… how do we gain a better understanding of the earth’s internal forces and the deformation that results?

Earthquakes
rapid release of energy due to vibration of earth along faults

Earthquakes
reasons for studying earthquakes
avoid destruction  information about the Earth’s interior

Earthquakes avoid destruction:  trigger mass wasting events .

San Fernando quake.Earthquakes avoid destruction:  collapsed parking structure -. 1971 .

Earthquakes avoid destruction:  collapsed buildings -.Niigata. 1964 .

Earthquakes information about Earth’s interior:  displacement on faults: San Andreas .

so … what process is involved during motion along a fault plane and the release of earthquake energy? .

Earthquake Movement elastic/brittle behavior:  instant deformation (small) and recovery  if strength exceeded.generally upper crust.slow permanent deformation  high P and T -. failure (rock breaks)  low P and T -. except in cold parts of crust [subduction]  plastic/ductile behavior: .generally mid-crust or deeper. except in cold parts of crust [subduction] viscous flow .

snapping back toward unstrained position  releases elastic energy as seismic waves radiating outward from break .Elastic Rebound Theory   strain builds up until elastic limit (strength) of rock is exceeded rock ruptures (fails).

so … how do we describe the location of rock failure along fault planes? .

location focus .Rock Failure or origin of initial failure from which energy released (hypocenter) .

Rock Failure epicenter location on Earth’s surface directly above focus (geographic location) .

foci between 70 and 300 km depth deep focus -.Earthquake Categories about 90% of earthquakes have depths <100 km grouped into three categories based on foci depth: shallow focus -.foci greater than 300 km .foci less than 70 km depth (most destructive earthquakes) intermediate focus -.

… what is the nature of energy released by rock failure along fault planes? .

Seismology study of energy propagation through earth  subdiscipline within geophysics  .

Seismic Waves energy released by earthquake travels through Earth speed of energy (or seismic wave) depends on density and elasticity of materials through which it travels two general types of seismic earth waves: body waves surface waves .

increasing rock density primary (P) waves shear/secondary (S) waves .Body Waves speed increases .increasing rock elasticity rock elasticity increases faster than density with depth two kinds of body waves: speed decreases .

liquid and gas .high velocity compressional -.push-pull movement parallel to direction of wave movement can travel through solid.primary waves P-Waves first arrivals -.

P-Waves .

low velocity vibrate perpendicular to direction of wave movement only travel through solids (not liquids) . also secondary waves] second arrivals -.S-Waves shear waves [S.

S-Waves .

shaking motion causes most earthquake damage two major types: travel along outer layer of Earth slowest seismic waves love (L) waves rayleigh (R) waves .Surface Waves associated rolling.

Surface Waves love (L) waves: involve shear motion in horizontal plane most destructive kind of seismic wave .

Love Waves .

Surface Waves rayleigh (R) waves: elliptical motion like ocean waves generally slower than love waves .

Rayleigh Waves .

Seismic Waves .

…how are seismic waves used to locate earthquakes? .

Instrumental Observations seismoscopes earliest instruments designed to detect earthquake did not provide any written record of earthquake .

Instrumental Observations seismographs instruments which detect. measure and record seismic waves .

Instrumental Observations seismographs old instruments movement recorded on rotating paper or magnetic tape strip (seismograms) modern instruments record data electronically .

Locating Earthquakes

seismograms show that P waves always arrive first at recording station followed by S, and finally surface waves (L before R)

Locating Earthquakes
difference in arrival time of P and S waves proportional to distance from focus

Locating Earthquakes
time-distance graphs give distance to focus, but not direction

Locating Earthquakes distances from 3 or more seismographs yield unique solution .

…how are the effects of earthquakes quantified? .

Earthquake Intensity described based on: amount of energy released by earthquake duration of shaking distance from the epicenter focal depth of earthquake type of rock and degree of consolidation population density type of building construction .

described using: Mercalli scale (1-12)  each category has specific definition of damage  qualitatively links earthquake power to effect on buildings  .Earthquake Intensity subjective measure of earthquake's destructive power (size and strength) and reaction to it.

Earthquake Intensity Mercalli scale 1 not felt except by a very few under especially favorable circumstances 2 felt only by a few people at rest. like heavy truck striking building. especially on upper floors of buildings. outdoors by few. but not recognized as earthquake 4 during day felt by many indoors. cars rocked noticably . especially on upper floors of buildings 3 felt quite noticably indoors.

considerable damage to poorly built structures. run outdoors. considerable damage in others. chimneys and walls collapse. chimneys broken.Earthquake Intensity Mercalli scale 5 felt by nearly everyone. heavy furniture overturned . felt in cars 8 damage slight in specially designed structures. plaster or chimney damage slight 7 everyone runs outdoors. plaster cracked 6 felt by all. heavy furniture moved. many frightened. dishes and windows broken.

ground cracked. masonary and frame structures destroyed. ground badly cracked. objects thrown upward in air . bridges destroyed. rails bent.Earthquake Intensity Mercalli scale 9 damage considerable. building shifted off foundations. pipelines broken 10 wooden. waves seen on ground surface. broad fissures in ground 12 damage total. if any masonary structures remain standing. landslides 11 few.

…so what is meant by earthquake magnitude? .

Earthquake Magnitude quantitative measure of earthquake energy released at source described by Richter scale .

6] based on amplitude of seismic waves  base 10 logarithmic scale  each integer is ten-fold increase in wave amplitude .30 times as much energy .Earthquake Magnitude Richter scale  open-ended scale from 1 up [highest recorded 8.

6 (1964 Alaska earthquake) .5 magnitude 6 earthquake = 1 Megaton nuclear bomb largest recorded earthquake = magnitude 8.Earthquake Magnitude most earthquakes have magnitude less than 2.

Earthquake Magnitude assigned based on: measurement of size (amplitude) of seismic waves distance from epicenter magnitude decreases with distance from source sensitivity of seismograph .

0 magnitude) occur on average every 5 years .Earthquake Magnitude largest earthquakes (>6.

where are earthquakes most common? … .

Frequency and Distribution more than 150.000 earthquakes too small to be felt or recorded as separate events occur annually .000 earthquakes strong enough to be felt by someone recorded annually worldwide additional 900.

Frequency and Distribution 95% of all earthquakes in seismic belts along plate boundaries where stresses occur from plate movement circum-Pacific belt Mediterranean-Asiatic belt 5% within plates New Madrid 1811-1812 .

Frequency and Distribution enormous pressure is built up at convergent and transform plate boundaries .

Frequency and Distribution pressure ultimately relieved as earthquakes may occur in clusters as plates shift position .

plate interactions .Frequency and Distribution   coincidence of active volcanic belts with major belts of earthquake activity volcanoes and earthquakes may have common cause -.

…a special relationship in convergent margins .

Benioff Zones pattern of increasing earthquake focal depths at convergent plate margins .

Benioff Zones earthquake foci mark descent of subducting lithospheric plate .

… what are the effects of earthquakes? .

Earthquakes always followed by series of smaller earthquakes (aftershocks) further adjustment of rock along fault .

Earthquakes approximately 13 million people have died as result of earthquakes during past 4.000 years .

Earthquake Effects destructive effects depend on: earthquake magnitude distance from epicenter time of day geology of area type of building construction duration of shaking .

Earthquake Effects most destructive earthquakes occur during work and school hours in densely populated areas hazards include: ground shaking fire land movement ground failure tsunami .

Ground Shaking causes most damage and loss of life buildings on bedrock move as unit with ground and suffer lower damage .

Ground Shaking worst damage to buildings on poorly consolidated material or water-saturated sediment .

Ground Shaking
amount of structural damage depends on:
earthquake magnitude intensity and duration of vibrations underlying geology design of the structure (materials and type of construction)

Ground Shaking
design of structure (materials and type of construction)

adobe and mudwalled structures weakest unreinforced brick and concrete buildings have no flexibility and tend to collapse

Ground Shaking
nature of material supporting foundation also determines how much damage occurs

poorly consolidated material subjected to longer shaking and greater S-wave amplitudes water-saturated sediments behave like fluids and flow when shaken (liquefaction)

Fire Great Lisbon earthquake severed gas and water lines can lead to devastating fires more dangerous than earthquake itself .

Land Movements significant vertical and horizontal movement of land surface  fault creep -slow periodic movement of land on opposite sides of fault .

Ground Failures may include landslides seldom farther than 40-50 km from epicenter can be major cause of death in some earthquakes .

earthquakes.Tsunami seismic sea wave [inappropriately tidal wave] result from sudden motion of sea floor [submarine landslides. submarine volcanic eruptions] .

Tsunami travel thousands of km wavelength hundreds of km amplitude in open ocean <1m .

how do we attempt to predict earthquake activity? .

magnitude and location remains elusive goal measurement techniques improved dramatically in last 50 years .Earthquake Prediction successful prediction would include time frame.

Earthquake Prediction Worldwide Standard Seismograph Network begun in 1961 allows accurate location of earthquakes around the world .

Earthquake Prediction government-sponsored programs: U. China and Russia programs include: monitoring systems along major fault zones laboratory and field studies of rock behavior before.S. during and after major earthquakes . Japan..

000 .Earthquake Prediction Chinese successfully predicted several earthquakes. failed to predict 1976 Tangshan earthquake which killed 242.

Earthquake Prediction typically precursors (short-term and long-term changes in Earth prior to earthquake) .

Earthquake Prediction seismic gaps .quiescence in earthquake prone areas .

Earthquake Prediction additional precursors include: changes in elevation & tilting of surface groundwater level fluctuations changes in magnetic fields and electrical resistance animal behavior amplitude of ultra low frequency radio waves increase .

Earthquake Prediction changes in rock volume (dilatancy) caused by high pressure producing numerous cracks in rock prior to failure numerous small magnitude earthquakes .

indicate likelihood and potential severity of future earthquakes based on historical records of past earthquakes and distribution of known faults identify areas of seismic gaps and earthquake periodicity .Earthquake Prediction seismic risk maps.

Earthquake Prediction seismic risk maps .

Earthquake Prediction seismic risk maps .

Earthquake Prediction .

Earthquake Prediction .

1886 Charleston Earthquake .

1886 Charleston Earthquake .

1811 New Madrid Earthquake .

San Andreas Fault System .

San Andreas Fault System .

San Andreas Fault System .

San Andreas Fault System .

1906 San Francisco Earthquake .

1906 San Fransisco Earthquake .

1906 San Fransisco Earthquake .

1906 San Fransisco Earthquake .

1906 San Fransisco Earthquake .

1971 San Fernando Valley Earthquake .

1971 San Fernando Valley Earthquake .

1971 San Fernando Valley Earthquake .

1971 San Fernando Valley Earthquake

1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake

1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake

1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake .

1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake .

1994 Northridge Earthquake .

1994 Northridge Earthquake .

1994 Northridge Earthquake .

1994 Northridge Earthquake .

1994 Northridge Earthquake .

1994 Northridge Earthquake .

1994 Northridge Earthquake .

Future San Andreas Hazards .

Alaskan Earthquakes .

Alaskan Earthquakes .

Alaskan Earthquakes .

Alaskan Earthquakes .

Alaskan Earthquakes .

Alaskan Earthquakes .

Alaskan Earthquakes .

Earthquake Control .

Earthquake Control accidentally discovered that earthquakes can be triggered by pumping fluids into fault zones acts as lubricant. allowing faults to move may reduce stress on major faults by triggering small earthquakes .

Earthquake Control needs much more study best defense currently good emergency and evacuation plans .

…what has seismology taught us about the earth’s interior? .