This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
4374/4B, Ansari Road, Oaryaganj
New Delhi.  110 002
Ph.: 23261597, 2327800J
VISit us at: www.anmolpublications.com
Differential Calculus ©Reserved
First Published, 2004
[All rights reserved. No pan of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retricval system. or transmitted, in any form or by any means, mcchanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise. without prior writtenpmnission of th.c publisher.]
PRINTED IN INDIA
Published by LL. Kumar for Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi 110 002 and Printed at Mehra Offset Press, Delhi.
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"
Contents
Preface " " ,,"" .. _.,,_ .,. xiii
Chapter 1. Real Numbers " ~ ~ 1
1 I Introdu ct i on
1.2. R atjorull Number
1.3. Fundamental operations ofrational numbers 1.4. Meaningless operation of division by zero
15. Repres~nro.tion ofralional numbers by poinls on a straight line 1 6 Irrational numbers
1.7. Decimal representation of real numbers
1 ,8 Modulus or Absolu!evalue of a real number
Chapkr2. FunctiolU H H 15
2.1. Domain. and range ora function 22. Graphs of functions
2.3. Operation on real functions
2.4.. Polynomial fwu:tions and rational functions 2.5. Constant functions and identity functions 26 Modulus function
2.7. The greatest and the smallest integer function 2.S. Square root function.
29. Exponential function
210. Logarithm function 2.1 I. Signum function 2.1.2. Reciprocal function
U rheberrec htl ich gesc h utztes M a\eria
(vi)
2.13. Trigonometric function
214. Inverse Trigonometric funclions
2.15. Function ora function: Composition of functions 2,16. Invertible functions
Chapter 3. Limits and Contin.uity M ••••••••••••• _ ' _m .•.•• 311
3 I Imroductioo
32 Limit ora fimction 33. A]gebraofUmits
3.4. Infinite limits and vllri.ables tending to infinity 3.5. Extension ofopcrations on limits
.3..6. Limits oflrigonomelric functions
3.7. COntinuity
3.8. TYpes of discontinuity
3.9. Algebra. of continuous functions 3.10. COntinuity of elementary functions
l.U. Continuity orlilc inverse ora continuous invertible function
Chapter". Derivatives: " """ "" " " 65
4 J In rro du CtiOD
42. Derivability and derivative
43. Derived filnctjon
4.4. Deri.vability and c:mtinuity
45. Geometrical interaction ora derivative 4.6. Differential and differeotial mefficicnt 4.7. Kinetic Interpretation ofaderivative 4.8. Deri'lative ora coo sta otti IQ etino
4.9. Algebra of derivatives
4.10. Derivative ofy"'X' 4.11. De.ri,vative ofy'" e' 4.12. Derivative of I' ." a' 4.13. Derivative ofy= log"x
4.14. Derivati,ve oflrigonomelric functions
4,15. Deri,vatives of inverse trigonometric functions 4.16. Derivative of hyperbolic functions
I "
U rheberrec htl ich gesc h utztes Materia
(Vii)
4.17. Derivative of inverse ofhypeibolic functions 4.IS. Derivative of parametric function
4.19. DiFferentiation of implicit function
4.20. Logarithm differentimion
<I 2.1 0 i ffCl'c nllal ion of ill fi II lie sen es
Chapter So Sueeessive Dinerentlation M • ••••• 1.29
S I Df:filljlinn
.5 2 nth derivatives of some standard functions
52.1. Determination of the u'" de.rivative of(ar+b)'" 522 Determ.ination or the nih derivative ofln(ar+b) 523 Determination of the nOlo derivative of rr
52.4. Determination orlhe nlll derivative ofsin(ar+b) 525. Detel1l1inalion of the n'" derivative or cos(tn+ b) 5.26. Detel1l1ination of the nu' derivative of e"'sin(bx+c)
.5 3 Determination Qfnlb derivative of ration~t fimctjOJlli
5.4. The derivatives of the produ.cts o[the powers ofsines and cosines
5.5 l.eibnitz's theorem
Cbapter 6. Tangents and Normals ._ _ .. _ _ M 161
6.1. Equatio.n ora tangent
6.1. L Tangent to the curve x '" [(I), y '" g(I), at the point 'f'. 6.12. Tangent to th.e curveJtx. y) .. 0 at any point (x, }')
62. Equation ofth.e nomal at a point
6.21. Slope to the curve x '"' f(t),y = g(I), at the point 't', 622. Slope to the curvef(x,y) = 0 at any point (x,y)
6.3 ... Angle of intersection of two curves
6.4. Length a[me tangent, subtangenl, nOlJDal and subnormal at.Qny point ora curve
6.5.. Pedal equation ora curve
6.6. Angle between radius vector and tangent
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"
(viii)
6.1, Length ofthe perpendicular from pole to the tangent
6.8, Length of the polar tangent, polar nonnal, polar subtangent and polarsubnormal
6.9. Pedal egUllttion ora curve whose polar equation is given,
Chapter'. MUn Value Theor'erns ..•••.•.••• ~.m P h h m 19S
, I Rolle's theorem
12 Lagrange's mean value theorem
73. Graphs ofhyperboJic functions 1.3.1. Graph of),"" sinhx
7.3.2 Gmph of), '" coshx
1.3.3. Graph of y ~ lanhx
73.4. Graph ofy"" cotm,y = seehx,y = coseclu 7 A Cauchy',s mean value theorem
75 Genemlised mean vahJelheorem
2.6 Maclaurin's theorem
7,.7. Power series expansions oesoroe standard filncti,ons 7.8. Formal e.)(pansions of functions
79 MODotonr' funclions
Chapter 8., Maxima and Minima ._ .• _ .• _ •.•.• _ . .._._._241
8 I MaximmD and minimum values ora function
82 A necessary condition for extreme values
II 3 Sufficient condition for extreme volues
s,4 J lSI: of second order derivatives
85., Application to problems
Chapter 9. Indeterminate Form _ •.• _ _ _ •• 26B
9 J Introduction
92 The Inde1ennjnate fonn . Ofo
921. L'Hopital's rule when.% + 0+ 0 and when % + 00 9.2.2. L'Hopital's rule when x ~ C(l
923. L'Hopital's rule for infmite limits
92.4. Preliminary lrMsfonnati.on
9 4 Theinde~erminafe fOIT!! C(ll w
U rheberrec htl ich gesc h utztes Materia
(Ix)
9 S The indetennioate form 0 <II 96 The indeterminale rODOWoo' 9? The ;ndelenninBIe fODD 0"
9 8 Theiodeleuninate fonn .ocf 99 Tbe indeterrninate..fnrm..l:
Cbapter 10. Partial Differentiation ••.•. ,,,., 288
10 I Introduction
102 Functioos of two variables
10.3. Functions of three or more variables 10.4. Neighbourhood ora point (a, b)
105. Continuity of a function or two variables 10 6 I ,imir ofa fnnction of two variables
)07 partial derivatives
10 . .7..1. Partial derivei ye of hi !!her orders
10.8 .. Geometrical representation ofafunction of two variables
10.8. L Gcnm.etri.calinteJ:pretationofpartiai deriva.tiyes. oftbe first crde.t
10.9. Homogenous function 10.10 Total difFerentials
10,11. Differentiation of composite function 10.12. Change ofvariables
10.13. Differentiation of implicit function
Chapter 11. Curvatureand EYolutes _ .• _ _ •• _ _ 328
11.1 .. The curvatu.re ofa curve at a given point
I 1 2 CurvalllTil ofa c ire I"
I ! 3 R adjns ofClltVilluTC
11.4. Length of arc as a ftmetion
I J .s R ad ills of en I'Wltnw for cartesian curves
11.5. L Explicit fODD Y = (x)
I 1.5.2. Imp licit form trx, y) '" 0
I 1.5.3 .. Parametric fOim x =f{I), y~' g(i) 115.4. Parametric form x ", tIs), y "" g(y)
U rheberrec htl ich gesc h utztes Materia
(x)
1 1.6, Radius. of curvature for polar curves
11.6 .. 1. Radius of curvature for curves,. '" Ita)
1 1.62 Radius of curvature forcUNes II ""' f{8), where u'" II,. 1.1.6.1 Radius of curvatl.!Te for pedal curves
11,6.4. Radius of curvature for polar tangent curves 11.7. Radius of curvature at the o.rig!n
11.7.1. Radius of curvature!t the origin by Maclaurin's series 11.7.2 Radius of curvature by Newton's fonnula
! !. 8 Cenlre Qf curvature
11.9. Properties of the evolute
Chapter 12. Concavity and Convexity m , H 371
12 J Introduction
122. Criteria for concavity upwards., concavity downwards and mtle.xion at a given. point
123. Sign oCthe radius of curvature
Chapter 13. Singular Points , ' H .. H .. M'._ 385
13.1. Introduc tion 132 Multiple points
13.3, Tangents at the origin
13.4, Multiple points on the curve/Ix, y)"" 0 13.5, Slopes of the tangents ata double point 13.6, TYpes of Cusps
13.7. Radii of curvature at multiple points
Chapter· 14. Asymptotes _ _ _ _ 411
14 J. Definitj on
142. Detennination of asymptotes
14.3. Dewnnination of asymptotes parallel to the roordinate axes 143.1. Asymptote parallel to .Yaxis
1432. Asymplotes parallel to Xaxis
14.4. General Method for finding oblique asymptotes 145. The case of parallel asymptotes
U rheberrec htl lch gcsc h utztes Materia
(xl)
14 . .6. Special Methods for finding asymptotes
14.6.1. Aspnptotcs by inspection
14.7. intersecti.on ofa curve and its asymptotes 14.8, Asymptotes by expansion
14.9, Position of II curve with respc<:t to an asymptotes 14.10, Asymptotes in polar cocordinates
Cbapler 15. CUn'c Tracing ~ ".,." ••••• ' M .. ~.'.H' 452
151 Imroductioo
152. .Procedure for tracing cartesian equations 153, &luations onile Cormy = ((x)
15,4. Equation of the form V' =f(x)
15.5. Parametric Equations
15.6.. Tracing of polar curves
15.7. A mixed approach
U rheberrec htl ich gesc h utztes Materia
Preface
Differential calculus is intended to the students appearing for undergraduate examinations conducted by different universities of our coun.try. Much efforts have been made to present this subject matter in II manner as to enable a student of ordinary caliber to solve the problems without any external to the student of higher caliber in solving challenging problems.
To achieve this aim, the chapters are provided with examples, diagrams and basic concepts. The problems have been carefully selected and well graded. They are designed to test comprehension. A serious effort has been made to keep the book free from mistakes while preparing this book,.I have not sacrificed the traditional approach of learning mathematics .. On the contrary, care has been taken to provide an extensive foundation of knowledge required for the University Examination. A large number of exercises have been provided in order that mathematical skills may be developed, mastered and maintained.
I take this opportunity to thank Anmol Publication Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, Ihepublishers, for their help and cooperation during the production and Mr. R. K. Ahuja for his kind assistance during the preparation of the manuscript. I also express my loving thanks to Ms. Suchismita Mohanty and Er, Prashant Kwnar Sabu for their valuable discussions. I had with them from time to time and to several friends and students for their valuable suggestions.
Suggestions for further improvement of the book are most welcome.
Ncw.Oclhi
Er. R. K. Mohanty
U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"
1
R.eal Numbers
1.1. INTRODUCTION
The real number system is the foundation on which the entire branch of Mathematics known as Real Analysis rests. It specially introduces and deals with the limit operation, the algebraic operations of Addilionand Multiplication and their Inverses. Subtraction and Division. 'Ihus, it is applied to Geometry, Mechanics and other branches of Theoretical Physics, Economics and Psychology.
Ancient Greek Mathematicians knew that a satisfactory theory of real numbers was not available until late in the 19th century. During the second half of the 19th century, three different theories for constructing the real numbers were put forth by three Greman Mathematicians Karl Weierstrass ( 181 51897), Richard Dedekind (18311916) and G~org Cantore (18451918). In 1889, the famous ltatian Mathematician Guiseppe Peano (185819.32) enunciated five axioms for the natural numbers which could be taken as the starting point for the construction of real numbers. The importance of real numbers for the study of the subject in hand being thus clear. We will, in some of the following articles, see how starting from the set of natural numbers, we arrive at the set of real numbers.
The real number system satisfies a deep philosophical need to base the theory part of Calculus on the notation ofn"mber alone 10 the entire exclusion of every physical basis.
U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ateri"
2 Differential Calculus
1.2. RATIGNAL NUMBER
1.2.1. Natural Numbers
The numbers 1.2,3,4,5 etc, is known as the set of Natural numbers. II is
denoted as N. N =o{ I ,2,"3, }. Natural numbers are positive integers.
1.2.2. Fractional Numbers
The set of numbers like xly, where x andy are natural numbers Le.,x E N and y € Nand y ~ O. Thus, fractional numbers are a new set of numbers of which natural numbers are subset In this case q ~ I.
1.2.3. Rational Numbers
The set of all positive fractions, negative fractions and zero is known as the set of Rational numbers. It is denoted as Q.
I r we take gain as positive number. then loss will be negative number, Similarly, rise is taken as positive number where as/al/ is Iak.en as negative number.
The natural numbers 1,2,3.4.5 .... are called. positive integers and the numbers ·1,·2,3,4 .... are called negative integers.
The set {O, ± I, ±2. H, ±4 ..... }. called the set ofintegers. It is denoted as I,
1.3. FUN9AMENTAL OPERATIONS QN RATlQNAL NUMBERS
There are two fundamental algebraic operations on the set of rational numbers.
I. Closute/or AddltiOlf,'
The set Q is closed with respect to addition if a and b beany two rational numbers, then a+ b is also a real number.
2. CammutatlveLaw of AddItIon alid Mllhlpllclllion (Cl.A. " Cl.M.) If a and b be any two rational numbers, then
o+b:.b+a
ab=ba
3. Associative Law of Additloll alld Mu.ltiplicatlon (AL.A. & A.L.M,) Addition and Multiplication of rational numbers is associative. Ira, b and c be any three rational numbers, then
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"
Resl Numbers 3
0+ (b + c) ~ (0 + b) + c a(bc) ~ (ob)c
4. Id~nfl(y ~/~nI~n'/or Addillon and Multipllcll'ion There exists a rational number, namely O(zero), such that'
0+0'" 0 + a=a for all a EQ
Again, there exist a rational number, namely I (one), such that a.1 '" La"" a fur all Q eQ
5. ExbtMC~ 0/ negatives and Inverses.
Corresponding to each real number a, there exista real number b (called negative of a in case of addition and inverse of a in case of Multiplication) such that
a+b=b+a"'O
ab=ba= 1
6. Distributive law oj Multiplication over addilum (D.M.A.)
If o. band c be any three rational numbers, then according to distributive law of Multiplication over addition,
a(b+ c) = ab+ ae
1.4. MEANINGLESS OPERATION OF DIVISION BY ZERO.
Suppose we want to divide a by h.
Let a=b=c
:. be= a
The division will be intelligible. if and only if. the determination oj c is possible.
Any number which when multiplied by zero produces zero. This means that there is, no number which when multiplied by zero produces a number other than zero.
r. a/Ois no number when a 'I' 0
Also any number when multiplied by zero produces zero so that 0/0 may be any number.
On account of this impossibility in one case and indefiniteness in the other, the operation of division by zero must be always avoided. This can be better understood by taking an example.
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"
4 Omerentisl Cslculus
Let x "'2 or x2~0 = r=4
= x1 .• _ 4=0
Equating (I) & (2) , we have
r~4=x2
:::::>. (x+2)(x2)=%2
Dividing both sides by (x  2), we gel x+2=1
Putting the value of x = 2,. in the above equation. we have
2+2=1
o 4"'1
which is clearly absurd.
Division by (x 2), which is zero, is responsible for this absurd conclusion.
... (1)
... (2)
1.5. REPRESENTATION SF RATU9NAL NUMBERS BY POINTS ON A STRAIGHT UNE.
Consider any siraight line. Mark an arbitary point 0, on the line and calling it the origin. The number zero will be represented by the point O. The po.int 0 divides the straight line inlo two parts. The right hand side of 0 is the positive part and the left hand side of 0 is the negative part. Take any po.inl A on. the positive part and call it the unit length. The number 1 is represented by the point A
11
o A
Figure 1.1
We are in a position. to determine a. point representing any given rational number as explained below:
PosiHve Integers. To represent a positive integer. III,. we take a point on the' positive part. of 0 such that its distance from 0 is III times the unit length OA . This point. represents the positive integer, m.
Negative Integers .. To represent a negative integer, III, we take a point on the negative part of 0 such that its distance from 0 is m time the unit length. OA. This point represents the negative integer, m.
R.eal Numbers. Let x/y be any rational number; y being a positive integer.
LelOA be divided into y equal parts; OB being one of them. We take a point on
U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"
Real Numbers 5
the positive or negative side of 0 is x times (or, x times if x is negative) the distance 08, The point so obtained represents the rational number xiy,
1.6. IRRATIONAL NUMBERS
Construct a square with one of its sides as OA of unit length and take a point P on the line such that OP is. equal in length to the diagonal of this square. It will now be shown that the length of OP cannot have a rational number as its measure. lf'possible, let its measure be a rational number x/yo
lzJ'
Q
.A Figure 1.2
p
By the Pythagora's theorm, we have (x/yf"" P+ P=2
~ r=2y
... (i)
We suppose that the natural numbers x and y have no common factor, for such factors, ifany, can be cancelled to begin with.
Firstly, we see that (211}1 = 4",
=> (211 + l)l'" (4", + 4,,) + I
so that the square of an even number is even and that ofan odd number is odd.
From eqn (I), we see.that p' is an even number. Therefore p must be even.
Lei, p "" 2n, where n is an integer We have 4", '" 2et
=> if=2n2
=> if is even
=> q is even
Hence, p and q have a common factor 2.
This conclusion contradicts the hypothesis that Ihey have no common
factor, Thus the measure.fi of OP is not a rational number. .
Again, we take 8. point L on the line such that the length OL is any rational multiple say, x/y, of OP.
U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"
6 Dlfferentlill calculus
The length OL cannot have a rational measure. Ifpossible.let min be the measure of OL so that,
which states that .fi is a rational number; being equal to mqlnp. Thus, we arrive al. a. contradiction.
Hence, L cannot correspond to a rational number.
Thus we conclude that there exist an unlimited number of points on the number line which do not correspond to any rational number.
Real. Number. A number. rational or irralional is called a real numbet:
These! ofreal numbers is the set of rational and irrational numbers, This set is denoted by R.
1. 6~ 1. Numbe.r and Point
1 f any real number x is represented by a point p, then we say that the point p is x. Thus the terms, number and point, are generally used in an indistinguishable manner:
1.6.2. Intervals
Let a, b be two given numbers such that a c b. Then the, set ofnumbcrs x such that
a~x5.b
is called a closed. interval and denoted. by (G,b l.
In symbols. [a.b] = [x: Q :; X :; b}
a b
{a,bj
FIgure 1.3
The set of numbers x such that a <; x <; b is called an open interval and is denoted by la.b[.
In symbols, Ja,b[ = {x : a< x <; b}
U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"
Real Numbers 7
a b
la,b(
Figure 1,4
The set of numbers xis such that Q < x ~ band Q !> x < b are called semiclosed or semiopen intervals and are denoted by la,b] , la,bl.
In symbols, ] a,b] ""' {x: a cx s b} and [a, bl = (x: a s;x < b)
a b
)a.,bl
Figure 1.5
a b
(a,b(
Figure 1.6.
1.7. DECIMAL REPRESENTATION OF REAL NUMBERS
Let P be any given point ofthe number line.
Suppose that the point p lies on the positive side of O. Let the points corresponding to integers be marked on the number line so thai the whole line is divided into intervals of length one each.
Now ifP coincides with some one of these points of divison, it corresponds to an integer and we needprocced no further. In case P falls between two points of division, say, a, a + I, we subdivide the interval 1o, a + I] into 10 equal parts so thatthe length of each pari is 1110. the points of division, now, are
1 2 3'· 9
a, 0 +10,0 + HI ,0+10 0+ 10,0+1
If P coincides with any of these points of division, then it corresponds to a rational number. In the alternative case, it falls between two points of division, say
a + ~ a+ at +1
10' 10
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"
8 Differential Calculus
i.e., lUI" a.(al + I),
where, a" is any of the integers 0, 1,.2,,1, ... ,9.
We again subdivide the interval
[ al al 'I I]
(l'l  a+' ,'
10' 10
into 10 equal parts so that the length of each part is III Ol. These points of divison, now, are
(II al I al 9 (I) + I
u +10 ,(1 +10 + 102 , ,0 +10+ )02,(1 +""""iO
The, poin"P will either coincide with one of'the above points of divison or will be between two points of divison, say
i.e., a.a,.a" a.a, (a, + I);
where (11 is one of the integers 0, 1,2, ..... ,9.
After a number of steps, say n, the point will either be found to coincide with some point, of division or lie between two points of the form
(11 (12 an 01 a2 0n+1
u+ 10 + 'j()2+ "j'Qn"' 0+ 10+ 'i()2+ + 10" '
ie., a,a1u1 u .. u.u,.u,.u] (a. + I),
the distance between which is III 0" and which gets smaller and smaller as n increases.
The successive intervals in which P lies go on shrinking in length and will clearly close up tothe point P. This point P is then represented by the infinite decimal.
1_8. M0BULUS 0R ABSQLUTE VAI,.UE OF AREAL
NUMBER .
Defmition: [fx be any given real number. then its absolute value is ckfined by the rule
{X ihO!: 0 ~I'" xifx<O
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"
Real Numbers 9
It would be seen that for all x E R, we have !xl <'! 0
Also, x, = Xl::::) ~'II = ~,1
17,eorenr 8.1: For every X E R, !xl'"' Max. {x, ),.}
Proof: According to the law of'Trichotomy, one and exactly one ofthe following is true:
(i)x>O, (ii)x=O, (iii)x<O
If x ~ 0, then Ixl ""X and x ~x
.. '
Ifx < 0, then Ix! "" x and x > x
Thus in either case, !xl is greater of the two numbers x and x, i.e., !xl = Max. {x, x}
Theorem 8.2: For every x E R, lxi' = r = jxjl Proo/: From defmition,
{X if x ~ ° !xI= xifx<O
In either case, !xI'=r
and jxl2""(xY=r Therefore, ~I' = r = jxlz
1'IIeorem 11.3: For every x E R, Ixl = jxl Proof: We know that,
Ixl = Max.(x,(x)} "" Max. {x, x}
=1rI
TIIeorl!lft 8.4: For x,Y E R, ~yj = !xI.1Yt Proof: jx.yp = (xy),
=ij
=r.y
= IxF.1Yt'
=~.W
Since Ix.yj amd IlI.lvl.are both positive, therefore equating the positive square
J rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztcs M ateri"
10 Dl«erential calculus
roots of both sides, we have I%.yj = ~.!YI
Theorem. 1,5: (Triangle Inequality). The modulus of the sum of two numbers is less than or equal to the sum of their moduli.
For all real numbers x and y, j.t+yj s: 1%1 + IYi
Proof:
Case I, x+ y <!: 0 In this case,
j.t+yj=x+y
Sincex s j.tlandy s lvi, therefore, x + y s I.tl + [yj. =:> Ix+ Y! ~ ~+ IYt
Cue 2. x + y < 0
In th is case, (x+y»O ==> (x)+(y»O
Now, Ix +.vI = I(x + y)1
. '" I(x) + (y)1 Sfxl + IYf Since Ixl = I.tl and IYI = IYI, therefore, Ix + .vi s j.tl + b'i
Theorem. 8.6: For all r andy, Ix 1'12: 1 1x1lJ.1 I Proof: From the triangle inequatity, we have Ix! "'!(xy) + 1'1 ~ Ixyj + IYI
::) 1x11Y1 s: Ix  .vi
Again, lYl = ICYx) +z] $jyxj + 1%1
=> IYt 1xI s: jyxl
=>  (lxl lYl) ~ IYxj
=> lxl1Yt s: 1%>1 sincejyxj=lxyl
Now, . ftl tYl = Max. {!xI[yj (1xI b·m
slxyt
... (1)
.. .(11)
(by (j)& (ii»)
Urhoberrechtllch Qeschutztes Materia
Real Numbers 11
E~Bmples
Ex. To' Calculate the cube root of 2 to three decimal places. Sol: We have, P'" I < 2
and 2)"'8>2
~ 1<l)2<2
The numbers considered are.
1.1.1.12 •.........• 1.9,2
These numbers divide the interval [1;2J into 10 equal parts and find two successive numbers such thaI the cube of the first is < 2 and that of the second i5>2.
Now, (12)1'" 1.728 < 2
and (J3)1 =2.197> 2
.::::;. 1.2 < Vi < 1.3 Aga:in. we consider the numbers
12,121,1.22, ,129,1.3
whieh divide the interval, [1.2, 1.3 J into 10 equal parts and find two successive numbers such that the cube orthe first is < 2 and that of thesecond is> 2.
Now, (1.2S), '" 1.953125<2
and (1.26») =2.000376> 2
:::;. 1.25< Vi < 1.26 Again, we consider the numbers
1..25, .1251,.1252 •............ ,1259,1.26
wHch divide the interval 11.25, 1.26] into 10 equal parts.
Now. (1.259)' '" 1.99561.979<2
and (126), '"' 2.000376> 2
=> 1.259 < Vi < 1.26
Hence, Vi '" 1.259 .
Thus, to three decimal places, we have Vi => 1.259.
Ex.2: If x~" be any real numbers, show that lx + Yll + Il" .Yll "" 2(~1 + 1YIl)
Sol: Il" + YI.~ +Ir  }'II
U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a
12 DllterentiBI Calculus
= (x + y), + (x  y)2 "" 2(r+y)
'" 2{(#)+ (Y)} '" 2(Jx11 + MI)
Ex.J.: If a, h,. c be rcal numbers, and c> 0, show that lahi <CQ b·c < a<h + c
Sol: lahi <c
Q Max {(ab),.(ab)} <c, Q ah < cand b 0< C
Q a<b+candbc<a
Q bc<o<b+c
U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h uut;s Iv! ateri"
Real Numbers 13
Exercise1
I. Prove:
(1) ~YI:!i: ~1+.lYI
(n) Ix + Y + zls !xl + lvI + Izi 2 Show that:
ill l~h:J (iij I~=:~
(m) Ix!< EQe <x < e
3. If y "'!xl + Ix. II, show that
jl2X forallxsO
y = I, for all 0 <x < I
2x  I for all .:f ~ I
4. If x, y, e be real numbers aod e > 0, then jxyj"< e Q ye <x <y+ E
S. Show that:
!abj< I} ;:::)jaqd+m
{bcj<m .
6. Show that eNery rational number is expressible as a tcnninating or a recuning decimal.
7. Calculate the cube root ofS to 2 decimal places.
(AIrs: 1.71)
8. For what values ofx a.rethe following equalities not valid:
(i) ~=I (Ans:O)
x
(il) x2 _a2 (Ans:o)
=X+O
xa U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"
14 Dlfferent/al ClIlcu/us
Ix r (iv) , ~ .. ~_ = 1 + ""X
1../%
(Am.: I)
(.) 1005% X IV .. = tansmx 2
(Ans: Jnn:.ne 1})
9. Give the equilvalents of the following by doing away with the modulus notation:
(i) 1,1:+21<3
(1I) 1,1:11!';2 (iii) 0<1,1:11<2
(Ans:S <x< I) (AIlS: Is x<3) (Ans:I <x<3)
10. Give the equivalents of the following inequalities in terms of the modulus notation:
(i) 2 S,x s 8 (iJ) 3<x<6
(iii) Je<x<l+e (iv) 1 S,x S 3
U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a
2
Functions
2.1. DOMAIN AND RANGE. OF A FUNCTION
A function/from a set A to a set Bassociates to each element z in A a unique element in 8 which we denote by j();).
The set A is called the DomaIn ofthe~!1ctionf
lh denotes a member of the set A. then the number of the set B, which is the function/associates to x E A, is denoted by j{x) called the value of the functicm/at x.the function may be, described as x ~j(x) or y '" j(x) where x E Aandy e B.
Range ora runetlon: A function / from a setA to a set B so that the domain of tis the set A, then the set of all the function values is called range of f. Thus,
. Range off"" {/{:r):x E A}
Functions whose domain and codomain are both subsets of R, the set of all real numbes, are called real valued function ofa real variable.
Usually the domain ofa function is an interval; open, closed, semiclosed or semiopen.Porfinitereal numbes a and b the closed interval with end points II and b, denoted by [a, b].
(a,b)={xeR:asxSb)
The open interval with end points a and b, denoted by (a, b)'" {x E R:a<x<b}
We also have intervals which are closed at only one end point and are defined by
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a
16 Diffe.rential Calculus
(a,b]"" Ix E R:a<xsb) [a,b)'" (x E R: a:s:x<b)
2.2. GRAPHS OF FUNCTIONS
Lei/be a function with domain [a, b] We have, y=j(x),xE[a,b]
The function /associates to each x e. [a, b] a number denoted by j(x). Generally, two straight lines an: taken to represent the function graphically, called coordinate axes, at right. angles to each other. We take 0 as origin for both the axes and select unit intervals on OX, OY of same length.
For a number x E [a, b 1 correspond a point M on xaxis such that OM = x.
Again. the function/associates to x E [a, b] a numberj(x). We writej(x) '" y. We have a point N on Yaxis such that ON = j(x) = y.
When we complete the rectangle OMPN, we get a point P which is called to correspond to the pair of numbers lx,j(x») i.e., P(x, y).
y
N P(X,y)
y
x 0 " M X
Y' Figure 2.1
The set of points (x, y) obtained by gi.ving different values to x, is said to be the graph of the function/The graph of/is also said to be the graph of the equation y = j(x).
Examples
Examp/~ 1: Find the domain and range ofj(x) = J9  x2 Solutwn: We have,j(x) '" J9  x2
Domain: Clearly,j(x) is not defined for 9 x) < O.
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"
Func.tiDns 17
So,j{x) is defined only when 9  Xl ~ 0 Now, 9)('~. 0
~ x19$0
.~ (x+3)(x3):o:;O
,:=) 3S%$3
.:::;> x E (3,3]
Therefore, domainJ{x) "" [3, 3]
Range: Lelj{x) = y ~ J9  xl= Y
~ xdJ9 yl
Clearly, x is defined when 9  y2 ~ 0
Now, 9'1~ 0 ==> f9:S0
=> (y+3)(y3)SO
=> 3Sys.3
BUIJ{x) attains only nonnegative values. Therefore.y e rO,3]
Hence, rangej{x) = (0, 3)
Examp/~ 1: Find the range ofthc function/given by j{x) ' I + 3cos2.x Soh ilion: Recall that
I S cos2xS 1 => ss 3cos2xs 3
=> I  3 S 1 + 3cos2x S I + 3
=> ·2 S I + 3cos2x s 4
.:::;>2Sj{x)S4
Therefore, the range of the given function is the interval [ .. 2, 4]
x Exanfp/~ 1: Find the domain and range of the functionj{x) = • 2 .
I+x
x SO.llItJom We have,j{x) = 12 +x
Domain: clcarly,j{x) is defined for all real values ofx. so, domain(l)  r
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"
18 Dlfferentlal Calculus
Range: Letj{x) '" y
x
J + x2'" Y
x1' x+y = 0
J±~
x'"
2y
Now,
l±~
2y .... isarealnumberif
J 4yl?: 0 and y ~ 0
4y'  I:!> 0 and y. ~ 0
2 J ..
Y  :S 0 andy ~ 0 4
~ (y+~) (y~):!> 0 andy ~ 0
hence.range (I) = [ i ,0] u [0, iJ
Examp.le 4: Find the domain of the following functions:
x
(ii)
cos"! x [xl
(i)
sin 1 X
Solution:
sin1 x
0) Letj{x) = . .. .  g(x) '" sinIx and hex) '" x
. .. [x]
U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a
Functions 19
. g(x) Then,j{x) '" hex)
=> Domain (/):. Domain(g) r» Domain (h) {xl h(x)'" O}
Clearly, domain (g) = [1,1), domain (h) =R and (x I h(x) = OJ"" to} :. Domain(/)= [1,1) n R to) = [1,0] v {O,l}
COS~l x
(ii) Lelj{x) '"  [,;], g(x) = cos+x and hex) = [x)
. . g(x)
Th.cn,j{x) =h(x)
:::) Domain (/) '" Domain(g) nDomain (h) (x I h(x) = O} Clearly, domain (g) = H, I},
domain (h):. R and (x I hex) = 0) =x I (xl = 0 = [0,1] .. Domain (/)= [I, I) n R[O,l}
=[J,OJ v {I)
Example 5: Draw the graph oflhe function/given by
11, if x < 0
.f(x) '" .x2 ,if 0 s x s 2 4, if x >2
Sulutlon: The given function for x< 0 is a constant function given by j(x) = 1 for z > 2. it is again a constant function given by j(x) '" 4.
y
FIgure 2.2
U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a
20 Differential Cslculus
However, for 0 ~ X:5 2 the graph is parabola,
Example 6: What arc the domain and the range of the function f giycn by fix) .", cl< • Also draw i (S graph.
Solullon: The given function is well defined for eaeh real number. Therefore, the domain of the Function is R. Also, for each real number, positive or negative, el. is positive. Hence the range of the given function is (O,co)
v
Figure 2.3
U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a
Exercise  .2.1
Functions 21
J. Find the domain of each of the follollling fllnc/ions:
I (ii) j(x)""J~+lxl
x35x+3
(iii) j(x) '" 2 I
x 
(v) j(x) "" Ix] + x
(vii) j(x) "" J(x .x ).
Ix
 JHxl (IX) j(x)'" 2lxl
(iv) .f{x) '" e'·~"
• ~J
(vi) }(x) = ~n x
x
(viii) j(x)"'" ·JI +2 sin x
2. Find the differences between the domains of the following pairs of fonctlons.
(i) Y'" ~xl ex + I) and Y '" xJ(x + 1) (D) y= J(1x) andy= JIx2
(iii) Y'" ~(I_x2) andy= ~(x2_I) (iv) y=x5 andy= ~(X5)2
3. Find .(he range ofeach of/he followingfonctions gillen by
3
(i) f(x) =2 2x
(iii) f(x) '" !Ix  21
(v) f(x)=JI6x2
x eiJ) fex)::: I +x2
(iv) f(~) '" Ix 41 x4
I (vi) I(x) =.J   x5
U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a
22 Oifferential calculus
4. Find (he domain and the range of the following functions given by
f· I
9) f(x) '" x! (ii) (x)=~_ _
JxIxj
(iii) f(x) = 1Ix3I (iv) f(x) = sin2(x3) +cos2(xJ) (v) I(x) = .J4 +~SirlX
5. Draw the graph of each aflhefollowing/unctions given by
(i) /(x)=x[xj
{.!.....if X"" 0 (iii) f(x) = Ixl.
o , ifx=O
kXI)2
(v) I(x)=x+ . _
xI
(u) I(x) = 3%
(iv)
{I ,.ifx!.O
I(x) xZ+l,ifO:s;x~2
5 ,ifx?2
J(xI)l J(X2)2. J(X._5)2
(vi) I(x) = x + + .+~'
. xI x2 x3
(vii) /(x) = 3[ltl (Ix) l(x)=[lxl]
(vii!) !(x)=x2 +[x]2 (x) f(x) =1[x]1
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"
Functions 23
2.3. OPERATION eN REAL FUNCTIONS
2.3.1. Addition of two real functions.
Letf: X ~ Rand g: X ) R be any tworeal functions where X c R. then, we define/+ g: X + Rby
if+ g) (x) = j{:c) + g(x), for all x EX.
2.3.2. Subtraction of a reat function from another
Letj": X ~ Rand g: X + R be any two real functions wheRe X c R then, we define /  g : X + R by
if  g)(x) '" Jt~)  g(x), for all x E X.
2.3.3. Multiplication by a scalar
Letj": x be a real valued function and a be any scalar. Then, the product 0/ is a function from x to R defined by
(O!l. ) (x) = !l. j{x). for alb E X.
2.3.4. Multiplication of two real functions
The multiplication of two real functionsj": X + Rand g: X + R is 0
function/. then fg: X + R defined by .
(fg)(x) :j{x),g(x), foraUx E X.
2.3.5. Quotient of two real functions
Let!and g be two real functions. Then, the quotient of/by g denoted by fig is 0 fraction frornx (x: g(x) = O} to R defined by
(/)(X) = f(x)
g g(x)
2.4. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS AND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS
A function of the form
urheberre<;htlich geschulztes Materia
24 Differential Calculus
where 01l.OJ ,0.2 ,an are given real numbers and 00 ~ 0 is called a
polynomial function of degree n. TIle domain of every polynomial function is r, A function of the fonn
n, __ ,,,1
(x) ~ aoX + alz + +an_Iz + u"
g.  "'. ",I
box + biZ + +b.,~lx + b ..
where .aox" + alx"l+ ... " ..•. +u".box .. +b1x",1 +b",are pclynomlals Is callcda Rational function.
The domain of a rational function is the set of all those real numbers/or which the value a/polynomial in the denominator is nm zero.
2.5. CONSTANT FUNCTIONS ANBIBENTITY FUNCTIONS
A function/: A + S, A,S c R. is said to be a constant function ifthere exist areal numberk such thatj{x) ~ k., for all x E A.
Domain: A Range: {k}
A function! R+ R is said to be an identity function if for each x in R, j{x) '" x and is usually denoted by I.
Domain:R Range: R
2.6. MODULUS FUNCTISN
The function! R + R defined by
{X • ifx~O j{:X)"'~I'" x, ifx<O
is called the Modulus function.
It is also called Absolute value function. Domaint R
Range: Ro = {x:x is a nonnegative numbeR}
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M aleri a
'Functions 25
y
+"'"f+x
o
Flgure2.4
2.7. THE GREATEST AND THE SMALLEST INTEGER FUNCTION
For any real number x, we denote Ix], the greatest integer Jess than or equal to x. For example, [2.45] '" 2. [2.11 J '" 3, [0.321 = 0 etc.
The function! R 4 R defined by
j(x)=[xl or LxJ, x E R
is called the greatest integer function or the Ilenr (upetion. It is also called a step (unction.
y
o

FIgure 2.5
For a real number x, we denote by r xl, the smallest integer greater than or equal tor.
U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"
26 Differential Calculus
Forexample rS21 = 6, r 521 = 5 etc. The function.,f: R + R defined by
j{x)=rx1,xeR
is called the smallest integer function or the calling function.
y
+~~o~~~+x

Figure 2,6
It is also called a step function.
Domain; R Range:Z
2.8, SQUARE ROOT FUNCTION
The function that associates every positive real number x to +..j; is called the square root runction, i.e.,Ax) = + ..j; .
y
Graph of Y • \~
Figure 2.7
Urhcberrechtllch geschulzlcs ~lalcria
FunCIJpns 27
Since negative real numbers do not have real square roots. So,fix) is not defined when x is a negative real number: Therefore, domain off is the set of a II nonnegative numbers.
Domain: {O, 00] Range: 10,00']
2.9. EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION
The function y =o' where the base Q is a constant and the index, x a variable is called an exponential function.
To consider the graph ory'" a', we have to consider two cases .. (i) a>1
(ii) O<a<1
Let us take a '" 2 to have an indication of the nature of variation of the function y = 0'" we consider the case when x varies over the sequence
............. 3,.2."1,0.1,2,3, .
of integers and the corresponding sequence of the value of Ii' is
..• " 1/8, ~, ',1.".1,2,4,8,16, ..
Every member of this sequence is positive. Now take a = ',1.,< I
The sequence of values of a' now obtained is
.......... , 16, 8,4,2, I, 'h, 'I., 118, .
In this elise, the numheron the left can be made as large as we like and those on the right as ncar 0 as we like.
t. Y'" Il'; a> 1
y
Y=II'.1I>1
x' X
a
Y'
Figure 2.8 U rhcberrec htl lch gC5C h utztes M ateri a
28 Dllf.erentiai Calculus
(i) The domain is]  00, oaf (il) The range is] 0, 00 f
(iii) The junction is strictly increasing.
2, y = a"; 0 < Il < I
(i) The domain is] «I, a;J f (iJ) The range is J 0, 00 [
(iii) nil! junction is slrictly decreasing.
y
o
yo
Figure 2.9
2.10. LOGARrrHMIC FUNCTI0N
If a> 0 and a ~ I, then the function log.: R+ . R is given by log, x = Y if and only if d' =. x is called the Iogaritbmic function.
Domain: R+, the set of'all positive real numbers. Range: R
y
x'o.,+,I+x
Y'
Figure 2.10
Urheberrcchtllch geschutztes Materia
a<:1
t(x) = log, x
y'
FIgure 2.11
2.11. SIGNUM FUNCTION
The function/defined by
/(x):: l~
I
, ifx>O
• ifx=O
• ifx>O
is calledthe signum Iunetien.
Domain: R Range: {ItO, I}
y
FIgure 2.12
Functions 29
U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"
30 Differential Calculus
2.12. RECIPROCAL FUNCTION
The function that associates each nonzero real number x to its reciprocal
I .
 is called the reciprocal Iunctlon. x
Domain: .R  {O) Range: R  {O}
v
L
X'
,0
y' x
Figure 2.13
2.13. TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTION
(i) Sine function. The function that associates to each real number x to sin x is called the Sine/unction. Here x is the radian measure of the angle.
Domain: R Range: [I, I]
It increases strictly from I to 1 as x increases from 71/2 to 7112, and decreases strictly from I to I as x increases from 7112 to 37112 and so on.
(:1 .. .12.1)
y
(~f2 .• 1)
(.~.12,  1) yo
(3"'2,1)
Figure 2.14
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"
Functions 31
(ii) Cosinc runction. The' function that associate to each real number s to cosr is called the cosinefunaion, HeRe x is the Radian measuRe of the angle.
Domain: R Range: [i. I]
TIle function decreases strictly from I to \ as x increase form 0 to 11 decreases strictly from I to 1 as x increases form 11 to 2n and so on. v
(0,1)
and
(2'1:.1)
yo Figure 2.15
(~,1)
(iii) Tangent function. The function that associates a real number x fo tanx is called the tangemjunclion.
Clearly, the tangent function is not defined at odd multiples of JI a, Le.,::I:
Jll2, ::I: .3 "It a etc.
Domain: R  {(2n + 1)nf2) Range;R
The function, y '" tan x increases strictly from  00 to en as x increases in Ina, nl2[
(Iv) Cotangent function. The function thai associates a real numbers to COt x is called the cotangent funalon.
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! aleri"
32 Differential Cslculus
Clearly, COl x is nOI defined at x = n 71, n e Z Domain: R· [nn In E Z]
Range: R
y
.2~:
I I I I I
Y'
FIgure 2.17
(v) Seeaat function, The function thatassocia.tes a real number x 10 sec Jr is called the secantfonction.
Clearly, sec, x is not defined at odd multiples of 11 n. i.e., (2" + I)n 12, where n E Z. So,
Domain;' R· {(2n + I) 'II: /2'1 II. E Z} Range: ( <0, II u [1,00)
y
1 • If. •
:tj.2>11.11: : : :~'1:
I I (311/2.0) 'Ll) I (0/2.0) I (2.) ,
_1 _:1.: 1_ _J,{ t_ _J_.
I I I • , ,
X' ___11:+____ x
I I I 0 I I I
+ k • ~_~_~
: : ('o;'1~ :)012.0) I
I ( ..... 1) I ("..1) ,
I I I
I. •
yo
Figure 2.18.
The function y = see x is strictly increasing form I. lOco asx increases in [0, 1112 (and strictly decreasing from a) 10 \ au: increase in 1 nl2, n ] (vi).co$ecant function. The function that associates a real number x to cosec x is called the cosecant function.
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ate,;"
Functions 33
Clearly, cosec x is not defined at x '" n11 , n E Z i.c., O,:l: 11 ,± 211 .etc. Domain: .R  [nn ] n E Z}
Rang»: (:0,1 J u [1,:0)
Y
:\('3Jt!'2,11'j.: ·VJt!'21): :.
'''/ I '"
___ l L ,__ __J J _
x,_+I_'..;,(O..;..l~I._'t_'_x (2",,0) I 1(·0/.0) 0 \0.,,1) I ("',0) I (20/,0)
rv=\ lQi'
I I I,
Y' F.lgure 2.19
The function,y '" cosec x decreases strictly from ,_ I to <Xl as x increases in [nI2, O[ and decreases from + <DIO I as x increases in 10, nJ2).
2.14. INVERSE TRIGONOMETRICAL FUNCTIONS·
Tile inverse trtgonometrica! functions sin'x, eM/X etc. are defined as the inverse of the corresponding trigonometrical functions. For example, sinIx is defined as the angle whose sine is x, But since for each value of sin'x, there corresponding an unlimited number of values of'the angles whose sine is x and for values of x with ~I > 1, sin IX does nOI exist, Thus, we cannot define the inverse function of'sinx unless we modify the definition of sin x in such a way that 'it becomes a bisection, Consequently, sin"x exits and it is a function from (1, 1 I to [~nI2, nI2).
Similarly, the other inverse trigonometrical functions can be defined, The domain and range of the inverse trigonometrical functions are as Slated below.
F"flctlon Domain R"ngf! Definition 0/ the/u.nctloll
sin'lx [I, I] [ n 12, n I2J y= sin'x <=> x= siny
cos'x H,IJ [0, nl y '" cos+x <=> x = cosy
·tan"x R Jn 12, 'It 12[ y = tarr'x .<=> x = tan Y
cot··x R ]0, 11: [ y=cot"x <=> x"coty U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"
34 Differentilll Cltlculus
F""cllo" DomQill Rangt lkjbIltlolf of tht f".n.clio"
sec=x R]J, 1" [0, n } t n 12) y '" sec"'x (:) 'X" sec y
cosec' 'x R ]1, II [n,l2, n 121{01 y =eosee:x <=> x '" cosecy 2.15. FUNCTION OF A FUNCTION: COMPosmON OF FUNCTIONS
Lelj(x) and g(x) be two functions with domain, D, and D, respectively:
Ifrange(/) c domain(g). we define g of by the rule
(got) (x) = g(f{x» forall xeD,
Also, ifrangc (g) c domain(/), we define fog by the Rule (fog) (x) = f{g(x)} for all x E D2
2.16. INVERTIBLE FUNCTIONS
Consider a oneone function with domain A and range .B. Let Y E B. The function/being onoone,the member y e B arises form one and only one member x E A such thatj{x)'" y.
Thus, we define a, new function. say g, such thai
g(y) "" x <=>j{x) = y
Also the domain of the function g is the rangeafthe given function/and viceversa ..
The function g is said to bean inveRse of the function! We also say that lis an invertible function. '
Clearly if g is the inverse off, then/is also the inverse of g_ y
Y' Figure 2.20
U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"
Functions 35
Examples
Exilmple I: What is the sum and difference of the identity function and the modulus function,
Solution: LetAx) "" x, x E R be the identity function and g(x) "" .~,.x E R be the modulus function, Then
(/+ g) (x) "" f{x) + g(x) ~x + !xl
_f1x.!fx~O
lO .ifx<O
and <1 g) (x) ""f{x)  g(x) = x ftl _fo .ifx~O
l2x.ifx<O
Exmnple 2: Letfbe the sine function and let g be the function 2x, Find (i) fog, (ii) gof; (iil)/of and (iv) gog
Solution.: We have,
j{x)= sin x
and g(x}=2x
(i) (fog) (x) "" f(g(xf) = j{Zx) = sinlx
(iI) (got) (x) = g(.f(x» = g(sinx) = 2siIU (iii) (fot) (x) '" /(j(x»" j{sinx)" .sin(sinx) (iv) (gog) (x) '" g(g(x» = g(2x) = 2(2x) = 4x
.Example3: Iff R + R is defined by j(x) '" xl and g: R+ R is defined by g(x) '" sin x then what is fog and gof
Soilltion: The function fog: R + R is given by
(fog) (x) '" /(g(x» '" j{sinx) '" sin2x, for all x E R the function gof{x) '" g(l(x»
= g(x~ '"' sin(x1),. for all x e" R
Exanlple 4: Letjbe the exponential function and g be the logarithm function. Find
(i) (f+ g)(l) (iii) (30(1) (v) (fog) (I)
(iI) if.g)(l.) (iv) (Sg) (I) (vi) (gof) (I)
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a
36 Differential .Calculus
Sotutlon: We have,
j{x) '" e' and g(1') '" In(X) (i) ((+g)(l)
j{ 1)+ g(1) c' + In( I)
e
(ij) if.·g)( 1 )
f(\)··g(I) e'.ln(I)"'O 3.11)
J x e' "'Je
5g(1)
5 x In(1) "'0 j(g(I»
j{ln(J» "'/0) '" eO", 1 g(f{I» g(e')=lne=1
(iii) WHI)
(iv) (5g)(l)
(v) (fog) (J)
(vi) (gol) (I)
Example 5: Find the inverse function of the function! given by Ax) = (x + J), x E R.
Slllution. Let g be the inverse off.
Then, for each x E R, we have
g(J{x» '" x
~ g(x+ I) '" x ~ g(x)= xI
Thus, g(i) = x  J is the inverse of the function/given byj{x) = x + J.
U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"
FUnctions 37
Exercise  2.2
I, Show that the function j(x) => (2x + 3)/ (x  3)i5 invertible. Find the inverse g, of/and verilY that gof is the identity function.
2. [fj(x) be defined on [2,2] and is given by
/(x) = {~I ,
.Ii I,
2$x$0 0<x$2
and g(x) = j(x) + v(x)l. Find g(x).
. {I+X'
3. Let f(x) == 3 _ x,
Find fof.
4. I..etj(X) = ../x+1 andg(x)'" "/Ix . De:;t;ribe0)/+ g(ii)fg(ili)fg(iv) fig.
5. Express the following functions as the composites of appropriate functions:
0<;:x,$2 2<%5"3
(i) y = .Ji.iox
(iv) Y == sin J(x2 4 1)
(ii) )"'" tan (tanx)
(iv) y= J(;i 3x+2)
6. Consider the three functions:
j(x)"'r,g(x)=sinx,h(x)= .r;
Compute:
(I) (gof)ohl (x), (ii) [go(foh) ] (x), (iii) [(fog)ob) (x), (iv) [fo(goh)1 (x).
U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a
3
Limits and Continuity
3.1. INTRODUCTION
In previous chapter, we have discussed functions, types of functions, etc. In this chapter, we intend to study the theory oflimits in order to clarify the concept of continuity which 'Would lay the foundation for the study of differentiability and differentiation. of a function.
lfx,. xl.ate any two members of the domain ora function fso tbatj{x,).
Ax;) are the corresponding values oflhe fUnction, the V(xl) Ax,)! may be large even though Ixl • Xl! is s.rnaJl. We now purpose to study the change 11(~)  ./{x,)1 relative to the change !xl  X,! by introducing the notation of continuity arid discontinuity of a function.
3.2. LIMIT 0FAFUNcnON
. .
Let [be a function defined in a domain which we take for the sake of definiteness to be an interval J. We shall introduce and study the concept of limit ofa function/at a point eEl. Though theconcept oflimil is an abstract one, we shall explain the meaning ont or to have a feel ofit, with the help of examples. First let us understand what do we mean by real value ofx approaches (or tends to) a real number c.
Consider the graph of a straight line y '" x. Let P(:c, y) be any point on the line. Draw PQ perpendicular on.rexis.Then PQ= x(:::c "" y). Now observe that as the pointP approaches the origin 0 along the graph, the length x of the perpendicular keeps on decreasing.
U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a
Limits and Continuity 39
y
Figure 3.1
In fact at origin 0, the length x of the perpendicular becomes zero, In other words, we say that x approaches (or tends to) zero and we write x )0. O.
Por example, consider the function ttx) '" Xl, X eR.
Table 3.1: x tZ rrom left
TabIe3.2:x l> Z.from nlbl
x f(x) x f(x)
2.S 6.25 1.5 2.25
..:2.4 5.76 1.6 2.56
2.3 5.29 1."7 2.89
~2.:2 4.84 1.8 3.24
2..1 4.41 ·1.9 3.61
2.0S 4.20 1.93 3.80
2.04 4.16 1.96 3"84
'2.02 4.08 ·3·2·\ 1 2 345 1.99 }.96
2.001 4.004 Flgure"S.2 1.996 3.996 Here we observe that:
(i) as. x approaches 2 fonn the left of ..:2, the graph ofj(%) "'r approaches the point. (2,.4) and the value orj{%) approaches 4. In this case, we say that left hand limit of/ at % .. 2 exists and is equal to 4. We usc the notation
lim (. )
x)o(2)/X =4
(iI) as x approaches 2 from the right of 2, the graph of j(x) "" x' approaches the point ('2, 4) and the value o(lI:x) approaches 4. In this case, we say
U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ateri a
tlO Differential Calculus
that right hand limit of fat x == 2 exists and is equal to 4. We use the notation
lim
x ~ (2f [(x) "" 4
On the basis of the above discussion, we may informally explain the concept of onesided limits as follows:
l.etj'be Ii function defined on an open interval (ch, c I II), (11) 0). Then, (I) A real number I, is said to be the left hand limit off at c, if for all x sufficiently close 10 C,. on the' left ore, but nOI equal to c, the value offix) can be made as close as desired to the number I. we write
i...H.L. '" Um_ jfx):1
x+<
(;i) A mallUll ber ( is said to be the right hand I imit of f a.t c, if for all x sufficiently close to c, on the right. of c, butnot equal 10 C, the value of j(x) can be made as closeas desired to the number f, we write,
R.H.l ..... lim f(x) == I'
 .1' ....... c
(iii) If I == L, i.e., the left hand limit and the right hand limit offat care equal,
h th ]. '. ff· . d wt . I· limf(x). d
wesayt att e nmt ot: at CCX1Sts an wewnte '" ~+t exists an
equals I (=f). However, if/= r, we say that !~f(x) does not exist.
3.3. ALGEBRA OF LIMITS
Letj'and g be two realfunctionssuch that lim lex) == I and lim g(x) == m
x+u   ..:r+u
then,
(i)
limU + g)(x) "" lim /(x) + lim .g(x) = 1+ m
..(;'0 .r+a .r~a'
i.e., the limit a/the sum a/two [unctio.ns is equal (0 the sum a/their limits.
(ii) lim(J  g)(x) '" .lim f(x)  lim g(x) '" 1 m
x~a ~~d ~~a
i. e., the limit of/he difference a/twa/unctions is equal to the difference
of their limits. .
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"
Um/ts and Cqntinulty 41
(iii)
lim(fg)(x) '" lim f(x}.lim g(x) = l.m
A  •. g _.._.a J~"
i. e., the limit of the product of two functions is equal /0 the product of Iheir limits.
(iv)
lim(f i g)(x) '" lim I(x) + lim g{x) '" 1+ m,(m ~ 0)
.rh~" .1: )It! s'+u
l.e., thelimit of the quotiem a/two/unctions is equal 10 the quotient of t"eir limils provided the limit of the division is 1101 zero.
(v) lim Kf(x) '" K. lim f(x) where K is constant.
X4u ~~u t
(vi)
Iimlf(x)I=llim /(x)I:11I
X.....,Q '~"
(vii)
lim(J(x))G(') = I"
Z....J,O
(viii)
lim /og(x) "" I( lim g(:c») = /(m)
Z..,.D ,.l' ....... u_
(IX) If lim [(:c) "" tal' or 00 then lim __ 1_ '" 0
.... " .• ..... a [(x)
3.4. INFINITE LIMITS AND VARIABLES TENDING TO INFINITY
lim/ex) =00
(I) .x ... o,'
A function/is said 10 be lend io 00 as x tends to c if to any positive number G, however large, there corresponds to a positive number li such that for all values ofx E 1 co [v ]e, e+o (,
j{x»G
(ii) .Iim/(x) =00
cl:'~C
A function/is said 10 be lend to 00 as x tends 10 e if to any positive number G, however large, there corresponds a positive number 0 such that for all values ofx e 1 c I), c [u [c, C ·1· 0 [,.
Jtx)< G
lim /(x) = I
,;t. ...... tID
(iii)
U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"
42
Differential Calculus
A function is said to be tend to I as x tends to <>J if to any given number E> 0 there corresponds G> 0 such that
Ij(x) ~ <: E for aILl'>'C
lim lex) '" I
.( ....... ~,
(iv)
A function is said to be tend to I as x lends to o:l jf to any given number E > 0 there corresponds C > Osuch that
Ij(x)  ~ < E for all x c  G
(v) lim /(x) = o:l
~ .... ..,
A function/is said to be tend to <;(), as x tends to 00, if to any given number tx> 0 there corresponds G > 0 such that
j(x) > .1. foraUx > G
lim [(xl = 00
~, ..... tfOI
(vi)
A function is said to be tend to eo as x tends to  0Xl ifto given 6 > 0 there corresponds G > 0 such that
j(x» 6. forallx<G
3.5.1 Llmf
3.5 EXTENSION OF OPERATIONS ON LIMITS
+;0
,0Xl
+00
3.5.2 Lim If I
I~O
0
+aJ'
3.5.3 Lim Igl
0
+00' Llmg
Llm(f+ g)
+00 +00'
'00 <>J'
+,01) +00'
 ,00  00'
 00 No general conclusion
Lim /g/ Lim Ifg/
+00 + <Xl
+ <Xl No general conclusion
+09 +<0
Llmlllgi
+<0
o
U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"
Limits and Co.ntinuiry 43
3.5.4 Lim If I LIm 191 Lim Iflllgi
/¢O 0 ~'a::
0 0 No general conclusion
/ +00 0
+«l +eo
+00 +,00 No general conclaslcn 3,.,6 LIMITS OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
In order to prove
I· sinx \. lm=. ~ ... o x
We first discuss without proof the behaviour of limit with respect to comparison of functions.
If/and g be two real functions, within the same domain, we say thal/ S8 ifj{x) ::; g{x), for every x in there domain;
Theonm 1: Let/andg be real functions defined on an open interval containing
c such that lim /(x) and limg(x)· both exits. Then
, ~~ ~~c
/ s g ~ lim/(x) s Hm g(x)
.x..tt!' .1"",+,(:
Theorem 2: If/is a function defined on an interval containing c, then lim/(x)", 0 ifand only if lirnlf(x)l= 0 .
x ....... c ' "Jo.C'
Theorem 3: (Sandwich Theorem)
Letf,g and II be real functions defined on an open interval containing c such Ihalf~ g :s II and
1im/(x) = 1= lim h(x), 1 E R
x ...... c X+C
Then lim g(x) exists and is equal to zero.
~;,C"
Assuming these results, we shall now prove some trigonometric inequalities, which are useful to prove the main result staled in the beginning.
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a
44 Differential Calculus
~nx n
.R·/: cos x<,  < I for all 0 <Ixl < 
x 2
Proof' Since
sin( 9). sin9 . d s( 9) n
~~ '"  an co  '" coSo
9 9
It is enough 10 prove the result for positive values of x, l.e., fer 0 <1.1'1< ~ .. 2
1t
In fig 3.1 ., DAB is a triangle with LAOB = x radian and LOAD", "2
radian (=90·). Take a point Con the hypotenuse OBsuch that DC'" ~A. Draw a line CD parallele to AD meeting OA at D. draw the circle with centre 0 and radius OA and note that it passes through C, because OA"'OC. Now, we have,
B
Figure 3.3
Area of I!.OAC < area of sector OAe < area of MOD
I . x . 2 I
::::.  OA.CD < .n.(OA)· < OA. AD
2 2n . 2
:::) CD < x.OA < AD
From I!.ODC , we have
CD "'OCsiru=OA sinx Also, from I!.OAB , we have AD'" OA tanx
Therefore" (I ) reduces to
OA situ < OA.x < OA tanr :::) sinr <x < tanr
Dividing throughout by the positive quantity sinr, we get
... (I)
C"OC=OA)
... (2)
U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a
Limits and Continuity 45
x I
1<<
sinx con
Taking reciprocals, we have
sinx
cosx < _.  < I
x
R.II:I sin xi 'S~xl , holds for all x.
"I(
Pl'Oof.' If 0 s x ::; I < , then by (2), we get 2
Isinxl= 5inx < x 'Slxl
If I 'S x 'S 0, then 0::; x:S: I and so by using (2) again, we get Isinxl= sinx '" sin(x) 'S <x :sI,xj
If'neither of the two cases hold, i.e., ifiXl? I .then Isinxls; 1 'SIxl
Thus in all cases, we have !siml ::; Ixl.
RIII: lim sinx = 0
Proof.' In view of R·n, we have 0::; Isinxl:s: [xl
Since limlxl = 0, it follows from the Sandwich theorem thai lim Isin xl= 0
..(+0 ~_..o
and so lim sinl: = o.
X40
.. x2
RIV: I  2"::; cnsxS: I , holds for all x.
Proof: By R·II, we have
IsinxiS:lxl, for all x
Squaring, we gel
I si n xf2 :>1x!2 , fot all .. t
U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a
46 Differential Calculus
In particular, changing x to ~,we get 2
X x2
sin2  ~ . for allx 2 4
lcosx x2
~ ~::; , for all x
2 4
x2
~ 12 s cosx, for all x.
But cosx~l forallx.
x2
Hence 1~ cosx s J, foraJlx. 2
RV: lim eosx '" I ~+o
Proof: By RIV, we have
x2
JS: cosx s; I. forallx. 2
Therefore, by Sandwich theorem, we get
2
lim cos r e 1 (since lim I~= 1)
.r+O ~ .... o 2
Theorem VI: Let x be measured in radians. Then
1. sinx I IIn=
.' .... 0 x
Proof: By RI, we have
~nx K
cos x < x < I, for all 0 <Ixl < "2
Jrhebcrrechtlich geschulztes "tateri"
Limits and Continuity 47
But by RV, tim cosx =1
~...,.o
Therefore, by Sandwich theorem., we get
I.' sin,r 1 Im=
~ .... o x
Examples
Example I;' Evaluate
lim[__!__ _ 2(2x  3) ] (1) ~>2. x« 2 .xl  .3x2 +2x
. .JI+x./lx (h) hm..c.·~
,...,.0 x
r (2x  3)( Tr  I) (rii) J~ 2xl +x3 .
SOIUI;OIl:
(i) We have,
lim[l 2(2x3) ]; Iim[I 2{2x3) ] ...... 2 x2 x3 Jx2 +2x x ... 2 x2 x(xI)(x2)
.. [xCX  I)  2(2.x I)]
hm .. .
H2. x(x  l)(x  2) .
I, .[ x2 5x+.6 ]
1m' .
...... 2 '. X(X  I)(x  2)·
" [ X3]' I
hm~:
... ..:.2 x(xI) 2
. .' .JI +x  .JI  x lin [../I+X  ./1:; .. ~ + .J]:;]
(Ii) lim . . "'" trn] . . x .J' rrr=
.. , ... 0 .,'1: L .... O x '1 +;r: +...; 1  x
U rheberrec htl lch g~<;c h utztes M ateri a
48 Differential Calculus
_ lim (l+x)_(Ix)  ,,,ox(JI+x +.j)x)
2x
_ lim' _
 x.ox(JI;; +~)
, 2
'" hm r;
< e 0...[J;X +vlx
2
= =1
2
I' (2x  3)(..[;  I) I' (2x  3)(..Ix  I)
(iii) im = im
...... , 2x2+x3 .<+1 (2x+3)(x1)
= lim (2x  3){..Ix  1)
...... 1 (2x + 3)(.Jx  1)( IX + 1)
I' (2x3)
_ 1m I
 ...... 1 (2x+3)(vX +1)
I I
"'=
SxZ \0
, log(1 +x)
E.nm.pie 2: Show that hm '" I
...... 0 x
Stlllllion: Let lomJ + x) '1, then x
log(l+x) '" xy
I +x =e.»'
eXY I =1 x
eXY 1
=> ,y=1 'xy
Urbeberrechtllch gcschutztes Malerial
Limits and Continuity 49
lim 1'=01
.1'~O
lim log(1 +x) = I
XfO X
£I:ampie J: Find each of'the following limits, if they exist.
" 2xJ (i) hm~_._, x+2
2 +3
("") I" X" 11 lm~~
, ~ .... , Ix
S I• (i)" th high inthe exeresai I" 2x I S
o IlIlon:1 x IS e I' est power present In e expression urn , " _ 0
~4_ x+2
we divide each term in the numerator and denominator byx to obtain
{2X I]
I" 2xl I" ;~
1m _. ' =0 .tm _._'
x:":'''';'' x+2 .• .i x 2
"+
.x X
{I]
2'
= lim _______!_ ~_"+I+~
1+0
20
=2
(ii)
" xl+3
x2 is the highest power present in the expression lim   ", So we ,,,. Ix
divide each term in the numerator and denominator by x:2 to obtain
U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a
50 Differential Calculus
{ l+~~l
. 1
lim __ x_
=. ~ ....  I I
. :7; _
Since the numerator tends to a finite nonzero limit x 4<Q while the denominator tends to zero as x tends to x 4 ec
I· x2 +3 d ..
so, im _ oes nOI eXISt. ,Ji~«JI 'lx
Example 4: Evaluate lim eX
Solution: Puly "'x
A S x 4 eo , then y+ +co
Now, for all positivey, 'Ye have
::::) Os eY S 1 __ · (since eY is always positive)
I+y
But lim _1_ = lim [__!2_] '" __!__ '" 0 x ... l+y y+~.'" Ify+y 0+.1
U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ateri a
Umits and Conti.nulty 51
£,·umpfe5: EJ!.amine. lim(x sin x)
..(' ...... o·
Solution:
Case I: Let x > 0
Now,O<x<"lt/2 ::::) sinx>O For 0 < x crt 12, we have
sinx < x ::::) z sin r < x2
Let e be an arbitrarily assigned positive number.
For values of x which are positive and less than .JE, we take x2 <e.
Thus
O<xsinX<E when O<x<.JE It follows that
lim xsinx=O x .... (O+O)
Case 2: Let x <0
Now, 1I:12<x<0 ::::) sinx<O
The values of'the function for Iwo values ofl: which are equal in magnitude but opposite in signs are equal. Hence, as in easel, we see that for any value of
x in the interval ]~,q ,tbe numerical value of the difference betweenxsinx and 0 is less than E. Thus lim xsin x = 0
~+oo
Case 3: Combining the conclusions arrived at in the last two cases, we see that corresponding to any positive number E arbitrarily assigned, there exits
an interval I~, ~[ around 0, such that for any x belonging to this interval, the numerical value of the difference between xsinx and 0 < E i.e.,
jxsinx  01 < E
Thus,
limxsinx '" 0 ... _.c
Example 6: Show thai lim'!_ '" ·COJ , lim .!_ '" 00 and lim'!_ does not
~ .... 0+0 X s: .... (00) X ~ .... o x
exist
U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ateri a
52 tJifferentlal Calculus
SIJllltiml: The funclionj{x) '" I/x is nOI defined for x= o. We write
I Y=. x
Case 1: Let x>O so that j/ is positive. I r G be any positive number takenarbitrarily, then
I/x> G, irO <x < IIG
~ Iim(llx) =00 when x+(O+O)
Case 2: Let x' < 0 so thaty =l/x is negative.
If G be any positive number taken arbitrarily, then llx<G ifIIG <x < 0
~ lim(1 / x) '" 00 when .x ~ (0  0)
Case 3: Clearly when x ~ 0 ,lim(J I x) does not exist .
. Example 7: Find lim (7 x3+ 8xl + Sx  7)
":':.+CD
SOIIlI;o1l: We have 7x3 + 8x2 +Sx7
8 7
Now lim _. '" lim '" 0
• x_'", X x_'...., xl
Also lim xl '" <Xl
:t J:~.gD
It follows that lim (7 xl + 8x2 + 5x 7) '"  <Xl
.J;" ...... gQ
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"
Limits and Continuity 53
Exercise  3.1
I.
. ..Jx I I
Show thai hm  '" ~
_ _ ~""(I+O) X  I 2
2 Show that !~~ cos(l! x) does not exist.
___ . lim [xl = 0 lim Ix]:= 1
3. Show that x.(IO) _ , " .... {I.Or .
_ .. 5x+2 .. . (5x+2)
4. Show Ihat Jim ~ __ = co 11m  '" +co
..... \30) x  3 ' ...... (300) X  3
I'] r (12)
S. Show that i~~'!''' x ·eo +co, .. ~"! x  x '" +co ..
. .. xl +1
6. Find hmr when x tends 10 2,~2, 00,·00. x: 4
x2
7. Given that [(x) '" (xI)(x _ 2) ,show thai
lim [(x) '" 1 =: lim [(x)
~t~ .f ....... ~~
. 1 I
& If [(x) = "2+3, g(x) '" 2+ I show thai
x x
lim I(x) '" OQ", lim g(x)
.TtO .i:+O
9. Show that:
trr=: trrr:
lim vlX +IJ '" 1=; limv(x + I) ",I
.. .,....., x· + J ...... .. x + I
10. Show thai
11. Show that lim(cosecxcotx)=O .1' ....... 0
12 Evaluate
U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h "Illes M aleri"
54 Differential Calculus
I" 1
Im
% .... 1 IIxl
(ii)
lim (Ir  IX 4x 2) (iiQ %4" (x + 8Xx  1)
(iv)
(vi)
I" sinxsina '(vii) rm r: r: .r .... Q '\IX ,va
(viii)
(DC)
lim .J3 sinx ._COSX
~ 1(
l~" x~
6 6
(x)
3 2 . .
I',' x + x  6x + 8 Im
%' .... "', 4x3 + Sx  8
lim ~X2 +xJx x ..... EI,
. e3H sinxe) iLm
..... 0 x
l.sin2x + 3x Jm .
% ... 0 2x + sin 3x
I, le cosx Imx"'x tan2 x
I,cosrnx
(Xl) lim '. • where m and" are fixed nonzero real numbers .
..... 0 lcosm:' .. .  . .
I, .J1d~
(xii) ,1m r::i . . (xiii)
% .. 0 vi + xj ..II + x
, xcos(sinl x)
(xiv) hm . . _ (xv)
. %"'11./2 I  tan(Sln 1 x)
I. X4 16 Im.'42 x2
lim,' (~x + Jx+.rx  .rx)
..ttev
U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv] ateri a
Limits and Continuity 55
3.7. CONTINUITY
Dejlllil;on I. Let/be a real function and let c be any point in the domain off ThenFLS said to be continuous at cif lim [(x) exists and lim/(x) '" [(c)
_I_'C .1 ...... ,.
if a fWlction[is not continuous at a point c, we say that/is discontinuous at c and c is called a point of discontinuity off
Dejlll/tiofl 1. A real function is said to be continuous in an interval (open or closed), ifit is continuous at every point of the interval.
When a function [is considered on a closed interval [a, b], then[ is continuous on [0,. b] means that it is continuous at every pointof[a, b] including the endpoints a and b. By the continuity at the end points a and b of the interval [a., b]. we mean the following:
The function[is said to be continuous at a if
lim f(x) '" f(a)
X~a+
Similarly, the function[is said to be continuous at b if lim l(x)= f(b)
x_'h
3.8. TYPES OF DISCONTINUITY
A [unction is said to be discontinuous at a point if it is not continuous at thai point.
Lelfbe a function defined on an interval L Ifjbe discontinuous at a point PEl, then we say that
(i) Removable Discontinuity
/has a discontinuity of the first kind from the left atp if lim [(x) exists
~_"p
but is not equal to ftp).
(ii) Discontinuity of the first kind:
fhasa disconti.nu.ityofthe first kind from the lefl atp if lim I(x) exists "'OCrO)
but is not equal to .f{p).
I has a discontinuity of the first kind from the right at p if
lim. [(x) exists but is not equal toj(p).
,· .... Cr+O)
U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a
56 Differential calculus
f has a discontinuity of the first kind at p if lim I(x) and '>(1'01
r~t~o) I(x) exists but are unequal. (iii) DiscOntinuity of the second kind:
I has a discontinuity of the second kind from the left at p if lim I(x) does not exist
x_(po) .
f has a discentinulty of the second kind from the right at p if lim I(x) does notexist,
...... (,..0) . ..
jhas a discontinuity of the second kind atp ifneitherof ~~:~o/(x) and lim I(x) exists
.>(,..0) ..'
~ 3.9.
ALGEBRA OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTI0NS
Iff and g arc two continuous real functions. then (i) f + g is continuous
(Ii) f  g is continuous.
(iil) at is continuous, where a is any real number, (iv) Ig is continuous.
1
(v) 7 is continuous, for all x such that I(x) '# 0
(vi) ~ is continuous, for all x such that. g(x) .", 0
3.10. CONTINUITY OF ELEMENTARY FUNCTI0NS
Considerthe polynomial function
I(x) '" oox" +D1X,H + +a~~lx +a"
We know
U rhcberrec htl lch gcsc h utztes M ateri"
Limits and Contlnillty 57
where all (/" denote constant functions and I is the identity function.
Every constant function and the identity function are continuous over R. A rational expression
ooxn + (J'IXIl."l +; ..... ",~+an
g(x) = n· III ..
box +~x + +bn
is continuous for every value of x except for those for which the denominator becomes zero.
Thus, (he domain of continuity of each ofthe functions with function values sinx, COSX, tanr, cotx, seer and cosecr coincides with (he corresponding domain oj definition.
3.11. CGNTINUITY 0F THE INVERSE OF A CaNTINUeUS INVERTIBLE FUNCTION
If/is an invertible continuous function and g denotes its inverse, then g is also continuous.
It now follows that the functions
Y=COI1X, y=sco1x" y=cosec1x are continuous in their domains.
Examples
Example 1: The modulus function given by fex)=lxj:,x E R is continuous at every point of R.
Solution: We have,
Ix •
[(x)'" ~x:
ifx>O if x ",0 if x <0
Let c be any real number. Ifc"'O,then
lim f(x) '" 0 '" lim [(x)
J:_.O.... .t tQ'~
U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a
58 Differential Ctrlculus
_,
'\..
o lim I(x) == 0 = /(0)
:> 0
~ lis continuous at (""0 Ife> 0, then
lim f(x) = e = lim I(x)
"l!4("+ x......,.c'~
=> lim f(x) = c = j(c) (": e > 0)
~\t,.
::::;. lis continuous at c > 0 Ifc<O, then
lim f(x) = c "" lim I(x)
..( • .. ·H.'+ .;I"':h;.~~
=> lim f(x) = c ,;, I(c) (.;. c < 0)
.I'tc' • •
::::;. lis continuous al c < 0
Hence,jis continuous at any real number c.
£t:ample2: Show thaithe logarithmic function given by I(x) '" logx"x e(O,oo) is continuous al every point of its domain.
Solution: Let c be any real point in the domain (0,00) . Then
lim [(x) "" lim logx
~~C" J"~C
: lim. log(e+h) ,~+O
(c>O)
"" l~ rIOgC+l0~1+~)]
: log c + lim loj I +!,_)
k .... O , C
log(H', hie) n h
= logc+ lim .urn e
~_"{1 hie b .... o c
c
U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a
Limits and Continuity 59 ,
"loge
Also,j{e) '" loge. Therefore, limf(x) = I(c). Hence,fis continuous at
J;(
eyery point of (0,00) .
t:'xalllple 1: Show that the greatest integer function is discontinuous atall integral values.
Solution: lei I(x) = [z], x E R Let n be any integer.
lim I(x) '" lim [xl
A:''f,I+ ...... ".
'" lim n e n .t ...... nJ.
lim I(x) = lim. [x]
l"'+,p~ x ....... ,..
= l.im(n~I)=n1
.r+n
Since n ~ n  I for any n, we conclude that the given function is not continuous at fl. Hence it is discontinuous at every .inlegral value,
11 • ihs;3
. Exa.mp/e 4: If f(x) = ax+b, if 3 < x < 5
7 , if 5 s;' x
Determine the values ora and b so thatj{i) is continuous ..
Solution:' The given function is a constant function for all x < 3 and for all x> 5 so it is continuous for all x < 3 and for all x.> 5.
For x =3, we have
lim f(x) := lim I = I
J ... 3~ ~ ... 3
lim f(x) = limax+b =.3a+b
., .... ,J.. .t~]
1(3) = I
U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ateri a
/ 60 DI"e~rrtiBI Calculus
so, for j(x) be continuous at x ~'l, we must have
lim I(x) = lim f(x} " [(3)
x ... ,).... _.:~tl+
=> I ",3a+b For x= S, we have
... (i)
lim f(x) : limarlb '" 50+b
• 90S· ~>i!
lim f(x) = lim 7 '" 7
,x.,.,.'5;+ ~t':S
and f(5) '" 7
. so, forftx) to be cOlJli~ ~t.x "'5, "we must have lim f(x) = lim f(x)
~90S. ~90·S+·
=>Sa+b '" 7
Solving (i) and (ii) we gel a=3andb=S.
... (n)
Exmaple 5: Examine·the rontinuity of the function defined by
at Ihe pobnsx= 0, 1.2. Sollltion: We have
lim f(x)= lim (5x4)=4
.... 0.0 .... O<il
lim f(x) = lim (_x2) = 0
.+lIO .~II·O
lim l(x)"I' lim I(x)
• +0+0 ~>Oo
=> lis not continuous at x= O. Again lim [(x)= lim (4x2  3x) '" I
.... 1.0 .• ~I.O
U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h "Illes M aleri a
Umits and Continuity 61
and
lim f(x) '" lim (5x 4) '" I
x>!o ~olO
Thus lim f(x) = lim f(x) = I = f(l)
~ .T:t'l +0 ..f~I~D
;::;:. fis continuousat.x '" I.
Also. hm lex) '" lim Ox +4) '" 10
   ~ t ;I~~2+0 j".......,,2+O, •
.', lim f(x) = lim f(x) = f(2)
"02 .. 0· " ... 26
Thus/is continuous at x= 2.
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a
,
62 Differential Calculus
Exercise 3.2
I. Examine. the continuity of the following.
{X , if x<; 0
W [(x) =: . " at x = 0
x2, if .r 2: 0
{5X ~ 4 , if x s: 1
(Ii) [(x) == at x= I
. 4xl.3x,ifx>1
(iii) I(x) =J Si:.:. , if.x <; Oat x = 0 lX+1 ,if x2:0
l~ , if x.eO
(iv) [(x) =: I: xl ., at X"" 0
0, if x=o
lx~ sin..!., if.t"le. 0
(v) [(x) = x
o ,ifx=O
atx=O
(vi)
(X2 ~I .
[( ) _  .. _' .. If x. *1 x  x+1
2 , if x =:1
atx=I
(vii)
1 x2x6 .
2 .. , If JC ~ 3
f(x) "" x  2x  3
~ • if x:: 3
3
Isinx +COSX, if X" 0 (viii) f(x) '" . x
5 , if JC:: 0
atx=O
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"
Limits and Continuity 63
.(Ix) f(x)",Jioi~l~i~j' ifx·;.°aIX=O
h ' if x= 0
1· %2
_e __ , ifx¢O
(x) f(x) '" eX. _ I atx '" 0
1 , if x '" 0
2. Examine the limit ofthe functionj(x) as x ) 2 , where
l1X21 ·2
, X~
f(x)= x2
o ,x =2
3. Examine the continuity of the function
.'
f() 12X[X1+.1. X~o
x '" smx
o , x=O
4. A function/is defined on (0. I] as follows:
I I 1
f(x)=~ when 2NI <x:<>2" (n=0,1,2, ...... )
I (1)2 (I)l
Show that/is discontinuous at the points 2' 2 ' 2 , ...... " .. and
examine the nature of discontinuity .
. 5. In each of the following, find tile value of the constant k so thatthe given function is continuous at the indicated point.
(i) I(x) = 1~~2:' if x .. % at x= ~
11: 2
3 if x =
, 2
(ii} I(x) '" {k(X2 + 3x). ~f x < 0
cos2x , If x ~ 0
U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ate,; a
64 Differential Calcq/us
j.J1+kx.JIki 'f I· 0
,1  :!ix<_
OiD f(x)= x
 ')x+l
_::____~ if O:<=':x:<=.:l
x2 ,   
6. Find the values of a and b so that the fimctionj{x) defined by
f(x) == 2xcotx +b
acos2xbsinx, if '::'sx:<=':n 2
x+a/i sinx
,if 0 s x <.::.   4
1t 1t
, if :!ix:!i
4 2
becomes continuous on [O,n]
7. Show that the function/given by
f(x) =lxl+1x II, x E R is continuous both. at x = 0 and x = I,
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes Iv! ateri a
4
Derivatives
4.1. INTR0DUCTION
To find the equation of tangent to a curve ar a specific point was one of the most important problems in mathematics .. It was quite easy for circles because the tangentis just a perpendicular to the raius at that point Even for parabolas, ellipses and hyperbolas, the standard equations of tangents were avai lab Ie. So in this case the problem was nOltha! difficult But the real difficulty
was seen with curves having complicated graphs like y = xl, yl '" xl etc.
There was one more problem that of the path in which planets were. revolving round the sun. After many years of watching, the sky. Keiper concluded that the plantes are moving round the sun in elliptic orbits. Though it was quite a major breakthrough, Keiper could not give a logical reasoning for his claim.
Newt.on settled the problem of orbits of planets mathematically while Leibnilz settled the problem of tangents. Both. of them independently invented 'Differential Calculus', one using physical approach and the other using geometric approach. Today, anyone who is well familiar with the methods of calculus can very easily explain it convincingly.
4.2. DERIVABILITY AND DERIVATIVE
Consider a function/with some domain D. lei 'c' be an interior point ofD. Take another member (c + h) of the domain which lies 10 the right or len or c (i.e, c + h > cor, c + h < c) according as h is positive or negative.
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes Iv! ateri a
66 Differential Calculus
The values of the function correspond 10 C lind c + h arej{c) andj{c+h) respectively, Now, h, is the change in x and·j(c oJ.. Ii} ·j{c) is the corresponding change inj(x).
OcflnU.ion: A functionfis said to be derivable at c if,
lim f(c+h)f(c)
It .... o Ii
exists and the limit is called the deriv.tivc of the function at c and is denoted by /'(c) the functionfis said to be finitely derivable at c if the derivc.ive at c is finite.
Right. Hand Derivative:
If II·m f(c+Ii) f(c) . . Iledth "' ... h dd .' ..
It  .h exiSts, IS ca   e r'li"t an erfvattve at c
.... (OtO) .
and is denoted by /(c+o) or RJ'{c).
Left Hand Derivative:
. f(c+Ii)f(c)
If It 11m..  h exists, is called the left hand deri.vative at c and
~(o~o)
is denoted by/(c 0) or L/(e).
So,fis derivable al C if/(C+o) and/(~o) both exists and are equal.
Examples
Example}: Show that the function f(i) =: x2 is derivable. for z = 1. Solution: Now, f(x) '" x2
::::;> f(l) '" 12 = 1
~ [" (.x) '" f(1 + Ii)  f(I).
Ii
1+2h+li2 I Ii
"'2+h (":h '"' 0)
=> limf(l+h) [(I) =2
" .... 0 h
U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utzt~s Iv! ateri a
DerilllJ,lWJs 67
=>/(1)=2
Therefore.j'is derivable at I and the derivative r (I) is 2.
£:~ampl~ 2: Show that I(x) "'Iii is not derivable at O. Solution:
f(x) "'Ixl
=> f(h) = h if h » 0
ca h if/I <0
:. f(O+h) f(O) = f(h) = !!. = 1
h h h
h
= =1 ifh<O h
ifh>O
Thus,f(O + 0) '" I and f(O  0) = I
Now, f(O + 0) and f(O 0) are not. equal.
So/(O) does not exits and the function is not derivable at O.
Example 3: Letfbe defined by setting I(x) =Ix llt:lx + 11., for all x E R .
Show that Cis not derivable .at the points x: I andx '" 1 and is derivable at every other point.
Solution.
We know,
{xI ,ifxl~O Ix  11= (x _ 1), if xI < 0
{X+I ifx+l ~o
Ix+ll'" ..'
(x+I), ifx+1 <0
If x + 1 < 0 and x  I < 0 , then, f(x) =Ix 11+lx+ Ii
U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h (jutes Iv! ateri"
68 Differential Calculus
= (x I) +[(H I)] = 2x
Ifx+I;;>:O and xI<O
then, [(x)=(xI)+(x+l) =2
Ifx+l~oand x+l>O then, J(x) '= (x I) +(x + I) =2x
Thus,
now. the right hand and left hand derivatives at x '" I and x '" I is
R[,(I) '" lim [(I+h) [(I)
h>(O+O) h
, 22
= hm ~=O h_"(O~O) II
L['(I): lim [(Ih)[(I)
h .... (OO) II
. 2(1  II)  (2)
'" hm
b .... (O+O) h
=2
Here, Jlf'(I) ~ L['(I), Therefbre.j'is not derivable at x "'\ Again.
Rj'(I)= lim [(I+h)f(l)
ho(O 0) h
I' 2(I+h)2
: 1m
h .... (O"I) h
0<2
L[,(I) = lim [(111)[(1)
/' .... (00) h
Urhcbcrrechtlich gcs hutztes ~la\cria
Derivatives 69
'"' lim 22 _(00) II
=0
Since Rf'(l) * Lf'(l) ,Iherefore/is not derivable at X" I.
Exercise  4. 1
I. Letjbe defined on R bysetting
e1h_ e11 .•
lex) =:c lJ. 11.:r' if % ... 0
e . +e .
/(0) = 0
Show that/is not derivable at % '" 0 ..
2 Find the derivatives for the given values of x if
(i) l(x)=4x23x+5 for %=3/2
(u) lex) = I! x for x " 3
(iii) /(x) " V; for x = I
(iv) f(x) == II";; for x = I
(v) I(x):; x'  3 fOT X " 2
U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M ateri a
70 Differential calculus
4.3. DERIVED FUNCTION
Let/be a function with domain [a, b). Suppose/is a finitely derivable at every point of la, b[ and also the righthand and lefthand derivatives exist finitely al a and b respectively.
Thus, we have another function by f such thatf(x) denotes the derivative of/ For x e{a,b). The functionj" is called derived fUnction. The derived function/is given as follows:
: == f'(x), r E[a,b)
Anotber Notation of derived function. Consider a derivable function/. letj(x)=y
Let x be a member oftbe domain off
Usually, I:u: denotes the change in x in palce of h. y= /(:~)
::) y + ~y == f(x +: I:u:)
::) toy == !(x +6x) f(x)
::) ~y := ~!..:..(x_+_I:u:......!..) _ ~f..!..(x.~)
I:u: I:u:
Taking, limits ofbotb sides as i.x ~ O. we get
I, toy u .._!..!..(x_+_I:u:,}:......_;;f....:,(x....::.,)
Im== Irn
ru,>o I:u: &+0 I:u:
:::) lim fly = f'(x) ru>O I:u:
The derivatives at c is in terms of this notation, is denoted by
(:l.c so that we have f'(c)= (:J ...
J rheberrcc htl ieh geSG h utztcs M aicrla
Der.ivatives 71
4.4. DERIVAB1LlTV AND CONTINUITY
Th~orem. Iflis finitely derivable at c, then lis also continuous at e.
Proof. Sincelis derivable at c, therefore,
. f(c+h)f(e) .
lim h . exists and equals /'(e).
h~O
Now,
/,(c+h) fCc) = l(c+11 f(c) «h ::::;.Iim[/'(c+h) I(c)] = limf. f(c+h) I(c) x h]
h~O h~~ h
I' I(c+h.)f(c) 1' (h)
"'_Im· . __ . x 1m
h~O h ... ~o
=/'(c)xO=O
::::;'lim/(c+h) '" ICc)
/HoO . _ .
::::;.limj(x) '" I(c)
x ... c
=> I is continuous at c.
Examples
Bxampt« .I: Show that I(x) '" x21.x1 is derivable at the origin, Soilltlon:
We have, I(x) :=:%2Ixl
{xl, if""?. 0
~I(x)'" l.
x , ifx <.0
LI'(O)= lim 1(%)/(0)
.{4(00) xO
U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h (jutes M ateri"
72 Differential Calculus
_xJ lim  x>(O~O) x
=0
R['(O) = lim [(x) [(0)
..... (0+0) x  0
= 0
:. L['(O) = Rf'(O)
~ [is derivable at the origin.
ExQmple 2: Show that the function defined by
[(x):: J) +:1/. ,x .. 0
lo ,x =0
is continuous at x=O but not derivable at that point.
Solution.
We have,
[(0+0) =0 lim ;,
..... 0.01 + e x
=0
[(00):: lim ;,
x .... O~O 1+ e x
==0 Also /(0):: 0
:. /(0+0) =: /(00) = [(a)
~ fis continuous at x = o. Again,
/'(0+0)= lim [(x)f(O)
A .... O .. O xo
Jrnebcrre<;htlich gcschu\ztes Maleria
Derivatives 73
_X __ o .. lim l+e'/X
.<40.0 X
I" I
= 1m _
x+O+O 1+ e"x
=1
/,(0  0) '" lim [(x)  [(0)
"000 xo
_X __ o l+e'1z
_ lim ''=
 .<>00 X
I. I
= 1m .• __ 00 1+ e"x
=0
Since ['(0+ 0) "" ['(0 0). the derivable ofJ(x) at x = 0 does not exist, Example J: Show that the functionf defined by
f(x) =Ix  21+lxl+lx + 21
'is not derivable at x .:::  J , 0 and J.
Soilition. We have •
. 1(XI)X(X+I)=3X. x<I
. (xI)x+(x+I)=x+2, 1~x~O
[(x) =
." (xJ)+x+(x+I)=x+2. O$x<1
. (xl)+x+(x+l) =3x • x z l
1'(1+0)= lim f(x)f(I)
..... ~ ... o x+1
" x+23
= 11m
",01+0 x + J
.::: lim (x+l) xoI+O x+ I
'" I
Urheberrechtlich qeschutztes ~la\eria
74 Differential Cslculus
f'(JO)~ lim /(x) /(1)
, >>10 x + I
. 3x3 '" 11m ,f>ID X + 1
= 3
: /'(1 +0) ~ /,(10)
:. lis not derivable at x= I. Again,
1'(0+0)= lim f(x)f(O)
x ... o+o X  0
= 'lim x+22
..... 0+0 x
=1
/,(00)::: lim f(x) /(0)
,.>00 xO
x+22 =·lim
.000 x
=  J
Since /'(O+O)~·1'(OO). therefore/is not derivable at x = O. Also,
1'(1+0) '" lim I(x) f(l)
:<+1+0 X  J
I, 3x3
= Im..... 1+0 xI
"'3
f' (1 0)::: lim f(x)  1(1)
,. ..... 10 xI
I, x+23 = 1m .... 10 x J
Urbeberrechtlich gcschutztes Malerial
=1
/,(1 +0) ~ f'(IO)
~ fis not derivable at x = I.
Example 4: Discuss the derivability oflhe function
•
11+X , x~ I
x ,O<x<l
[(x) '" .
2x ,lSxS2
3x_xl, x>2
atx=O, I and 2.
Solution.
We have,
/,(0+0)= lim [(x) [(0)
~ ... o+o xO
['(00):: lim [(x) J(O)
..... 00 xO
I'. l+x1 = 1m ~~oo x
=1
Since /,(0+ 0) ~ 1'(0  0), therefore,fis not derivable at x = O. Again,
J'(I +0):: lim f(x) J(I)
.1+1+0 xI
2x1 :: lim .roI+O xI
=1
Derivatives 75
rlrhcberrcchtllch geschutltcs ~Iatcri"
76 Differential Calculus
/'(1 0) == lim lex)  /(1)
x .... 10 xI
xI = Iim..... IoxI
=1
Since /'(1 +0) ;;f" /'(1 0) , therefore,fis not derivable at x ~ I. Also,
1'(2+0)= lim /(x)/(2)
...2+0 x2
. 3xx20
11m
.. >2+0 x2
1'(20)= lim I(x) 1(2)
..... 20 x2
2x0 = lim
" ... 20 x2
'"'I
Since, I' (2 + 0) ;t /' (2  0) , therefore,fis not derivable at x =2.
Example 5: If I(x);:: x2 sin(11 x) when x ¢ 0 and f(O) == 0, show thatfis derivable for every value ofx but the derivative is not continuous for zero.
SO/lIlion.
When %oCO, /'(X)=2xSin~+x2co{;X x12)
2 . 1 1
= .xsmcos
.x x
When x = 0, we have
Jrhebcrre<;htlich geschu\ztes 'Iateria
Derivatives 77
2 . I [(x) 1(0) '" ~ sm~
xo x
. I "'xsmx
=> /,(0) =: 0
Thus the function possesses a derivative for every value of x given by
/'(x) '" 2xsin..!_~s2., when x;t 0, /,(0)= o.
x x
Now, we show that! is not continuous for x= 0 We write
1 2 . J (2 . I 1)
cos =: XSlD XSIn  C05
X X X x
We have, :~( . I)
!~2xsm~ =0
In case '.im f' (x) had existed it would follow ffom(i.) that lui cos..!.)
%+0' ,." ' ........ ~ r
would also exist.
But this is not the case. Hence !~/'(x), does not exist so thatf is not continuous for x = o.
, U rheberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes Iv! ateri a
78 Differential Calculus
Exercise  4.2
I. Show thai the function/defined by I(x) =1lx  21+lxl+lx + 21
is not derivable at x "" 2, 0 and 2,
2. Examine the function/where
x(e~lr, _ ell.}
I(x) '" Ih· 1/< • X >t 0 e +e
=0,
as regards continuity and derivabllity at the origin.
3. If f(i) = X 21>+ I sin(ll x) ,when X¢ 0 and /(0) '" 0, show that r is continuous at x '" 0 but nOI derivable at x "" O.
4. Show that if /(x) =Ixl+lx II, the function/is continuous for every value ofx but not derivable for x '" 0 and x = I.
S. Discuss the, continuity and derivability of the function.
lx, x c I
I(x)= 2x, 1::;x:52
3+3xx2, x>2
atx= .1,2.
6. Show that the function
f(x) = x{ I + ~Sin(IOgXl)} ; for .x;t 0, f(O) = 0 is everywhere continuous but has no derivable at x '" O.
7. Examine for continuity atx = a, the function/where
x2 ~a. a
/(x)= 0
x '" a
O<x<a
a<x
Also examine if the function is derivable at a.
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M ateri a
Derivatives 79
r ~
a Find the deri v ative of/where 1(.1:) '" ~I~X_, when x ~ Oand 1(0) == 0 x
and show that the derivative is continuous at x '" 0,
9. Examine the continuity and derivabilit)' in the interval ] oo,c:rJ[ of the function defined as follows:
/(x) = 1 in jc:rJ,O(
'" I +sinx in f'n
: 2+(xiY in ]i,oo[
10. Show that the function I(x) = ~Ix  21+51x31 for all xe R is not derivable at x "" 2 andx = 3.
U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! aleri"
80 Differentisl Calculus
4.5. GEOMETRICAL INTERACTION OF A DERIVATIVE
Consider two points I'[c,fic)] and 2(c+h,fic+h)] on the eurvej = fix). Draw the ordinates PL, QM and draw PN1MQ.
y
FIgure 4.1
We have, PN = LM= II and NQ =MQ.LP
... }(c+h) j{c)
:. tan LXRQ== tan LNPQ
= NQ
PN
j(c+h) j(c)

II
... (1)
Here, LXRQ is the angle which the chord PQ o·fthe curve makes with:laxis ..
As h approaches 0, the point Q moving along the curve approaches the point P, the chord PQ approaches the tangent line TP and ORQ which we denote by 1jI. On laking limits, the equation(i) gives
tan lJI == f'(c)
Thus f'(e) is the slope of the tangent to the curve y '" }(:I) at the point P[e,J(c)J.
The slope oj the tangent at a point of a curve is also known as the Gradiclil oj the curve at the poin;
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes Iv! ateri a
DerivBtives 81
4.6. DIFFERENT.IAL ANI;) DIFFERENTIAL CO~ EFFICIENT
Let a Functionf be differentiable in fa. hJ. Let .x e[a,b 1
We write, y '" j(x)
. I· 6y f'()
Now,when ~~4 0, .. rm ~ "'.X
So that, ::. differs from I'(x) by a variable which tends to zero when ·fix +0
We write,
t.Y""f'(X)+CI. 6x
0. t.y:=. f'(x)fix +a1u:
!'(x)llX is more significant than that of u6x in that oAr is the product oftwo variables cr. and t.x each of which tends to zero. The part j'(x)t.x is called the differential ofy and is denoted by dy.
:. dy = /'(x)t.x
When f(x) ",. x,f'(x) .'" 1 ., dx '" I x!u= t.x
Thus, we have
dy =f'(x)dx
While fly denotes the increment iny, dy stands for the differential ofy. The derivative f' (x) being the coefficient of the differential dx is also known as differential coefficient.
4.7. KINETIC INTERPRETATION OF A DERIVATIVE
In practice, velocity at an instant is calculated by measuring the distance' traveled in some short interval of time subsequent to the instant under consideration. This manner of calculating the velocity cannot clearly be
U rheberrec hit lch gesc h utztes M ateri"
82 Differential Calculus
considered precise, fOT different measuring agents: may employ differential intervals for the purpose. In fact, this is only an approx:imate value of the actual velocity, The smaller the interval, the better is. of course, the approximation to the actual velocity.
The precise meaning of the velocity ora moving particle alany instant can only be given by employing the notation of derivative which we do in the following.
E.'<pr6sion for veloc;ty. The motion ora particle along a straight line is analytically represented by an equation of the fonn
s = f(t)
where 's' represents the distance of the particle measured from some fixed
point 0 on the line at time t.
Let P be the position of'the particle at any time 't, Let Q be it's position after some interval AI.
Let PQ=.As
. . '. . /(1+61)/(1). . As tis
VelOCIty at time, t = hm '" hm = 
~+o I!J ~+O AI dI
Expression for acceleration. Let V be the velocity at time' t' and &\1 be the velocity after some short interval of time AI .
&\1
The ratio At is the average acceleration during this interval 6J and is an
approximation to the actual acceleration at time t. Thus, we can define the measure of acceleration at time t as
. &\1 d» hm=~~O &1 dt
4.8. [!)ERIVATIVE OF A CONSTANT Fl,INCnON
Consider a constant function y:= c for all x eR
where c is a given number.
We have, &y = ~:= 0
AT Ax
U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h (jutes M ateri"
Derivatives 83
:. dy '" lim 6y dx AI ..... O/u
"0 forallxeR
Thus, the derivative cf a constant [unction is the zero Junction which is
a/so a constant June/ion. .
4.9. ALGEBRA OF DERIVATIVES
4.9.1. Derivative of y = CU, where C Is a constant and u Is any derivable function of x.
Now.y~c(u)
:::) y+.1.y = c(u+.1.u) :::) 6y '" c(u+.1.U)CII .. c . .1.u
6y .1.11
:::)=c.
!J.r lu
Taking limit of both sides as 6x ~ 0, we have
lim. 6y = lim c . .1.u
AI ..... O /u .1J' .... 0 lu
dy du
:::)=c.
dx dx
d(cu) du
:::) ~= c.
dx dx
4.9.2. i!Jerivatlve of the sum or difference of two functions:
Let II and v be two derivable function of x. We wrile,y= II + v
Then ~= lim [(u+lt.u)+('V+6v)](u+v)
dx ~>O 6x
clrheberrechtllch geschutzles Materia
84 Dlfferentisl Calculus
I· flu I' flv "" lm+ unru.., 0 t:.x ru 00 Ax
du dv
=+
dx dx
d dll dv
Thus (u+v).=+
'dx dxdx
Similarly. we can write
d du dv (IIV)=dx dx dx
4.9.3. Derivative of the product of two functions:
Lety = u. v. where both u and \> are derivable function ofx. Then y+Ay=(u+Au)(v+Av)
Therefore, Ay:o (u+llu)(v+Av)u.v
=u.Av+v.Au+Au.Av
Th~s. ely '" lim .. Ay '" lim r II.Av + v.AII + AU.AV]
.1 dx ru+O Ax ru ..... q_ Ax
. J 8\> Au Au ]
= hm II.+v.+.Av
A...... &c &c Ax.
I. Av I' t.v I' t.u I'
,., 1m U.+ 1m V.+ 1m . 1m Av ruoO llx 6. ..... 0 Ax A.~ __ O Ax l\.I+O·
dv du du t:
= u.+v.+.O dx dx dx
d ttv dll
Hence (u. v) '" 11. + 1'.
'dx dx dx
Note: Derivative oj the product of two functions = First junction x derivative oj the second fimction + second function s; derivative oJ the first function.
Urheberrcchtllch geschutztes ~Iateri"
Berivstives 85
4.9.4. Derivative of a Quotient:
Let u and v be two derivable functions of x and v(.\') ~ 0 .
We write, u
y=v
u+ll.u Therefore Y + ay = ~ ~_. ,  v+av
~ A~ .u+fl.u 1/ =u.)I"'v+av v
=
v.all 1/. av
v(v +av)
1:1. lim v,au lim u.fl.\>
= limY = Ar~O .. . .1':,,0
o1x~O~ v.lim(v+l!.v)
b.<~O ~ ~
du dv
V,I/.
=~= dx dx
dx v2
du dv
( ) V.u.
Thus,!!_ !! = d:c dx
~.dx V v2
4.10. DERIVATIVE OF y= X"
Let y == x" , where x is any integer,
Therefore, )1+ Ay == (x + l1x)"
=l1y '" (x + litt x"
Il.y (x+l1x)"x"
= _ = ''
lit (.X+ Il.x)  x .
. ay '. [(X + ll,x)"  XI!]
= hm  == hm _ "_~'
o1x~O l1x .\<~(I (x + Iir) x
U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h (jutes Iv! ateri"
86 Differential Calculus
d
Thus, ix(x") = flXltl
for all x e R andfora11 x eN.
4.11. DERIVATIVE OF Y = eLet y= If
Therefore, y + Ily= eH4z. => !J.y = 1f+4z  e~
!J. n4z ~
=> lim _~_ = lim _e_··__e_
4z+0!J.Jc 4>'+0. !J.Jc
=eIJ=eI
4.12. DERIVATIVE eF y = tY
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes Iv! ateri a
I'ly QUAr a~
::>"'
lu lu
I'l. .x+Ar J
::> lim 1= lim a a .
. <1:1' .... 06% t.i .... o 6%
. z .Ar
~ dy :: lim a (a  I)
. dx ,..:. .... 0 I'lx
... I' a ..... I =a 1m ......... 0 Ar
[ , aJ _I ]
=az log a .: hm· = log, a
• zol) X
d" "
Thus (a ) = alog.a , fix"
4.13. DERIVATIVE OF Y= I09.X
Let. y :: log. :r ,
::> y+l'ly = log. (x + I'lx)
::> I'ly '" 10g.(x + I'lx) log. x
10g.(x+6%)
lly x
~ _ = _>. __ .<...
I!.x I!.x
::> dy '" lim (I + Ax I x) x .!.
dx ..... >0 llx I x x
=.!. [.: lim 10g.(I+.x) = I]
x " ... 0 x
Derivatives 87
U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a
88 Differential Calculus
d I
Thus (Jog Xl",
'dx e" X
4.14. DERIVATIVE OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
(i) Derivative of sinx
Let y == sin x ,
~ y + 6.y = sin(x + 6.x)
~ 6.y == sin(x + 6.x)  sin x fly sin(x + 6.x)  sinx
:::)  = ''
6.x 6.x'
2cos(2X+6.x) , 6.x  Sln
~ lim fly = lim 2 2
ru>o 6.x ru .... o 6.x
dy I' {2X+6.x) I' sinllx/2
:::)  == 1m co _, 1m 
dx rutO 2 6.< .... 0 6.x 12
[.; lim sinllx 12 '" IJ
= (cosx).J ru .... o 6.x 12
== cosx
Thus, ! (sinx) = c:osx forall x E R
(Ii) Derivative of cosx Let y = cos x ,
:::) y + fly", cos(x + 6.x)
:::) fly == cos(x + 6.x)  cosx
2 . (2X+6.x) . 6.x by  sin 2 .sm2
:::) : > __ "
6.x 6.x
Jrhcberre<;htlich gC5chutztC5 Materia
Derlvstives89
. I' ~. Y.. I' , (2X+~)·. sinM/2
=> 1m '" 1m Sin  .
,1..+0 tu: 4r40 2 lui 2
I., . (2.1" + lu) I' sin & 12
'"' Imsm . Im·
4r .... O 2 6>.0 m 12
~dy '" (sinx).1 dx
'" +sinx
Thus !!_(cosx) '" sinx , dx
forall x eR
(iii) Derivative of tanx Let y'" Ian x ,
::::) y+lly = tan(x + Ax)
=> lly = tan(x + ax)  tanx
sin(x + Ax) sin x
=> ~y '" cos{x + Ax) co,S x
tr.x tr.x
sin(x + At)cosx  cos(x + At).sinx Ax.cos{x + Ax). cos x
I tr.Y I
;:::) Im~= im
"" ... 0 tr.x lu""O Ax.cos(x + ru:).cosx
sin(x+Axx) ,
dy l' sinAt I'
::::)= Im. Im
dx lu>O Ax 6> .... 0 cos(x + tr.x)_cosx
cos x, cos x
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a
90 DlfferentIsI Calculus
d 1
Thus, dx (tanx) =: sec: x
for all x e R  {(2n+ I)i;n e I} (iv) Derivative or eotx l...ety=cotx,
:. y + 6y =: cot(x+ 6x)
= 6y =: cot(x +Al")  cat x
= 6Y=J....[COs(X+6x) _ cosx] 6x 6xsin(x+6x) sin x
::::> 6, ,v,. =:_1_, [, Sinx.COs(X.+Ax)COS~.Sin(X+6x)]
6x 6x SU1(X + iU).snlX
6y sinx(xx6x)
::::>  = ""'_
6x Ax.sin(x + Ax). sin x
, I' 6y _ I' sin(6x) J'
::::> 1m _ 1m • 1m 
<1.1 .... 0 ax <1.1 ... 0 6x <I.I+osin(x + 6x).sin x
1
= _ 2
sinx.sinx  cosec x
,d 2
Thus, dx (cou) =: eosee x
foral! .x e R  {mt;n e I} (v) Derivative of sea
Let y =: sec.x.
:. y + .Ay =: sec(x + 6x)
::::> Ay .:: sec(x + ax)  9CC.X
,6y ) [I, I 'J.
=:> '"  ",'  _
, ax Ax c cos(x + Ax) cou:.
U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.