram ratio’ effect causes very high stresses on the engine and. If after-burning is selected. to fall. This causes the mass airflow to reduce at a lower rate and so compensates to some extent for the loss of thrust due to the fall in atmospheric pressure. an increase in take-off thrust in the order of 30 percent is possible with the pure jet engine and considerably more with the by-pass engine.h. the increased mass airflow due to the ‘ram ratio’ effect must be matched by the fuel flow and the result is an increase in fuel consumption.h.h. this advantage is even greater. so that the gross thrust can be considered to be equal to the net thrust.c. At high forward speeds at low altitudes. the choice of turbine materials and the design of blades and stators to permit cooling are very important. however. in consequence. This causes the thrust or s. is affected by pressure only. the engine must be subjected to higher turbine entry temperatures. to maintain the required thrust. Because the net thrust tends to decrease with forward speed.
the thrust of the engine for a given r. is high-pressure compressor speed and the compressor delivery pressure is expressed as P3. consequently.m. the fuel control system reduces the fuel flow to maintain a constant engine rotational speed or turbine entry temperature. the fuel flow is automatically controlled to maintain a constant compressor delivery pressure and. at a predetermined compressor delivery pressure. therefore. The denser air does. because of the decrease in air density. hence thrust increases as air temperature decreases until. the combined acceleration and speed control fuel system schedules fuel flow to maintain a constant engine r. It will also be apparent from this graph that the low pressure compressor speed is always less than its limiting maximum and that the difference in the two speeds is reduced by a decrease in ambient air temperature. increase the power required to drive the compressor or compressors.p. This means that some sort of thrust augmentation. a thrust loss of up to 20 percent may be experienced.p. the thrust will be lower. thus reducing the mass of air entering the compressor and. thus the engine will require more fuel to maintain the same engine speed or will run at a reduced engine speed if no increase in fuel is available. because of the increased mass airflow as a result of the increase in air density. fuel flow is also controlled by an LP governor which. controls the fuel flow so that the maximum fuel supply is held practically constant at low air temperature conditions. however. whereupon the engine speed falls but. On a hot day the density of the air decreases.h. thrust. For example.. may be required. however. depending on the type of engine.m. Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 24 . At a temperature of 45°C. The fuel control system.Effect of temperature On a cold day the density of the air increases so that the mass of air entering the compressor for a given engine speed is greater. as appropriate.p. is higher. illustrates this for a twin-spool engine where the controlled engine r. To prevent the LP compressor overspeeding. the thrust remains the same.m. Because less power will be required to drive the compressor. takes a passive role. hence the thrust or s. such as water injection. in this case.p.
Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . 25 .
V) 2g is the waste velocity. i. is controlled by the cycle pressure ratio and combustion temperature. because although the jet stream continues to issue at a high velocity from the engine. the efficiency of the propulsive system. The efficiency of conversion of kinetic energy to propulsive work is termed the propulsive or external efficiency and this is affected by the amount of kinetic energy wasted by the propelling mechanism. The efficiency of conversion of fuel energy to kinetic energy is termed thermal or internal efficiency and. and the best use of this velocity to propel the aircraft forward.V)2 where (vJ . Unfortunately this temperature is limited by the thermal and mechanical stresses that can be tolerated by the turbine. its velocity relative to the surrounding atmosphere is reduced and. The development of new materials and techniques to minimise these limitations is continually being pursued. can be expressed as W(vJ . as represented by the jet velocity. It is therefore apparent that at the aircraft lower speed range the pure jet stream wastes considerably more energy than a propeller system and consequently is less efficient over this range. like all heat engines. this factor changes as aircraft speed increases. in consequence.e. However.PROPULSIVE EFFICIENCY Performance of the jet engine is not only concerned with the thrust produced. but also with the efficient conversion of the heat energy of the fuel into kinetic energy. which represents a loss. the waste energy loss is reduced. Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 26 . Waste energy dissipated in the jet wake.
Therefore. are those of low specific fuel consumption and weight. one of the most important considerations is how efficiently the power is produced. a further pronounced improvement in s. section of the engine. A typical aircraft fuel system measures the volume of fuel consumed.c. particularly for commercial transport duty. using fewer compressor stages. With a high by-pass ratio engine of the triple-spool configuration. the overall efficiency of the engine.f. to take advantage of their full capacity. the weight reduction compared with a pure jet engine is in the order of 20 per cent for the same air mass flow. is multiplied by the horsepower lbs. is directly related to the thermal and propulsive efficiencies.P. Considerable improvement has been achieved by use of the by-pass principle and by advanced mechanical and aerodynamic features and the use of improved materials. less thrust is produced by the by-pass engine due to the lower exit velocity. to obtain the same thrust. is obtained by the increase in pressure ratio and turbine entry temperature. With a low by-pass ratio engine. but also the engine is shorter for a given power output. To calculate fuel flow. thus minimising the number of compressor and turbine stages for a given duty. thus the H. 27 . Theoretically.c. that is. a further significant improvement in specific weight is obtained. However.f. in the range of 15:1. of air at the turbines. thrust is known as “specific fuel consumption” or SFC. S. by using the by-pass principle. the triple-spool and contra-rotating rear fan engines allow the pressure and by-pass ratios to be achieved with short rotors. which in addition to permitting a significant reduction in the total number of parts. specific fuel consumption found on the customer data sheet. high thermal and propulsive efficiencies can be effectively combined by bypassing a proportion of the LP compressor or fan delivery air to lower the mean jet temperature and velocity. With the trend towards higher by-pass ratios. For a given mass flow.P. With advanced technology engines of high by-pass and overall pressure ratios. thrust produced. The amount of fuel consumed to produce a given horsepower lbs. enables rotating assemblies to be more effectively matched and to work closer to optimum conditions. the by-pass engine must be scaled to pass a larger total mass airflow than the pure turbo-jet engine. The turbines of pure jet engines are heavy because they deal with the total airflow. In a pure turbo-jet engine this high temperature would result in a high jet velocity and consequently lower the propulsive efficiency. because not only has the diameter of the high pressure rotating assemblies been reduced. This is derived mainly from advanced mechanical and aerodynamic design. combustion chambers and turbines. compressor. is still less because of the reduced size of the H. Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . can be scaled down. This is displayed in pounds per hour or PPH. in addition to the reduced specific fuel consumption. an improvement in the power-to-weight ratio is obtained. The weight of the engine. It is clear that the by-pass engine is lighter. Thus. whereas the turbines of by-pass engines deal only with part of the flow.FUEL CONSUMPTION AND POWER TO WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP Primary engine design considerations. however. high thermal efficiency requires high pressures which in practice also means high turbine entry temperatures. The increased power per lb. resulting in a lighter and more compact engine. SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION When comparing engine performance. The use of higher strength lightweight materials is also a contributory factor. is obtained.
PERFORMANCE RATINGS (example from a turbo-prop). These temperatures represent the effects of flat rating engines. thrust per hour FLAT RATING “Flat rating” is used by aircraft manufacturers when they select an engine that has a capability greater than the requirements of the aircraft. Performance at altitude will be greatly enhanced. -6. -8 and –10 engines. One is the engine will have the ability to make take-off power at lower turbine temperatures over a wide range of outside air temperatures and pressure altitudes. -5. Each engine will make take-off power below their turbine temperature limits to the ambient temperatures indicated. Engines that are not flat rated.SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION – DEFINITION SFC = SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION defined as LBS (fuel) per HP/lbs. These two benefits result in the third benefit. Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 28 . Notice the modifiers on the –1. longer engine life. performance ratings are compared on –1 through –12 engines. such as the –3 or –11. would be unable to make take-off power below their turbine temperature limits when operating in conditions above 59°F outside air temperatures. They then limit the power output of the engine. There are three distinct benefits derived from flat rating. PERFORMANCE RATINGS In the chart.
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3 AIR INTAKES COMPRESSOR AIR INLET DUCTS The main requirement of an intake is that. delivery of the air to the engines is achieved with the minimum loss of energy occurring through the inlet duct. The pitot-type intake can be used for engines that are mounted in pods either attached to wing pylons or fuselage stub wings. the efficiency of this type of intake begins to fall. is a short.5 is the supersonic range The ideal air intake for a turbo-jet engine fitted to an aircraft flying at sub-sonic or low supersonic speeds. the delivery of the maximum mass of air to the front compressor face. and suffers the minimum loss of ram pressure with changes of aircraft altitude.5. because of the formation of a shock wave at the intake lip.5 mach) distributed evenly across the whole inlet area. This is when the characteristics of the airflow changes and the formation and control of shock waves has to be considered. Each inlet configuration has been designed to achieve the same result.8 and Mach 1. under all operating conditions. it is normally taken that the speed range between Mach 0.2 and Mach 2. Although there are no exact figures. Supersonic intake design will be covered later in this chapter. pitot-type circular intake. It will deliver air to the compressor inlet face at approximately Mach 0. At sonic speeds. Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 30 .2 is termed the transonic range whilst that between Mach 1. This type of intake makes the fullest use of ‘ram-effect’ on the air due to the forward speed. the air must reach the compressor at a uniform speed/pressure(maximum 0. To enable the compressor to operate satisfactorily.15. Some installations require that the intakes deviate from the ideal circular form to meet structural and aerodynamic requirements. This is sometimes known as ‘ram recovery’ or ‘total pressure recovery’.
PITOT TYPE INTAKES Intakes in their simplest form. and forces the slowing air to increase in pressure. allow the air to enter the engine in a straight line and sub-sonic. the circular pitot intake. (allowing flight to high sub-sonic speeds without choking the engine). 31 . it both slows the airflow into the engine. and hence.1 Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . It can be seen in the illustration overleaf that the intake duct is a diverging duct. Pitot Type Intake Figure 3. again increasing the overall efficiency.
but due to the long intake duct and the loss of space in the front of the aircraft. located at high mid-fuselage. The disadvantage of this type of intake is that during any yawing manoeuvre.DIVIDED INTAKE DUCTS Some single engine aircraft have a pitot type of intake. Divided Air Intake Figure 3. which could suffer from this effect. many more have a divided type of intake on each side of the fuselage. causing an uneven distribution of airflow into the compressor.2 Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 32 . a loss of ram pressure occurs on one side of the intake. The Vantage business jet shown below has divided intakes.
Secondly. 33 . as well as the wide-body aircraft. “S shaped” curved intake duct. Firstly the air has inertia. fitted with a complex. the air cannot be made to interface accurately with the front face of the compressor. the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 / MD-11 series. compared with the Nos. meaning it has to be forced to follow the curves of the duct. resulting in uneven airflow. The intake duct for the centre engine of this type of aircraft is in a form of a large ‘S’ shape and this has two penalties. which have the centre (number 2) engine. In one notable case. Falcon Jet Centre Intake Layout Figure 3.2) engine intake system. 1 & 3 engines.CURVED INTAKE DUCTS There are a few aircraft. the complete engine assembly is located about a quarter of the way up the vertical stabiliser The three-engine layout mentioned is also used in a selection of smaller business-jet aircraft. The illustration of a Dassault Falcon business jet below shows the complex. This duct has quite high losses compared with a simple pitot type of intake. resulting in losses not suffered by the number 1 and 3 engines. notably three-engine types.3 Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . The designer accepts these losses against the advantage of having the engine within the fuselage shape with little extra drag. centre (No.
4 Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 34 . the pitot type of air intake is unsuitable due to the severity of the shockwave that forms and progressively reduces the intake efficiency as speed increases. Supersonic Pitot Type Air Intake Figure 3. A more suitable intake for these higher speeds is known as the external/internal compression intake.SUPERSONIC PITOT TYPE INTAKE At higher supersonic speeds. This type of intake produces a series of mild shock waves without excessively reducing the intake efficiency.
35 . slowing the sub-sonic air to about Mach 0.5 by the time it reaches the face of the compressor. The cross section of a supersonic intake shows the layout. The air velocity must therefore. allows the airflow to be controlled without the use of variable geometry intakes. The angle of a variable throat area intake automatically varies with aircraft speed. slows the supersonic air to Mach 1. be decreased between the intake and the engine air inlet. it is necessary to have an air intake that has a variable throat area and spill valves fitted to accommodate and control the changing mass of air. Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . say over M=1.5 Continued development enables the same effect to be achieved by careful design of the intake and ducting.5. being a converging duct. Beyond this point the duct diverges. Supersonic Intake with Ramps Figure 3. coupled with auxiliary air doors to permit extra air to be taken in under certain engine operating conditions. The basic principle of these intakes is that the first part of the intake. The airflow velocities encountered in the higher speed range of the aircraft are much higher than the engine can efficiently use.SUPERSONIC AIR INTAKE WITH RAMPS As aircraft speeds increase still further the intake compression ratio also increases. especially the moveable ramps. This. It positions the shock wave to decrease the air velocity at the engine inlet and maintains maximum pressure recovery within the inlet duct. At high Mach numbers.
which leaves the output shaft offset to one side and space for a clear. however. Examples of both of these types are illustrated below.6 Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 36 . Others. have a reduction gearbox installed on the front of the engine. The main reason for this is that some turbo-propeller designs have their output shafts running through the centre of the intake. Turbo-Propeller Air Intakes Figure 3.TURBO-PROPELLER AIR INTAKES The intake ducts used on turbo-propeller engine installations can have several different configurations. pitot type of intake.
BELLMOUTH AIR INTAKE Finally, one form of intake that may be seen on slow moving aircraft, especially helicopters, is the bellmouth type of intake. These intakes are converging in shape and are fitted on to aircraft that fly below ram- recovery speed. This type of inlet produces a large amount of drag, but this disadvantage is overcome by their high degree of aerodynamic efficiency. The illustration below shows a typical bellmouth intake fitted to a Rolls Royce Gnome 1200.
Bellmouth Air Intake Figure 3.7 This type of intake is also fitted to the front of gas turbine engines under test. Because this type of intake has very little duct losses, the performance figures taken under test usually assume zero duct losses.
Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC .
AIR INTAKE ICE PROTECTION Icing of the engine and the leading edge of the intake duct can occur during flight through super-cooled clouds or during ground operations in freezing fog. Protection against ice formation may be required since icing of these regions can considerably restrict the airflow through the engine, causing a loss in performance and possible malfunction of the engine itself. Additionally, damage may be caused by ice breaking away and being ingested into the engine or striking the acoustic material that lines the intake duct. To prevent ice forming upon the vital parts of the engine and its nacelle, a system must be developed that will apply heat to the intake lip and essential parts of the compressor front face. The system must be reliable, easy to maintain, present no excessive weight penalty and cause no serious loss in engine performance when in operation. The parts of the engine installation that may require protection are: • • • • • Intake Lip Centre nose cone Sensor probes Guide vanes Intake struts
Not all of the previously mentioned parts of all installations will require specific protection. For example, the nose cone of the ALF 502 engine has hot oil circulating inside it, whereas the nose cone of the Rolls-Royce Tay has a special coating that resists the build-up of ice and has no heating. As a general rule, turbo-jet engines, which have a ready source of hot, bleed air, use the hot air systems, whist the turbo-propeller engines normally use electrical power, (although bleed air may be used for some specific tasks). Although there are exceptions, in general: The hot air systems are generally used to prevent ice forming and are known as anti-icing systems. The electrical power systems are used to break up ice that has formed on the surfaces and are known as de-icing systems.
Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC
THE HOT AIR SYSTEM The hot air systems provide surface heating of the engine and powerplant, (and the airframe), where ice is likely to form. Rotor blades rarely require protection due to the high centrifugal forces present. The hot air for the anti-icing system is usually taken from the high-pressure compressor stages. It is ducted through pressure regulator and shut-off valves to the parts of the engine requiring protection. Once used, the spent air can be ducted into the intake duct or, on some designs, overboard. The illustration shows a typical hot-air anti-icing system protecting the intake lip, nose cone and intake guide vanes.
Hot Air System Figure 3.8
Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC .
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM The electrical system of ice protection is generally used on turbo-propeller engine installations. One reason for this system being used is the additional protection required on the propellers. As a general statement, protection on turbo-propeller installations is applied to the intake cowling, the propeller blades and spinner. It may also be required to protect the intake of the oil cooler. Electrical heating pads are bonded to the outer skin of the cowlings. They consist of strip conductors sandwiched between either layers of neoprene or glass cloth impregnated with epoxy resin. Due to the eroding effects of rain and hail, protection is required on the leading edges and consists of special polyurethane-based paint. When in operation, some parts of the pads are heated continuously and some are heated cyclically. The continuously heated parts keep the actual leading edge free of ice whilst the cyclic heating breaks the formed ice off, using the assistance of the airflow. The illustration below shows where the elements might be located on an intake.
Electrical Heating Elements Figure 3.9
Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC
Some systems cater for the fact that ice build-up can be at different rates depending on circumstances. firstly. This ensures a clean. ice free. To cater for this.CYCLIC TIMING Whilst the electrical loads are provided by the aircraft electrical generating systems. Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . surface. Secondly. ELECTRICAL HEATING CYCLE Figure 3. to ensure that the engine can accept the amount of ice that collects during the ‘heat-off’ period. A typical cycle example is shown below. 41 . to prevent excessive loads being placed upon the generators. it ensures that the ‘heat-on’ period is long enough to give adequate ice shedding. the loading is cycled between the engine intake and the propeller blades & spinner. and used depending on the outside air temperature (OAT) and any precipitation in the air. selectable from the cockpit.10 The cyclic timing of the intermittently heated elements is arranged. (or the generators needing to be too large and heavy). without “run back” forming behind the protected surfaces. there are sometimes ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ cycles.
11 Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 42 .MIXED SYSTEMS On some aircraft. although this design introduces complexity that could cause difficulty in service over time. oil and electrical services. the engine/powerplant assembly is either anti-iced or de-iced by a mixture of hot air. The example below is shown as using all three systems. Mixed Ice Removal System Figure 3. to prevent ice accretion. because of limitations at the design stage. Some engines may be found using any of the above three systems.
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Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 44 . the compressor must increase the pressure of the mass of air received from the air inlet duct and then to discharge it to the burners in the combustion chambers. it cannot take advantage of ram effect due to the tortuous route that the airflow has to follow through the compressor. Some engines may use both types on one compressor assembly. The air is then expelled into a divergent duct. a diffuser and a manifold. The two basic types have a centrifugal flow or an axial flow. The impeller can be single or double sided and can be installed in either one or two-stage assemblies. A complete centrifugal compressor assembly consists of an impeller rotor. which are quite competitive with axial compressors.15. where velocity is exchanged for energy. Whilst compression ratios in the vicinity of 5:1 were the norm on earlier designs. CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS These compressors receive the air at their centre and accelerate it outwards by centrifugal force. due to the huge losses caused by the continued redirection of the airflow through the stages. the added weight of the impellers and the power required from the turbine to drive the compression stages. it is now possible to produce centrifugal compressors with compression ratios of 15:1. It is very rare to find more than two stages of compression. Compressors may be identified by the direction of the airflow through them. Its primary purpose is to supply air in sufficient quantity to satisfy the requirements of the combustion process. in the mass and pressures required.4 COMPRESSORS The compressor section of the turbo-jet engine has many functions. Whilst this type of compressor can generate a high mass-flow from a small diameter engine. Specifically to fulfil its purpose. called a diffuser.
45 . dual-sided compressor and a two-stage.1 Two Single Sided Compressors Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . Single Stage Dual Sided Compressor Figure 4. single sided centrifugal compressor.The illustrations below show a single stage.
partially converting high velocity to pressure. the space between the rotor shaft and the stator casing becomes smaller. Axial compressor Figure 4. each stage being capable of producing a pressure rise of about 1. A normal maximum number of stages to be found is between 16 and 18. The number of these stages is dictated by the amount of air and the pressure rise that is required. The stator blades act as diffusers at each stage.AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS The axial flow compressor has two main components.25:1.From the front to the rear of an axial compressor. This is shown in the illustration below. A set of rotor and stator blades constitutes a pressure stage. This is necessary to maintain a near constant axial velocity of the air as the density increases with compression. a rotor and stator. The rotor has blades attached to a spindle or drum.2 Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 46 . which impels the air rearwards in the same manner as a propeller.
low cost Low weight Low power for starting Damage tolerant DISADVANTAGES AXIAL COMPRESSOR High ram effect efficiency High peak pressures Small frontal area CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR Large frontal area Limited to two stages AXIAL COMPRESSOR Complex manufacture Relative high weight High starting power Low pressure rise/stage Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC .ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES ADVANTAGES CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR High pressure rise per stage Good efficiency over wide speed range Simplicity of manufacture. 47 .
illustrated below. followed immediately by a centrifugal compressor. The example. which power helicopters. It can be seen that it has seven axial stages followed by a single centrifugal stage.COMBINED COMPRESSORS There are a number of gas turbines that use both types of compressor by having an axial compressor.3 Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 48 . is of the Lycoming T-55 engine that powers the Chinook helicopter. suffice to say that this layout can generally be found on turbo-shaft engines. Combined Axial/Centrifugal Compressors Figure 4. The aerodynamic advantages of this arrangement are too complex to discuss at this stage but.
it becomes very difficult to control the air throughout all of the stages. which diffuses. After each rotor stage.25:1 The stators have a second duty. 49 . if not corrected. the air passes through a stator stage. each stage comprising a rotor and a stator. The stator turns the air in the reverse direction. As the air leaves each rotor stage with increased velocity. will reduce the efficiency of each progressive stage. which is to straighten out the ‘swirl’ which is the result of axial compression. each stage achieving a compression ratio of approximately 1. This is one of the reasons why centrifugal compressors generate a high level of noise when operating. which has caused the pressure to rise. continuously drawing air into the front of the compressor. resulting in the airflow flowing axially through each stage. which causes it to accelerate and the pressure to rise.600 ft per second. which is divergent. It is normal for a centrifugal compressor to have impeller tip speeds of around 1. the air and causes the pressure to rise yet again. Centrifugal action causes it to flow outwards along the vanes to the tip. Once it leaves the impeller it passes through the diffuser section.OPERATING PRINCIPLES CENTRIFUGAL The impeller is rotated at high speed by the turbine and the air is continuously induced into the centre of the impeller. This process continues throughout the number of stages of the compressor. AXIAL The rotor is rotated at high speed by the turbine. especially in the climb or descent and the density of the air or altitude at which the aircraft is operating. These include the speed of the compressor. When axial compressors are required to produce a high level of compression. causing the pressure to rise again. (decelerates). (well over Mach1). due to throttle demand from the flight deck. This is due to the variables that any aircraft can meet. it also has a rotary motion that. the speed of the aircraft. This demonstrates how this arrangement has half the compression occurring in the impeller and half in the diffuser. This type of compressor works best at high rotational speeds. Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC .
This is shown by the different stagger angles between the root and tip of the blades. The connecting shaft may be manufactured in two parts. (stators). much the same as a propeller. for access to the rotors). This can be seen in the illustration overleaf. the casing assembly. the rotating rotor. Diffuser assemblies are often part of the compressor case. made up from the main shaft supported by ball and roller bearings and either separate discs or a drum assembly. Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 50 . which cannot be easily forged.CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES CENTRIFUGAL The centrifugal compressors are usually mounted on ball or roller bearings and are driven by the turbine stage(s). are attached to the front of the impeller. These draw the air into the impeller unit. to which are affixed the blades of differing sizes. The roots of the blades are formed into a shape that matches the recesses in the rotor disc and they only have to be retained on the disc by plates that restrict fore and aft movement. whilst having a self-aligning coupling to join the parts together. (rotors) and rotation. The rotor blades are of aerofoil section and are twisted. all giving positive retention against centrifugal force. The discs are forged with the vanes straight for ease of manufacture. in a number of pieces (to allow splitting. to give an even thrust along their length. Normally a separate set of rotating guide vanes. to allow engine disassembly. The vanes are affixed to the rotor discs and stator case(s) by a variety of methods. contains all of the stator vanes attached to the inside face of the case. The case also provides part of the strength of the complete engine and. has attachments or mounting points built into the case design. on some designs. AXIAL The Axial compressor consists of firstly. with integrally cast vanes to act as both diverging ducts and to direct the airflow into the elbows and the combustion chambers. Secondly.
holds the blades in place.5. generated by the blades straightening the airflow after each rotor stage. Stator Blade Retention Figure 4. STATOR VANES Stator vanes are also of aerofoil section and are located in slots around the compressor casing. 51 . where a retaining ring.Blade Details Figure 4. This is shown in Figure 4. but there is a tendency for the blades to slide radially around the grooves. There is no chance for the blades to move fore and aft due to the retention of the grooves. held by the screw.5 Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . This movement is prevented by retaining set screws. which hold a number of blades in place. preventing any movement by the others.4 1. This tendency is caused by the air loads.
if they become damaged in service. often individually. has a wide chord fan which can be both repaired. The engine shown below.FAN BALANCING The fan consists of the single front stage of the compressor.6 Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 52 . Fan blades may be manufactured from Titanium. it is the lowpressure (LP) compressor and is part of a twin or triple-spool engine. Normally. although some have been manufactured from composite materials. It will usually consist of a small number of blades that can be removed. Rolls Royce Tay Fan Figure 4. (by blade replacement) and balanced in situ. Titanium is used normally because of the bird strike requirements that dictate very strong blades on the first stage of the engine. a Rolls Royce Tay. sometimes as a skin with a honeycomb core.
the blades will have been pre-weighed by the manufacturer and the value engraved upon the blade. means that the replacement of individual blades must be undertaken with care. The blades will be divided into weight “groups” so that. providing the replacement blade is of the same “group” as the one removed. 53 . Shown below is the fan assembly of the Tay engine. This will allow the engineer. it will be possible to carry out balancing ground-runs. In some cases. to add or remove small balance weights.7 Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . there should be no need to balance the assembly. following the maintenance manual. at specific points around the fan assembly. showing the use of weights to give a balanced assembly. Tay Fan Assembly Figure 4. In most cases.The need for the engine to be precisely balanced because of its high rotational speed. due to the engine having built-in vibration sensors. until the assembly is in perfect balance.
(rear). Surge Margin Diagram Figure 4. or at the high compression. are included. temperature. resulting in a loss of thrust. to design a workable and efficient compressor.T. surge will occur.T. etc. To overcome this problem. In extreme conditions. would rise and may be accompanied with a loud bang. end of the engine. This is an instantaneous breakdown of flow through the engine and high-pressure air in the combustion system is expelled forwards through the compressor. such as when the aircraft is operating normally. the airflow through the compressor can become disturbed and vibration can be set-up. This matching is fairly simple when the engine is running on a test bed. depending whether the fault is at the intake.8 Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 54 . If the engine demands a pressure rise from the compressor greater than the blades can sustain. This is shown graphically below.G. it is much more difficult when speed. each stage must be matched to the next stage.STALL AND SURGE Each stage of a multi-stage compressor possesses certain airflow characteristics that are dissimilar from those of its neighbour thus. (front). altitude. This stalling of the blades can either be positive or negative. engines have a declared ‘safety margin’ to ensure the area of instability is avoided.
permitting excessive pressure to be bled overboard. Some may only have the first stage inlet guide vanes moveable. which occur most often on single shaft engines with high compression ratios. As the compressor slows from its optimum.To control these disturbances. 55 . BLEED BANDS/VALVES In addition. Due to the loss of performance during normal operations. the blades change their angle of attack to vary the airflow on to the rotor blades. This control can take the form of variable inlet guide vanes for the first stage and variable stator vanes for other stages. so that they do not stall and remain at their optimum angle of attack. whilst others can have four or more stages that are variable. The illustration below shows an engine with variable inlet guide vanes and three variable stator vanes. usually located at the higher compression stages.9 Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . The operation of these air bleed systems can either be actuated by hydraulic. This avoids the choking which may occur during rapid acceleration. an interstage bleed may be fitted to the compressor casing. pneumatic or electronic methods VARIABLE INLET GUIDE VANES (VIGVS) The number of stages that have variable incidence vanes depends on the design of the engine. Guide Vanes and Stator Vanes Figure 4. bleed valves will usually only be opened during starting and acceleration. a variety of methods are used on different engines.
Each shaft assembly will be rotating at its optimum speed. The excessive fuel will cause choking at the turbine. The LP compressor is driven by the aft. A better solution is the twin-spool axial flow compressor. resulting in a progressive stall through the engine from the front. Equally. HP turbine. each mounted on its own co-axial shaft. due perhaps to a badly adjusted fuel control unit. Whether the engine is at high or low altitude or whether it is moving through the air at high or low speeds. the two spools will be matched to the external atmosphere parameters and aircraft performance. when the LP spool rotates faster.OVERFUELLING SURGE All engines have to be over fuelled by a small margin to cause them to accelerate. there is less chance of ‘choking’. at higher altitudes. Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 56 . then the inertia of the rotating parts of the engine will resist acceleration. part of the twin spool engine type described earlier. the greater mass airflow to the HP section restores some of the losses that a single spool engine would suffer at this altitude. each section is completely independent from the other and driven by its own turbine assembly. due to the reduced air density. for example. the HP system is doing most of the work whilst the LP spool runs slower. due to the faster moving HP spool. this will cause a slowing of the compressor air velocity. At idle. If the over fuelling is above the correct figure. this makes its angle of attack of the airflow on to the first stage much better and. The compressor has two sections. LP turbine and the HP compressor is driven by the forward. TWIN SPOOL AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS Relief from surging troubles can be obtained from the devices described earlier. The resulting reversal of the airflow is a surge.
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Burn this mixture efficiently. They are usually located co-axially with the compressor and the turbine. Deliver the hot gases to the turbine section. The primary function of the combustion section is to burn the air/fuel mixture adding heat energy to the air. Cool the hot combustion products to a temperature that the turbine blades can withstand under operating conditions. Combustion sections are located between the compressor-diffuser and the turbine section.COMBUSTION SECTION The combustion section houses the process by which the energy contained within the air/fuel mixture is released. To carry this out efficiently it must: Provide the means for proper mixing of the air and fuel to assure good combustion. All combustion chambers contain the following elements: • • • • • An outer casing A perforated inner liner A fuel injection system (This topic will be covered later) Means of ignition (This topic will also be covered later) A fuel drainage system Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 58 .
is total and complete combustion. The very low air pollution levels required before certification can be granted. so that the total airflow to the turbine is at an acceptable temperature. There are currently three basic types of combustion chambers. secondary airflow forms a cooling air blanket around the liner. which has become more and more important recently. 59 . The illustration below shows how the total compressor output is divided into sections for different purposes. mixes with the primary airflow. Around 20% of the total air is fed to the fuel nozzles for combustion. The remaining.COMBUSTION CHAMBER AIRFLOW To ensure that the components of the combustion chamber and the turbine assembly are not overheated. will not allow the smoke trails that were typical of older generation aircraft. finally. centres the flame and. the airpaths are divided into primary and secondary. with variations within these types being in detail only: • • • The Multiple Combustion Chamber The Tubo-Annular Combustion Chamber The Annular Combustion Chamber Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC .1 An additional purpose of the combustion system. Apportioning the Airflow Figure 5.
Combustion chamber Figure 5. The chambers are disposed around the engine and the compressor delivery air is directed. Whilst the airflow enters the chamber at high velocity. such as overheating and bulging of the outer case. after shut-down or a “wet start”. If any problem exists with a single chamber. Fuel manifolds carry fuel to the burners and a complex drain system ensures that all the chambers are emptied to a collector tank. All these features can be seen in the illustrations below. All of the flame tubes are interconnected to both equalise the air pressure throughout the combustion system and to allow the combustion to propagate around all of the flame tubes during engine starting. such as the Roll-Royce Dart turbo-propeller engine and also early axial compressor designs. it can be changed easily with the engine remaining in situ.2 Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 60 . Each chamber has an inner flame tube surrounded by an air casing. by ducts.MULTIPLE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS The multiple chamber layout is found on centrifugal compressor engines. into each individual chamber. swirl vanes and baffles slow the combustion air to a speed at which the flame can safely exist.
3 Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . 61 .Multiple Combustion Chambers Figure 5.
A cutaway illustration of a typical Tubo-annular combustion is shown below. A number of flame tubes are installed inside a common air casing.TUBO . Pratt & Whitney and Rolls Royce produced many designs based on this principle. This arrangement combines the ease of overhaul and testing of the multiple system with the compactness of the annular system. in opposing chambers to initiate ignition at engine start.4 Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 62 . The airflow through this chamber is similar to the multiple chamber system described earlier. Tubo – Annular/Can Annular Figure 5. there are normally two igniters.ANNULAR/CAN ANNULAR The Tubo-annular (Can-Annular) combustion chamber is a mixture between the multiple combustion chamber and the annular combustion chamber layout. As with the previous designs.
Because of their efficient fuel burning. They are the most efficient design. However.ANNULAR Finally there is the Annular Combustion Chamber which consists of a flame tube (commonly referred to as a combustion liner) circular in construction which is contained within an inner and outer casing. sometimes called a ‘basket’. but it differs by the air. annular combustion chamber engines are one of the most efficient designs in the world. least polluting exhaust possible. which also produce the cleanest. the length of an annular chamber is 75% that of a Tubo-annular system of the same diameter. This type of design can be found in two totally different forms. together with Ignitor(s). Multiple fuel burners project into the basket. The smaller amount of surface area requires less cooling air and is also the most efficient use of space. STRAIGHT-THROUGH FLOW The straight-through flow annular combustor takes in air at the front and discharges it at the rear. (This is a much more complex operation than that required for the single chamber design). this type of combustor must be removed as a single unit for repair or replacement. This results in the combustion gasses flowing in the opposite direction to the normal flow through the engine. from the compressor. Note: Sir Frank Whittle used this form of combustion chamber on his earliest jet engine designs. 63 . Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . Both the primary and secondary airflow’s behave the same way as they do in the other combustor designs. Both of these parts encircle the engine. They are also shorter than comparable engines. flowing around the chamber and entering from the rear. requiring a complete separation of the engine at major flanges. They can be found with a straight-through flow or with a reverse flow. This design is in common use today in both small and large engines. The annular combustor consists of an outer housing with a perforated inner liner. REVERSE FLOW The reverse flow combustor serves the same function as the through flow unit. Another advantage of this type of design is the elimination of combustion propagation problems from chamber to chamber. both from a standpoint of thermal efficiency and weight. For the same power output.
a lighter engine and pre-heating of the compressor discharge air. Illustrated below are a through flow combustor and a reverse flow combustor. Straight Through Flow and Reverse Flow Combustors Figure 5. allowing for a shorter overall length.The reverse flow form of design also allows the turbine wheels to be located inside the combustor.5 Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 64 . These advantages offset some of the losses resulting from the reversal of the airflow.
the more efficient it is.500 feet per second in parts of the turbine. 65 . thus can have a smaller turbine for a given thrust. the turbine may consist of several stages. the rotational speed at which it must be produced and the diameter of the turbine permitted. the turbine blade tips may have a velocity of over 1.7000C and may reach a flow velocity of more than 2. Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . the accessories and. The continuous flow of gas to which the turbine is subjected may have an entry temperature of between 8500C and 1. To provide the driving torque.TURBINE SECTION The turbine section has the task of providing the power to drive the compressor. The design turbine inlet temperature will dictate its thermal efficiency. The number of stages depends upon the relationship between the power required from the gas flow. High compression ratio engines will often be twin-spool engines with low-pressure and high-pressure sections. providing shaft power to the propeller or rotor. and therefore the number of turbine stages. It does this by extracting energy from the hot gases released from the combustion system and expanding them to a lower pressure and temperature. On high by-pass ratio engines it is normal for there to be three shafts with again. There are numerous design compromises in the turbine section of an engine. centrifugal stresses. By-pass engines will have a better propulsive efficiency and. the higher the temperature. Very high stresses are involved in this process and. containing their own compressor and turbine stages. blade thickness/strength and others. their own compressor and turbine assemblies. each employing one row of stationary nozzle guide vanes and one row of rotating blades. These will involve such variables as mean blade speed. for efficient operation. The number of main shafts. in the case of turbo-propeller/Tubo-shaft engines.500 feet per second. depends upon the type of engine.
from root to tip are also considered uniform. The gas is then directed on to the blades.2 IMPULSE/REACTION Normally. 6. A typical impulse-reaction turbine blade is illustrated on the below. With this combination blade the workload can be evenly distributed along the length of the blade.3 REACTION Reaction turbines produce their turning force by an aerodynamic action.1. 6. turbine engines do not use pure impulse or pure reaction type blades. A modern development is the manufacture of non-metallic blades using a reinforced ceramic material.6. and it can be seen how the root end is of impulse design and the outer section is of reaction design. The blades today are usually precision-cast and finish-ground to the precise shape. Blades are classified as impulse. which experience an impulse force caused by the impact of the gas on the blades.1 IMPULSE In the impulse type. not increase its velocity. Also. they will increase the velocity of the exhaust gasses whilst decreasing their pressure.1 TURBINE BLADES Turbine blades are aerofoil shaped components designed to extract the maximum amount of energy from the flow of hot gasses. The gases pass between the blades of the turbine. this increases the velocity of the gases. all help to resist ‘creep’. This will be covered later. Ceramic coatings applied to nozzle guide vanes also allow them to tolerate higher temperatures. Early blades were made from steel forgings whilst one of the current material in use is cast nickel based alloy. A force reaction in the direction of the plane of rotation causes the turbine to spin. 6. The turbine nozzle guide vanes are shaped in such a way that they only aim the gas in the correct direction. Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 66 . The ability of these materials to operate satisfactorily at higher temperatures allows the engine designer to plan for higher turbine inlet temperatures and hence greater thrust. The blades may be either forged or cast depending on the alloy from which they are manufactured.1. but incorporate a design using an impulse-reaction combination. As the gasses flow over the aerofoil shaped blades. or as a single crystal. the total pressure drop across each stage occurs in the nozzle guide vanes. Because of their convergent shape. directional solidification. the axial velocity and the pressure drop across the blade. whilst the development of metals which have solidified either with the crystal structure aligned with the main stresses. reaction or a combination impulse-reaction type.1. which do form a converging passage.
67 .Turbine Blade Sections Figure 6.1 Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC .
the most common being either. Normally. welding. lock tabs or riveting. whilst the shrouded blades are found in wheels having slower rotational speeds. also using fir tree roots. These blades are retained within their housings by a variety of methods. Shrouded and Open Tip Blades Figure 6. The extra weight of the shrouded tip is offset by the blades being both thinner and more efficient.2 Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 68 . Shrouded blades form a band around the perimeter of the wheel. (left) and a series of open tip blades. which are attached to the disc using fir tree roots. peening.BLADE ATTACHMENTS The turbine blades are fitted into the turbine wheel (disc) with a form of fastening that allows them to be loose when the engine is cold but to be firmly attached when at their operating temperature. The most common form of attachment is the fir tree root. which helps to reduce blade vibration. The illustrations below shows a series of shrouded blades. open-ended blades are used on the high-speed wheels. The turbine blades may be either open or shrouded at their outer ends and either or both types of blade may be used in a single engine.
They all have to make allowance for the expansion that takes place when the engine is operating. The loose vanes will become tight within their shrouds when they get to their operating temperature. They are located directly aft of the combustion chamber(s) and immediately forward of the first stage turbine wheel. The welded installations will probably have the inner and/or the outer shroud ring cut into segments. such as turbine nozzle vanes. Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . which can take the form of loose fitting vanes or expansion slots in the continuous shroud. The number and size of the vanes vary with different engine designs. The nozzles convert a varying portion of the heat and pressure energy into velocity energy. These nozzles have two functions: Firstly. loose fitting. The illustration (overleaf) shows two methods of attaching the vanes to the shrouds. allowing expansion as it heats up in use. it becomes the job of the nozzles to prepare the mass airflow for driving the turbine rotor. (lower). and welded. The vanes of the nozzles are set at such an angle that they form a number of small nozzles. there will be a set of stationary nozzle guide vanes ahead of each stage. 69 . after the combustion chamber has introduced the heat energy into the mass airflow and delivered it evenly to the turbine nozzles. Construction usually consists of an inner shroud and an outer shroud between which are attached the guide vanes. probably the most common name. Secondly. This energy is converted into mechanical energy through the rotor blades. discharging the gas at extremely high speed. as does the method of attachment and mounting.2 GUIDE VANES The stator element of the turbine is known by a variety of different names. If the engine has more than one turbine stage. nozzle diaphragm. the nozzles’ purpose is to deflect the gasses to a specific angle in the direction of turbine wheel rotation to ensure that the gasses strike the turbine blades at the optimum angle. nozzle guide vanes. turbine guide vanes and.6. (top).
3 STRESS AND CREEP The blades. in some cases. Following from the above. both mechanical and thermal. also limits the amount of power that the engine can produce. This maximum T.T.Nozzle Vane Assemblies Figure 6. Metallurgists are constantly searching for better materials as well as better blade cooling. to be proof against the above demands.I. the accessories and. to raise the engine T. It must also withstand the high bending loads applied by the gasses to produce the many thousands of turbine (shaft) horsepower necessary to drive the compressor. hence the power.I. A small turbine blade weighing 60gm may exert a load of over 2000kg at maximum engine speed.T. The blades are also subject to fatigue. it can be seen that for a particular blade material and an acceptable safe life there must be an associated maximum permissible turbine entry (inlet) temperature. and. when at their normal operating temperature. Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 70 . plus corrosion and erosion. will be glowing red-hot and carrying large centrifugal forces due to their high rotational speeds. the blades have to be made by forming and machining using current manufacturing methods. the propeller/rotor assembly also. Apart from being manufactured from quite exotic materials.
The chart is NOT drawn to scale. Finally. It will however. frequent temperature and RPM changes. The illustration below left. the turbine blades slowly grow in length. careless handling of the engine caused by mishandling of the engine controls. be seen that overspeeding. This phenomenon is known as “Creep” and there is a finite. it simply represents the phases the blade goes through. on the right.4 Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . useful life limit before failure of the blade occurs. can quickly erode the safety margins between the retirement life and the point of fracture. than the primary creep. which finishes up at the point of fracture. Creep Characteristics Figure 6. the tertiary creep shows an accelerating increase of extension over time. The creep. can be divided into three phases: The initial. overall. primary creep occurs when the blade is first in service. which occurs throughout the life of the blades. towards the end of the blade’s life. shows how the blade creeps during service. the secondary creep occurs. although the amount of this creep will be less.Over a period of operational time. Most blades will be given a finite life. occurring towards the end of the secondary creep zone. 71 . Over a much longer period of time. The second chart. shows how the introduction of better materials has resulted in turbine blades with much better creep characteristics and hence much longer finite lives. fast. Blades in service are not permitted to reach the tertiary creep zone.
and hence the creep that results. Combination convection and surface cooling. an example of internal and surface blade cooling. some of the most popular are listed below: Internal airflow cooling – Air flows through the hollow blades and vanes exhausting into the gas flow. Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 72 . and on the right. Surface film cooling – Air flows from small exit ports in the leading and/or trailing edges of the blades or vanes to form a heat barrier on the surfaces. on the left.To reduce the heating effect on the turbine blades. It should be pointed out that the term “cooling air” does NOT infer that the air is cold or even cool. can be cooled by air. The two illustrations below show. many blades have some form of cooling applied to them. BLADE COOLING There are a number of methods used to cool the turbine blades. which can be operating at temperatures of around 10000C. This allows the blades to operate at temperatures above the critical temperatures for the metal alloy used in the construction of the blade. tapped from the higher compression stages at around 3000C+. an example of internal blade cooling. Air used to cool turbine components.
5 Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . 73 .Turbine Blade Cooling Figure 6.
These components also have one common purpose. The individual parts of the exhaust include the exhaust cone.15. The outer shell/duct is manufactured from heat resistant steel and attaches to the turbine case flange. EXHAUST CONE ASSEMBLY The exhaust cone assembly consists of an outer shell or duct. to straighten out the airflow which leaves the turbine with some ‘swirl’. impart a high final. and ends when the gases are ejected at the rear. (exit) velocity to the gases on turbo-jets. The duct is slightly divergent. slightly decreasing the velocity and increasing the pressure. they must direct the flow of gasses rearwards in such a manner as to prevent turbulence and at the same time. The illustration below shows the main components of an exhaust cone assembly.7 EXHAUST The exhaust section of a turbo-jet engine is made up of several components. Exhaust Cone Assembly Figure 7. due to the inner cone profile. This slows the gas flow. each of which has its own function. The exhaust section is located directly behind the turbine section. less so on turbo-propeller engines. even if the outer duct appears to be convergent. firstly to support the inner cone and.1 Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 74 . The radial struts serve two purposes. the tailpipe and the exhaust/jet nozzle. an inner cone and a number of radial hollow struts or fins. secondly.
In some designs a tailpipe is not required. 7. to pipe the exhaust gases out of the airframe. to reach a high supersonic airflow at the exit. These losses result in a measurable loss of final thrust. Attempting to accelerate the air any faster than Mach 1 would be uneconomic and reduce the engine life. Convergent-Divergent This design is used mainly on supersonic aircraft. is not part of the basic powerplant but part of the airframe. This type of nozzle is used to recover some of the otherwise wasted energy.1 TAILPIPE The tailpipe is used. Convergent The convergent nozzle accelerates the airflow. For example. For faster speeds. Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . a short tailpipe is all that is required. due to the higher temperature. the air will then accelerate further. it spreads out and accelerates. the fixed being the simpler of the two designs. the convergent design. This type of nozzle uses the same principle as supersonic intakes. a convergent-divergent nozzle is required. Its use imposes a penalty on the efficiency of the engine in the form of heat and duct (friction) losses. If the sub-sonic airflow is accelerated to reach Mach 1 at the narrowest point of the convergence. When the gas exits the choked nozzle. hence. thrust. The jet nozzle.7. where necessary. as the duct diverges. 75 . reaching Mach 1 and becoming “choked” at about the exit of the nozzle. by generating a further increase in gas velocity and. although it may be found on engines with high-pressure ratios. when the engine is installed in nacelles or pods. for sub-sonic gas velocities and the convergent-divergent design for supersonic gas velocities. like the tailpipe. (when fitted). There are two types of jet nozzle design.2 JET NOZZLE The exhaust or jet nozzle imparts to the exhaust gases the all-important final boost in velocity. The jet nozzle openings may be either fixed or variable area.
2 By-Pass Exhaust System The modern fan or by-pass engine has two gas streams venting to the atmosphere. An example of a low by. Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 76 . These gasses may be exhausted separately or together. the high temperature gases being discharged by the turbine and the low temperature gases discharged from the fan section. the flows of cool air and hot air are combined in a mixer unit that ensures the mixing of the two streams prior to exiting the engine.pass exhaust is illustrated overleaf.The two types of nozzle are illustrated below. In a low by-pass engine. a variable area nozzle will be covered in the section on afterburning. This mixing also helps to reduce the exhaust noise. with the convergent at left and the convergent-divergent on the right. Jet Nozzles Figure 7. A third form.
77 . The hot and cold nozzles are co-axial. (EPNdB). ENGINE NOISE SUPRESSION Engine Noise Reduction Figure 7. (decibels) and also makes allowance for the duration of an aircraft flyover. High By-Pass Exhaust Figure 7. A common nozzle may be used to partially mix the hot and cold gases prior to their ejection. This can be seen on the chart below.4 Engine Noise Reduction Noise is measured in effective perceived noise decibels.High by-pass engines usually exhaust the two streams separately. as is the effect of the installation of noise suppressors.5 Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . The noise produced by different types of engines is quite marked. which takes into account the pitch as well as the sound pressure.
A reduction in noise can be achieved if either the mixing rate of the two airflow’s can be accelerated. or the exhaust velocity. Exhaust Silencer Figure 7. Methods of Noise Suppression Noise suppression of internal sources is looked at in two ways. The exhaust. This mixing improves efficiency and reduces the noise emitted by the engine. important to be aware of the fact that the honeycomb noise absorbing panels are fragile and must be treated carefully. can be made quieter by mixing of the high speed and the low speed air over a shorter distance. (by-pass). The noise exhaust is the effect that can be reduced by the largest amount. although the eddies in the air can also cause high frequency noise for small eddies and low frequency for large ones.6 Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 78 . hot and cold. It is mostly generated by the shearing action between the jet exhaust and the outside air. It is however. by encouraging the hot stream to expand outwards whilst the cold. is illustrated below. they will not be covered. being a large generator of noise. This is achieved by increasing the contact area of the atmosphere with the exhaust stream by using a propelling nozzle. relative to the air can be reduced. the turbine and the exhaust. The exhaust illustrated shows the corrugations which mix the two streams. as fitted to the Rolls-Royce Tay. which incorporates a corrugated or lobe type noise suppressor. A corrugated type of noise suppressor. As both of these are beyond the requirements of the syllabus. air is drawn inwards. (Illustration overleaf).The most significant sources of noise from an engine are the fan/compressor. engine design and the use of acoustic panels to absorb noise.
icy or snow covered runways this efficiency may be severely reduced by the loss of adhesion between the tyres and the runway surface. they line most of the bypass ducts and care must be taken. Acoustic Panels Figure 7. even when the runways are dry.O.) Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC . A simple and effective way to achieve this was to reverse the direction of the exhaust gas stream. they are only active when the aircraft’s landing gear is on the ground and the weight of the aircraft is on it. normally. that they are checked for Foreign Object Damage(F. during inspections. it has been authorised to use thrust reversers in flight but.W. On rare occasions. To ensure continued operation during inclement weather.) or other causes. on wet. therefore be used to shorten landing runs.O. 79 . thus using engine thrust as a decelerating force. or the aircraft is ‘Weight On Wheels’(W. An additional bonus to this system was that it could be used at all times and can.D.As mentioned earlier. especially carbon units but. the honeycomb acoustic panels are fairly fragile and. an alternative to friction brakes had to be found.7 Thrust Reversal Modern aircraft brakes are very efficient. as can be seen from the illustration of a typical installation below.
The exhaust flow of jet engines can be directed forwards. also a hot stream system. Landing Run Distances Figure 7. thrust is a large part of the total. normally by blocker doors.An example of the effectiveness of reversers is illustrated below where the landing run can be reduced by more than 20%. has the buckets at the very rear of the exhaust/jet pipe.O. This method can be seen on Concorde. This method is sometimes called the translating cowl system. usually by hydro-mechanical means. The illustrations overleaf show three common methods of thrust reverser operation. but only after touchdown and pilot selection. a hot stream method. many engines are restricted in reverse. to about 70 or 80% of maximum power. The second method. (approximately 450) but. because the by-pass. Mod 15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC 80 . This results in the fact that only a percentage of the forward engine thrust is available for reversing action. the reverse thrust action is obtained by changing the pitch of the propeller blades. On propeller powered aircraft.8 The methods of reversing the flow vary with each engine but basically if the engine is a turbo-jet.). reverses the airflow ahead of the exhaust nozzle.D. due to the risk of foreign object damage(F. On a high by-pass engine. The clamshell system. This system moves the blades to a negative angle. (cold). only the cold stream is reversed. producing a flow of air forwards. decelerating the aircraft. All three methods are stowed with little drag but some weight penalty when not selected and actuated. It also deflects the stream forwards and can be seen on many early Boeing small jets such as the 727 and 737 models. the hot stream is reversed by either clamshell or bucket doors.
81 . often uncovered by a sliding cowling which smoothes the airflow over the vanes during flight. Thrust Reverser Types Figure 7. the translating cowl/cold stream system uses a set of ‘blocker doors to direct the fan. airflow through a series of cascade vanes.Finally. (cold).9 Mod15 Gas Turbine Engines by COBC .
` INTENTIALLY LEFT BLANK Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 82 .
The two different types of bearings used on gas turbines are ball and roller. an outer race and one or more sets of balls.8 BEARINGS AND SEALS BEARINGS Introduction (Level B1 only) A bearing is any surface that supports or is supported by another surface. the roller is situated between an inner and outer race. Bearings must reduce the friction of moving parts and also take thrust loads or a combination of thrust and radial loads. Those which are designed primarily for thrust loads are called thrust bearings. Straight roller bearings are used only for radial loads and taper roller bearings will support both radial and thrust loads. The purpose of the retainer or cage is to prevent the balls touching one another. Bearings are designed to produce a minimum of friction and a maximum of wear resistance. Ball Bearings A ball bearing consists of an inner race. both of which are made of case hardened steel.15. Ball bearings are used for radial and thrust loads. and bearings which are designed for dismantling. Roller bearings will withstand greater radial loads than ball bearings because of greater contact area. it rolls on a cone shaped race inside an outer race. a ball bearing specially designed for thrust loads would have very deep grooves in the races. a ball retainer or cage. When the roller is tapered. The bearing race is a guide or channel along which the rollers travel. STRAIGHT ROLLER BEARING Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 83 . Roller Bearings The bearings are manufactured in various shapes and sizes and can be adapted to both radial and thrust loads.
whilst roller bearings utilise cylindrical. whilst ball bearings and tapered roller bearings accept both radial and axial loads. Both types of bearings are designed for operation under continuous rotary or oscillatory conditions. Ball bearings employ steel balls which rotate in grooved raceways. tapered or spherical rollers.` Types of Bearings Bearings are broadly classified by the type of rolling element used in their construction. running in suitably shaped raceways. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 84 . but. other types of roller bearings accept mainly radial loads.
It is also used to seal engine bearing housings to prevent oil leaks (sump areas).Air Sealing LP. by means of a labyrinth seal. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 85 . HP and IP air are all used to prevent the hot exhaust gases flowing inward between the stages of the turbine.
Sump areas contain as many as five bearing assemblies. The oil seal is so designed to reduce the amount of air escaping across it. TYPICAL SUMP AREA As the air pressure is greater than the oil pressure. For as long as the air pressure is greater than the oil pressure. Oil is also directed into the oil cavity via the oil jet. which is then vented overboard via the oil cavity air vent orifice. However.` The figure represents a typical sump area. a certain amount of air will get into the oil cavity. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 86 . we can see from the figure that cooling air is directed into the air cavity of the sump. although in this case only one bearing is shown. the oil will be retained within the oil cavity.
Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 87 . A precise clearance is designed into the seals to control the pressure. Labyrinth Seals Labyrinth seals are constructed of metal non-rotating lands. there are no contacting parts. which are secured to various parts of the engine case and a series of cylindrical rotating knife-edge steps that mate with the lands. the pressure is reduced. as the compressor air passes over the cascade of knife-edges. These seals are multi-groove types. This is achieved by inserting differential pressure seals at appropriate places within the engine. With this type of seal. but commonly known as labyrinth seals.Air to Air or Air to Oil Sealing The air at these different pressures must be prevented from mixing.
or with a honeycomb shroud as shown in the figure.` The labyrinth seal may be used in conjunction with an abradable coating on the stationary member as shown in the figure. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 88 .
The location of a spring ring seal is shown in the figure. Construction and Operation This type of seal is similar to a large stepped piston ring. such as coal tar. bonded together with a viscous substance. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 89 . it is located on a rotating shaft. Spring Ring Seal This type of seal would normally be used around a main bearing assembly within the engine. when it then forms an effective seal with the adjacent stationary housing. the spring ring can expand slightly. the seal clamps tightly to the shaft. under centrifugal force. When the shaft is stationary. Both the rotating seal and the carbon seals are machine ground and precision lapped to a micro finish. As the shaft rotates. Carbon seals are manufactured of a mixture of carbon and graphite powder. It may be used in conjunction with a labyrinth or screw back type of seal.Carbon Seals Another method of air sealing is achieved by using a carbon seal arrangement. The carbon seal is fixed and held against the rotating seal by springs. They are used on the rotating assembly of a gas turbine and protection of engine drive components on an accessory gearbox.
` Hydraulic Seal This type of seal may also be found protecting the bearings on the main rotating assembly of an engine. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 90 . A hydraulic seal would be used in conjunction with another type of seal. the thread form is facing towards the bearing. is then ‘screwed back’ to the bearing. This oil reservoir will form a liquid seal with the rim of the rotating baffle ring. Screw Back Seal This type of seal will be found close to a bearing. Any tendency for the oil to leak across this seal will be counteracted by air leakage across a back-up seal. Construction and Operation The seal consists of a circular baffle ring mounted on a rotating shaft. It is fitted between the rotating shafts on a twin or triple spool engine. thus preventing oil loss. Oil from the bearing will fill this depression and be held there by centrifugal force. It is mounted on a rotating shaft and will be backed up by one of the types of seal previously described. which gets onto this threaded section. The figure shows the location of a screw back seal. the rim of this ring sits in the centre of a circular depression in an outer rotating shaft. Any oil from the bearing. Air pressure on the outer end of this seal will also be screwed towards the bearing and helps to prevent a loss of oil. Screw Back Seal Location Construction and Operation This seal consists of a raised screw thread on a rotating shaft. as shown in the figure.
(Containment of Substances Harmful to Health) When handling fuels and oils. there is a high flash point. This should include correct storage. Its use is limited. enamels and other materials. all normal precautions regarding flammable substances that were covered earlier. then that these lubricants are kept away from the skin. which causes them to penetrate and dissolve paints. but can be used on aircraft carriers and other aircraft carrying sea craft. turboprop and turboshaft engines. low freezing point fuel known as JP 5 or AVCAT. physical injury can result. PROPERTIES AND SPECIFICATIONS Kerosene Fuels Aviation turbine fuels are used for powering turbojet. in Module 7. Finally. either by the use of ‘barrier creams’ or by wearing protective garments and safety glasses. Any part of the skin that is affected by a spillage of synthetic oil. and AVTAG. carriage and dispensing.15. It is essential. In the United Kingdom these fuels are sometimes referred to as AVTUR. if synthetic oils touch or remain on the skin. There are two main types of turbine fuels in use. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 91 . (JET A & JET A-1). including crepe soles on footwear.9 LUBRICANTS AND FUELS WARNING Safety Precautions Handling of synthetic lubricants requires precautions not needed for conventional lubricating oils. due to its high flash point making it less liable to ignition in an accident. JET A and JET A-1. together with Earthing and cleanliness at all times. which are kerosene types and JET B which is a blend of gasoline and kerosene fractions. Synthetic lubricants have a high solvent characteristic. should be treated in accordance with local instructions and the relevant COSHH leaflet. JET B is also known as JP4 in the United States Military. should be followed. Additionally. (JET B).
As basic kerosene has little lubricity. Provide lubrication of the moving parts of the fuel system (pumps etc. Fire Hazards Fire is always a risk during handling. The lowest temperature at which the fuel can be pumped is known as the “pour point”. Have a high calorific (energy) value. Fuel with a high calorific value is most suitable for aviation turbine use. Must be non-corrosive. the presence of electrical sparks. (easily evaporated). than piston engine fuels. at starting temperatures so that the fuel spray from the burners will readily ignite. Turbine fuels have a slightly lower calorific value. Pumpability There are several factors affecting ‘pumpability’. as it has a lower flash point. solids (wax and gum) and ice particles (due to water in the fuel). giving both the highest energy value and also producing benign combustion products (Carbon). contact with hot engine parts. often due to spillage. etc. (Petrol/Gasoline). the fuel must be a good lubricant. Minimal chance of fire.` ALL fuels should meet the requirements stated below: • • • • • • • Ease of flow under all operating conditions (Sometimes called ‘pumpability’). fuel viscosity. Quick starting of the engine under all conditions. additives are used to improve its lubrication properties. Combustion by-products should not be harmful to internal engine parts. Calorific Value This is the amount of heat released during combustion. Volatility and Starting Quick starting of an engine depends on fast ignition and the quality of the fuel. Non-Corrosive To reduce corrosion within the fuel system. it releases more heat per unit volume. However. as turbine fuel is heavier with a higher specific gravity. Gasoline ignites more readily then kerosene. It must remain volatile.). Combustion Once ignited the fuel must burn completely. per unit weight. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 92 .
(EP). both with the military and in the Olympus engines on Concorde. extreme pressure.OILS Lubricating oils. To overcome this problem. and was produced by most petroleum companies under different names. These were initially developed from esters of sebacic acid and. When mineral oils reached the end of their useful life. There are ‘third generation’ oils developed for use during supersonic operation. cool. caused the oil temperatures to rise. Early engine designs operated on straight mineral oils. which. The viscosity basically depends upon the process used to refine the oil and blending can further control it. that the correct oil is always used to top-up or re-fill an engine and oils are NEVER mixed together. other. like other petroleum products. For the lubrication of the main shafts of jet engines running in contact bearings. and. they were replaced with synthetic oils. The desired viscosity of oil for a particular engine is decided by the designer considering many factors. An example might be AeroShell 555. low viscosity oil is required. Viscosity and Viscosity Index are the factors that decide the lubricant for a particular purpose. which could operate at higher temperatures and resist oxidation had to be developed. low viscosity. and that of the high contact pressures at the bearings. load carrying additives. the moving parts of the engine. but these were unsatisfactory when low temperature starting was involved. whilst still being developed from ester based oils. either on the ground or when re-lighting in the air. These are known as Type 2 lubricants. This ‘first generation’ synthetic oil became AeroShell 750. in the range of 2600 to 3150C. including: • • • • • Bearing loads and clearances Sliding speeds Oil pump capacity Operating temperatures Engine RPM The specification of an oil indicates the properties it possesses. It is essential then. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 93 . as the basic oils were unsuitable for carrying the bearing loads in the engines. lubricate. Their specification includes anti-oxidants. This meant that a new oil. metal deactivators and foam inhibitors. more complex esters were added to assist the load carrying and to raise the viscosity. thus ensuring that it is able to safely protect. due to the insulating effect of the by-pass air. What is known as ‘second generation’ oils came about because of the by-pass and turbo-fan engines. (service designation OX-38). are a mixture of various hydro-carbons. corrosion inhibitors. These have resistance to very high oil temperatures. etc. A typical example might be AeroShell 500. oils were developed. they have poorer properties both at low temperatures and for lubricity.
anti-icing agents are added to fuels to limit the freezing of entrained water. at low temperatures. in the correct quantity. meaning the engineer has to add the applicable agent. Characteristics: • • • • • • Ability to wet the surface to be lubricated Viscosity that maintains film lubrication High viscosity index Low rate of evaporation at high temperature Prevents formation of gum and sludge Must remain stable in use Sources: • • • Mineral Synthetics Vegetable (rarely used on aircraft) Additives • • • • • • Extreme pressure Anti-corrosion Viscosity improvers Pour point depressants Anti-foaming Anti-oxidants Fuel Additives Additives to the basic fuel specification are pre-mixed by the supplier of the fuel. fungi and bacteria. occasionally. It is designed to be added during servicing. a matted waste in the fuel tanks and pipework. Alternatively. with specific additives. the engineer must determine the type and amount. which form slime or. an additive has not been added during refinement. All the engineer can do is to be aware that certain fuels. it can be derived from three main sources and can contain a wide range of additives to change its properties. many gas turbine engine manufacturers approve an anti-biological compound called “Biobor”. A popular brand of a combined anti-icing and anti-microbiological mixture is called PRIST. oil has a range of characteristics for different applications. For example. However. without recourse to fuel heating. the operator’s manual or the Type Certificate Data Sheet. after consultation with the maintenance manual. as an additive to the aircraft fuel supply. Also.` In summary. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 94 . the addition of antimicrobiological agents to the fuel helps to kill the microbes. during refuelling. Occasionally. are only to be used where specified by the engine manufacturer.
in both designs. This is due to the additional lubrication of the heavily loaded propeller reduction gears and the need for a high-pressure oil supply to operate the propeller pitch control mechanism.15. when the design pressure is exceeded. in which the oil is distributed around the engine and returned to the oil tank by pumps. if left in a bearing housing or gearbox. the bearing chamber air pressure increases. can cause rapid failure. which. The major difference being in the control of the oil flow to the bearings. Once the engine speed increases however. the oil flow to the bearings is controlled simply by limiting the pressure in the feed line to a given design value. the oil is being pumped around the engine due to the valve being off its seat. In addition. PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE SYSTEM In this system. slowing down the flow of oil. This is achieved by the use of a spring-loaded valve. provisions are made to display both parameters in the cockpit. To overcome this problem on some engines. the oil must protect the lubricated components that are manufactured from non-corrosion resistant materials. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 95 . there are somewhat different requirements to any other types of gas turbine. They are known as the pressure relief valve system and the full flow system. Because.10 LUBRICATION SYSTEMS The gas turbine engine lubrication systems are required to provide lubrication and cooling for all gears. Most gas turbines use a self-contained recirculatory lubrication system. They must also be capable of collecting foreign matter. There are a few engines that use a system known as the total loss or expendable system in which the oil is dumped overboard after the engine has been lubricated. With turbo-propeller engines. A limitation of this system is that when the engine is at idle. the oil temperature and oil pressure are critical to the safe running of the engine. bearings and splines. the rising pressure is fed to the back of the oil pressure relief valve. TYPES OF SYSTEMS There are two basic types of recirculatory system. which effectively increases the oil pressure in the feed line. which allows the oil to be directly returned from the pressure pump outlet to either the oil tank or the pressure pump inlet.
The scavenge pumps which return the oil to the tank via the oil cooler. This opens if the system becomes blocked. through a strainer. to the pressure filter. which draws oil from the tank. which opens if the filter becomes blocked. A second pressure relief valve. Illustrated below is a typical pressure relief valve type oil system.1 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 96 . installed in a turbopropeller engine. The filter by-pass valve.` The basic components that could make up this type of engine lubrication system would be: • • • • • The pressure pump. The pressure relief valve. Typical Pressure Relief Valve System Figure 10. is sometimes fitted. set well above system pressure. which maintains a constant delivery pressure.
For example. To achieve this. the pressure relief valve is dispensed with and the pump output directly supplies the oil feed jets. due to there being no continuous loss of oil spilling back to the tank. The full flow system achieves the desired oil flow rates throughout the complete engine speed range. This calls for large pumps.2 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 97 . requires a relief valve set at 130 psi. Typical Full Flow Oil System Figure 10. Using this method allows smaller pressure and scavenge pumps. that occurs at high engine speeds. The example below shows a turbo-fan engine in which the size of the pressure pump is dictated by the flow at maximum engine speed. a chamber pressure of 90 psi. It becomes an undesirable system for engines that have high chamber pressures. with the other system. with the associated difficulty in matching the oil flow at lower speeds.FULL FLOW OIL SYSTEM Although the pressure relief valve system operates satisfactorily for engines that have a low bearing chamber pressure that does not unduly increase with engine speed.
TOTAL LOSS (Expendable) SYSTEM For engines that run for short periods. Basic Oil System Figure 10. when opening the HP cock during starting. it directs a shot of oil to top and bottom. The basic oil system illustrated below. Other items of note are: Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 98 . A differential switch gives advanced warning of a potential filter blockage by sensing the difference between inlet and outlet pressures. and contains all of the components mentioned earlier. scavenge pump or filters.3 The previous system is actually from a turbo-propeller engine. On some engines oil is delivered in a continuous flow to the bearings via a plunger-type pump driven by the compressor. such as booster and lift engines.` To prevent high oil pressure from damaging filters or coolers. is typical of many gas turbine engines. the total loss oil system is sometimes used. The oil is then either ejected into the exhaust or retained and either drained or dumped overboard. (front and rear). bearings. They will normally only open during a cold start or in the event of a blockage of the internal parts. hence the additional oil supply to both the reduction gearbox and the torque meter system. Some pumps are driven by fuel pressure and. This system is simple and incurs a low weight penalty because it does not require an oil cooler. relief valves are fitted to by-pass these units.
The stack pipe. A de-aerator tray that removes air bubbles from the returned oil. It normally contains a number of items.2 PUMPS The pumps can be divided into two groups. All of the oil circulating through the system passes through a full-flow unit. facilities to allow agile and inverted flight. on some noncommercial aircraft. such as draining and filling facilities. provision to remove air bubbles from the returned oil and. although all of the oil is filtered eventually. SYSTEM COMPONENTS 10. retaining the essential lubrication. (stand pipe). The pressure pump takes the oil from the tank and pushes it throughout the engine to the bearings. the oil can continue to flow around the filter. gears and accessories.1 OIL TANKS The oil tank is usually mounted on the engine but is normally a separate unit. The oil is drawn into the low-pressure inlet and passed around the outer chamber and out into the system. Provisions must be made to remove as much of these as possible. whilst only part of the oil is filtered during each circulation in a by-pass system. This is achieved by one of two methods. The scavenge pumps collect the oil after it has served its purpose and return it to the tank. The ‘thread type’ oil filters.3 FILTERS Solid contaminants pumped through an aircraft engine lubricating system can clog the oil passages and damage the bearings. even if the lubricating oil is totally lost due to a leak. 10. methods of checking the oil quantity via a dipstick and sight glass. which protect the bearings from the finest pieces of swarf. By-pass filters can be much finer because if they clog. The simple gear type pump is the commonest in use for both of the above purposes. although it can be an integral part of an external gearbox. possibly via a cooler and de-aerator tray. which reserves some oil for propeller feathering.4 RELIEF VALVES Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 99 .• • • • • The measurement of the oil temperature immediately after leaving the tank. The location of the oil pressure transmitter at the furthest point from the pressure pump. 10. 10. as can be seen in the illustration over-leaf. full-flow filtration and by-pass filtration.
if measured at a single point. will be sensed far from the pump. remain closed until the oil pressure rises excessively.` Almost all pumps used in aircraft engines produce an excess of oil pressure. A simple transducer will be connected to the system. (hence its name.5 OIL PRESSURE GAUGE Pressure is measured at crucial points around the system. This ensures that if there is a rise in temperature due to a low oil quantity or a blocked oil cooler it will be detected rapidly. the system pressure.). depending on the design of the engine. Oil Inlet Temperature. which must be controlled. 10. Pressure relief valves. which can be a simple spring loaded plate or valve. Many relief valves have an adjusting screw. The valve will then open and spill a percentage of the oil back to the tank. which can be unlocked and turned. if the system pressure falls below a pre-determined figure. so that any system leaks are detected as well as any failure of the supply itself. 10. which will send a signal to a gauge unit on the instrument panel. this will illuminate a warning light or caption as a back-up to the gauge unit. lowering the pressure to the relief valve spring value. Normally. Often a pressure switch will be located at the same place as the transducer. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 100 . (OIT.6 OIL TEMPERATURE GAUGE The oil temperature is usually measured at the inlet to the pressure pump. to change the value at which the valve opens.
Each component on each engine will have been designed for its specific purpose and will therefore.The illustrations below show examples of some of the components mentioned earlier.4 RELIEF VALVE Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 101 . be different from similar components fitted to other engines. OIL TANK ASSEMBLY OIL PUMP OIL FILTER Oil System Components Figure 10.
i.e. a temperature sensitive valve that will be set into the inlet. at starting.8 MAGNETIC PLUGS These items are also known as Chip Detectors and are fitted into the scavenge. It is possible to find. To remove this heat an oil cooler is fitted. churning and windage within a bearing chamber or gearbox. This valve will by-pass the cooler when the oil is still at ambient temperature. (return). Oil Cooler (Left) And Magnetic Plug Figure 10. Upon examination. normally in the return line. to transfer the heat from the oil to either the atmosphere and/or the fuel system. they can provide a warning of impending failure without having to remove and inspect filters and without having to carry out other troubleshooting operations on the system.5 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 102 .7 OIL COOLER All engines transfer heat to the oil by friction. They are usually removed and inspected during scheduled maintenance inspections for condition monitoring purposes. They are basically permanent magnets inserted in the oil flow and are retained in self-sealing valve housings.` 10. 10. on either type of cooler. and it will open as the oil temperature rises.line to collect ferric debris from each bearing chamber.
oil levels must be checked between 15 and 30 minutes after shut down. with the hot and thin oil. a slowly increasing quantity required for replenishment requires investigation. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 103 . drain into the engine causing the tank to show a lower level than the correct value. The engine will be flushed first. regular consumption is acceptable. both type 1 and type 2. the main oil filter and other low points of the oil system. Oil is usually supplied in quart containers and care must be taken to ensure that both the container and the replenishing point of the engine are clean. The manufacturer will often say. Once this has been accomplished. during an oil change. for example. by refilling the engine with flushing oil and then motoring it over using only the starter motor. usually 10 micron or smaller is normal. OIL CHANGE The first action should always to ensure that the type of oil in the engine is identified by reference to the maintenance manual. whilst a small. it may be drained from the oil tank. Another consideration is the recording of replenishments. removing and replacing various components. the flushing oil should be drained and the engine refilled with the new oil. the correct filtration must be serviceable. It is also to prevent over filling because oil will. If the engine is being drained and re-filled with different oil. If bulk replenishing rigs are used. There are many different makes of synthetic oil. Another important consideration when servicing the oil system is to ensure that servicing is accomplished within a short time after shutdown. A careful record of all oil put into the engine must be kept in the technical log and. This is normally called for by the engine manufacturers to assist in drain down. the accessory gearbox sump.OIL SYSTEM MAINTENANCE PRACTICES The maintenance of gas turbine engine lubrication systems consists mainly of adjusting. over time. and great care must be taken to ensure that the oil put into the engine is of the correct specification.
giving the crew the option to close down the affected engine. to collect ferrous particles. In critical sub-systems. if the design of the filter is different. Ultrasonic Filter Cleaner Figure 10. These ‘plugs’ will be removed and inspected at regular intervals in accordance with the engine manufacturer’s manuals. can have electrical contacts in them. on occasions. Some chip detectors. filters may be replaced at a published life or. etc. by scavenge pump suction. usually a coarse metallic grid. leaving it clean and ready for re-installation.` OIL FILTER MAINTENANCE Depending upon the aircraft manufacturer’s published instructions. to remove any metallic particles returning to the tank from bearings. magnetic chip detectors may also be fitted in the return scavenge lines. which effectively shakes all the particles out of the filter. The systems will normally contain scavenge filters. in addition to being magnetic. gearboxes. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 104 . and returns it to the oil tank. which will give a flight deck warning if particles of metal are attracted to the magnet. in a solvent. An example of one of these ultrasonic cleaners is shown below.6 SCAVENGE SYSTEM The scavenge systems remove oil from the bearings and gearboxes. The latter vibrates the filter at very high frequency. it may be cleaned either by flushing or by ultrasonic cleaning.
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 105 .
giving higher engine speeds and a greater airflow. The result would be a steep rise in the exhaust temperature and the risk of overheating or possibly destruction of the turbine assembly. All of these influence the density of the air. Usually. in turn. The result of all this is to produce more engine thrust. whether mechanical or electronic. When a higher thrust is required. changes in propeller speed and pitch have to be taken into consideration. accelerates the gases through the turbine assembly. This is excepting the engine power selection from the flight deck. and hence the mass air flow. With turbo-propeller engines. (ICs). If these variables were not taken into consideration. lever is also normally used to stop the engine. Another variable which has to be taken into consideration by any fuel control device. thus the correct relationship between the fuel and air flow is maintained at all engine speeds. Many engines are fitted with an electronic system of control and this generally involves the use of integrated circuits. these two levers. which inject it into the combustion chambers in an atomised spray. Because the flow rate must vary according to the amount of air passing through the engine.11 FUEL SYSTEMS The functions of the engine fuel system are to provide the engine with fuel in a form suitable for combustion and to control the flow to the required quantity necessary for easy starting. entering the intake of the engine. This arrangement also gives the pilot the advantage of single lever control. are fully automatic. To do this. is the change of air density due to altitude.` 15. Although the propeller will control the speed of the complete assembly. which is achieved via a manual throttle or power lever. the throttle/power lever is advanced and the pressure to the fuel spray nozzles increases giving a greater fuel flow. In some cases. which. power and shut-off. the throttle lever and propeller control unit will have to be inter-connected. the fuel would not be reduced in proportion to the falling air density. MANUAL AND AUTOMATIC CONTROLS The control of the power or thrust of a gas turbine engine is achieved by the quantity of fuel injected into the combustion system. an additional governor in the fuel system acts as a back-up Overspeed protection. A fuel shut-off valve or ‘cock’. There will also be protection devices fitted that prevent excess compressor delivery pressure. to maintain a constant selected engine speed or pressure ratio. (usually protected against accidental closure by a ‘gate’). as they affect the power output of the engine. as the aircraft climbed. This has the effect of increasing the gas temperature. one or more fuel pumps are used to deliver the fuel to the fuel spray nozzles. the controlling devices. (choking) and rotating assembly overspeeding. air temperature and aircraft speed. are combined into one lever with both functions. to measure and translate changing engine Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 106 . acceleration and stable running. at all engine operating conditions.
Signals of engine speed. Rapid acceleration and deceleration. Some helicopters also have electronic engine control which. Air temperature and pressure. consist of basically the following components: • • • • HP fuel pump Throttle control Fuel spray nozzles Sensing devices for flow and pressure The usual method of varying the fuel flow to the spray nozzles is by adjusting the output of the HP fuel pump. Simple Fuel System Figure 11. FUEL CONTROL SYSTEMS Typical high pressure fuel control systems for both turbo-propeller and turbo-jet engines.1 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 107 .conditions to automatically adjust the fuel pump output. exhaust gas temperature and compressor delivery pressure. which is signalled through a servo system in response to some or all of the following inputs: Throttle movement. have an additional free-turbine and hence rotor speed control. in this case.
These valves vary the servo pressure and hence correct the pump output. the basic operations are: Movement of the throttle lever. (OAT). will result in the changes being sensed by the bellows units in the Fuel Control Unit. altering the pump output to the correct amount. (left centre).` 11. is controlled by the spill valve in the fuel/flow control unit (right) and the engine speed governor. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 108 . altitude or the outside air temperature. FCU.1 PRESSURE CONTROLS (Turbo-prop engine) The pressure control system shown below contains just the components mentioned previously. further alterations to the servo pressure. Turbo-Propeller Fuel System Figure 11. Aircraft moving faster or slower. Opening and closing of the High Pressure Cock.2 From the above diagram. Changes to the aircraft speed. The fuel pump (top left) output. (right) and therefore. Aircraft climbing and descending. (HPC).
All of the first three operations occur during each flight and involve signals being sent to the fuel pump. The last operation occurs on the ground at the start and finish of each flight or period of engine running. The throttle valve moves as the pilot moves his throttle lever. This causes changes in the differential pressure around the valve and signals the pump to increase or decrease its output to match the demand. Any change in either outside ambient or intake pressure will result in more or less air entering the engine. This will require a change in fuel flow to match it. The bellows, in the capsule assembly, will expand or contract, depending on circumstances, again altering the fuel pump output to match the airflow. Finally, to stop the engine, a separate lever is normally operated. The HP cock, cuts off the fuel to the burners. However, the mechanical fuel pump continues to run as the engine ‘winds down’, so the fuel still being pumped has to be recirculated back to the LP side of the supply. 11.2 PRESSURE CONTROLS (turbo-jet engine)
Whilst the propeller controls the speed of the engine on a turbo-propeller installation, the acceleration and deceleration of a turbo-jet is in direct proportion to the change of fuel flow. These fuel control units control both the amount of fuel being fed to the burners and the rate at which the fuel is increased and decreased. The rate is very important because if the fuel is increased at too fast a rate, the engine can quickly overheat and burn out, before it has time to accelerate and draw in sufficient air to mix with the extra fuel. During throttle closing, however, if the fuel flow is decreased too quickly, the combustion flame can ‘blow out’ due to there being too little fuel for the mass of air still coming through the engine. Otherwise, the detection of throttle opening, the changes in atmospheric pressure and airspeed are catered for by much the same way as the previous example. 11.3 FLOW CONTROL SYSTEM
A flow control system is generally more compact than a pressure control system and it is not sensitive to the flow effect of variations downstream of the throttle. The fuel pump delivery pressure is related to engine speed, thus, at low engine speeds pump delivery pressure is quite low. The fuel pump output is controlled to give a constant pressure difference across the throttle valve at constant air intake conditions. Various devices are also used to adjust the fuel flow for intake pressure variations, idling and acceleration control, gas temperature and compressor delivery pressure control.
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11.4 COMBINED ACCELLERATION AND SPEED CONRTOL (CASC)
This is a mechanical system without small restrictors or spill valves. It is also an allspeed governor system and, therefore, needs no separate governor unit for controlling the maximum RPM The controlling mechanism is contained in one unit, normally referred to as the fuel flow regulator, FFR. An HP fuel pump is used, with the pump servo piston being operated by HP fuel on one side and main nozzle (servo) pressure on the other side. The fuel flow regulator, shown below, contains inputs from the HP fuel supply, (HP pump), and air pressure tappings from P2.6 and P3. In addition, the drive shaft is driven from the accessory gearbox, running at a speed that is proportional to engine speed. The outputs are the primary and main flows leading to the spray nozzles.
Combined Acceleration And Speed Control Unit Figure 11.3
Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC
FUEL FLOW REGULATOR
The fuel flow regulator, driven by the engine, has two centrifugal governors, (speed control and pressure drop control) and two sliding valves, which also rotate. The first valve, known as the variable metering sleeve, has a triangular orifice known as a variable metering orifice, VMO. This sleeve is moved by the capsule assembly. The governor sleeve, sliding over the VMO sleeve, is moved by the speed control governor and the stirrup arm, both of which are controlled by the throttle lever in the cockpit. The other, pressure drop valve, is also controlled by a governor and forms a piston. It has a triangular, variable orifice and a rectangular, fixed-area orifice. Primary fuel flow comes from the fixed area orifice and, on its own, will provide a satisfactory fuel flow for idling at all altitudes. The triangular, variable orifice allocates the amount of extra fuel to the Main fuel flow in proportion to throttle opening, HP fuel pressure, engine RPM and VMO pressure. 11.6 ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONRTOL
Some engines utilise a system of electronic control to monitor engine performance and make necessary control inputs to maintain certain engine parameters within predetermined limits. The main areas of control are engine shaft speeds, (N1, N2 and N3), and exhaust gas temperature, EGT, which are continuously monitored during engine operation. Some types of electronic control function only as a limiter, that is, if the shaft speeds or the EGT approach dangerous levels, an input is made to the fuel flow regulator, FFR, to reduce the fuel flow thus maintaining shaft speed or EGT at safe levels. Supervisory systems, such as those mentioned previously, may contain a limiter function but, basically, by using aircraft generated data, the system enables a more appropriate thrust setting to be selected quickly and accurately by the pilot. The control system then makes small control adjustments to maintain engine thrust consistent with that pre-set by the pilot, regardless of changing atmospheric conditions. Full Authority Digital Engine Control, (FADEC), takes over virtually all of the steady state and transient control intelligence and replaces most of the hydro-mechanical and pneumatic elements of the fuel system. The fuel system is thus reduced to a pump and control valve, an independent shut-off cock and a minimum of additional features necessary to keep the engine safe in the event of extensive electronic failure.
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` As an example, the Rolls Royce RB211 engine FADEC system shown below, demonstrates how the computer known as the Control Amplifier, has inputs of engine temperature and shaft speeds and control output to the differential pressure regulator. At high power settings, when there is a risk of shaft Overspeed or excess temperatures, the pressure regulator returns excess fuel to the pump inlet. The fuel flow regulator acts as a hydro-mechanical control, with inputs from the high-speed compressor, the gas path pressures and the power lever position.
Typical FADEC System Figure 11.4 SYSTEM LAYOUTS Engine fuel systems vary in detail, but generally they contain similar components which do the same jobs. It can be seen from the two illustrations below, showing typical turbopropeller and turbo-jet installations, that components like HP pumps; throttle unit/fuel flow regulators; shaft governors and HP shut-off cocks are common to both installations. It will also be seen that the sensors measuring such items as intake temperature; internal pressures; exhaust gas temperature and shaft speeds are, again, common to both designs.
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5 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 113 .Engine Fuel System Layouts Figure 11.
(positive displacement – output speed). ENGINE DRIVEN FUEL PUMP (EDP) This pump delivers more fuel as the engine speeds up. It is designed to deliver a continuous supply of fuel to the fuel control at a quantity in excess of the engine needs. After metering the required amount of fuel to the combustor. or plunger types which have their output dependent on a servo signal from the throttle position as well as the engine speed. variable stroke.` There are a number of components. which require either some limited maintenance or adjustment during their installed lives. the fuel control unit returns the surplus fuel to the pump inlet. Variable Output Fuel Pump Figure 11. Main pumps can be either spur gear types. The pump illustrated below is a single unit. fitted to gas turbine engines. The short explanation and illustrations that follow will cover the most common of these.6 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 114 . at 2000 psi. depending on demand. The output of this type of pump can vary from about 100 to 2000 gallons per hour. plunger type.
Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 115 . Its main limitation was that the pressure required to achieve very high flows was difficult to achieve with the pumps available in those days. Duplex and Airspray. together with a typical spray pattern is illustrated below. These are the final component in the engine fuel system and the engine performance depends upon their correct operation. Their task is to either atomise or to vaporise the fuel to ensure its rapid burning. The basic simplex burner imparts swirl to the fuel and then. Simplex nozzle Figure 11. The smaller orifice handles the lower flows. whilst the larger orifice deals with the higher flows as the fuel pressure increases. A pressurising valve or flow divider may be employed to apportion the fuel to each manifold. This type of burner was first used on early jet engines and contained a chamber that induced the swirl to the fuel. A cutaway of a simplex burner. after straightening out the swirl. The difficulties involved in this process can be appreciated when the velocity of the compressor outlet air and the short burning length available is considered. requires a primary and a main fuel manifold and has two independent orifices.7 The duplex spray nozzle.FUEL SPRAY NOZZLES The three major types of atomising fuel spray nozzles are Simplex. (overleaf). one much smaller than the other. depending on the demand. it atomises the fuel from when it can be ignited to produce energy.
Another advantage of this type of nozzle is that the low pressures required for atomisation of the fuel permits the use of the comparatively lighter gear-type pump. are avoided. This gives a reduction in both carbon formation and exhaust smoke.8 In this system. produced by the other types of spray nozzle. These nozzles are also more effective in atomising the fuel at the low flows required at high altitudes. the local fuel rich concentrations.9 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 116 . the duplex nozzles are able to give effective atomising over a wider flow range than the simplex nozzle for the same fuel pressure. Airspray Nozzle Figure 11. The Airspray nozzle (right) carries a proportion of the primary combustion air with the injected fuel.` Duplex burner Figure 11. By aerating the spray.
by directly restricting the fuel flow to the burners. which ensure any ice crystals entrained in the fuel are melted before they can block any filters. in this case the Rolls Royce Tay Turbo-fan engine. via the metering plunger. A device similar to that illustrated (right) might be found on some engines.10 Other components found within some engine fuel systems would include Filters. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 117 . which is lifted by the centrifugal governor. Overspeed RPM Governor Figure 11.OVER-SPEED PROTECTION Some engines require additional protection against overspeeding. which remove any foreign particles not removed by earlier filtration and. to limit the rotational speed of the LP fan. It achieves this. other than the normal fuel control unit with engine speed input. fuel heaters. in a potential overspeeding condition.
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The cooling air is usually expelled overboard.1 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 119 . This ensures an even temperature distribution and therefore improves engine efficiency by controlling thermal growth and thus maintaining minimum blade tip and seal clearances. bearing chamber sealing. HP intermediate and HP air are used to cool the various internal parts of a twinspool by-pass engine. however. These functions include internal engine and accessory unit cooling.12 AIR SYSTEMS A definition of the engine internal air system is “Those airflow’s which do not directly contribute to the engine thrust”. where a small performance recovery is achieved. control of turbine blade tip clearance and engine anti-icing. the air is taken as early as possible from the compressor. and in some instances certain accessories. The system has several important functions to perform for the safe and efficient operation of the engine. as it progresses through the compressor. once it is of no further use. be fed into the main gas stream. at the highest possible pressure.P. Up to one fifth of the total engine core mass airflow may be used for these functions. It may. to raise its pressure and temperature. do not absorb heat to the extent that it is detrimental to their safe operation. Some internal airflow is used to control the temperature of the compressor shafts and discs by either cooling or heating them. The internal air system also supplies air for aircraft services.15. An increasing amount of work is done on the air. Cooling Airflow’s Figure 12. prevention of hot gas ingestion into the turbine disc cavities. control of bearing axial loads. The illustration below shows how the L. relative to the requirement of each particular function. To reduce performance losses. COOLING AIR At the design stage of a gas turbine engine. it must be designed to ensure that certain parts of the engine. The principal areas that require air-cooling are the combustor and turbine.
Heat conduction from the turbine blades to the turbine disc requires the discs to be cooled also and thus prevent thermal fatigue and uncontrolled expansion and contraction rates. Single pass internal cooling was the most basic method used in the early designs. are illustrated below. Examples of three turbine blade design. the flow design of the internal passages is very important. but also on the method of cooling used therefore. Continuous cooling of these components allows their environmental operating temperature to exceed the melting point of the material. The life of turbine blades and vanes depends not only upon their form. whilst later designs have multi-pass internal cooling with external air film cooling as well. from different eras.2 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 120 . Turbine Blade Cooling Figure 12.` TURBINE COOLING A high thermal efficiency depends on a high turbine inlet temperature. There have been numerous methods of cooling used over the history of gas turbines. which is limited by the turbine and nozzle guide vane materials. without affecting the blade and vane integrity.
The bearings are also normally located in the cooler regions of the engine. This is achieved by using compressor delivery air passing through nozzles in the outlet duct. which may use engine bleed air or atmospheric air. the electrical generators for example. This induces a flow though the cooling system from the inlet louvers to the outlet duct. Separate cooling sub-systems may be necessary for some components like these when the aircraft is on the ground. ACCESSORY COOLING A considerable amount of heat is produced by some of the engine accessories. Whilst the bleed air is supplied from a pressure tapping. BEARING CHAMBER COOLING Air cooling of the engine bearing chambers is not normally necessary since the lubrication system is adequate for cooling purposes. Accessory Cooling Figure 12. These differing air supplies are taken from tappings at different places along the compressor stage. external air must be induced to pass through the cooling system ducting. which is ducted from outside the cowling.It will be noticed that the later blades use both LP and HP cooling air to control the operating temperature of the blades. creating a low-pressure area. as shown below.3 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 121 .
Sealing Air Examples Figure 12. space available. to control cooling airflow’s and to prevent ingress of the mainstream gas into the turbine disc cavities.4 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 122 . Various sealing methods are used on gas turbine engines. which will be described later. The choice of which method is dependent upon the surrounding atmosphere and pressure. ease of manufacture and ease of installation and removal. resistance to wear. heat generation.` SEALING AIR Seals are used to prevent oil leakage from the engine bearing chambers. The typical turbine assembly illustrating hypothetical cooling and sealing arrangements below. shows the usage of most of the common methods of sealing. weight.
Labyrinth Seals Figure 12. except in the hot areas where oil degradation due to heat would lead to ring seizure within its housing. The clearance between the ring and the shaft is smaller than with a labyrinth seal. The seal comprises a finned rotating member with a static bore. depending on the thermal growth of the parts and the natural flexing of the rotating members. which also induces a positive pressure to assist the oil return system. due to the ring being able to move in the groove.LABRYNTH SEALS This type of seal is widely used to retain oil in bearing chambers and as a metering device to control internal airflow’s.5 RING SEALS A ring seal comprises a metal ring housed in a close fitting groove in the static housing. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 123 . when it contacts with the shaft. Across each seal fin there is a pressure drop resulting in a restricted flow of sealing air from one side of the seal to the other. The illustrations below show two different uses of labyrinth seals. an oil and air seal and a simple airflow control seal. On initial running the fins lightly cut small grooves into the static bore material. When used for bearing chamber sealing. leaving a minimal clearance. Ring seals are used for bearing chamber sealing. This clearance varies throughout the flight cycle. it prevents oil leakage by allowing air to flow from the outside to the inside of the chamber. which is lined with either a soft abradable material or a high temperature honeycomb structure.
which has been created by centrifugal force. Several springs are used to maintain contact between the carbon and the collar. Any difference in air pressure inside and outside of the bearing chamber is compensated by a difference in oil level either side of the fin. CARBON SEALS Carbon seals consist of a static ring of carbon. it does not allow a controlled flow of air to traverse across the sea. The heat caused by friction is dissipated by the oil system. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 124 . This type of seal relies upon a high degree of contact and does not allow oil or air leakage across it.` Ring Type Oil Seal Figure 12.6 HYDRAULIC SEALS This method of sealing is often used between two rotating members to seal a bearing chamber. These seals are formed by a seal fin immersed in an annulus of oil. which constantly rubs against a collar on a rotating shaft. Unlike the labyrinth and ring seals.
However. finally pressurisation of water and hydraulic tanks. such as a low engine speed during the descent and approach. Of note are the additional inputs from the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) and the ground supply unit. or rises above 80%. As an example. They are in continuous contact with a rotating shaft. required for the services. The diagram below shows the air distribution on a typical twin-engined. it may be necessary to switch the bleed source from an earlier to a later stage tapping. 100seat airliner. cross starting and. This type of seal has the advantage of withstanding radial rubs without increasing leakage.BRUSH SEALS These seals comprise a static ring of fine wire bristles. The bleed air. to be maintained. This allows the higher pressure and temperatures. Carbon (Left) And Ceramic Seals Figure 12. airframe/engine anti-icing. It is desirable to bleed the air as early as possible from the compressor to minimise the loss on engine performance. such as cabin pressurisation/air conditioning. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 125 .7 Aircraft Services To provide a wide range of air services. tapped from the compressor of the engine. substantial quantities of air are required from the compressor. the Rolls Royce Tay engine has tappings at the 7th and 12th stages of the HP compressor and the changeover from one to the other occurs automatically when the engine speed falls below. is distributed to numerous services. rubbing against a hard ceramic coating. during some phases of the flight cycle. as well as the two power plants.
at stages 7 and 12 are fed into the common manifold. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 126 . anti-ice the wing and tail. if required. as well as cross-starting the other engine in flight. pressurise the cabin. From there it is used to anti-ice the intakes.8 The more complex system diagram overleaf only shows how the two tappings from the engine. depending on the engine speed.` Pneumatic Services Figure 12. pressurise the hydraulic and water tanks. It will also be seen that the Shut-off and Temperature Modulating Valve is the valve that switches between the bleed air stages 7 and 12.
within the bleed air supply. inhibitions are applied at certain times such as take-off. that there are a number of shut-off valves used to activate and de-activate the various engine bleed air supply systems. There are also overpressure valves and temperature sensors. from the flight deck. due to excessive demand.9 It will also be seen from the illustration on the previous page. that protect both the ducts and the services that they supply. to prevent a reduction in power. when required.Typical Pneumatic System Figure 12. at critical times. Due to the large demand for bleed air from some systems. The crew activates all these shut-off valves. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 127 .
it must be possible to operate the ignition system for relighting the engine during flight. In addition. for example. The power sources can be electrical. are totally different to those for a commercial airliner. gas. The functioning of both systems is co-ordinated during a starting cycle and their operation is automatically controlled after the initiation of the cycle by an electrical circuit. The type and power source for the starter varies with engine and aircraft requirements.13 STARTING AND IGNITION SYSTEMS INTRODUCTION Two main systems are required to ensure that a gas turbine engine will start satisfactorily. The starter motor must. the two systems must operate simultaneously. however. provision must be made for ignition of the air/fuel mixture in the combustion system.` 15. Secondly. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 128 . air or hydraulic and each method has its merits. The requirements for a military aircraft. always produce a high torque and then transmit this torque to the engine in a smooth manner to accelerate it to selfsustaining speed. but can be achieved by various methods. It must also be possible to motor the engine over without ignition for maintenance checks and to blow out residual fuel after a failed start. During normal engine starting. provision must be made for the compressor and turbine to be rotated up to a speed at which adequate air passes into the combustion system to mix with the fuel from the fuel spray nozzles. Firstly. A typical sequence might be as follows: Start button pressed Ignition ‘ON’ HP Fuel ‘ON’ Light-Up Self Sustaining Starter Circuit ‘OFF’ Idle RPM Methods of Starting The starting procedure for all jet engines is basically the same.
). (D. once the amount of current being drawn falls below a value which can only be reached if the engine is self-sustaining. or clutch. The electrical supply voltage can be progressively increased by the removal of resistances in the circuit as the engine increases in speed.1.1 ELECTRIC STARTING The electric starter is usually a direct current. The diagram below shows a simplified electric starter circuit. the starter supply is cancelled by the drop in supply current or by the action of a timer mechanism. the starter slows down and the clutch or ratchet mechanism ensures that the engine can accelerate free from the starter drive shaft. Either way.13. The ignition system is also actuated and supplied at the same time as the start is initiated. It contains most of the components found in many starter circuits such as master switch. start button and main starter relay.1 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 129 .C. Overspeed relays usually disconnect the starter motor electrically. Once the engine is running. Electric Starting Circuit Figure 13. electric motor coupled to the engine through a reduction gear and ratchet mechanism. which will automatically disengage once the engine is self-sustaining.
2 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 130 . or an external air supply. which is connected to the engine. from whichever source.2 AIR STARTING Air starting is used on most commercial and some military jet engines.1. The illustration below shows a typical air starting system. The clutch automatically disengages as the engine accelerates up to idling RPM and the rotation of the starter ceases. An air starter motor transmits power through a reduction gear and clutch to the starter output shaft. It is automatically closed at a pre-determined starter speed. Starter system(left)and starter motor Figure 13. (APU). is controlled by an electrically operated control and pressure-reducing valve that is opened when an engine start is selected. It ahs many advantages over other starting systems and is comparatively light. a cross-feed from a running engine. simple and economical to operate.` 13. A typical air starter is a basic air turbine that rotates at high RPM when HP air is passed through it from the on board Auxiliary Power Unit. The air supply. with a cut-away of the actual starter motor showing its rotor.
In this form it acts as a normal pump throughout the remainder of the flight.1. excluding the electric starter.1. 13. through nozzle guide vanes on to the turbine of the main engine. on occasions. but use air impingement onto the turbine blades as a means of rotating the engine. which will drive the unit in its ‘starter mode’ can come from external sources or on-board accumulators. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 131 . This unit is coupled to the engine through the accessory gearbox and a reduction gearing. The air is obtained from an external source. the unit changes from being a starter and becomes a normal hydraulic pump. 13. which will rotate through its own starting cycle. its exhaust is directed.4 GAS TURBINE STARTERS On a few turbo-jet engines. a small self-contained gas turbine is used to start the engine. or a running engine. fitted on to small gas turbine engines.5 HYDRAULIC STARTING This form of starting is found. The hydraulic power.1. It is completely independent of the aircraft systems. Once the small engine has started.13. one of the engine mounted hydraulic pumps is utilised and is known as a combined pump/starter. and is directed on to the turbine blades. until it reaches self-sustaining speed. In most applications.3 IMPINGEMENT AIR STARTERS Some turbo-jet engines are not fitted with starter motors. Once the starter has powered the gas turbine engine to self-sustaining speed.
A typical. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 132 . excluding APU’s. The electrical energy is stored in the unit until. Each HE ignition unit receives a low voltage supply. A high output would be required for re-lighting at altitude and certain ground starts. all have dual systems fitted. Some Ignitor units have been manufactured which contain both high and low outputs. with a value of 12 Joules being typical for a high output and 3 to 6 Joules for a low output. at a pre-determined value. the energy is dissipated as a high voltage. Such a system would consist of one unit emitting a high output to one Ignitor plug and a second unit giving a low output to a second Ignitor plug. whilst a low output would only be required during continuous operation in icing or wet weather. from the aircraft’s electrical system. to give a high voltage. controlled by the starting system circuit. To be able to operate at both levels. which means that two igniters can be operating at either level depending on the conditions and the relevant cockpit selection.2 HIGH ENERGY IGNITION SYSTEMS High-energy (HE) ignition is used for starting all jet engines and. in the engine. through several stages. These ignition units are rated in ‘Joules’. high current discharge across the plug. giving longer Ignitor and ignition unit life. (or Combustors). Each system has an ignition unit connected to its own Ignitor plug. Each Joule is equal to one Watt/ Second.` 13. simple ignition system is illustrated below and shows how the inputs are modified. the two plugs being fitted in different positions. combined systems. direct current to the HT terminal of the Ignitor. giving high and low level outputs are most popular.
the HT lead or the Ignitor plug. systems and are NOT interchangeable. The normal spark rate of a typical ignition system is between 60 and 100 sparks per minute.000 volts. The air gap type require a potential difference in the region of 20. the air gap type and the surface discharge type. in their overhaul/maintenance manuals. Before handling the component. Typical Ignition System Figure 13. whist the surface discharge type only requires a voltage in the region of 2. As igniters are used for both low-tension D. the associated circuit breaker should be tripped or the relevant fuse removed.3 The Ignitor plugs operate in the same way as sparking plugs. (HEIU). except that they are only required to start the engines.C. care must be taken to use the correct item. is potentially lethal. systems and high.tension A. they are then switched off until the next start. before touching the unit itself. Periodic replacement of the Ignitor plug is necessary due to the progressive erosion of the electrodes caused by each discharge. after isolating the unit. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 133 .LETHAL WARNING The electrical energy stored in the HE ignition unit. There are two basic types of Ignitor plug.000 volts. as recommended by the manufacturer. Allow at least one minute to elapse.C.
Ignition System(Left)And Ignitor Plug Figure 13. there is little chance for the engine to relight. (below) illustrates the relighting envelope for a specific aircraft.4 RELIGHTING The jet engine requires the facility for relighting should the flame in the combustion chamber become extinguished during flight. or if it is above about 25.` The two illustrations below show one unit of a dual ignition system (left) and a surface discharge Ignitor (right). Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 134 . The chart. Within this envelope the airflow will rotate the compressor at a speed satisfactory for relighting. If the aircraft is too slow or too fast. This ‘relighting’ can only be safely accomplished if the aircraft is at the correct speed and below a certain altitude.000 feet.
Relighting Envelope Figure 13.5
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It has already been mentioned that the HEIUs can deliver a fatal shock if they are handled whilst still live. It is also possible to be shocked if either the Ignitor leads or the igniters themselves are handled before 1 minute has elapsed after removing all power from the system. DO NOT depend on just the starter master switch being placed into the ‘OFF’ position as it is possible someone may switch it to ‘ON’ whilst you are working some way from the cockpit, on aft mounted engines for example. At least pull AND LABEL AS ‘INOP’, any circuit breakers applicable to the HEIUs. Also, disconnect the Low-Tension connectors on the Ignitor box itself to be doubly sure. Exercise great care when handling some types of ignition transformer units if they are damaged. They can contain radioactive material on their air gap points. Some Ignitor plugs are manufactured from exotic materials, which require special disposal arrangements. Check to see whether the items you are removing for disposal at life expiry are of this type.
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15.14 ENGINE INDICATING SYSTEMS
All engine parameters require monitoring and, therefore, instrumentation is provided to inform the pilot of the correct functioning of the various engine systems and to warn of any impending failure. Should any of the automatic controls fitted to the engine fail, the engine can be manually controlled, by the pilot, who can select the required thrust setting by monitoring the instruments to maintain the engine within the relevant operating limitations. The multitude of dials and gauges on the instrument panels may be replaced by one or more cathode ray tubes, (CRTs), to display engine parameters. These screens are often integrated into a complete set of flight and engine instrumentation displays. As an example, the first illustration below shows a typical analogue engine parameter display for a twin engined aircraft. There are displays for the following engine parameters: RPM T.G.T. E.P.R. OIL TEMPERATURE OIL PRESSURE VIBRATION FUEL TEMPERATURE FUEL QUANTITY FUEL FLOW
Engine Indications Figure 14.1
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the addition of one or two further engines would complicate the display by adding at least 12 more instruments to the display.T. This example displays the following parameters: E. Electronic indicating systems. system monitoring and crew alerting functions on to one or more CRTs mounted on the instrument panel. The following illustrations show two forms of engine instrumentation. One form duplicates the analogue instruments so that they display the readings much as the older analogue instruments would have done.Whilst this display is from a typical twin-jet aircraft.2 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 139 . consolidate engine indications. OIL PRESSURE OIL TEMPERATURE OIL QUANTITY VIBRATION ENGINE SPEED (N2) ENGINE SPEED (N3) FUEL FLOW CRT Analogue Displays Figure 14.R. ENGINE SPEED (N1) E.P.G. however.
ENGINE SPEED (N1) ENGINE SPEED (N2) FUEL FLOW OIL PRESSURE OIL TEMPERATURE OIL QUANTITY VIBRATION FUEL TEMPERATURE FUEL USED Tape Displays Figure 14.R. T.T.` The other example.( below)displays its parameters in the form of ‘ribbons’ or ‘tapes’.P.3 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 140 .G. On this display the parameters shown are as follows: E. which climb up the display as the quantities being represented increase.
can sometimes be referred to as exhaust gas temperature.G. an automatic gas temperature control system can be fitted to some gas turbine engines.TURBINE GAS TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT The temperature of the exhaust gasses is always indicated. Transfer holes in the tube allow the exhaust gasses to flow across the junction. or jet pipe temperature. turbine entry temperature. to ensure that the maximum gas temperature is not exceeded. there usually is a trimmer resistor in the circuit. (0C). The probes are connected in parallel and their output is transmitted to a milli-voltmeter calibrated to read in degrees centigrade. however.4 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 141 . the temperature at the outlet from the turbine is usually measured by suitably positioned thermocouples. The turbine gas temperature. (T.).G.T.T.).P. showing just a single temperature probe. In addition. The thermocouple probes use to transmit the temperature signal to the indicator consist of wires of dissimilar metals that are joined together inside a metal guard tube. It is a critical variable of engine operation and it is essential to provide an indication of this temperature. The temperature can also be measured at an intermediate stage of the turbine assembly. because of the high temperatures involved. For fine adjustments.).T. Basic Thermocouple System Figure 14. thus ensuring that the temperature of the turbine assembly can be checked at any specific operating condition. (E. (T. this is not practical.T. (J.).E. As the temperature drop across the turbine varies in a known manner. A basic system diagram is illustrated below. Ideally. These wires are usually nickel-chromium and nickel-aluminium alloys. should be measured.
system being much more accurate). measures the ratio of two (normally) or three parameters.) gauge. or the jet-pipe itself. The ratio for take-off on a specific day. (The straight jet pipe pressure measurement system is rarely used these days.R. The display shown to the pilot can be in either analogue or digital form. To measure the compressor inlet pressure a pitot type tube is normally used. This comparison is normally carried out automatically. are also taken by probes that have to be very sturdy to stand the air and temperature loads exerted on them. In each of the above examples. the ratio can be either between an integrated turbine discharge/fan outlet pressure to compressor inlet pressure or.P. When E. This figure will form a standard against which the jet pipe or duct pressures can be compared. it will be necessary to have a correction figure for the current ambient conditions. the ratio is usually that of jet-pipe pressure to compressor inlet pressure. This ratio will be aimed for when the pilot moves the throttle levers forwards prior to taking off.0. The first type measures the turbine discharge or jet-pipe pressure and the second. On a fan engine. (fan outlet).R. as on the Rolls Royce Tay fan engine.P. Measurements taken in the fan duct. (E. between the by-pass duct pressure. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 142 . on modern aircraft. due to the E. The pressure that is read by this is either connected directly to the indicator or to a pressure transmitter that is electrically connected to the transmitter. from the flight management system. is measured.` ENGINE THRUST INDICATION The thrust of an engine is normally shown on an instrument system that will be one of two types. It will simply be a ratio above 1. known as an engine pressure ratio. and the compressor inlet pressure.R.P. can be obtained from either the flight manual or.0 and normally below 2. computer. (FMS).
When the shaft is carrying high torque. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 143 . together with the pumps etc. Early systems measure the oil temperature mechanically. by measuring the pressure of a gas sealed inside a bulb located in the oil stream. the two phonic wheel outputs are in synchronisation. each wheel having a sensor pick-up. In this system. an electrical temperature sensitive element is fitted. whilst the engine is producing high power. On modern systems. or turning moment is proportional to the horse-power and is transmitted through the propeller reduction gear. in the reduction gear-box.TORQUE INDICATION Engine torque is used to indicate the power that is developed by a turbo-propeller engine and its indicator is known as a torquemeter. Another method of measuring torque is to measure the ‘twist’ on the main drive shaft. OIL PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE It is essential for correct and safe operation of the engine that accurate indication is obtained of both the temperature and the pressure of the oil in the system. putting the outputs out-of-phase. This is displayed on the gauge in degrees centigrade. the temperature sensor is often located in a special fitting between the oil tank and the pump. OIL TEMPERATURE This is sensed by a detector fitted in the oil system. The indicator pointer is deflected by an amount equivalent to the temperature change. A phonic wheel is installed at each end of the shaft.). On dry-sump engines. the axial thrust produced by the helical gears is opposed by the oil pressure acting on the pistons. This pressure which is required to resist the axial thrust is transmitted to the indicator. usually in foot/pounds. (those whose oil is contained within the lower section of the engine itself. consequently. When the shaft is rotating without carrying power. it is usually installed inside the oil screen immediately after the pump. The engine torque. a corresponding change in the current flow at the indicator. On wet-sump engines. (those with separate oil tanks). it twists. A change in temperature causes a change in the resistance value and. A basic torquemeter system is shown in the illustration overleaf. The pressure of the gas varies in proportion to its temperature and is displayed on the flight deck as oil temperature. In addition to providing an indication of engine power. if the power fails at a critical time. the torquemeter system may also be used to automatically actuate the propeller feathering system. It can also actuate a water injection system when hot or high. This phase difference is measured electronically and displayed as torque.
with display changes being in proportion to the oil pressure changes. damaged bearings or a ruptured oil supply line. allowing the fault to be found later. the pressure sensed by a transducer in the oil supply line is transmitted. an oil low-pressure warning switch may be provided to indicate that a minimum pressure is available for continued safe running of the engine. perhaps permanently. Again. early designs used a Bourdon Tube mechanism that measures the difference between the oil pressure and the ambient air pressure. This switch can be set to operate a warning ‘caption’ on the instrument panel and/or an audible warning for the crew. Normally though. all of which will be indicated by a fluctuation or fall in oil pressure. Modern designs use electrical systems to indicate to the flight deck. In addition to a pressure gauge operated by a transmitter. Simple systems use a ‘flag’ method that simply indicates if the pressure is high. which displayed the oil pressure in pounds per square inch. This type of warning allows the crew to immediately shut an engine down in flight. The display may be in pounds per square inch or bars. normal or low. instead of the engine continuing to run dry and being damaged. The rising oil pressure tends to straighten the flattened and curved tube in the gauge. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 144 . to the cockpit gauge. This mechanical movement was transmitted to the needle.` OIL PRESSURE Oil pressure is usually measured at the outlet of the engine driven pump and is indicated on the instrument panel. through wires. It will give warning of impending engine failure caused by a depleted oil supply. pump failure.
with the risk of fuel starvation. proportional to the fuel flow.S. kilograms or U. FUEL FLOW Although the amount of fuel consumed during a given flight may vary slightly between engines of the same type. etc. fitted in the low-pressure fuel system and an indicator. gallons per hour). The indicator shows the rate of fuel flow. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 145 . A typical system consists of a fuel flow transmitter. such as climb. so that the amount used at differing times of the flight. to give a ‘total fuel used’ figure for each engine. These show if the low-pressure system is providing an adequate supply of fuel without cavitation and at a temperature to suit the operating conditions. in whichever units the aircraft tanks are calibrated. (gallons. bled from the engine or oil from the lubrication system. which is usually some form of turbine or impeller. fitted to the low-pressure fuel filter. The gauge may also be supported by a warning light.FUEL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE The temperature and pressure of the low-pressure fuel supply are electrically transmitted to their respective indicators. or even an audio warning. It is also useful to sum the fuel flow. fuel flow does provide a useful indication of the satisfactory operation of the engine and the amount of fuel being consumed during the flight. There are nearly always two booster pumps fitted in each tank that cater for the pump failure situation. senses the pressure differential across the filter element. over time. pounds. The transmitter measures the fuel flow electrically and an associated electronic unit gives a signal to the indicator. On some engines. cruise. a low fuel pressure could indicate the failure of a booster pump or other flow problems. (caption).. The switch is connected to a warning caption or an audio warning to indicate a partial filter blockage. Basically. a fuel differential pressure switch. can be logged. A low fuel temperature indication might require the flight crew to actuate the fuel heating facility to prevent the filter becoming clogged by ice crystals. (or for the aircraft). This heat is fed through a heat exchanger and can come from air.
` ENGINE SPEED All powered aircraft have a display that shows the engine speed. it does not give an absolute and accurate figure. The engine speed indication is usually electrically transmitted from a small generator. the high-pressure spool speed is always shown and. Whilst the engine speed is sometimes used to assess the engine thrust. in most cases the intermediate. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 146 . and the low-pressure spool speeds are also displayed. which can change the thrust available at a specific time. which displays the actual revolutions per minute. Engine Speed Indicator And Transmitter Figure 14. (if fitted). due to the atmospheric circumstances of the day.5 The engine speed transmitter is a simple 3-phase generator in which the frequency of the output is read by the indicator and displayed either as RPM or as a percentage between 0% and 100%. On multiple spool engines. to an indicator. (RPM) or a percentage of maximum engine speed. driven by the engine. (Pressure and temperature).
It is only in operation during the starting cycle. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 147 . a speed probe in conjunction with a phonic wheel may be used.Where there is no provision for driving a generator.6 Some speed probe/phonic wheel assemblies have the additional facility of being able to illuminate a light on the flight deck when the relevant shaft begins to turn. This will induce an electric current that is amplified and then transmitted to an indicator. (right). This method can be used to provide an indication of RPM without the need for a separately driven generator. This is used to assist the pilot by telling him when to open the HP fuel cock during the start cycle. with its associated drives. Phonic Wheel System Figure 14. thus reducing the number of components and moving parts in the engine.
` VIBRATION MEASUREMENT AND INDICATION A turbo-jet engine has an extremely low vibration level. enabling them to shut the engine down and so reduce the risk of damage. usually in inches per second. there will be a warning light/caption or audio warning to warn the flight crew that there is an abnormal reading on the indicator. The cockpit indicator is usually a milliammeter that receives signals through an amplifier from engine mounted transmitters. A vibration transmitter is mounted on the engine casing and electrically connected to the amplifier and the indicator. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 148 . may pass without being noticed. (I. It is also possible for the flight crew to select a specific area such as the accessory gearbox. Because of this. On advanced. Many engines are therefore fitted with vibration indicators that continually monitor the vibration level(s) of the engine. three-spool engines. especially when compared to reciprocating engines. Because of the rarity of an excessive engine vibration reading.P. The vibration sensing element is usually an electro-magnetic transducer that converts the rate of vibration into electrical signals which cause the indicator to show the amplitude of the vibrations being sensed. for vibration monitoring.S. a vibration change or the appearance of a new vibration due to an impending or partial failure. there is an additional facility that allows the vibrations from the three spools to be differentiated and.). even fully balanced ones. therefore. each spool can be monitored separately.
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of air passing through the engine. it gives both anti-freezing properties and also provides an additional source of fuel. as the atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude and/or the ambient air temperature increases. by cooling the intake airflow with water or water-methanol mixture. a reduction in thrust. or mass. the power output can be either restored or boosted for take-off. (or shaft horsepower on turbo-propeller engines). Power restored (left )and restored/boosted Figure 15. therefore. The graphs below show how a gas-turbine engine can have its thrust restored when the ambient temperature reaches high levels.` 15.15 POWER AUGMENTATION SYSTEMS (level B1 only) The maximum power output of a gas turbine engine depends to a large extent upon the density. depending on the engine design. (left) and how a turbo-propeller engine can have its power either restored or boosted at higher temperatures. There is. Under these conditions of low power.1 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 150 . When methanol is added to the water.
giving even more thrust. the turbine inlet temperature is restored by the burning of the methanol in the combustion chamber. there is no need for extra fuel to be scheduled as the burning methanol provides the extra power. With the addition of methanol. If water only was injected. CARE MUST BE TAKEN WHEN REPLENISHING THESE SYSTEMS – WATER/METHANOL IN A WATER SYSTEM CAN DESTROY AN ENGINE. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 151 . therefore. the thrust are increased. When water/water methanol mixture is sprayed into the compressor inlet. it would reduce the turbine inlet temperature. COMBUSTION CHAMBER INJECTION The injection of coolant into the combustion chamber inlet increases the mass flow through the turbine.INTAKE INJECTION Coolant is normally injected directly into the compressor inlet. giving additional thrust. The pressure and temperature drop across the turbine is thus reduced. relative to that through the compressor. the temperature of the compressor inlet air is reduced and consequently the air density and. although some have it injected into the combustion chambers themselves. the power is restored without having to adjust the fuel flow. This is more efficient because it gives both a more even distribution and a greater quantity of the liquid into the engine. Thus. which results in an increased jet pipe pressure. The fuel system is now able to schedule more fuel than before the water was injected. If water methanol is injected. however.
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firstly it reduces the thrust from the exhaust of the engine and. rarely. directly from the compressor drive shaft. More common these days are free-turbine turbopropeller engines. it us normally referred to as a turbopropeller engine. also through reduction gearing. Engines of this type are known as direct-drive turbopropeller engines.15. additional turbine stages are incorporated into the existing turbine assembly that rotates the compressor. This design has the additional turbine stage independent of the compressor drive turbines. which is free to rotate by itself in the engine exhaust gas stream. The shaft on which the free turbine is mounted drives the propeller through the propeller reduction gearbox. The additional power that is removed from the gas stream achieves two things. Direct Coupled(Upper)And Free Turbine Turbo-Prop Figure 16. by whatever means.1 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 153 . propjet. The simplified illustrations below show (top) a turboprop with the propeller driven directly from the compressor shaft through reduction gears and (bottom) a turboprop with the propeller driven by a free turbine. In some turbo-props.16 TURBO-PROPELLER ENGINES Whenever a gas turbine is used to power a propeller. often called the gas generator. the energy removed from the exhaust is used to drive the propeller reduction gearing. The exhaust gasses from the basic part of the turbojet. secondly. Other terms used are turboprop and. are used to rotate an additional turbine that drives the propeller through a speed-reducing gearbox.
(which is the most thermally stressed part).2 This type of engine will also be found installed in helicopters. A cutaway of one model of this engine is shown below. which occurs when the turbine of the engine. can be used for wheel wells. This configuration provides greater flexibility in the design of nacelle installations. With this design. which is normally occupied by the exhaust jet pipe. has to be replaced partway through the overhaul life of the engine. where it is known as a turboshaft engine.` Another configuration of the free turbine turbopropeller engine has a rather unconventional rear-to-front air and gas flow direction. occasionally. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 154 . Reverse flow turbo-prop engine Figure 16. This often requires an engine change and even. an overhaul at the factory. Another advantage of this ‘reverse design’ type of engine is the ease of hot end replacement. A typical engine of this type is the Pratt and Whitney PT6. the turbine is at the front of the engine and can be accessed by simply removing both the propeller and the front engine casing. The space behind the engine. fuel tanks or a baggage compartment. The engine remains fitted in the airframe. where it can also be seen that the compressor is one of the axial/centrifugal types popular with these small turboprop/turboshaft engines. marine craft and other installations. This will be covered in the next section.
057. This is achieved by the use of an epicyclic gearbox which ‘steps down’ the speed of the power shaft in two stages.500 to 2. the PT6 engine mentioned above has a power turbine rotational speed of about 30. As an example.500 RPM.3 The location of the gearbox at the front.REDUCTION GEARBOXES Due to the fact that propellers are most efficient at relatively slow rotational speeds. whilst the propeller rotates at only 1. is by far the most common location and the explanation which follows will cover a single stage reduction between an input shaft to an output propeller shaft Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 155 .700 RPM This means that the shaft speed must be reduced by a factor of about 1:0. the shafts of turbopropeller engines can be rotating at many times more than this. is located relative to the other parts of a typical turbopropeller engine. This reduction will be explained later. The illustration below shows where the reduction gearbox. they will usually be found rotating at a speed of between 1. which will be described later. Reduction Gearbox Figure 16. immediately behind the propeller.000 RPM.
The annulus. or ring. hence the small planet gears. hence. The large and small planet wheels are on common shafts and.` The high-speed pinion rotates at the same speed as the LP (or power turbine). shaft and meshes with the large planet wheels. which mesh with it. pull themselves around as they rotate. rotate together. Epicyclic reduction gears Figure 16. gear is the only fixed item in the whole assembly.4 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 156 . they are also all mounted on the planet carrier which is rigidly fixed to the propeller shaft.
start control lever. when the thrust being produced is a function of lever angle and the propeller RPM is governed to a specific speed. or two levers that have to be operated separately to control different functions. The power control lever modulates engine output from maximum take-off power to full reverse power. For example. requires either a single lever with two different but integrated controls. In addition a third. Here it operates as a normal single lever ‘throttle’.U.C. above “Beta”. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 157 . It is normally controlled by a power control lever and a propeller control lever.). (approach and landing). again for each lever angle. the engine acts as a gas generator furnishing high velocity gasses to drive the free turbine. The illustrations overleaf show how complex the three different lever positions are and. (also sometimes known as the fuel condition lever). is used to select a ‘high’ or ‘low’ speed range for engine operations and to cut off fuel to shut the engine down. however. The turbopropeller engine. In a free-turbine engine such as the PT6 mentioned earlier. The propeller control lever is in control of the propeller control unit. The reasons for this is that the propeller has to be given instructions separate to the engine itself. which is generally the normal flight regime. (P. a turbojet has a single throttle lever to carry out the same operations. or that of the free-turbine and it usually governs the pitch angle of the propeller blades.INTEGRATED CONTROLS A motor car has a simple accelerator to increase and decrease the speed of its engine. It also controls the propeller blade angle when in reverse and in what is known as the “Beta” range. the engine might need to be run on the ground with nil thrust at some times and producing power at others. also how difficult it is for the flight crew to know which lever has to be in which position at different times. Normally this involves the lever controlling the speed of the propeller.
(left) and condition levers. The illustration. Pedestal Levers Figure 16. (right).` Power lever angles Figure 16.6 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 158 . which has power levers.5 Some engines can have a different control layout when installed in different airframes. the Pratt and Whitney 120 series engines can be installed with single or double lever control depending whether they are installed into the Fokker 50 or the ATR 72 aircraft. (below)shows the ATR72 layout. For example.
whilst the outer pair of levers. the installation of the early Rolls Royce Dart engine in the 1950s airframe design. purely fuel shut-off and propeller feathering operations. the Fokker 27. has basically a single lever operation. Single Lever Controls Figure 16. have no input to the power of the engines.7 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 159 . e. actuate reverse thrust and the automatic thrust position. (H. they also set the engine to automatic engine power and a maximum 100% override position. The power levers are used to change the engine thrust when taxiing. The illustration below shows how the central pair of levers control ‘RPM’. Finally.g.It can be seen that whilst the condition levers control the fuel shut-off and feathering controls. propeller pitch angle and fuel control.C.P.). select ground and flight idle.
blade angle. built in to the control system. This should bring the hub loading within a safe value. With a turbopropeller engine it is normally the propeller which acts as a governor by increasing or decreasing its pitch angle to add or remove the loading on the rotating parts of the engine.` OVERSPEED PROTECTION A propeller that overspeeds. If the reduction of the propeller pitch has been caused by failure of the propeller control unit. This could cause the blades to separate from the hub with catastrophic results to the aircraft. it is usually due to the fact that the propeller controls have allowed the pitch angle of the propeller to decrease. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 160 . A gas turbine engine has its own fuel control system. even by the small amount of. say 5 or 10% increases the centrifugal forces on the hub by a huge amount. coarser. to drive the propeller back to a coarser angle. which maintains the engine within its operating speed range. These back-up systems usually involve the use of centrifugal governors which sense the slightest Overspeed. so that the reduction of load on the engine has caused it to Overspeed. This reduction of pitch is as a result of aerodynamic and centrifugal forces acting on the rotating propeller which will be covered later. there may be a back-up method. thereby slowing it down to a safe value. If a turbopropeller overspeeds. the fuel control of the engine reduces the flow of fuel to the engine. If the propeller control system is damaged or it cannot drive the propeller to a safe. effectively acting as if the pilot had retarded the throttle.
) to decrease the fuel flow. the system shown is that fitted to the Pratt & Whitney 124 engines on the ATR72 aircraft. (NP = propeller speed). The flyweights move outwards. If the propeller overspeeds above 102. reducing the engine speed. the air bleed orifice opens at a slightly higher NP. (H.8 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 161 . This bleed biases the fuel control system.5% NP.M. Propeller Control Unit Figure 16. which has a combined hydraulic/pneumatic Overspeed protection.As an example. opening the pilot valve and allowing metered oil pressure to drive the propeller towards coarse.U. (propeller continues to accelerate). In the event that the above system fails to operate.
instrument. This limits the engine. which normally has a governed maximum of 15. ’free power turbine’ design and has to have sophisticated protective measures fitted.400 RPM The illustration below shows the basic system showing how spilling the servo pressure reduces the pump output. there are a number of flight deck indications which may be in place of. which must not be exceeded at any time.9 Apart from the protection mechanisms already mentioned. or in addition to the automatic systems. the engine is of a modern. which have to react extremely fast to prevent accidents. Overspeed protection Figure 16. (F. which spills the servo pressure and reduces the fuel supply to the engine. the Overspeed protection installed on the Rolls Royce Dart. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 162 .W. then warning lights. If the engine overspeeds. This pressure is fed to a diaphragm in the Overspeed governor.S. is a relatively simple system. The pump case pressure is fed with fuel from radial tappings in the rotating pump assembly. (percentage).` Whilst the system previously described is rather complex. the fuel is ‘centrifuged’ into the pump case at a higher pressure. The simplest is the ‘red line’ on the tachometer. a ‘direct coupled’ drive engine designed in the 1940s. or power. If the aircraft has an electronic flight warning system.) however.000 RPM. (revolution counter). By comparison. captions and audio warnings may be used to get the attention of the flight crew. to an Overspeed maximum of 16.
In most cases. more than the weight of the smaller helicopter.P. (72 kg..050 kg.500 S. weighs 2.H. In aviation. to power many modern helicopters of all sizes. An illustration of how efficient modern turboshaft engines are. mentioned with a total weight of just 158 lbs. from under 1 tonne up to a Russian giant of 100 tonnes maximum weight.P. the turboshaft engine has to be able to drive from a variety of different places.). from each engine. is driven by its own power turbine which extracts about two thirds of the total output power from the gas generator.H. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 163 .). they are installed in pairs. which produces that huge 11.15.H. whilst one giant Lotarev D136 engine. up to 11.).17 TURBO-SHAFT ENGINES Gas turbine that delivers power through a shaft to operate something other than a propeller is referred to as a turboshaft engine. the output shaft. (power take-off). cases mentioned.500 S. the turboshaft engine have been designed to produce from as little as 400 shaft horse power. threes and in on extreme case in two pairs to make a total of four engines on one craft.P. can be seen from the weight of the two. (1. Because of the need to drive the rotor systems. To produce the power required for the previously mentioned helicopter applications.H. (extreme). etc. These are widely used in such industrial applications as electrical power generating plants and surface transportation systems. turboshaft engines are used. (S. possibly reflecting the greater emphasis on safety at times such as over-water and over hostile lands. The Allison 250 produces the 400 S.P. APPLICATIONS In many installations.300 lbs. consisting of many different types of gearbox.
1 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 164 . taken from the Rolls Royce Gem brochure.` This illustration. Gem Installations Figure 17. shows how the designer could offer a power take-off from the front. back and side of the basic engine. R.R. It can be seen that the engines could also be joined together by a combining gearbox to double the power output. to suit different aircraft designs.
Turboshaft Installation(1) Figure 17.A few actual examples of turboshaft installations show how the engines can be located ahead or behind of the main transmission gearbox. The Westland Lynx has two Rolls Royce Gem engines mounted aft of the gearbox driving through couplings at the front face of the engines. It can be seen from the illustration below how the engine/gearbox unit is quite compact.2 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 165 .
H.H. in the event of a single failure the second. This system of rating also allows the engines to be operated in ‘Hot and High’ situations without power loss. installed at an angle.H. using turboshaft engines. so that the output shaft and coupling projects from the rear of each engine. (lower illustration). engine.H.. The large E.P. Turboshaft Installation(2) Figure 17. for a limited time. that show the flexibility in the way these engines can be mounted to suit the designer’s needs. The location of all of the previously mentioned layouts permits very easy maintenance and engine changes due to the unobstructed access to the engines. has a small 400+ S.` Another twin-engined installation is that which can be found fitted to numerous Sikorsky and Westland helicopters. driving upwards at 450 to the main gearbox. turboshaft engines. say.000 S. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 166 . has not only three engines. These are fitted ahead of the main gearbox. The little Hughes 500 series.500 S.H.400 S. ARRANGEMENTS Finally.H. each of 2.P.P.3 DE-RATING A common method of being able to maintain normal flight in the event of losing one of a pair of engines is de-rating.P. but the Auxiliary Power Unit is installed up there as well. however. The engines might be advertised as having. (upper illustration).P. 1000 S. installed above the decking and all feeding into the main gearbox. good engine. there are a few other installations on helicopters. 101 helicopter. each but. The illustration is of the S-61N model which has two 1. can be called upon to produce 1.
4 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 167 .Turboshaft Installation(3) Figure 17.
independently of each other. turboshaft engines. This poses problems when they have to be connected together. To this end there will be found between the engines and their respective gearboxes. The free turbine designs will also remain at a constant speed for most of the flight. requiring a little more or a little less lift from the rotors.` One major difference between turbopropeller and turboshaft engines is their operating regime. (rigid) drive shaft between them. especially the non-free turbine designs. some form of flexible drive couplings with a short. One of the most common couplings is the ‘Thomas Coupling’ that consists of a number of thin. 1200 apart and displaced 600 from the opposite flange. with the need for both accurate alignment and the ability to transmit many thousands of brake horsepower. e. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 168 . Whilst turbopropeller engines are called upon to vary their speed as the pilot varies the throttle position. This is because helicopter rotors have to operate at an almost constant speed so that the engines. there has to be a small amount of permitted movement between the components. at three places. operate at a constant speed.g. DRIVE SYSTEMS Because of the way that both the engines themselves and their attached main gearbox are normally mounted to the airframe. as a general rule. This arrangement allows the two components to move small amounts. steel laminations which are attached to the engine output flange and either the gearbox flange or the drive shaft flange. They are attached at different radial points. only altering slightly up or down as the demand for climb or descent are initiated. also have to remain at the same speed also.
This also will have a mechanism to allow slight. The outer support tube. It will be seen that. there is an additional outer structural sleeve. is rigidly mounted on the left and flexibly mounted on the right. Coupling shaft Figure 17. however.In some cases.5 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 169 . in the example shown. including the illustration below. controlled movement between the two components. which is part of the actual mechanical connection between the engine and the gearbox. the drive shaft has a Thomas Coupling on the left-hand connection and a rigid flange-to-flange connection on the right.
there are two main design choices. has the inputs low on the left hand side and the single output in the centre right of the box. with the added advantage that either can be changed for fault rectification or at overhaul without disturbing the other. It also has its own self-contained oil system. As mentioned previously. The first example. called in this case a coupling gearbox. larger.` When there are two engines installed. The engines can be connected direct to the gearbox at two separate points.(below). Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 170 . through their respective freewheels. These boxes allow the main box to remain smaller. there are a number of combining gearboxes used on many twin engined helicopters. separate from the main gearbox with two input connections and one. the engines can drive into a combiner or coupling gearbox. output connection to the main gear box.6 This box also contains mechanisms to allow separate connection and disconnection of each input drive. Alternately. filter etc. Coupling gearbox Figure 17. driving into a common main gearbox. with the drives being connected within the gearbox casing. Also. it has drives to a number of accessories such as pumps and generators. with pump.
(As an example.7 Because the engines in this class rotate at extremely high rates and the outputs need to be considerably less. a ‘train’ of reduction gears needs to be built into the system. 15 seat Sikorsky helicopters. is installed in one of the larger.730 RPM. It is also connected to the main gearbox via a short drive shaft. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 171 . again allowing for movement between the components. seen below. Transmission Details Figure 17.600 RPM). the Garrett TPE 331-11 has a gas generator shaft speed of 41.The second example. whilst its output shaft rotates at only 1.
(optional). giving an output of about 6.8 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 172 .` In some installations the reduction gearing is installed in the front of the engine itself. This will take the 27. reduction gearbox fitted to the front of the R.R.000 RPM The illustration below is of the. This reduction mechanism allows the engine to be installed directly in a number of different situations such as powering marine craft. which will reduce it further to around 250 – 300 R. Gem turboshaft engine. it can be directly connected to the main rotor gearbox. This use of turbo shaft engines is very common and even engines as large as the Rolls Royce RB211 are used for such purposes. through the two-stage epicyclic gear train.P.5:1 ratio.R. Reduction gearbox Figure 17. providing all the power for complete oil exploration and production platforms. output is the same as the gas generator. 27. reduce it to around 6. (Rotor RPM).000 RPM and. powergenerating stations and pumping stations.M.000 RPM At this speed. so that its shaft output is already at a useable rotational speed.000 RPM or with the reduction gears installed with a 4. The Gem engine mentioned earlier has the option of being built without a reduction gear installed.
(and electrical generators. Because of the need for rotors. Normally the pilot does not have to touch the control again until he retards the speed selector to the ‘ground idle’ position. either mechanical or electronic which is engaged when the speed select levers are placed into the ‘flight’ or ‘constant speed’ position. pumping units. ‘flight idle’ and ‘flight’ positions. Once the speed select levers have been advanced to their normal operating position. There has to be some form of fuel shut-off.CONTROL SYSTEMS The controls of turboshaft engines are. the engines will be maintained at their governed speed regardless of the load being applied by their governor or fuel computer. often called the ‘speed select lever’. the same as turbopropeller engines. by feel. and reduce the flow under low demand circumstances. The fuel shut-off is simply a high-pressure fuel cock that is opened at start-up of the engine and closed to stop the engine at the end of the flight. This will simply increase the fuel flow when there is an application of load. (up to the maximum limits of speed and temperature). Sometimes these points are indicated. to be driven at more or less constant speeds. to permit starting and closing down of the engine and there has to be some form of speed control.). there is often a governing mechanism. using detents in the quadrant. The speed selector might have a number of positions. generally. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 173 . etc. including ‘ground idle’.
It can be seen that whilst the fuel levers. ‘IDLE’ and ‘FLY’ positions. (outboard). have additional positions of ‘D/R’(Dry Run) and ‘PRIME’ peculiar to the Allison 250 engine. the power levers simply have ‘OFF’. Lever Quadrant Figure 17.9 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 174 .` The illustration below shows the lever quadrant from a Sikorsky S-76.
(lift).2 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 175 . lever which simply increases the fuel flow to the gas generator part of the engine when more lift is demanded. and the collective. shows the pilot’s control inputs to the engines. part of the engine. System Diagram Figure 17. They are simply the Off-Idle-Fly speed lever which control the gas generator. (N1). The ‘beeper’ is simply a fine trimming switch that allows the pilot to adjust the rotor/engine speeds to an exact figure.The complete diagrammatic representation of the S-76 engine control system below.
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hydraulic power when the aircraft is on the ground. gearbox assembly and the controls and accessories. fuel. can. there may be a limit on the maximum altitude that the aircraft may fly). DESCRIPTION The basic A. the A. (if applicable). The A. power section. aircraft cabin air conditioning and pressurisation. cooling fan and starter motor.U. The A. medium sized A. (In this case. Electrical power can be provided independently of.P. which is mounted on ball and roller bearings. in the case of a main generator having failed. engine provides shaft power for electrical generation and hydraulic power. with some installations.P. consists of three main sections. or together with pneumatic power and. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 177 .U.U. oil cooler A.P. parked. enclosure and fuel heating. fitted to a range of aircraft in the 100+ seat category. pneumatic and sometimes.P. air for A. These include an alternator. in some circumstances. be used to provide limited services usually electrical power. The rotating group of the power section consists of a single-stage centrifugal compressor with a single stage turbine. both mounted on a single shaft.P.U. which is a typical. during an emergency such as an engine failure on a twin-jet.U. without the engines running. which is high speed / low torque to an output of low speed / high torque suitable for the accessories fitted to the gearbox. Operation of the engine is controlled by four systems. fuel control unit. The gearbox is attached to the inlet housing and converts the power section input. electrical and pneumatic. (A.P. engine lubrication.U.). reference will be made to the Allied Signal GTCP 36-150. is fitted in many aircraft to provide a supply of electrical. (in some cases). Note: Electrical power has priority at all times For the majority of the notes that follow.P.18 AUXILIARY POWER UNITS (APU’s) The Auxiliary Power Unit. Pneumatic power is supplied for starting aircraft main engines. generators can provide power throughout the flight.U. in flight.15. and bleed air for pneumatic supplies.U.P.
U. CONSTUCTION The construction of the power unit is simple and conventional. The simplified diagram below shows the gearbox / engine assembly with single stage compressor and turbines.. (E.P. single Ignitor and a drive to the accessory gearbox.U. including starting sequencing.C.1 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 178 .). normal speed control and Overspeed protection. loss of speed signal and too long start time.` An Electronic Control Unit. fuel injection. All are inhibited in flight except fire. A.U Construction Figure 18. monitored by the E. include the following: Over Temperature Low Oil Pressure Over Current Loss of Thermocouple Loss of Speed Signal Hot Oil Temperature. Other protective shutdown circuits.C. provides a fully automatic control system.
U.U.U Installation Figure 18. Space available and the aircraft centre of gravity considerations usually dictate the exact mounting.P.INSTALLATION The A. in an Embraer EMB 120.P.U. The illustration below shows a typical rear fuselage installation of an A.P. A. is usually mounted in a non-pressurised area aft of the rear pressure bulkhead.2 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 179 . which is why the Boeing 727 and the Bae ATP have the A.P. installed in the wing root and the Fokker 27 / 50 aircraft have it installed in the rear of the starboard engine nacelle.
when driven. similar to a normal jet engine. in question and they are: The compressor.3 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 180 . (a. such as generator. combustor.U Major Sections Figure 18.U.P. A. alternator. generator). Fuel and ignition are added in the combustor and the resultant added energy delivers high velocity hot gasses to the turbine section.c. The turbine captures most of the energy of these high velocity gasses and converts it to the mechanical energy to drive both the compressor and the gearbox. etc. turbine and gearbox. The gearbox drives the required fuel and oil system components. consists of the compressor.P. as well as providing a means for mounting the airframe furnished components. drawing large volumes of ambient air and delivering it under pressure to the combustor.` BASIC OPERATING CYCLE The block diagram below shows the major sections of the A. The operating cycle.
Arms the start circuit. have an RPM percentage indicator as well as gauges showing E. an ‘available’ light and a ‘fault’ indicator. A.P. additionally.U.. Operational control is through an A. It might also have warning caption lights for ‘fire’. thus the flight compartment controls are kept to a minimum.etc.G.P.U. Opens inlet doors prior to start.A. A more complex and powerful A.U.U. sprung loaded to the RUN/ON position Normal position during running.P. OFF START ON Shuts down the A. ‘low oil pressure’. Control Panel Figure 18.T. control panel like the one illustrated on the below. operation is usually fully automatic from start to shut down. might.U. Included on this panel are a three position rotary switch.P. from a much larger aircraft. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 181 . and duct pressure.4 The selector switch functions are as follows.P. ‘starting’.
supply to the services required and the bleed manifold pressure on the display.U.P. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 182 . Bleed air can be taken from the A.5 The push switch will show one of three indications: BLANK OFF (White) FAULT (Amber) System selected and operating System switched off A fault has occurred and the A. provides the required bleed air for aircraft use when this air is not available from the main engines. air will be supplied to whichever services is selected. The panel illustrated is from the Fokker 100 airliner.` BLEED AIR CONTROL The A. Providing the ground/flight system is in the ‘ground’ position and the ‘bleed’ push switch on the control panel is pushed.U.P. has shut itself down.P. Bleed Air Control Panel Figure 18.U.P.U. It shows both the ‘APU BLEED’ push switch. after the unit has accelerated to its normal operating speed and has stabilised for a period of time. which selects the A.
U. It is fairly common for the ac. apart from a daily check of the oil level. is running will supply any of the aircraft electrical services both on the ground and in flight.U. Generator. if a fault indicator has shown that they require replacement. whilst still installed in the aircraft.OFF (White) – FAULT (Amber) selections.P. the ‘filter by-pass’ indicators and an overall check for signs of damage or distress. (LRU). Pushing the button whilst the A.. fitted to the A. the electronic control unit. could include an oil and oil filter change or a check of the magnetic drain plug. the thermocouple. (with a replenishment if required).P. fuel control unit.U. This ensures that the A. MAINTENENCE There is little line maintenance carried out on the A. generator can take over the generating work for either of the engine-driven generators in the event of a total failure.There is a similar system for using the electrical generating unit. to be identical to that fitted to the engines.P. mostly in situ. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 183 .. Whilst the purpose of some units shown have not been mentioned in this chapter. There is usually a similar push-button switch on the electrical supply panel with ON (Blank) . ignition unit. looking for signs of metallic debris.U.P. There are a large number of Line Replaceable Units. that can be replaced. etc should be self-explanatory. The only other maintenance that might be carried out on a unit.
` Line Replaceable Units Figure 18.6 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 184 .
It receives its input signals from a speed sensor and a thermocouple. Finally. The code for the trouble shooting of the faults is shown in the table below. pneumatic and protective shutdown circuits.U. and safely operate the A. it will have a different close down schedule depending whether the aircraft is in flight or on the ground. there is little if anything that an engineer needs to do with regards to checking the condition of the unit.U.). (E. the E.C. in the GTCP 36-150. during ‘start’. ‘acceleration’. all faults come through this unit.U. which can be around 60. fuel. For example.U. Different A.P. no matter if this was an airborne alert or an on ground shutdown. in some cases. a low oil pressure will be an alert if the aircraft is in flight and a shutdown if the aircraft is on the ground. operates automatically once it has stabilised at its normal 100% running speed. ignition. (if it is an in.s have different methods and parameters when giving warnings. ‘idle’ and ‘load’ conditions.PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS Because the A. accelerate. the unit will close itself down if the risk is high and.000 RPM. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 185 .U. has a set of three ‘doll’s eye’ indicators which will indicate to the engineer what fault occurred. In fact.C.C. to control the actuation of the start. or keeps it in its internal memory for later interrogation. The E.U.flight notifiable fault). which then either notifies the flight deck crew.U.P.P. As everything is under the control of the Electronic Control Unit. The unit also provides electronic control of all the parameters required to start.C.U. both located in the A. can be regarded as the ‘brain’ of the control system and will usually be found in an avionics bay or some similar location with conditioned air.P. These allow the E.
The unit will then sound an alert outside of the aircraft to attract the attention of the ground engineers. during flight. but it can fire its own fire extinguisher bottle. if there is a more urgent need for the output than for the continued health of the A. any fault will result in the unit shutting itself down and indicating what the fault is. so the decision to shut the unit down is left to the E.P. will generate an alert to the flight deck crew and leave the decision up to them. shut itself down.U. not only does the A. if a fault is not considered immediately threatening to both the aircraft and its passengers. via the doll’s eyes. at times. This is because.P. is producing both an air supply and electrical power.U. and the A.U.7 To summarise. In the case of a fire.` BITE NUMBER 1 DECODED BITE INFORMATION 3 2 O O O O O O O O O O O O RESET OVERSPEED OVERTEMPERATURE LOW OIL PRESSURE OVERCURRENT LOSS OF THERMOCOUPLE LOSS OF SPEED SIGNAL HOT OIL TEMPERATURE BITE Code Information Figure 18. as well.C. This allows them to continue with the unit output.U.U. after all the vent doors have been closed. the aircraft is not manned by either flight deck crew or ground crew. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 186 .P. (electrical power). the E.C. whether to shut the unit down or to leave it running. If the aircraft is on the ramp.
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19 POWERPLANT INSTALLATION When a gas turbine engine is installed in an aircraft it usually requires a number of accessories to be attached to it. external to the fuselage structure. installed above the cabin structure and. The following illustration shows some typical installations. Powerplant Installations Figure 19. almost exclusively installed in helicopters. It also requires a number of connections. whilst turbo-shaft engines.1 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 188 . Turbo-jet engine installations can be in the form of pods that are attached to the wings by pylons or pods attached to the sides of the rear fuselage by short stub wings. on some larger machines in pods. They can also have a combination of rear fuselage and tail mounted power plants. accessories and. jet pipe. can be found buried within the fuselage. Combinations of the preceding layouts can also be found on some aircraft. The powerplant location and aircraft configuration are of an integrated design the form of which will be dependant upon the duties the aircraft has to perform.` 15. both of turbojet. to connect the engine to the many aircraft systems. turbopropeller and turboshaft powered aircraft. a thrust reverser. An intake with minimum losses must also form part of the powerplant installation. must be suitably cowled. The engine. some of them ‘quick release’ type. Turbo-propeller engines are normally limited to installation on the wings or the nose of the aircraft. in some installations.
All installations must produce the lowest drag possible. Turbojet engines are usually either side mounted or underslung as illustrated previously and below. the engine is mounted so that the casings can expand freely in all directions. Engine Mountings Figure 19. to be transmitted to the aircraft main structure. Because of the wide variations in the temperature of the engine casings. in addition to supporting the engine weight and carrying any flight loads.2 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 189 . The engine is mounted in the aircraft in a manner that allows the thrust forces developed by the engine. Installations are always numbered from left to right when viewed from the rear of the aircraft. whilst turbopropeller engines are usually mounted on a tubular framework. (or propeller).ENGINE MOUNTINGS The position of the powerplant must not affect the efficiency of the air intake and the exhaust gasses must be discharged clear of the airframe and its control surfaces. often called the engine mounting.
Air driven accessories are generally driven through bleed air tapped from the engine compressor. using the other engine(s) or the A. and possibly the thrust reverser and water injection pump. On longer jet pipes. oil pumps. constant speed drive units. run in rails attached to the sides of the jet pipe bay. might include generators. Electrically operated accessories might include actuators. ACCESSORIES An aircraft powerplant installation generally includes a number of accessories that are either electrically operated.. They can include the air starter. fuel pumps. The air conditioning and pressurisation air will also be taken from compressor tappings in most cases. mechanically driven or driven by high pressure air. control valves and solenoids. Mechanically driven units however.P. engine speed signalling components. measuring and governing units. rollers on each side of the pipe.U.` JET PIPE The jet pipe is usually attached to the rear of the engine and supported by the engine mountings. hydraulic pumps. The total air drawn from the compressor must be a small percentage of the total airflow to avoid loss of power and higher fuel consumption Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 190 . amplifiers.
Single Engine Bay Firewalls Figure 19. The firewalls might divide the bay into different areas where a fire is most likely to occur. Engine compressor and accessory section Or Complete powerplant compartments. each bay will have its own detection system and fire-extinguishing bottle.FIREWALLS The firewalls are the metal dividing partitions that are made of fireproof material. A typical division of an engine bay might be: Engine power section – includes burners. (or fireproof bulkheads). The other very important purpose of the firewalls. In the majority of installations. such as ones containing heat and combustible materials or fluids. is to restrict the spread of fire to the bay in which it originated. turbine and jet pipe. in which NO isolation exists between the other two sections mentioned earlier. often stainless steel. These smaller compartments are usually to assist both in fire detection and extinguishing.3 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 191 . and which divide the complete engine bay into smaller compartments. A twin engined example is shown below. making extinguishing the fire much easier.
is usually far more accessible than a ‘buried’ engine because of the larger area of hinged cowling that can be provided. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 192 . The lever will also be covered by a small access panel.4 The method of holding the large cowlings securely closed.centre’ fasteners. A turbopropeller engine. or a turbojet engine mounted in a pod. and then allowing the two parts to be pulled snugly together by a form of lever. The illustrations below. show the clear access to the engine afforded by the ‘petal cowlings’ (left) of a turbopropeller installation.5) These fasteners will have a hook-and-clasp system allowing the fastener parts to be hooked together. whilst the cowling is almost closed. usually involve ‘over. and. (right).release’ type.(figure 22. the main cowlings are hinged. Access for minor servicing is by small detachable or hinged panels with most fasteners being of the ‘quick. the ‘clamshell doors’ fitted to a turbofan engined airliner. on pod and turbopropeller installations.` COWLINGS Access to an engine mounted in the wing or fuselage is by hinged doors. Engine Cowlings Figure 19.
5 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 193 .P. over centre latches.Depending on the size of the cowling. there can be any number of primary. C. in a honeycomb formation or even Carbon Reinforced Plastic. normally always quick acting.P. backed up by other types of fastener.R. Glass Reinforced Plastic. Cowling Fastener Figure 19..R. Cowling doors can be manufactured from either aluminium alloy. G.
for optimum suppression. a slight increase in fuel consumption. coming from the internal rotating assemblies especially the turbine. To reduce the noise from these assemblies. provide a very powerful suppression technique. Various materials can be used to produce acoustic linings for jet engines. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 194 . The noise absorbing material consists of a perforate metal or composite facing skin. shown in the illustration below. They fall mainly within two categories. normally consist of a porous skin supported by a honeycomb backing. The disadvantages of this method of suppression are the slight increase in weight and skin friction and. now being produced by the engine. Noise absorbing ‘lining’ material converts acoustic energy into heat. supported by a honeycomb structure on a solid backing skin which is bonded to the parent metal of the duct or casing. This method does. The acoustic properties of the skin and the liner depth are carefully matched to the characteristics of the noise. however. leaving the highest amount of noise. optimum use of acoustically absorbent linings is made. The absorbent linings. there are still lower levels of noise to be suppressed.` ACOUSTIC PANELS Whilst great steps have been taken to silence the exhaust noise by air-mixing and other methods. Increasing the size and slowing the fan has lowered the noise from the front of the engine. and fibrous metallic materials are used in the higher temperature regions. hence. lightweight composite materials are used in the lower temperature regions. to provide the required separation between the ‘facesheet’ and the solid engine duct.
Acoustic Cowling Materials Figure 19.6 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 195 .
` ENGINE MOUNTINGS Earlier in this chapter, the mounting/suspension of the power units was mentioned. The critical part of the assembly is the mounting itself, which has to transfer all the forces, including both the thrust as well as aerodynamic loads from the engine to the airframe itself. The mount also has to isolate the airframe from any vibrations produced by the engine or its accessories. Many of these mountings are made of stainless steel and can be located in different patterns around the engine, depending on the designer’s need to manage all of the forces encountered. Some mounts that are not required to carry high loadings can be manufactured from certain hard rubber compounds, which can be formed into circular toroidal form or as flat blocks that work in shear. The first example, illustrated below, is the mounting of the Rolls Royce Tay engine, which has two metallic vibration isolators and one thrust trunnion to carry all the loads from the engine to the airframe, via the two strong crane beams which are attached to two of the fuselage frames. The vibration isolators are of the stainless steel type, (called Met-L-Flex by the manufacturer), and are shown in the detail drawing. The trunnion has two sets of Met-L-Flex mounts inside that have to carry, in this example, 14,000 pounds of thrust.
Engine Mountings(1) Figure 19.7
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Mountings that are for lighter, less powerful engines, can be manufactured from other materials including the most common, rubber and other elastomers. In the following example, which is the installation of the 1,400 S.H.P. CT-58 engine on the top decking of the Sikorsky S-61N helicopter, the mountings are elastomeric and both support the front of the engine and limit the vibration that travels down from the engine to the cabin beneath. As they are only used to support the front of the engine, they are unlikely to be subjected to much heat generated by the aft end of the unit.
Engine Mountings(2) Figure 19.8
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` Finally, the P&W 124 engine mountings are again elastomeric and are, in some cases, in shear and others in compression. The mounting frame, to which these are attached, is shown in the introduction to this topic as the tubular example.
Engine Mountings(3) Figure 19.9
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CONNECTION OF SERVICES The basic engine has many self-contained systems within its configuration. These can include fuel, oil, electrical, fire warning, controls, HP air, etc. However, the actual powerplant installation has to be connected to the airframe interface, (pylon, stub-wing, etc.), via many different forms of connection. Due to the pressures of time and economics, the airframe and engine manufacturers have to make the removal of the engine, especially the disconnection procedure, as simple as possible. To this end, many powerplants have all of their system and service connections in one place, so that they can all be dis-connected and re-attached at one time. To avoid, as much as possible, the loss of vital fluids from some systems when the engine is being disconnected, (not to mention the ingress of air back into those systems), some form of quick-release and/or self-sealing couplings are required. QUICK DISCONNECT SHELF The example below shows the quick disconnect shelf where most of the services of the Lycoming T-55 are joined to the ‘aircraft systems’. Notice that, in this example, there are a number of quick release couplings allowing systems such as the hydraulic fluid lines, to be dis-connected without loss of oil and ingress of air or dirt.
Quick disconnect couplings Figure 19.10
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without other disturbance. its connecting hoses are all short. to connect the pumps to the aircraft systems. it has its hydraulic pumps etc. cock and fuel trimmer all grouped together at one point to ease disconnection and/or engine removal. on a popular turbo-fan engine. Propeller Controls. Engine Control Disconnects Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 200 . located on the right hand side of the engine.C. if applicable.P. The illustration below shows how a simple turbopropeller engine has the three connections of its major controls.) and. however. For example. will all have ‘break points’. If the relevant system is reconnected again. throttle.P. there has to be a complete gallery of rigid pipes. where the simple removal of a bolt or pin will separate the engine parts from the aircraft control runs.` Another operation to assist in engine changes is the “handing” of the ancillary equipment and connections. it should not require re-rigging. BREAK POINTS The mechanical controls to the engine.. Throttle. This means that when installed on the aircraft port side. fitted to the engine. Fuel Control (H. When installed on the starboard side. between the fuselage and the engine. H. This means that an engine installed on the port stubwing would have a different layout than one installed on the starboard stub-wing. The simple removal of a pin or bolt has a further advantage during some disassembling operations.
all of which have to be connected to the aircraft’s own electrical and instrument systems.G. as well as a filter blockage warning. It should be clear that a keyway and groove always ensure that the plug is connected correctly.M. which might tend to break the wires in the looms.12 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 201 . T. different pairs of wires.T. are not put under any strain. or more. A simple.. ignition leads and other systems. moisture and dirt by being sealed inside the plug.P.Figure 19.11 ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS There is a wide range of electrically powered components on the average gas turbine engine. four-pin connector is illustrated below to show how a plug and receptacle fit together. This can include indications of the R. which not only connect 30. All of these connections are normally made using ‘multi-pin’ connectors. fuel flow. but also keep the connections free from oil. This is especially important when angled plugs are used to ensure that cable looms.. Electrical Connections Figure 19. vibration. which approach the connectors at a particular angle.
require a different lifting point on the sling.` LIFTING POINTS As mentioned earlier. has pin attachments to connect it to the engine and a range of lifting lug positions on the top. the engines on commercial aircraft today are designed for the simplest and quickest removal and re-installation. To this end. the centre of gravity will be in a different position for each and will. (the C of G of the engine under the crane hook. The same applies with turbopropeller engines that must be removable both with and without the propeller being fitted. the engines will often be found with built-in lugs and other attachment points that will allow a crane. has not been exceeded. If the engine is to be lifted using a purpose built sling.13 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 202 . The engine hoisting sling shown below. For example. from the Rolls Royce Tay engine series. This is to allow the engine to remain in balance. to lift the engine from the airframe attachments to a suitable support frame or transportation trolley. it must be checked both for serviceability and that its inspection due date. in different configurations. therefore. of suitable lifting capacity. If some form of lifting sling is used between the crane hook and the engine attachments. Engine Lifting Sling Figure 19. if the engine can be lifted with or without the thrust reverser or nose cowling fitted. care must be taken to check the relevant manuals because some lifting slings have more than one attachment point for the crane. when lifting). marked on it. which allow a variety of engine configurations to be lifted.
P. With the hydraulic pumps that are fitted to the accessory gearbox on the engine. from the Rolls Royce Tay engine again. This means that a quantity of fuel has been spraying into the engine without igniting and. although. or holding. a second start cannot be initiated until the fuel from the first start has drained down to a collector tank. but it has not ‘lit up’ the start must be terminated after a specific time to avoid overheating the starter motor.P. As a general rule.G. To avoid this. Drains of this type are often referred to as ’witness drains’ in that they bear witness to a fault. at some time. there is a slight risk that if a seal failed. Drains can be found from the fuel and hydraulic systems mainly. if drains are directed outside the engine cowlings. they indicate that the leaking fluid is from somewhere it should not be leaking from.DRAINS Drains are installed on gas turbine engines of all types. shut off valve and various fuel and air control units is directed to the drain tank which returns the fuel back to the L. to be there. A drip of any oil from this drain indicates that one or other of the seals has failed and deeper investigation is required. Leakage from the H. pump. which will be either drained during maintenance or will be self-emptying whilst the engine is operating. will show beneath the engine and alert the engineers of the fault. the drains are only put to use in situations when something out of the ordinary has occurred. tank then the fluid is intended. the hydraulic oil might mix with the gearbox/engine oils. internal gearbox. The illustration overleaf. it can be seen that any leaks from the hydraulic pumps. front bearing and I. if the engine has been turned over to start it. If. therefore. to relieve the collection of different fluids from either within the engine itself or from one or more of its external units. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 203 . in most circumstances. air starter. For instance. The drains will run into collector tanks. the fluid is directed to a collector. a space is left between the two components and this space is drained to the outside of the engine cowling.D. however. (Such as the ‘wet start’ described earlier).
14 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 204 .` Focker 100 drains system Figure 19.
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There are three major different types of detection equipment. The reason for using the terminology overheat/fire is that is the vast majority of ‘fire’ warnings are not actually fires. etc.B. the detector shortens again. jet pipe connections. As soon as the heat has been removed. (either by shutting down the engine or discharging the extinguisher bottle). installed in the engine nacelles/cowlings. allowing the spring wires to separate the contacts. THERMAL SWITCH The thermal switch system is sometimes known as the ‘spot detection’ system and consists of a number of separate detectors. These warnings often follow the failure of bleed air ducts.` 15.20 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS DETECTION SYSTEMS Because of the complexity of many modern aircraft. allowing any one detector to give the warning to the flight deck. Thermal Switch Figure 20. there has to be a reliable fire detection system. The detectors are all in parallel. which are located in the most likely positions within the nacelles where fire may occur. pulling the contacts together and setting off the alarm. Thermocouple fire detection and Continuous loop fire detection systems. The simple detector shown below will expand longitudinally. Thermal switch fire detection. N. This will indicate to the flight crew both that there is a confirmed overheat/fire in the engine nacelle or bay and that the overheat/fire has been dealt with and the danger is passed. cutting off the fire warning. but are what are generally known as ‘hot gas leaks’.1 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 206 . with combustion taking place.
but they will only detect fire. which changes resistance with the application of heat. This system allows a more complete coverage of a fire hazard area than any type of spot detection systems. Overleaf. The result of this is that to get a 100% confirmed fire warning. such as with the spot detectors. On the latest installations loops are are normally run throughout the engine bay(s) in pairs. not a general bay overheat. is illustrated both the construction detail of the inside of a fire wire and a typical firewire installation as fitted to the Pratt & Whitney 124 engine on the ATR-72 aircraft.THERMOCOUPLES The thermocouple system operates on the rate of temperature rise principle. The firewire consists of an Inconel outer tube with a central Nickel wire. This system works on the same basic principle as the spot detectors. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 207 . rather than operating when a specific temperature is reached. and most common. even if one of the firewires is completely broken. an increase in temperature causing a decrease in resistance. a continuous-loop will detect an overheat or fire anywhere along the length of the tube. The thermocouples are in pairs. They consist of two metals. the current proportional to the temperature. is the Continuous Loop fire detection system. usually ‘Alumel’ and ‘Chromel’. This is because the detector has to have a temperature difference between it and the reference unit. Separating the inner from the outer is a eutectic salt. system for the detection of overheat/fire in engine bays and similar locations. which will generate a small current when heated. which does not occur with a bay overheat situation but will with a direct fire source. This system is often also known as the ‘firewire’ detection system. This allows the measurement of both resistance and capacitance. there needs to be a correct change in both the resistance and capacitance in both firewire loops at the same time. This system has the advantage that it will continue to operate. (Although the break will be detected during the firewire test carried out pre-flight). The thermocouples themselves are manufactured exactly the same way as those units that measure the temperature of the jet pipe or turbine gasses. The detection is actuated by a number of thermocouple ‘hot junctions’ in likely locations for fires. (a detector and a reference unit). except that in place of individual detectors. CONTINUOUS LOOP (Resistance/Capacitance) The third.
This pressure increase can result from either a localised sharp rise in temperature. (Fire). This tube contains a sealed gas filled tube containing an element that absorbs gas at a low temperature and releases it as the temperature rises. The tube is connected to a pressure switch that will close when the gas pressure in the tube reaches a predetermined value. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 208 . (Overheat).2 CONTINUOUS LOOP (Gas ) Another type of continuous loop fire detection system is the pressure-type.` Firewire Installation Figure 20. or a gentler rise in temperature over a longer length of tube.
which will give the quickest spread of the chemical throughout the bay. The chemical extinguishing fluid will be directed through pipes to spray nozzles in the bay. pressurised fire bottles containing an extinguishant into the relevant engine bay. Because of the vital importance of the warning. A light in the relevant fuel shut-off or H.CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS The flight deck part of the fire detection and warning system can vary from aircraft to aircraft. Fire Detection and Extinguishing Panel Figure 20. A flashing ‘attention getting’ light usually coloured red. which normally is sufficient to put the worst fire out. whilst the ‘AGENT 1/2’ lights indicates whether the extinguisher bottles have been discharged. Once the fire has been detected and the correct engine identified. extinguishing and engine shutdown system. As an example.P. the pilot has the option of firing the second bottle into the same bay. three or four. The push buttons labelled ‘LOOP’ are for warning and the isolation of faulty warning loops. If the fire persists after the first bottle has been discharged.P. A ‘FIRE’ caption on the master warning panel. installations have a fully automatic fire detection.U. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 209 . cock lever.3 NOTE: Many A. the pilot will discharge the first. from maybe two. a fire detected within an engine cowling would probably have the following effects: A bell. They will also have aural alerts and flashing lights indicating both the relevant fire extinguisher handle and the correct fuel shut-off lever. ‘chime’ or other audible alert. As a general rule the display panel shown below could be taken as a typical example of a ‘fire’ panel on a modern aircraft applicable to the main engines. A light in the fire extinguisher operating handle/button. all cockpit fire alerts will have the highest priority within the cockpit alerting system. being a warning more than a caution. smothering the fire. (of two).
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securing. They are the aircraft noise limitations. why is it taking place and what it is hoped to achieve. all personnel are in their correct places both inside and outside the aircraft and all equipment is in place. They will also cover such topics as chocking. etc. reference is made to the safety precautions and aircraft handling and storage notes that can be found within Module 7.15. It is now time to consider what is the object of the ground run. Other topics may need to be consulted in this manual. de-icing and work during other inclement weather situations. Before ground running an aircraft. taxiing. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 211 . such as power unit and warning signs. it is essential that before any ground running is commenced. where the ground power units are to be placed and the ground support equipment that will be required for the ground run. parking. marshalling. noise. This will list not only all of the rules that must be followed. it will also give the references that are used to ensure the safety of all concerned both directly and indirectly with the ground run. towing. The aircraft is parked with brakes applied and chocks in place.21 ENGINE MONITORING AND GROUND OPERATION PROCEDURES FOR STARTING AND ENGINE RUN-UP Firstly. These notes will cover flight line safety with specific mention of fuelling. the procedure to be followed in the event of a fire breaking out. reference must also be made to the current Ground Handling Procedures Manual.
The booklet also includes sets of Diagrams. Engine starting procedure. These figures could include the following parameters: T. The ratios or units that these indicating systems use can be used to indicate the power of the aircraft engines ‘on-the-day’ and to indicate any loss of performance since the last engine run.G. Engine parameters and limits. as was mentioned earlier. is normally measured in E. at certain engine powers and when called for by the ground running schedule itself. (limits) and Graphs. This has both the running procedure itself and also places for marking specific data or ‘tick boxes’ to confirm certain operations were carried out during the run. To give an idea of what might be found in a booklet for ground running. of course. (Turbo-jet) or Torque. (Turbo-propeller) aircraft. Propeller control theory.P. especially when a complex. large and modern jet airliner is concerned. And.P. Bleed Air Press Vibration Level Ground running is normally made much easier. (safe zones. adjustments & emergencies: Engine control theory. etc. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 212 . When the engine run is being carried out. fitted to the aircraft. These systems also show when any power boosting system. Failure codes produced by the engine computers. the ATR-72 engine run-up guide contains the following information: General details of safety areas.P. Fuel Flow E. Operational tests during engine running.M. is operated and whether it is working to full capacity. it will normally be necessary for other parameters to be noted.). Aircraft preparation. (performance calculations).T. control operations.R.` INTERPRETATION OF ENGINE POWER OUTPUT The power output. Tables. (Provided the weather and all other circumstances are similar). at specific times.R. Oil Temperature Oil Pressure R. by the use of a ground running booklet../Torque Bleed Air Temp. Engine stopping procedure.
gearbox teeth. then little interest was shown until either the engine became too bad too use or. Analysis of debris in the oil system can provide a very useful method of assessing any trends in the wear from the internal engine components. than there used to be. The particles are examined. propeller mechanisms. including: Magnetic detector plug debris analysis Oil filter debris analysis Spectrometric Oil Analysis Programme (SOAP). (N. etc.T. A slow and steady build-up can best be monitored by an increase in inspection frequency. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 213 . if an engine started to use a little more fuel or oil. it failed completely.TREND MONITORING/ANALYSIS There is a much stronger reliance these days on trends. and the debris particles identified as being from ball bearings.D. From these inspections. MAGNETIC CHIP DETECTORS The magnetic chip detectors. are small permanent magnets placed in the oil scavenge/return line to collect ferrous debris from the oil. 3. guide vanes and combustion chambers to be inspected. Those which monitor the condition of the oil-washed components such as gearboxes and bearings. by a skilled and experienced technician using a microscope. in the worst case. (M. if it got progressively rougher when running or if it ran a little hotter than its companion engines. will produce debris which will be carried within the oil circulating around the engine.C.D.T. roller bearings. the decision as to whether to reject the component or just to increase the frequency of sampling depends on the trend of the particle build-up. Today we monitor trends in a number of different ways and they can loosely be divided into three groups: 1.).D. Years ago. that can be applied to both the air and oil washed components of the engine. whilst a sharp increase between one inspection and the next could require the immediate removal of the offending gearbox or engine. Techniques such as vibration analysis and non-destructive testing.). (The N. Those. 2. the plugs are removed and either visually inspected ‘on site’ or returned to a specialist department. At specific intervals. With oil washed components any mechanical wear from contact surfaces. This analysis can involve a number of different methods. which enable the air-washed components such as blades. such as gears and bearings. inspection procedure is a complex and specialised technique that will be covered later).
later. Particles of some metals will require further careful checking. This will contain microscopic traces of all the metals that are washed by the oil.C. forms a useful technique to complement the M.P The spectrometric oil analysis programme removes a sample of oil from the engine oil system. The debris are carefully washed off the filter and collected for thorough examination. In a typical oil system. digital or even simply in the form of warning lights. into electrical signals that are in proportion to the magnitude of the vibrations. whilst some metal debris might be considered quite normal. Chemical analysis of the sample particles enables the wear rate to be evaluated and quantified. which will be the level to which the flight deck displays have their warning/caution limits set. There will be a vibration limit set by the engine manufacturer. there are amplifiers with their associated wiring.D. The particles obtained from the filters will be catalogued for comparison with other. traces of the following metals might be found: Aluminium Iron Chromium Silver Copper Tin Magnesium Lead VIBRATION Vibration analysis is part of the on-condition maintenance policy that checks on the condition of rotating assemblies. Analysis of engine vibration signatures is an important tool for the detection of early failure in mechanical components.s. The requirement is that defects can be detected sufficiently early to permit rectification before secondary and more serious damage occurs. The information obtained provides a back up for establishing and confirming trends within the components.` OIL FILTERS The analysis of debris collected in the oil system filters.A. both pressure and scavenge. method. debris collections although. In addition. which converts the mechanical vibration of the machine to which it is attached. S. the frequency of filter inspection is less than for M. A vibration monitoring system consists of a sensor. to produce some form of cockpit display.D.O. This display can be analogue. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 214 .C.
Also shown is a typical linear (tape) display from a twinjet airliner which is showing both N1 and N2 vibration for both engines. The port engine has its vibration ‘in limits’ while the starboard engine has exceeded the caution limit on both spools. Another useful variation is the ‘wide’ and ‘narrow’ band measurement. whereas the warning would possibly indicate a serious failure within the engine itself. Vibration sensors and display Figure 21.On some engines there is more than one limit.1 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 215 . The illustrations below show two sensors that are mounted vertically and horizontally. Analogue and digital displays allow the crew to record readings for each engine. which can be later compared with previous flights to identify any increase in the levels of vibration. or from one or two major rotating assemblies such as the N1 and N2 spools. in flight. The caution would allow the pilot to close the engine down before little or no damage has occurred. Other forms of sensor can be found on some aircraft. One is the dual sensor that consists of two separate but integral units that permit the pilot to switch between them if one fails for any reason. which means the reading can either be taken from over the whole range of vibrations emanating from the engine. which might be both a caution and a warning.
the amount of the rotating parts that can be inspected visually is proportionally less. diameters and. the inspection probes had to be inserted into already existing holes in the engine casing. Visual inspection however is still extremely important for monitoring the condition of engines. These will allow the engineer to inspect the internal parts of the engine. thus allowing complete inspection of all of the air washed parts of the engine from the first stage of the compressor to the final stage of the turbine. in a flexible form. is best carried out using a remotely illuminated optical probe. With modern probe sets. On earlier engines. at various times. VISUAL Inspection with the naked eye can detect obvious damage in the front stages of the compressor and the rear stages of the turbine. with rigid borescopes it can still sometimes be difficult to orientate the probe to give the desired view. which will turn the flexible probe to the exact position for viewing. there will be a fibre-optic probe. which is flexible. for difficult places. which would have the item removed to allow use of the holes by the borescope. This can be either fed directly in to the engine or via a purpose built guide tube. Most modern engines however. sometimes known as a borescope. OPTICAL Optical inspection of the inside of a gas turbine engine. These probes can be obtained in a variety of lengths. allowing the rectification to start before any damage has gone too far. With twin and triple spool engines. Such inspections will detect cracks or other damage only when the operator is extremely vigilant. Jet pipe and turbine inspections cannot be carried out immediately after engine shutdown because of the heat. However. The limitation of this system was that the parts of the engine that were visible to the inserted probes were very limited. have purpose-built inspection holes fitted in the casing at the correct places.` VISUAL/OPTICALINSPECTIONS The examination of air washed components can be divided into two different inspections. enabling any deterioration to be detected early. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 216 . These might be igniter or thermocouple installation holes. unaided visual inspection and optical inspection. including the hot end.
Also.2 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 217 . (solid lines).Several borescope sets have. in addition to the range of probes mentioned earlier. and flexible probes. It will be seen that almost all of the internal parts of the engine can be inspected by the mixed use of both rigid probes. The illustration below of the Rolls Royce Tay 650 engine shows the borescope and visual inspection access to the inner parts of the engine. (dotted lines). a low light CCTV camera mounted on to the eyepiece of the probe. damage and discoloration with earlier recordings. This means that more than one person can watch the inspection at the same time. Engine Inspection Locations Figure 21. the viewing can be recorded on video both for a permanent record and to allow trend monitoring by comparison of wear.
3 Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 218 . Boroscope Inspection Figure 21.` The illustration below shows a flexible borescope being used to inspect the first stage of a turbine assembly via ports on the fan duct and in the combustion chamber.
T.G. As an example.000 running hours in one position.). This increased fuel flow will show as a higher than normal T. at full throttle. an ‘A’ check would be carried out. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 219 .T.A.T. at specified intervals. the measurement of the power of a gas turbine engine in service is usually as engine pressure ratio. (shaft horsepower).R. This E. etc. whether the engine is producing the torque. day-to-day basis. reading. It is more likely that any ‘inspection’ of the engine will be involved after the aircraft captain has reported a fault/ defect. between cease flying on one day and the early departure on the next. All of these checks require an inspection of the engine. are typical of those which might be encountered whilst carrying out trouble-shooting on a reportedly defective engine: POWER – The power of a gas turbine engine in service is never measured in pounds thrust.G. O. a check of the jet pipe for signs of turbine damage. prior to the aircraft departing on its next flight leg. As a general rule. aircraft in service have a daily inspection. there will be pre-departure inspections. that it should be. Finally.000 or 30.G.P. (If the engine is being run in any conditions other than at sea level and at a temperature of 150C. The torque pressure produced by the engine at maximum power will be noted on a certificate from the manufacturers. During the day.G. This is usually little more than a look into the intake for Foreign Object Damage(F. on the cockpit gauge can give an indication of the health of that engine. If the engine has some problem internally. finally. might be checked against reference figures to prove whether the engine is producing full power whist at maximum revolutions.). gearbox and I.T. As mentioned earlier. (E. Because of this. it is possible that more fuel may have to be burnt in the combustors to make-up the shortfall in power. such as every so many days.INSPECTION CRITERIA. oil levels and. if the aircraft is not an inter-continental flyer. as it is on the test bed at the manufacturers.D.D. on the same aircraft. then adjustments to the figures will have to be made). a check of the engine. there is little to do with respect to ‘inspecting’ the engine on a routine. TORQUE – Torque is the measure of power being produced by a turbopropeller or turboshaft engine. Trouble shooting an engine will often involve checking some part of the engine’s operation against figures produced by the manufacturer and published in the maintenance manuals.R.O.P. Ground runs will confirm. a look around the engine cowlings. again with adjustments for airfield height and outside air temperature. T.. TOLERANCES AND DATA Modern engines have exceptionally high serviceability ratings and it is not unusual to find some engines with 20. – The reading of the T. the following checks. for any signs of damage and oil or fuel leaks. often overnight.
are published in the aircraft’s flight manual. so that there is no asymmetric thrust. Adjustments will be made if the engine is too slow.T. ACCESSORIES – Many of the components fitted on to the engine. etc. are published in the engine manuals. too fast or if it does not match the timing of the other one(s). It may be necessary. in case the pilot needs to ‘go around’ after being unable to land. These figures are again published in the engine maintenance manuals. to convert from percentage to R. generators. REVERSER OPERATION – It is possible that the crew may report that one reverser is slower in operation than its companion(s). figures during start-up. but as a percentage of maximum engine speed. it is normal for the engines to be subjected to what are known as ‘slam checks’ at intervals.. To achieve these requirements. and equally.M. and cruise power. rectification will be necessary. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 220 .G. either during an engine run or using some external power source to drive the reversers. whilst timing how long the engine takes to ‘catch-up’ to maximum power. The pilot (and any engineer ground running the engines) must strictly follow these limitations. that a fuel pump must have a specific output at a certain engine speed. as well as reporting when the figures are NOT in accordance with the limits. R.P. this will be represented not as R.. meaning for instance. which might cause an unwanted turning moment. On many engines however.M. at times. such as pumps. Some other settings that may require checking are flight idle. measuring devices.P. have to meet ‘installed performance figures’./% – A number of different values of R. ACCELERATION TIMES – It is vital that the engines accelerate both as quickly as possible.M. The slam is the rapid movement of the throttle from idle to maximum. both deploying and stowing. reverse thrust (less than 100%). so the maximum 100% value will be published in the manuals to facilitate this.P. or whenever the crew reports any problems. (100%).M. If not within the published time limits. maximum power and other engine situations.` The T. Testing the operation of these units will involve timing their operation.P. including the idle and maximum values.
A very large volume of air is drawn into the compressor. The use of washing. with the cleaning mixture injected at high pressure. especially when the engine is given regular performance ground runs. dust and other fine airborne particles. This is carried out whilst the engine is either being motored over by the starter or during low speed operation. Usually. Two common methods for removing dirt. salt and corrosive deposits are fluid (liquid) wash and an abrasive grit blast. If the solution wash is performed solely to remove baked on deposits to improve engine performance. Running washing is carried out around ground idle. The accumulative effect of continuous ingestion of these abrasive particles can result in the erosion of the surface coatings. the compressor wash is known as ‘desalination’. FLUID CLEANING The fluid cleaning procedure is easily accomplished by first spraying an emulsion surface cleaner and then applying a rinse solution to the compressor.COMPRESSOR WASHING/CLEANING The atmosphere near the ground is filled with small particles of dirt. the wash may be known as a ‘performance recovery wash’. can vastly extend the life of an engine. Unsatisfactory acceleration and high exhaust gas temperatures can be the result of this build-up. Motoring washing is carried out at whatever speed the starter will rotate the engine up to. salt (near the sea) and other foreign matter. on a regular basis. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 221 . the compressor blades and vanes. Note: It cannot be overstressed that the wash procedure must be performed in strict accordance with the instructions laid down in the manufacturer’s manual. This deterioration in performance due to the build-up of dirt on the blades is the same as an aircraft wing under icing conditions. soot. measured against standard figures. An accumulation of dirt on the compressor blades reduces the aerodynamic efficiency of the compressor itself. oil. with centrifugal force throwing the particles outwards so that they build up a coating on the engine casing. which results in a loss of engine performance. again typically 60% with a lower water pressure. and even further into the base metal of the fan. when the water wash is performed solely to remove salt deposits. the guide vanes and the compressor blades. dirt. Gas path erosion occurs from the ingestion of sand. This erosion can occur in both the compressor and the turbine sections of the engine. typically between 15% to 25%.
Whilst the intervals between operations is much longer. which says that if the deposit on the compressors is still wet. there will be a correct procedure and most likely apparatus for delivering the cleaning medium to the front of the compressor safely. if the deposit has hardened then abrasive grit is required.` ABRASIVE GRIT PROCESS A second. then a liquid wash is all that is required. Sometimes there is a ‘rule-of-thumb’. The type and amount of material and the procedure to be used is prescribed by the engine manufacturer. means that this process is not carried out as often as washing. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 222 . However. (giving no cleaning). The grit used may be ground walnut shells or apricot pits. the abrasive effect on some parts of the engine and the fact the grit is burned up in the turbine. more vigorous method of compressor cleaning is to inject abrasive grit into the engine at selected power settings. Whether the material used for cleaning the compressor is liquid or solid.
These change any sharp edged damage into a smooth curved hollow.D. show some extreme cases of how a blade can be damaged and. however. (as defined by the repair manual). On most aircraft the front stage(s) of the engine can be seen with little effort.D. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 223 . in fact anything which can be found around the aircraft movements area. There must be others involved as safety-men and the flight deck must be ‘placarded’ with DO NOT START signs. damage to the engine. These will require great care when inspecting the engines for signs of damage. if the damage is classified as slight. a fan stage replacement or a total engine change. below that. The damage that occurs is always expensive. Any signs of damage in the intake area must always be assumed to indicate further. The examples of blade damage. is the term used whenever such items as stones. such as the DC-10/MD-11series and the Boeing 727 both have ‘buried’ centre engines. nuts. how the damage can be blended or scalloped.) F. worst.FOREIGN OBJECT DAMAGE (F. which will dictate whether it is a case of a single blade replacement.O. bolts. grit. The damage that the compressor blades have received must be classified in accordance with the manual. which will not cause later failures due to cracking. illustrated below. it just depends on whether it is a case of minor damage to a single compressor blade or the total destruction of the engine. are sucked into the intakes of a running jet engine. due to the fact that an engineer would be invisible to others who might start the engine. If the damage received by the blade is slight. certain aircraft. then the damage can be ‘dressed out’ using a selection of fine abrasive tools.O.
everyone who works around aircraft should acquire the habit of: IF YOU SEE SOMETHING ON THE GROUND THAT SHOULD NOT BE THERE… …PICK IT UP! Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 224 . great care must be taken not to drop any ‘hardware’ such as nuts and bolts. When working either in the engine intakes or in the vicinity of them. taxiways and other aircraft movement areas. or even larger items such as tools.1 Foreign object damage can also be caused by poor workmanship and husbandry by maintenance engineers.` Blade Damage Examples Figure 30. Whilst it is the responsibility of “someone else” to sweep the ramp.
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 225 .
air starter motors. are sufficient to dispel any moisture which may tend to form. exhausts and any other openings. CAAIP Leaflet 7-4) Under normal operating conditions the interior parts of an engine are protected against corrosion by the continuous application of lubricating oil and oil mist.` 15. are also protected by inhibiting oils or powders. Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 226 . the approved Maintenance Manual procedure should be complied with. When the engine is not in regular service. the operating temperatures of which. Civil Aircraft Airworthiness Information and procedures. If engines are expected to be out of use for an extended period of time. After shut down the residual oil film gives protection for a short period of time which varies. they should be ground run periodically or. sand. This provides protection against the ingress of dust.which are not going to be run for periods up to seven days normally do not require protection apart from the installation of external blanking covers to air intakes. depending on the local environmental conditions.22 ENGINE STORAGE AND PRESERVATION INTRODUCTION (Level B1 only) (ref. particularly during the wide temperature change which take place during engine shut down and start up. hydraulic pumps. etc. parts which have been exposed to the bi-products of combustion and internal parts in contact with acidic oil. rain. STORAGE PROCEDURES Leaflet 7-4 of CAAIP PREPARING FOR STORAGE AND DISPATCH The preparation of the engine/module for storage and/or despatch is of major importance. snow etc. The procedures adopted and the level of protection applied will very from one manufacturer to another. The internal of the engine and engine components such as fuel pumps. If transportation by tail or sea is involved. INSTALLED TURBINE ENGINES:. the inhibited or bagged engine is usually packed in a wooden crate or metal case. To resist corrosion during storage. External surfaces are usually protected by paper impregnated with inhibiting powder or oil and the engine is enclosed in a re-usable bag or plastic sheeting into which a specific amount of desiccant silica-gel is inserted. the fuel system is inhibited by special oil and all apertures are sealed off. are prone to corrosion. In all cases. since storage and transportation calls for special treatment to preserve and protect the engine from deterioration and damage. if it is installed in the aircraft and if it can be turned. The type of engine protection applied depends on how long it is expected to be out of service. some form of anti-corrosive protection or treatment must be applied internally and externally to prevent deterioration.
Short Term Storage – from 7 days up to 1 month. (On or Off the aircraft.) PERIODS OF STORAGE (Installed engines) can be divided into two catagories: 1. INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Mod 15 GAS TURBINES by COBC 227 . Depreservation: Is the procedure recommended to restore a preserved engine back to an operational state. Long Term Storage – from 1 month up to 6 months. NOTE: For the purpose of this procedure. 2. “operational state” is defined as: “A power plant that can be started”.PRESERVATION AND DEPRESERVATION Preservation: is the procedure recommended as the minimum necessary to protect a power plant against: • liquid or debris (FOD) entering the power plant • Corrosion • Atmospheric conditions during periods of storage and inactivity.