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A

Project Report
On
Industrial Training Undergone At
“U.P. POWER TRANSMISSION CORPORATION LIMITED”
Submitted For
Partial Fulfillment For The Award Of The Degree For
Bachelor of Technology
In
Electrical Engineering

Submitted To- Submitted By -


Mr. Adeeb Uddin Ahmad Priyanshu Nath Saxena
( Training In-charge ) Roll No. 15EE37
B.Tech. III year

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING


MAHATMA JYOTIBA PHULE ROHILKHAND UNIVERSITY
BAREILLY 243006
Preface

I have experienced vocational training in 132 KV Substation Bareilly Town, Bareilly


from June 12, 2018 to July 26, 2018. I am very thankful to all officers who gave me
valuable reception and their precious time. I have an electrical lab in my Department
Of Electrical Engineering, where have been trained in educational environment.
However by dirt of this training, I have learnt many things in substation environment,
Which will be helpful for my future. By that practical knowledge and their
application, I am getting helpful to realize the theoretical knowledge. I am very
thankful to U.P.P.T.C.L. for allowing me to perform this sort of summer training in
their substation.

I will be glad if my training report gets approved.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Summer training has an important role in exposing the real life situation in an industry. It was
a great experience for me to work on training at UTTAR PRADESH POWER TRANSMISSION
CORPORATION LIMITED (U.P.P.T.C.L.) through which I could learn how to work in a
professional environment.

I am extremely thankful & indebted to the numerous people who helped and guided me at
every step throughout the duration of the training.

I am sincerely grateful to MR. ANIL KUMAR GUPTA (Executive Engineer) at 132 KV


Substation, BAREILLY TOWN , BAREILLY who rendered us his valuable assistance, constant
encouragement and able guidance which made this training actually possible.

I wish our deep sense of gratitude to Mr. SANDEEP KUMAR (Sub Division Officer) whose
affectionate guidance has enabled me to complete this training successfully.

I wish our deep sense of gratitude to Mr. DEEPAK KUMAR KUSHAL (Junior Engineer)
whose affectionate guidance has enabled me to complete this training successfully.

I also wish my deep sense of gratitude to other STAFF MEMBER’S whose guidance and
encouragement made my training successful.
INTRODUCTION
Sub-Station
The present-day electrical power system is a.c. i.e. electric power is generated, transmitted and
distributed in the form of alternating current. The electric power is produced at the the power stations
which are located at favorable places, generally quite away from the consumers. It is delivered to the
consumers through a large network of transmission and distribution. At many places in the line of the
power system, it may be desirable and necessary to change some characteristic (e.g. voltage, a.c. to
d.c., frequency, p.f. etc.) of electric supply. This is accomplished by suitable apparatus called sub-
station. For example, generation voltage (11 kV) at the power station is stepped up to high voltage
(say 220 kV or 132 kV) for transmission of electric power. The assembly of apparatus (e.g.
transformer etc.) used for this purpose is the sub-station. Similarly, near the consumers localities, the
voltage may have to be stepped down to utilization level. This job again is accomplished by a
suitable apparatus called sub-station. Yet at some places in the line of the power system, it may be
desirable to convert large quantities of a.c. power to d.c. power e.g. for traction, electroplating, d.c.
motors etc. The job is again performed by suitable apparatus (e.g. ignitron) called sub-station. It is
clear that type of equipment needed in a sub-station will depend upon the service requirements.
Although there can be several types of sub-stations, we shall mainly confine our attention to only
those sub-stations where the incoming and outgoing supplies are a.c. i.e. sub-stations which changes
the voltage level of the electric supply.

The following are the important points which must be kept in view while laying out a sub-station :

i. It should be located at proper site. As far as possible, it should be located at the center of
gravity of load.
ii. It should provide safe and reliable arrangement. For safety, consideration must be given to
the maintenance of regulation clearances, facilities for carrying out repairs and maintenance,
abnormal occurrences such as possibility of explosion or fire etc. For reliability,
consideration must be given for good design and construction, the provision of suitable
protective gear etc.
iii. It should be easily operated and maintained.
iv. It should involve minimum capital cost.

The 132/33 KV Substation Bareilly Town, Bareilly transform the 132 KV voltage level into 33
KV voltage level.The 132/33 KV Substation Bareilly Town is named step down electrical
substation,Since it transform‟s the high voltage level of 132 KV into low voltage level of 33 KV.
SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM

During the preliminary project designing of any project, the key diagram used is the Single Line
Diagram also called the One Line Diagram. The set of single line diagram form the basics of all
electrical work carried out in a project.

The single line diagram shows all pertinent information about the sequence of the circuit, but does
not give as much detail as a schematic diagram. The purpose of single line diagram is to show
sources of power, electrical equipment, electrical drives, system details and fault levels.

It is a drawing that shows by single lines and symbols a simplified layout of a three-phase electrical
system. Single line or one-line diagram get their name form the fact only one phase of three phase
system is shown and only one line is used to represent any number of current carrying conductors.

Standard symbols are used to represent components of power systems, such as transformers, circuit
breakers, generators, fuses and switches.
POWER TRANSFORMER
An electrical transformer is a static device which transfer an electrical energy from one electrical
circuit to another electrical circuit by means of mutual induction without changing frequency. It
only changes voltage level.

Need Of Transformer
An AC voltage has an advantage over DC voltage that we can raise or lower it‟s level at different
stages of electrical network. Different stages of an electrical network are -

Generation

Transmission

Distribution

Utilization

At household consumer receives single phase 230 volt AC supply. Consumer receives this single
phase 230 volt AC supply according to the following procedure-

1. It is generated far away from city or domestic load. At that point which we call the generating
station, it generates three phase supply and it‟s value is near about in terms of kilo-volt.
2. This voltage is transmitted through transmission line, In order to avoid losses; normally we
raise AC voltage several times so the transmission line carry very high AC voltage sothat
through transmission line ,it will come to distribution center.
3. At distribution center, there is one more transformer which is used to lower down the voltage
level so that we get single phase 230 volt AC supply.
4. Hence 230 volt AC supply we are utilizing but at generating station we are generating in
terms of kilo-volt.

Working Principle Of A Transformer


The transformer works on the principle of mutual induction. This states that , “When two
coils are inductively coupled and if current in one coil uniformly changed then an
electromotive force gets induced in the other coil”.

Construction Of Transformer
Basically, an electrical transformer has two parts termed as
1.Magnetic core
2.Winding or Coil

1. Magnetic Core :- Magnetic core provides path for magnetic flux, so maximum flux will
be passing through this core hence two types of losses that will occur inside the core are –
Hysteresis loss
Eddy current loss

Together these losses are called “Magnetic losses or Iron losses”.


We need to construct a core in such a manner where these two losses as low as possible,
Therefore core is made up of “High grade silicon steel”. Steel provides maximum path for
magnetic flux and silicon increases the resistance but also increases the permeability of
material. Using the high grade silicon steel. Hysteresis loss minimizes.

For minimizing “Eddy current loss” ,We make core which is made up of thin lamination‟s
since eddy current is happening because of high width material therefore we are providing
lamination of 0.5 mm so that we can have a width very – very less. Doing so surface area
increases and resistance decreases.

2. Winding or Coil :- Winding carry primary and secondary current‟s. We need a material
which has less resistivity so we use copper for conductor. Winding‟s are wound on the limbs
of magnetic core. Since winding or coil has number of turns, then there may be risk of
touching two subsequent turns but this risk may be avoided using insulation. Since there is
length area of cross section and some resistivity for this copper material hence there will be
some resistance on primary and secondary side. Current passes through it gives rise to copper
loss and winding are subjected to copper loss.
COMPONENTS OF TRANSFORMER
The components of transformer are as follow -

1. Steel Tank :-

It is a main part of transformer. It is steel made box. Transformer core is placed inside this tank.
Windings and other helpful devices are placed inside this tank. It is filled with insulating oil (
mineral oil ). It have usually cylindrical or cubical shape depending on transformer construction. It is
coated internally and externally with color for safety point of view. Color coating also provide
protection in case of winding connection with tank accidentally.

2. Core Of Transformer :- Core is made with laminated steel sheet in all type of transformers to
provide continuous magnetic path and also to provide minimum air gap. For this purpose silicon
enriched steel is used. Sometimes heat treatment is also used on steel to increase permeability of
steel. hysteresis losses also decreased in core with increase in permeability. By making core
laminated eddy current losses also reduced in core. Laminations of core also insulated from each
other through varnish. Two phase transformers consists of two legs and three-phase transformers are usually
consists of three legs. Cores are usually circular or rectangular in shape. laminated cores tight with bolts to
avoid vibration in core.

3. Windings :- Single phase transformer have one primary and one secondary winding. But three-
phase transformer consists of three primary and three secondary windings which connects to each
other with proper methods. Low voltage winding is always placed inner side of core. High voltage is
placed above the low voltage winding. Both windings are electrically insulated from each other
through insulation material. There is also a proper distance between two windings for movement of
oil. Oil acts as a cooling agent. Because windings become hot with the flow of current in windings.
To make cooling better, windings also make with many circular discs. Windings also design like a
helical coils. Helical windings are used in high current transformers. Coils are heat bonded with special
varnish to increase mechanical strength of coils. Coils are usually concentric in core type transformers.

4. Conservator Tank :-
It is a small tank which used in high power transformers. It is connected above the main tank of
transformer. It has cylindrical shape. Main tank and conservator tank connected to each other
through a pipe. Buchholz relay is used between conservator tank and main tank in transformers
having capacity more than one MVA. Conservator tank have following functions in transformer :

It provide place for hot transformer oil to expand. It also provide oil in transformer after oil
become cool.
It also use to decrease oxidation by reducing area of oil around air.
Oxidized oil remain in conservator tank. Mirror tube is also connected with conservator tank
to read oil level in transformers. A pre marked gauge is also present in mirror tube. It is
necessary to have cool oil level up to mark of gauge.

With change in temperature oil level keep decreasing and increasing. Because insulating oil have co-efficient
of expansion. Whoever if large cavity is provide in upper part of main tank, contact area increases between air
and oil which decrease dielectric strength of oil. To reduce this effect, we use a separate small tank through a
pipe. It have less oil than main tank. This tank is called conservator tank. With the help of conservator tank,
contact area reduced between oil and air. Oil also remain ineffective due to oxidation. Oxidation do not occur
in main tank due to conservator tank. Hot oil move to conservator tank through pipe. Oxidation occur only in
conservator tank. Due to oxidation sludge only remain in conservator tank. Sludge do not enter in main tank.
5. Breather :-

Breather is a device which used for Breathing of transformer. Its mean air go in or out from
transformer with the help of breather. Now the Question is why we need breather in transformer ?
Because when hot oil expand, air go out from transformer and when oil contracts after cooling, air
enters in transformer. Breather one side is connected with conservator tank. A mirror tube is placed
inside breather. This mirror tube filled with calcium chloride or silica gel. When air enters in
transformer, this air contain moisture. Silica gel absorb moisture and only allow dry air to enter in
transformer. In this way breather with the help of silica get stop moisture contain air to pass into
transformer and avoid oxidation in transformer main tank. With the time silica gel color changes
from blue to pink after absorbing specifying quantity of moisture from air. We can reuse this silica
gel after warming it.

6. Thermometer :-

Thermometer is also used in above 50KVA transformers. It is used to measure temperature of oil. In
high power transformers, thermometer is also used inside windings which measure temperature of
windings. Whenever temperature increase up to dangerous level, it activates alarum signal.

Dial type thermometers are usually used for activation of alarms in abnormal conditions. It give
reading directly through a sensor. Whenever oil temperature increases to specific level, it provide
signal to alarm circuit. Thermometer usually placed close to transformer name plate. Usually If dial
type thermometer trip the transformer, when oil temperature becomes greater than 105º.

7. Pressure Relief Vent :-

It is a curve type mirror tube connected with main tank of transformer. It provide protection to
transformer from greater pressure. Sometime greater pressure is developed inside a transformer due
to decomposition of oil. It is necessary part of high power transformer. Transformer can also burst
without pressure relief vent. Transformer burst above 1.01kg/cm³ pressure

. 8. Valves :-

Valves are used for filling and draining of transformer oil. It is also used for filtering and sampling.
Usually three valves are available in transformer.

9. Buchholz Relay :-
This relay is connected to a pipe between main tank and conservator tank. It is gas actuated really. It
is very important part of transformer. I will post a separate article on this. Because it is difficult to
explain buchholz relay working in this article. In short buchholz relay provide protection for low oil
level and high temperature.

10. Bushings :-

Bushings are used to bring windings terminals out of tank and also use for insulation. For example
porcelain, oil filled and capacitor type bushings. Arching horns are also connected to bushings to
provide protection from lightning. In above 34 KV transformer, completely sealed condenser type
bushings are used. In less than 25KV transformer plain bushings are used.
11. Tap Changing Switch :- Tap changer switch is used to regulate secondary voltage in case
of low voltage in primary side of transformer. Two type of tap changing switches are used:

i. Off Load Switch :- It is used to change winding voltage ratio. Tap changing switch are
connected with high voltage side of transformer. As it name suggest off load tap changing
switch used only in transformer off condition.
ii. On Load Switch :- On load tap changer switch can be used with on load transformer.

12. Oil Gauge :- Oil gauge is used for the measurement of oil in transformer. It displays oil
level. Oil gauge is usually of dial type. Pointer on dial type gauge used to measure oil level. It is used
with medium level to high voltage transformer.

13. Radiator :- In 50KVA above transformers, radiators are used with main tank of transformer
for cooling purpose. It is like a pipes or tubes. It increases the surface area of transformer. Radiator
makes cooling in transformer more effective. This method of cooling is called ONAN ( oil natural air
natural).

14. Cooling Fans :- In 26MVA and above transformers, cooling fans are also used on radiator.
Oil temperature gauge provide on or off signal for cooling fans. When temperature becomes greater
than 75º, temperature oil gauge turn on cooling fans. This method of cooling is called ONAF ( oil
natural and air forced ).

15. Oil Pumps :-


In 26 MVA above transformers oil pumps are also used along with cooling fans and radiator. Oil
pumps used to rotate oil in transformer. This method of cooling is called OFAF

( oil forced and air forced) .


Instrument Transformers
Instrument Transformers are used in AC system for measurement of electrical quantities i.e.
voltage, current, power, energy, power factor, frequency. Instrument transformers are also used
with protective relays for protection of power system. Basic function of Instrument transformers is
to step down the AC System voltage and current. The voltage and current level of power system is
very high. It is very difficult and costly to design the measuring instruments for measurement of such
high level voltage and current. Generally measuring instruments are designed for 5 A and 110 V.

The measurement of such very large electrical quantities, can be made possible by using the Instrument
transformers with these small rating measuring instruments. Therefore these instrument transformers are very
popular in modern power system.

Advantages Of Instrument Transformers :-

1. The large voltage and current of AC Power system can be measured by using small rating
measuring instrument i.e. 5 A, 110 – 120 V.
2. By using the instrument transformers, measuring instruments can be standardized. Which
results in reduction of cost of measuring instruments. More ever the damaged measuring
instruments can be replaced easy with healthy standardized measuring instruments.
3. Instrument transformers provide electrical isolation between high voltage power circuit and
measuring instruments. Which reduces the electrical insulation requirement for measuring
instruments and protective circuits and also assures the safety of operators.
4. Several measuring instruments can be connected through a single transformer to power
system.
5. Due to low voltage and current level in measuring and protective circuit, there is low power
consumption in measuring and protective circuits.

Types of Instrument Transformers :-


Instrument transformers are of two types –

1. Current Transformer (C.T.)


2. Potential Transformer (P.T.)

1. Current Transformer (C.T.) :- Current transformer is used to step down the current of
power system to a lower level to make it feasible to be measured by small rating Ammeter
(i.e. 5A ammeter).

Primary of C.T. is having very few turns. Sometimes bar primary is also used. Primary is
connected in series with the power circuit. Therefore, sometimes it also called series transformer. The
secondary is having large no. of turns. Secondary is connected directly to an ammeter. As the ammeter is
having very small resistance. Hence, the secondary of current transformer operates almost in short circuited
condition. One terminal of secondary is earthed to avoid the large voltage on secondary with respect to earth.
Which in turns reduce the chances of insulation breakdown and also protect the operator against high voltage.
More ever before disconnecting the ammeter, secondary is short circuited through a switch „S‟ as shown in
figure above to avoid the high voltage build up across the secondary.
2. Potential Transformer (P.T.) :-

Potential transformer is used to step down the voltage of power system to a lower level to make is
feasible to be measured by small rating voltmeter i.e. 110 – 120 V voltmeter. Primary of P.T. is having
large no. of turns. Primary is connected across the line (generally between on line and earth). Hence,
sometimes it is also called the parallel transformer. Secondary of P.T. is having few turns and connected
directly to a voltmeter. As the voltmeter is having large resistance. Hence the secondary of a P.T. operates
almost in open circuited condition. One terminal of secondary of P.T. is earthed to maintain the secondary
voltage with respect to earth. Which assures the safety of operators. Few differences between C.T. and
P.T. are listed as follow –

Sl. Current Transformer (C.T.) Potential Transformer (P.T.)


No.
1 Connected in series with power Secondary is connected to Voltmeter.
circuit.
2 Secondary is connected to Ammeter. Secondary is connected to Voltmeter.
3 Secondary works almost in short Secondary works almost in open circuited
circuited condition. condition.
4 Primary current depends on power Primary current depends on secondary
circuit current. burden.
5 Primary current and excitation vary Primary current and excitation variation are
over wide range with change of restricted to a small range.
power circuit current
6 One terminal of secondary is earthed One terminal of secondary can be earthed
to avoid the insulation break down. for Safety.
7 Secondary is never be open circuited. Secondary can be used in open circuit
condition.

Protection Of Transformer
For the purpose of step down the voltage level from 132 KV to 33 KV by means of
transformer ,Protection of transformer are necessary so that extra high voltage and
current could not enter into substation so that transformer becomes safe and hence by
doing this transformer gets feeded by only 132 KV voltage if in case extra high
voltage enter into the station then it will be overcome by protection devices which are
discussed as follows –

1.Lightning Arrestors :- A lightning arrestor is a device which provides an easy conducting path
or relatively low impedance path for the flow of current when the system voltage increases more than
the designed value and regains its original properties of an insulator at normal voltage.

Necessity Of Lightning Arrestors :- The ground wires does not provide protection against the high
voltage waves reaching at the terminals of costly equipment such as transformers. These high voltage
waves many causes the following damages :-

i. The waves may cause flash over in the internal windings of transformer and spoils the
winding insulation.
ii. It may cause internal flash over between turns of the same winding transformer.
iii. It may cause external flash over between the terminals of electrical equipment which may
cause damage to insulator.
iv. It may cause internal or external flash over causing building up of the oscillations in the
electrical apparatus.

Hence, It is absolutely necessary to divert this extra high voltage wave to earth before it reaches at
the terminals of the equipment. This is achieved by conducting a lightning arrestor between line and
earth.

Properties Or Qualities Of A Lightning Arrestor :- Lightning arrestor is device which behaves


as an insulator at normal voltages but provides as easy path for the flow of current at normal
voltages. A good lightning arrestor should have the following properties :-

i. It should not allow any current to pass through it at the working voltage of the system. In
other words it should act as an insulator at normal working voltage.
ii. It must provide an easy path for current to pass as and when abnormal transient voltage
occurs on the system.
iii. It must be capable of carrying the discharge current without getting damage itself under
abnormal ( transient voltage ) conditions.
iv. The power frequency current, following the break down, must be interrupted as soon as the
transient voltage fallen below the break down value.

Location Of A Lightning Arrestor :- The best protection is ensured by placing the lightning
arrestors as near as possible to the apparatus to be protected against overvoltage‟s. If a lightning
arrestors has to protect a transformer, it is recommended to place it right on the terminals of the
transformer. In the switch yard of a substation, the lightning arrestors can be located adjacent to
the transformer and in the coming side of switch yard.

2.Capacitive Voltage Transformer : - The capacitive voltage transformer step-down the


high voltage input signal and provide the low voltage signals which can easily measure through
the transformer ( C.V.T. ) is also called capacitive potential transformer. The capacitive potential
divider, inductive element and the auxiliary transformer are the three main parts of the capacitive
potential transformer.

For measuring high voltage ( above 100 KV ) the high insulated transformer is required. The
highly insulated transformer is quite expensive as compared to the normal transformer. For
reducing the cost, the capacitive potential transformer is used in the system. The CVT is cheap,
and their performance is not much inferior to the highly insulated transformer.

3. Isolator :- It is a device which opens and closes the contacts only under no-load conditions.
Its main purpose is to isolate is to isolate a section of the circuit from the other. Isolators are
generally placed on both sides of a circuit breaker in order to make repairs and maintenance on
the circuit breaker without any danger. These are never opened until the circuit breaker in the
same circuit is opened and always closed before the circuit breaker is closed.

4. Circuit Breaker :- A circuit breaker is a device which makes and breaks a circuit either
manually or by remote control ( full – load ) conditions. It breaks a circuit automatically under
abnormal ( fault ) conditions. It makes a circuit manually or by remote control under abnormal (
fault ) conditions. Thus, circuit breaker is just a switch which can be operated under normal and
abnormal conditions.
To perform the above operations, a circuit breaker essential consists of fixed and moving
contacts, called electrodes. Under normal operating operations, these contacts remain closed until
and unless these are not operated manually or by remote control. However, when a fault occurs
on the power system, the trip coil of the circuit breaker is energized which pulls apart the moving
contacts from the fixed contacts and thus opens the circuit.

When the moving contacts ( electrodes ) are separated from the fixed contacts, an arc is struck
between them. The production of arc not only delays the current interruption process but it also
generates enormous heat which causes damage to the equipment of the power system or to the
breaker itself. Therefore, every effort is made to extinguish the arc produced in the circuit
breaker as possible.

5. Current Transformer :- Current transformer is used to step down the current of power
system to a lower level to make it feasible to measure by small rating Ammeter

( i.e. 5A ammeter ). Primary of C.T. is having very few turns. Sometimes bar primary is also
called series transformer. The secondary is having large no. of turns. Secondary is connected
directly to an ammeter. As the ammeter is having very small resistance. Hence, the secondary of
current transformer operates almost in short circuited conditions. One terminal of secondary is
earthed to avoid the large voltage on secondary with respect to earth. Which in turns reduce the
chances of insulation breakdown and also protect the operator against high voltage. More ever
before disconnecting the ammeter, secondary is abort circuited through a switch “S” to avoid the
high voltage build up across secondary.

6. Potential Transformer :- Potential transformer is used to step down the voltage of power
system to a lower level to make feasible to be measures by small rating voltmeter i.e. 110 – 120
voltmeter.

Primary of P.T. is having large no. of turns. Primary is connected across the line ( generally
between on line and earth ). Hence, sometimes it is also called the parallel transformer.
Secondary of P.T. is having few turns and connected directly to a voltmeter. As the voltmeter is
having large resistance. Hence the secondary of a P.T. operates almost in open circuited
condition. One terminal of secondary of P.T. is earthed to maintain the secondary voltage with
respect to earth. Which assures the safety of operators.

7. Over Current Relay :- Over current relay is a “impedance relay”. This is current
operated voltage restrain device. It consists of two coils –

One coil is operating coil.


Second coil is restrain coil means it acts in opposite manner to that of operating coil.

In impedance relay , we get a equation which is similar to “equation of circle” therefore


Overcurrent relay is “non-directional” over current relay since it sense fault at any location
within this impedance circle equation.

If current having value over its rated value of C.T. passes through it, Then over current relay
sense that value of current is exceeding. Now it will then send signal to “Auxiliary Relay”
(Which provide back up to over current relay ). Then auxiliary relay sends signal to “Trip Coil”
of the circuit breaker and circuit breaker opens its contacts.
It is Instantaneous Definite Minimum Time Leg ( I.D.M.T.L. ) type relay hence it‟s operating
time is inversely proportional to the fault current.

8. Earth Fault Relay :- Earth fault relay is a “Reactance relay”. It is a directional type
relay. It sense fault only in one particular direction.

9. Supervision Relay :- Supervision relay is connected with a specific relay and then it gives
the information either that relay is in healthy condition or not. It also gives information whether
the D.C. supply through 110 volt battery is feeding to the panel board or not.

10. Tripping Relay :- Tripping relay is a type of back – up relay which sense the fault if the
main really could not sense that fault within its operating time. Tripping relay has a little more
operating time as that of main relay.

11. Auxiliary Realy :- Auxiliary relay is a type of back – up relay which sense the fault if the
main really could not sense that fault within its operating time. Tripping relay has a little more
operating time as that of main relay.

12. Definite Time Realy :- Definite time relay is in which operating time is fixed for any
value of current. It is used for protection of large motors. In case of definite time relay has very
less I.D.M.T.L. property.

13. Differential Relay :- Differential relay is employed on transformer. Whenever C.T. ratio
becomes unbalance then this relay operates.

14. Capacitor Bank :- Mostly loads are inductive loads. In case of inductive load, Lagging
power factor takes place which means current is lagging by 900. As the inductive loads increases
then the angle between voltage and current increases therefore power factor decreases or power
factor becomes poor and hence efficiency decreases and losses increases. To avoid losses and
gain the high efficiency, we try to make power factor closer to 1 . For this we connect a capacitor
bank parallel to the outgoing bus hence the voltage of outgoing bus and capacitor bank will be
same and thus having positive reactive component of capacitive current capacitor bank will
neutralize the negative reactive component of outgoing bus current. In this way we reduce the
angle between outgoing bus voltage and corresponding current doing this power factor increases.

15. DC Supply :- In electrical substation DC supply is very important since the protection
devices are used for open and closing the incoming or outgoing supply and for doing this
operation we need to supply these protection devices a DC supply. Using DC supply we operate
the panel board employed in control room of an electrical substation.
Device Specification
Power Transformer employed in 132/33 KV Substation Bareilly Town, Bareilly :-

Three power transformer‟s are employed in 132/33 KV electrical substation namely as follows-

40 MVA Transformer
63 MVA Transformer
250 KVA Transformer

40 MVA and 63 MVA transformer‟s are connected in parallel from the 132 KV bus to the 33 KV
bus.

These transformer‟s are feeded by 132 KV voltage through 132 KV bus and transform it then into 33
KV level which is then feeded to 33 KV feeder‟s through 33 KV bus.

250 KVA is a station transformer which is feeded by 33 KV voltage supply through 33 KV bus that
is transformed by power transformer. This transformer transforms the 33 KV voltage into 0.4 KV
voltage level which is then provide supply to the different purposes like yard lightning, L.T.D.B.
main yard lightning, circle office, colony etc.

The device specification’s employed in 132/33 kV Sub-Station Bareilly Town, Bareilly are
discussed as follows -

63 MVA Transformer Specification

COOLING ONAN / ONAF


RATING 38000 / 63000
RATED VOLTAGE H.V. - 132000 V & L.V. - 33000 V
FULL LOAD CURRENT H.V. - 166.2/275.5 A & L.V. - 664.8 / 1102.2 A
FREQUENCY 50
VECTOR GROUP REF. YNyn0
PHASES 3
BASIC INSU. LEVEL HV - 550/230 KV & LV – 95/38 KV
HV (N) – 95/38 KV & LV (N) – 170/70 KV
NO LOAD LOSS 24.5 KW
LOAD LOSS 182.0 KW
AUXULARY LOSS 3.0 KW
MAKE TRANSFORMER & RECTIFIERS ( INDIA ) LTD.
40 MVA Transformer Specification

COOLING ONAN ONAF


RATED POWER H.V. - 24000 kVA H.V. - 40000 kVA
L.V. - 24000 kVA L.V. - 40000 kVA
RATED VOLTAGE AT NO H.V. - 132 kV H.V. - 132 kV
LOAD L.V. - 33 kV L.V. - 33 kV
RATED LINE CURRENT H.V. - 105 A H.V. - 175 A
L.V. - 419.89 A L.V. - 699.82 A
NO LOAD LOSS 18 kW
LOAD LOSS 120 kW
AUXILIARY LOSS 24 kW
FREQUENCY 50 Hz
PHASES 3
VECTOR GROUP YNyn0
INSULATION LEVEL H.V. – 550/230 kV
H.V.n – 95/38 kV
L.V./L.V.n – 170/70
CUSTOMER U.P.P.T.C.L.
MAKE EMCO LTD.

250 kVA Transformer – Station Transformer Specification

TYPE COPPER
kVA 250
VOLTS AT NO LOAD HV - 33000 & LV - 400
AMPERES HV - 4.37 & LV - 360.8
PHASES HV - 3 & LV - 3
NO LOAD LOSS 450 W
LOAD LOSS 2500 W
TYPE OF COOLING ONAN
FREQUENCY 50
IMPEDANCE VOLTS 4.75 %
VECTOR GROUP REF. Dyn11
CUSTOMER U.P.P.T.C.L .
MAKE ASSOCIATED ELECTRICALS ( GZB ) PVT. LTD
33 kV Potential Transformer Specification

NOMINAL SYSTEM VOLTAGE 33 kV


HIGHEST SYSTEM VOLTAGE 36 kV
INSULATION LEVEL 70/176 kV
NO. OF PRIMARY WINDING ONE
NO. OF SEC. WINDING TWO
VOLTAGE FACTOR 1.1 Conts /1.5 for 30 sec.
CUSTOMER UPPCL
FREQUENCY 50 Hz
NO. OF PHASE 1
MAKE HEPTACARE POWER EQUIPMENTS

132 kV Potential Transformer Specification

STANDARD IS : 3156
HIGHEST SYSTEM VOLTAGE 145
INSULATION LEVEL 275/650
FREQUENCY 50
R.V.F. TIME 1.5/30 SEC.
NETURAL EARTHED
PRIMARY VOLTAGE 132000/
SECONDARY WINDING 1 VOLTS 53.5
V.A. 500
CLASS 1.0/5.0
SECONDARY WINDING 2 VOLTS 63.5
V.A. 200
CLASS 5.0
MAKE BHEL
132 kV Circuit Breaker Specification

TYPE GAS CIRCUIT BREAKER


CUSTOMER U.P.P.T.C.L.
RATED VOLTAGE 145 kV
RATED FREQUENCY 50 Hz
RATED NORMAL CURRENT 3150 A
RATED CLOSING VOLTAGE 110 V DC
RATED OPENING VOLTAGE 110 V DC
RATED SF6 GAS PRESSURE 7 Kg / cm2 ( AT 200 C )
MAKE TIME < 130 ms
TOTAL BREAK TIME 60 ms
SF6 GAS WT 8 Kg.
MAKE CROMPTON GREAVES LTD.

33 kV Circuit Breaker Specification

VOLTAGE 36000 V
CURRENT 1250 A
FREQUENCY 50
NO. OF POLES 3
BREAKING CAPACITY 25
MAKING CAPACITY 62.5
MAKE CROMPTON GREAVES LTD.

132 kV Current Transformer Specification

STANDARD IS : 2705
HIGHEST SYSTEM VOLTAGE 145 kV
FREQUENCY 50
INSULATION LEVEL 275/650 kvp
S.T.CURRENT 25/1 SEC
MAKE BHEL

33 kV Current Transformer Specification

HIGH SYSTEM VOLTAGE 36


INSULATION LEVEL 70/170
CUSTOMER U.P.P.T.C.L.
FREQUECNY 50
MAKE HEPTACARE POWER INDUSTRIES
Control Room - 132 / 33 KV Substation Bareilly Town,
Bareilly
132/33 KV Substation Bareilly Town, Bareilly steps down the high voltage of 132 KV into 33 KV
with the help of “Step Down Transformer”. Two power transformers having capacity 40 MVA & 63
MVA respectively does this transformation. This substation has two supply source -

1. DOHNA and
2. FARIDPUR

There are two panel‟s for both transformer‟s DOHNA and FARIDPUR supply source. Two panels
for 40 MVA and 63 MVA transformer. Here each panel have analog voltmeter, ampere meter, watt
meter, VAR meter.Each panel has circuit breaker control switch, relay panel, static energy meter.

This substation has 14 outgoing feeders namely as-

I. DISTRICT COURT - CB No. 10


II. KUTUBKHANA - CB No. 6
III. SHADANA - CB No. 4
IV. DOORDARSHAN - CB No. 3
V. MES - CB No. 2
VI. BESU - CB NO. 1
VII. SADAR CANTT - CB NO. 7
VIII. RAMPUR GARDEN - CB NO. 9
IX. JAGATPUR
X. CIVIL LINES II
XI. CIVIL LINES III
XII. D.D.PURAM
XIII. MISSION COMPOUND

There is one more feeder named a “33 kV Coupler”.

Alternating Current Distribution Board ( A.C.D.B.) :-

An A.C.D.B. panel is feeded by station transformer which gives 0.4 kV. This A.C.D.B.
distributes electricity in L.T.D.B., main yard lightning, yard lightning, circle office, control
room, colony, 33 kV feeder‟s panel, 110 V charger and transformer I and II.

A.C.D.B. has a bus coupler and it has air circuit breaker.

110 V Battery Charger Panel :- This panel gives the supply by A.C.D.B. to 110 V
battery for making it charge. It always charge by float charger. In case, if battery goes its
permissible minimum value capacity then it charge itself using Boost charger.

Apex Meter :- Apex meter gives the exact and all information about 63 and 40 MVA
transformer.
Direct Current Distribution Board (D.C.D.B.) :- This panel gets DC supply and
this panel distributes the 110 V DC supply for protection devices related to all corresponding
feeder‟s.

RTCC Panel :- RTCC panel has number of indication related to all corresponding
different – different process of 60 MVA transformer.

EMCO Panel :- EMCO panel has number of indication related to all corresponding
different – different process of 40 MVA transformer.

Under Frequency Relay Panel :- If the frequency becomes unbalance then this panel
gives the indication.

Capacitor Bank :- Capacitor bank panel gives the information about power factor either
is lagging or leading and shows value of power factor.
Battery Bank
All but the smallest substations include auxiliary power supplies. AC power is required for
substation building small power, lightning and ventilation, some communications equipment,
switchgear operation mechanisms, anti- condensation heater and motors.

It has single 100% battery and 100% charger,low capital cost, no standby DC system outage
for maintenance. Need to isolate battery / charger combination from load under charger
conditions in order to prevent high boost voltages.

Specification Of Battery Bank

CAPACITY 2V – 200 AH @ C10 TO 1.80 ECV AT 200C


NO. OF CELLS 55
FLOAT VOLTAGE 2.23 V/CELL + 1%
SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.24 + 0.01 @ 200 C
Types Of Conductor Used In 132/33 kV Substation
Bareilly Town, Bareilly
TYPE OF PLACE WHERE IT IS USED APPROXIMATE
CONDUCTOR ELECTRIC
CURRENT
CAPACITY
ACSR HTLS TRANSMISSION LINE CONDUCTOR 800 AMPERE
BETWEEN DOHNA SUBSTATION
TO132/33 kV SUBSTATION BAREILLY
TOWN, BAREILLY.
ACSR PANTHOR i. TRANSMISSION LINE 500 AMPERE
CONDUCTOR
BETWEENFARIDPUR
SUBSTATION AND 132/33
kV SUBSTATION
BAREILLY TOWN,
BAREILLY.
ii. THE CONDUCTOR IS
USED BETWEEN 132 kV
BUS AND BOTH 63 AND
40 MVA TRANSFORMER.
iii. THE CONDUCTOR IS
USED BETWEEN 33 kV
BUS AND APPROXIMATE
ALL OUTGOING
FEEDERS.
ACSR MOOSE THE CONDUCTOR IS USED BETWEEN 900 AMPERE
OUTGOING OF 40 MVA
TRANSFORMER AND 33 kV BUS.
ACSR TWINE MOOSE i. THE CONDUCTOR IS USED 1800 AMPERE
BETWEEN OUTGOING OF 63
MVA TRANSFORMER AND 33
kV BUS.
ii. IT IS ALSO USED IN 33 kV BUS
CONDUCTOR
ACSR ZEBRA THE CONDUCTOR IS USED IN 132 kV 800 AMPERE
BUS
Devices Employed In Yard

1. Lightning Arrestor (L.A.)


At incoming 132 kV on R & B phase = 2(Dohna) + 2(Faridpur)
= 4

At incoming side of both transformers on R,Y and B phase = 3(40 MVA) +3(63 MVA)
= 6

Hence, Total number of L.A. at 132 kV side = 4+6


=10

At outgoing side of both transformers on R,Y and B phase = 3(40 MVA) +3(63 MVA)
=6

Therefore; Total number of L.A. employed in yard = 10 + 6


= 16

2. Capacitor Voltage Transformer ( C.V.T.)


At incoming 132kV = 3(Dohna) +3(Faridpur)
=6

3. Current Transformer (C.T.)


At incoming 132 kV on R,Y and B phase = 3(Dohna) + 3(Faridpur)
=6
Between 132 kV bus and both transformer
on R,Y and B phase = 3(40 MVA) + 3(63 MVA)
=6

Hence; At 132 kV Total number of C.T. = 6 +6


= 12

Between both transformer and 33 kV bus


on R,Y and B phase = 3(40 MVA) + 3(63 MVA)
=6
Between 33 kV bus and all feeders including
bus-coupler on R,Y and B phase = 15 feeders × 3 phases
= 45

Between 33 kV bus and capacitor bank


on R,Y and B phase =3

Hence; At 33 kV Total number of C.T. = 6+45+3


= 54
Therefore; Total number of C.T. in yard = 12 + 54
= 66

4. Potential Transformer (P.T.)


At 132 kV bus side on R,Y and B phase =3
At 33 kV bus side on R,Y and B phase = 3(40 MVA) + 3(63 MVA)
=6
Between 33 kV bus and capacitor bank
on R,Y and B phase =3

Therefore; Total number of P.T. in yard = 3+6+3


= 12

5. Power Transformer
Number of Power Transformer = 1(40 MVA) + 1(MVA)
+
1(250 KVA)
=3
6. Transformer
Total number of transformer including
instrument transformer (C.T. and P.T.)
and Power Transformer = 66(C.T.) + 12(P.T.)
+
3 (Power Transformer)
= 81