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Introduction to Locomotive Engines & Turbocharger


Submitted by
Shiva Ganesh Balyapally

In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree





July, 2016

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I hereby declare that work entitled “Industrial training project report”, Submitted towards
completion of vocational training after Third year of B. tech (MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)
at SIR PADAMPAT SINGHANIA UNIVERSITY comprises of my original work pursued
under the supervision of guides at South Central Railways. The Project embodied in this report
have not been submitted to any other Institute or University for the fulfillment of any other

Signature of the Student

Place: Hyderabad

Date: 18-june-2016

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Its gives us immense pleasure to express our deepest sense of gratitude and sincere
thanks to our highly respected and esteemed guide Mr. Hari Veda Murthy,
(Sr.DME/DSL/Mly), for their valuable guidance, encouragement and help for this
work. His useful Suggestion for this whole work and co-operative behavior are
sincerely acknowledge

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The objectives of the practical training are to learn something about industries
practically and to be familiar with the working style of a technical person to adjust
simply according to the industrial environment. It is rightly said practical life is far
away from theoretical one. We learn in class room can give the practical exposure
or real life experience no doubt they help in improving the personality of the
student in long run of life and will be able to implement the theoretical knowledge.
As a part of academic syllabus of four-year degree course in Mechanical
Engineering, every student is required to undergo a practical training.
I am student of the Final Year Mechanical Engineering& this report is written on
the basis of practical knowledge of acquired by me during the period of practical
training taken at Diesel Loco shed, Moula Ali. This report is presented in very
simple & understanding language on the basis of Primary and Secondary data.

Shiva Ganesh Balyapally


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Title Page No
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 History About Railways 1
1.2 About Moula Ali Loco Shed 7

Chapter 2 Diesel Engine

2.1 Diesel engine: Mode of Operation 11
2.2 Diesel-electric control 12
2.3 Working of Diesel Locomotive 13
2.4 Starting 18
2.5 Transition methods include 19
2.6 Size Does Count 20
2.7 Important Maintenance Instruction for Cylinder Head. 21
2.8 Cylinder Head 21
2.9 To V or not to 22
2.10 Tractive Effort, Pull and Power 22

Chapter 3 WDM-3 Diesel Locomotive

3.1 Technical specifications 26

3.2 Technical Information 28
3.3 Broad Gauge Main Line Mixed Service LOCO WDM 3D 29
3.4 Broad Gauge Shunting Locomotive WDS 6AD 31
3.5 Engine Test Bed Facilities 32
3.6 Fuel Consumption on 8th Notch 33
3.7 Fuel Consumption over Duty Cycle 33
3.8 Speed at different Notch position 34
3.9 Driving a Locomotive 34

Chapter 4 Main Parts of an Engine

4.1 Main Alternator 36

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4.2 Auxiliary Alternator 36
4.3 Motor Blower 36
4.4 Air Intakes 37
4.5 Rectifiers/Inverters 37
4.6 Electronic Controls 38
4.7 Control Stand 38
4.8 Batteries 39
4.9 Cab 39
4.10 Traction Motor 39
4.11 Fuel Tank 40
4.12 Governor 41
4.13 Fuel Control 56
4.14 Radiators 58

Chapter 5 Cooling System

5.1 Water pump 69
5.2 Inspection and maintenance 69

Chapter 6 Lubrication
6.1 Lubricating Oil 70

Chapter 7 Turbocharger
7.1 Nomenclature 71
7.2 Working Principle 72
7.3 History 73
7.4 Aviation 73
7.5 Design and Installation 74
Chapter 8 Suspension
8.1 Wheels 82
8.2 Traction 82

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Chapter 9 Transmission
9.1 Transmission 84
9.2 Gearbox 85
9.3 Final Drive 85
9.4 Final Drive 86

Chapter 10 Dynamic braking

10.1 Brake 89
10.2 Early days 90
10.3 Later British practice 92
10.4 Continuous brakes 93
10.5 Types of Brakes 94
10.6 Dual brakes 106
10.7 Vacuum brakes in 2007 109

Chapter 11 Engine Control

11.1 Engine Control Development 110
11.2 Power Control 110

Chapter 12 Frame or Bogie

12.1 Types of Bogie 114
12.2 Dual Suspension 117

Chapter 13 Project Study 118

Safety and precautions………………………………. 134

Conclusion……………………………………………. 135
Future Scope…………………………………………. 136
References……………………………………………. 136

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Figure Page No

Figure 1.1 Logo of Indian Railways 1

Figure 1.2 Logo of Moula Ali Loco Shed 8
Figure 1.3 Administrative Flow Chart 9
Figure 2.1 Stroke Compression Ignition 11
Figure 2.2 3200HP Diesel Locomotive Engine 16
Figure 2.3 Top View of Diesel Locomotive Engine 17
Figure 2.4 Cylinder Head 21
Figure 3.1 WDG 3A Locomotive 28
Figure 3.2 WDM 3D Locomotive 29
Figure 3.3 WDS 6AD Locomotive 31
Figure 3.4 Test Bed 33
Figure 4.1 Controls, indicators and the radio 38
Figure 4.2 Traction Motor 40
Figure 4.3 Principle of Governor 42
Figure 4.4 Woodward regulating governor installed 44
Figure 4.5 Schematic diagram of Woodward regulating governor 45
Figure 4.6 Governor-sections assembly 48
Figure 4.7 Fuel injection pump 53
Figure 4.8 FIP cut section 53
Figure 4.9 Fuel System` 57
Figure 4.10 Fuel Supply System 58
Figure 4.11 Honeycomb Radiator Tubes 60
Figure 4.12 Radiator Thermostat 60
Figure 5.1 Piping System 65
Figure 5.2 Water Cooling System 69
Figure 6.1 Lube oil system 70
Figure 7.1 Air foil bearing-supported turbocharger 71
Figure 7.2 Principle of turbocharger 73

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Figure 7.3 Brass oil drain connection 74
Figure 7.4 Compressor impeller 74
Figure 7.5 Turbine side housing removed 74
Figure 7.6 A wastegate installed next to the turbocharger 75
Figure 8.1 Suspension System 81
Figure 9.1 Diesel Mechanical Locomotive 85
Figure 10.1 Air Brake System 87
Figure 10.2 Brake 89
Figure 10.3 Rotair Valve Westinghouse Air Brake Company 91
Figure 10.4 Compressor 96
Figure 10.5 The brake and throttle controls 99
Figure 10.6 Computerized Display 99
Figure 10.7 Vacuum Brake Value 101
Figure 10.8 Train Pipe 101
Figure 10.9 Dual Brake System 107
Figure 10.10 Brakes 108
Figure 12.1 Bogie Function 112
Figure 12.2 Commonwealth bogie 115
Figure 13.1 Alco Front View 122
Figure 13.2 Alco Top View 123
Figure 13.3 Alco Assembly 123
Figure 13.4 Ge (Double Discharge) Front View 124
Figure 13.5 Ge (Double Discharge) Top View 124
Figure 13.6 Ge (Double Discharge) Bottom View 125
Figure 13.7 Ge (Double Discharge) Assembly 125
Figure 13.8 Abro Rotor Balancing Machine 131
Figure 13.9 Ge Rotor On Balancing Machine 132

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Table 1.1 General Profile of South Central Railway 3

Table 1.2 Railway Track Length in KM 4

Table 1.3 Railway Track Length in Andhra Pradesh & Telangana 4

Table 1.4 Electrified Lines in Andhra Pradesh & Telangana 5

Table 1.5 Major Establishments 6

Table 1.6 Classification of Stations 7

Table 3.1 Technical Specifications 26

Table 3.2 Technical Specifications of WDG 3A Locomotive 28

Table 3.3 Technical Specifications of WDM 3D Locomotive 30

Table 3.4 Technical Specifications of WDS 6AD Locomotive 32

Table 3.5 Fuel Consumption Over Duty Cycle 33

Table 3.6 Speed at Different Notch Positions 34

Table 13.1 Identifying causes of performance deterioration 12

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Chapter 1
1.1 Indian Railway History

Fig. 1.1 Logo of Indian Railways

Indian Railways is the state-owned railway company of India. It comes under
the Ministry of Railways. Indian Railways has one of the largest and busiest rail
networks in the world, transporting over 18 million passengers and more than 2
million tons of freight daily. Its revenue is Rs.107.66 billion. It is the world's largest
commercial employer, with more than 1.4 million employees. It operates rail
transport on 6,909 stations over a total route length of more than 63,327 kilometers
(39,350 miles). The fleet of Indian railway includes over 200,000 (freight) wagons,
50,000 coaches and 8,000 locomotives. It also owns locomotive and coach
production facilities. It was founded in 1853 under the East India Company.
Indian Railways is administered by the Railway Board. Indian Railways is
divided into 16 zones. Each zone railway is made up of a certain number of divisions.
There are a total of sixty-seven divisions. It also operates the Kolkata metro. There
are six manufacturing plants of the Indian Railways. The total length of track used
by Indian Railways is about 108,805 km (67,608 mi) while the total route length of
the network is 63,465 km (39,435 mi). About 40% of the total track kilometer is
electrified & almost all electrified sections use 25,000 V AC. Indian railways uses
four rail track gauges|~|
1. The broad gauge (1670 mm)
2. The meter gauge (1000 mm)

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3. Narrow gauge (762 mm)
4. Narrow gauge (610 mm).

Indian Railways operates about 9,000 passenger trains and transports 18 million
passengers daily .Indian Railways makes 70% of its revenues and most of its profits
from the freight sector, and uses these profits to cross-subsidies the loss-making
passenger sector. The Rajdhani Express and Shatabdi Express are the fastest trains
of India

1.1.1 Classification:
1. Standard “Gauge” designations and dimensions: -
 W = Broad gauge (1.67 m)
 Y = Medium gauge ( 1 m)
 Z = Narrow gauge ( 0.762 m)
 N = Narrow gauge ( 0.610 m)
2. “ Type of Traction” designations:-
 D = Diesel-electric traction
 C = DC traction
 A = AC traction
 CA=Dual power AC/DC traction
3. The “ type of load” or “Service” designations:-
 M= Mixed service
 P = Passenger
 G= Goods
 S = Shunting
4. “ Horse power ” designations from June 2002 (except WDP-1 & WDM-2
 ‘ 3 ’ For 3000 horsepower
 ‘ 4 ’ For 4000 horsepower
 ‘ 5 ’ For 5000 horsepower
 ‘ A ’ For extra 100 horsepower
 ‘ B ’ For extra 200 horsepower and so on.

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Hence ‘WDM-3A’ indicates a broad gauge loco with diesel-electric traction. It is
for mixed services and has 3100 horsepower.

1.1.2 History:

South Central Railway was formed on 02-10-1966 when Hubli

and Vijayawada Divisions of Southern Railway and Sholapur and
Secunderabad Divisions of Central Railway were carved out and merged into a new
Zone. Subsequently, Guntakal Division of Southern Railway was merged with
South Central Railway on 02-10-1977 and Sholapur Division was remerged
with Central Railway. Secunderabad Division was split into two
Divisions viz. Secunderabad and Hyderabad on 17-02-1978. Following re-
organisation of zones and Divisions with effect from 01-04-2003, two new
Divisions viz., Guntur and Nanded were operationalised duly transferring Hubli
Division to newly formed South Western Railway.

Presently S.C. Railway has 6 Divisions, viz, Secunderabad, Hyderabad, Vijayawada,

Guntakal, Guntur and Nanded. South Central Railway predominantly serves the
states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Maharashtra and to a limited extent,
portions of Karnataka, Tamilnadu & Madhya Pradesh states.

1. Number of Divisions 06
2. Number of States covered 06
3. Number of stations 704
4. Originating Earnings 2014-15 (` in crores) 13064.18
5. Apportioned Earnings 2014-15 (` in crores) 15395.38
6. No. of Originating Passengers 2014-15(in millions) 361.814
7. Originating Loading 2014-15 (in million Tonnes) 116.810
8. Operating Ratio 2014-15 76.40
9. Number of passenger Trains run daily: 736
Mail / Express trains 261
Passager Trains 357
MMTS Trains 118
10. Staff Strength Sanctions Actual

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1,00,893 87,844
Table 1.1 General Profile of South Central Railway
State-wise Route :

State BG MG Total
Andhra Pradesh 2739.501 - 2739.501
Telangana 1676.175 - 1676.175
Maharashtra 996.945 105.750 1102.695
Karnataka 326.676 - 326.676
Madhya Pradesh - 70.180 70.180
Tamil Nadu 6.860 - 6.860
Total 5746.157 175.930 5922.087
Table 1.2 Railway Track Length in KM

Division-wise Route & Running :

Division BG MG Total
Route Running Route Running Route Running
Secunderabad 1369.890 2128.611 -- -- 1369.890 2128.611
Vijayawada 958.926 1642.160 -- -- 958.926 1642.160
Guntakal 1355.151 2015.814 -- -- 1354.151 2015.814
Guntur 629.516 660.992 - -- 629.516 660.992
Hyderabad 622.809 651.579 -- -- 622.809 651.579
Nanded 809.865 809.615 175.930 175.930 985.795 985.545
Total 5746.157 7908.771 175.930 175.930 5922.087 8084.701
Table 1.3 Railway Track Length in Andhra Pradesh & Telangana

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Electrified Lines:

S.No. Division Route Route Km. Track

1 Vijayawada Vijayawada-Gudur 326 941
2 Vijayawada-Visakhapatnam 357 933
3 Vijayawada-Kondapalli 18 62
Total 701 1936
4 Secunderabad Kondapalli-Ballarshah 715 1626
5 Kazipet-Hyderabad-Sanatnagar 173 459
6 Sanatnagar-Vikarabad-Tandur- 177 489
seram-Malkhaid Road-Wadi (Excl)
Total 1065 2574
7 Guntakal Gudur-Tirupati 94 268
8 Renigunta-Nanadlur-Kadpa- 433 1033
Kamlapuram- Muddanuru-
Nancherla, Gooty- Dharmavaram
9 Tirupati-Pakala-Katpadi 104 122
Total 631 1423
10 Guntur Krishna Canal-Guntur-Tenali- 57 142
Total 57 142
11 Hyderabad Secunderabad - Falaknuma 16 41
12 Sitaphalmandi – Moula-Ali 9 13
Total 25 54
Grand Total 2479 6129

Table 1.4 Electrified Lines in Andhra Pradesh & Telangana

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Major Establishments:

Establishment No Location

Zonal Headquarter 1 Secunderabad

Divisional 6 Secunderabad, Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Guntur,

Headquarters Guntakal, Nanded

Workshops 5 Lallaguda (3), Tirupati, Rayanapadu

Diesel Loco Sheds 5 Kazipet, Gooty, Guntakal, Moula-

ali, Vijayawada

Electric Loco Sheds 3 Secunderabad, Kazipet, Vijayawada

Training Institutes 30 Secunderabad, Kazipet, Vijayawada, Guntakal,

Gooty, Washim, etc.

Hospitals 5 Lallaguda (300 beds), Vijayawada (203 beds),

Guntakal (131 Beds), Rayanpadu (25 beds),
Nanded (30 Beds) Total: 689 beds

Health Units 44 Secunderabad Division (9), Vijayawada

Division (11), Hyderabad Division (5), Guntakal
Division (10), Guntur Division (4), Nanded
Division (5)
Schools/ Colleges 14/5 Schools (14), Junior Colleges (4) ,
Degree College (1)

Table 1.5 Major Establishments

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Classification of stations:
Class Benchmark No. of stations
A-1 Above 60 crores 5
(Secunderabad, Hyderabad,
Vijayawada, Tirupati and
A Between 8 to 60 crores 31
B Between 4 to 8 crores 38
C All suburban stations 21
D Between 60 lakhs to 80
4 crores
E Below 60 lakhs 378
F All Halt stations 151

Table 1.6 Classification of Stations

1.2 About Diesel Loco Shed:

1.2.1 Brief History:

Diesel Shed, Moula-Ali was established in 1984 and located at a distance of

7 Km from RailNilayam, Secunderabad. From the inception, this shed was
maintaining Metre Gauge locomotives of YDM class. Subsequently, in the year
1988, WDS4 locos were introduced by converting a part of the shed to BG. Further,
the activities of the shed had got expanded and WDM2 and WDM3Amain line locos
were homed for maintenance. Present holding of WDM2/WDM3A locos are 53.Out
of 53 WDM2/WDM3A locos holding, 35 locos are working in passenger / express
links. In addition to the above the shed is also holding 9 DHMUs from 1988 onwards
meeting the demand of sub-urban traffic of Hyderabad and Secunderabad Divisions.
1 SPART, 1 SPMRV and 140 TBD crane are also maintained by this shed. 2 rakes

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of DEMUs have been received in May 2010 and are likely to be pressed into service
Since the shed was homing MG locos, lots of efforts were put in to modify
infrastructure facilities to BG especially suitable for maintaining WDM2 AND
WDM3A main line locomotives.
Diesel locomotive shed is an industrial-technical setup, where repair and
maintenance works of diesel locomotives is carried out, so as to keep the loco
working properly. It contributes to increase the operational life of diesel locomotives
and tries to minimize the line failures. The technical manpower of a shed also
increases the efficiency of the loco and remedies the failures of loco.
The shed consists of the infrastructure to berth, dismantle, repair and test the
loco and subsystems. The shed working is heavily based on the manual methods of
doing the maintenance job and very less automation processes are used in sheds,
especially in India.
The diesel shed usually has:-
 Berths and platforms for loco maintenance.
 Pits for under frame maintenance
 Heavy lift cranes and lifting jacks
 Fuel storage and lube oil storage, water treatment plant and testing labs
 Sub-assembly overhauling and repairing sections
Machine shop and welding facilities.

Logo of Shed:

Fig.1.2 Logo of Moula-Ali Diesel Shed

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1.2.2 Administration of Diesel Loco Shed, Moula-Ali, Hyderabad

The shed is headed by Senior Divisional Mechanical Engineer, assisted by 01

Divisional Mechanical Engineer & 02 Assistant Divisional Mechanical Engineers
and 01 Assistant Materials Manager with staff strength of 396. Store depot is
attached to this shed headed by one AMM with about 1000 stocked items.

Fig.1.3 Administration Flow Chart

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Diesel Engine

The diesel engine was first patented by Dr. Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913) in
Germany in 1892 and he actually got a successful engine working by 1897. By 1913,
when he died, his engine was in use on locomotives and he had set up a facility with
Sulzer in Switzerland to manufacture them. His death was mysterious in that he
simply disappeared from a ship taking him to London.

The diesel engine is a compression-ignition engine, as opposed to the petrol

(or gasoline) engine, which is a spark-ignition engine. The spark ignition engine
uses an electrical spark from a "spark plug" to ignite the fuel in the engine's
cylinders, whereas the fuel in the diesel engine's cylinders is ignited by the heat
caused by air being suddenly compressed in the cylinder. At this stage, the air gets
compressed into an area 1/25th of its original volume. This would be expressed as
a compression ratio of 25 to 1. A compression ratio of 16 to 1 will give an air
pressure of 500 lbs/in² (35.5 bar) and will increase the air temperature to over 800°
F (427° C).

The advantage of the diesel engine over the petrol engine is that it has a higher
thermal capacity (it gets more work out of the fuel), the fuel is cheaper because it is
less refined than petrol and it can do heavy work under extended periods of overload.
It can however, in a high speed form, be sensitive to maintenance and noisy, which
is why it is still not popular for passenger automobiles.

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2.1 Diesel engine: Mode of Operation

1. Suction stroke: Pure air gets sucked in by the piston sliding downward.
2. Compression stroke: The piston compresses the air above and uses thereby
work, performed by the crankshaft.
3. Power stroke: In the upper dead-center, the air is max. Compressed: Pressure
and Temperature are very high. Now the black injection pump injects heavy
fuel in the hot air. By the high temperature the fuel gets ignited immediately
(auto ignition). The piston gets pressed downward and performs work to the
4. Expulsion stroke: The burned exhaust gases are ejected out of the cylinder
through a second valve by the piston sliding upward again.

Fig. 2.1 4 stroke compression ignition (diesel) engine cycle

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2.2 Diesel-electric control

A Diesel-electric locomotive's power output is independent to road speed, as

long as the units generator current and voltage limits are not exceeded. Therefore,
the unit's ability to develop tractive effort (also referred to as drawbar pull or tractive
force, which is what actually propels the train) will tend to inversely vary with speed
within these limits.

The diesel engine ideally should operate with maximum fuel economy as long
as maximum power is not required. Maintaining acceptable operating parameters
was one of the principal design considerations that had to be solved in early Diesel-
electric locomotive development, and ultimately led to the complex control systems
in place on modern units where all these parameters are solved and regulated by
computer modules.

The prime mover's power output is primarily determined by its rotational

speed (RPM) and fuel rate, which are regulated by a governor or similar mechanism.
The governor is designed to react to both the throttle setting, as determined by the
engineer (driver), and the speed at which the prime mover is running.

Locomotive power output, and thus speed, is typically controlled by the

engineer (driver) using a stepped or "notched" throttle that produces binary-like
electrical signals corresponding to throttle position. This basic design lends itself
well to multiple unit (MU) operation by producing discrete conditions that assure
that all units in a consist respond in the same way to throttle position. Binary
encoding also helps to minimize the number of train lines (electrical connections)
that are required to pass signals from unit to unit. For example, only four train lines
are required to encode all throttle positions.

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In older locomotives, the throttle mechanism was ratcheted so that it was not
possible to advance more than one power position at a time. The engineer could not,
for example, pull the throttle from notch 2 to notch 4 without stopping at notch 3.
This feature was intended to prevent rough train handling due to abrupt power
increases caused by rapid throttle motion ("throttle stripping," an operating rules
violation on many railroads). Modern locomotives no longer have this restriction, as
their control systems are able to smoothly modulate power and avoid sudden changes
in train loading regardless of how the engineer (driver) operates the controls.


When the throttle is in the idle position, the prime mover will be receiving
minimal fuel, causing it to idle at low RPM. Also, the traction motors will not be
connected to the main generator and the generator's field windings will not be
excited (energized)—the generator will not produce electricity with no excitation.
Therefore, the locomotive will be in "neutral." Conceptually, this is the same as
placing an automobile's transmission into neutral while the engine is running.

To set the locomotive in motion, the reverser control handle is placed into the
correct position (forward or reverse), the brake is released and the throttle is moved
to the run 1 position (the first power notch). An experienced engineer (driver) can
accomplish these steps in a coordinated fashion that will result in a nearly
imperceptible start. The positioning of the reverser and movement of the throttle
together is conceptually like shifting an automobile's automatic transmission into
gear while the engine is idling

Placing the throttle into the first power position will cause the traction motors
to be connected to the main generator and the latter's field coils to be excited. It will

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not, however, increase prime mover RPM. With excitation applied, the main
generator will deliver electricity to the traction motors, resulting in motion. If the
locomotive is running "light" (that is, not coupled to a train) and is not on an
ascending grade it will easily accelerate. On the other hand, if a long train is being
started, the locomotive may stall as soon as some of the slack has been taken up, as
the drag imposed by the train will exceed the tractive force being developed. An
experienced engineer (driver) will be able to recognize an incipient stall and will
gradually advance the throttle as required to maintain the pace of acceleration.

As the throttle is moved to higher power notches, the fuel rate to the prime
mover will increase, resulting in a corresponding increase in RPM and horsepower
output. At the same time, main generator field excitation will be proportionally
increased to absorb the higher power. This will translate into increased electrical
output to the traction motors, with a corresponding increase in tractive force.
Eventually, depending on the requirements of the train's schedule, the engineer
(driver) will have moved the throttle to the position of maximum power and will
maintain it there until the train has accelerated to the desired speed.

As will be seen in the following discussion, the propulsion system is designed

to produce maximum traction motor torque at start-up, which explains why modern
locomotives are capable of starting trains weighing in excess of 15,000 tons, even
on ascending grades. Current technology allows a locomotive to develop as much as
30 percent of its loaded driver weight in tractive force, amounting to some 120,000
pounds of drawbar pull for a large, six-axle freight (goods) unit. In fact, a consist of
such units can produce more than enough drawbar pull at start-up to damage or derail
cars (if on a curve), or break couplers (the latter being referred to in North American
railroad slang as "jerking a lung"). Therefore, it is incumbent upon the engineer
(driver) to carefully monitor the amount of power being applied at start-up to avoid

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damage. In particular, "jerking a lung" could be a calamitous matter if it were to
occur on an ascending grade.

As previously explained, the locomotive's control system is designed so that

the main generator electrical power output is matched to any given engine speed.
Due to the innate characteristics of traction motors, as well as the way in which the
motors are connected to the main generator, the generator will produce high current
and low voltage at low locomotive speeds, gradually changing to low current and
high voltage as the locomotive accelerates. Therefore the net power produced by the
locomotive will remain constant for any given throttle setting.

In older designs, the prime mover's governor and a companion device, the
load regulator, play a central role in the control system. The governor has two
external inputs: requested engine speed, determined by the engineer's throttle setting,
and actual engine speed (feedback). The governor has two external control outputs:
fuel injector setting, which determines the engine fuel rate, and load regulator
position, which affects main generator excitation. The governor also incorporates a
separate over speed protective mechanism that will immediately cut off the fuel
supply to the injectors and sound an alarm in the cab in the event the prime mover
exceeds a defined RPM. It should be noted that not all of these inputs and outputs
are necessarily electrical.

The load regulator is essentially a large potentiometer that controls the main
generator power output by varying its field excitation and hence the degree of
loading applied to the engine. The load regulator's job is relatively complex, because
although the prime mover's power output is proportional to RPM and fuel rate, the
main generator's output is not (which characteristic was not correctly handled by the
Ward Leonard elevator drive system that was initially tried in early locomotives).

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As the load on the engine changes, its rotational speed will also change. This is
detected by the governor via a change in the engine speed feedback signal. The net
effect is to adjust both the fuel rate and the load regulator position. Therefore, engine
RPM and torque will remain constant for any given throttle setting, regardless of
actual road speed.

In newer designs controlled by a “traction computer,” each engine speed step

is allotted an appropriate power output, or “kW reference”, in software. The
computer compares this value with actual main generator power output, or “kW
feedback”, calculated from traction motor current and main generator voltage
feedback values. The computer adjusts the feedback value to match the reference
value by controlling the excitation of the main generator, as described above. The
governor still has control of engine speed, but the load regulator no longer plays a
central role in this type of control system. However, the load regulator is retained as
a “back-up” in case of engine overload. Modern locomotives fitted with electronic
fuel injection (EFI) may have no mechanical governor, however a “virtual” load
regulator and governor are retained with computer modules.

Fig.2.2 3200Hp Diesel Locomotive Engine

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Traction motor performance is controlled either by varying the DC voltage output
of the main generator, for DC motors, or by varying the frequency and voltage output
of the VVVF for AC motors. With DC motors, various connection combinations are
utilized to adapt the drive to varying operating conditions.

Fig.2.3 Top View of Diesel Locomotive Engine

Here are some of the specifications of this engine:

 Number of cylinders: 12
 Compression ratio: 16:1
 Displacement per cylinder: 11.6 L (710 in3)
 Cylinder bore: 230 mm (9.2 inches)
 Cylinder stroke: 279 mm (11.1 inches)
 Full speed: 904 rpm
 Normal idle speed: 269 rpm

At standstill, main generator output is initially low voltage/high current,

often in excess of 1000 amperes per motor at full power. When the locomotive is at
or near standstill, current flow will be limited only by the DC resistance of the motor

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windings and interconnecting circuitry, as well as the capacity of the main generator
itself. Torque in a series-wound motor is approximately proportional to the square
of the current. Hence, the traction motors will produce their highest torque, causing
the locomotive to develop maximum tractive effort, enabling it to overcome the
inertia of the train. This effect is analogous to what happens in an automobile
automatic transmission at start-up, where it is in first gear and thus producing
maximum torque multiplication.

As the locomotive accelerates, the now-rotating motor armatures will start to

generate a counter-electromotive force (back EMF, meaning the motors are also
trying to act as generators), which will oppose the output of the main generator and
cause traction motor current to decrease. Main generator voltage will
correspondingly increase in an attempt to maintain motor power, but will eventually
reach a plateau. At this point, the locomotive will essentially cease to accelerate,
unless on a downgrade. Since this plateau will usually be reached at a speed
substantially less than the maximum that may be desired, something must be done
to change the drive characteristics to allow continued acceleration. This change is
referred to as "transition," a process that is analogous to shifting gears in an

2.4 Starting:

A diesel engine is started (like an automobile) by turning over the crankshaft

until the cylinders "fire" or begin combustion. The starting can be done electrically
or pneumatically. Pneumatic starting was used for some engines. Compressed air
was pumped into the cylinders of the engine until it gained sufficient speed to allow
ignition, then fuel was applied to fire the engine. The compressed air was supplied
by a small auxiliary engine or by high pressure air cylinders carried by the

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Electric starting is now standard. It works the same way as for an automobile,
with batteries providing the power to turn a starter motor which turns over the main
engine. In older locomotives fitted with DC generators instead of AC alternators,
the generator was used as a starter motor by applying battery power to it.

2.5 Transition methods include:

 Series / Parallel or "motor transition."

o Initially, pairs of motors are connected in series across the main generator.
At higher speed, motors are re-connected in parallel across the main
 Field shunting," "field diverting" or "weak fielding."
o Resistance is connected in parallel with the motor field. This has the effect
of increasing the armature current, producing a corresponding increase in
motor torque and speed.
Note: Both methods may also be combined, to increase the operating speed range.

 Generator transition
o Reconnecting the two separate internal main generator stator windings
from parallel to series to increase the output voltage.

In older locomotives, it was necessary for the engineer to manually execute

transition by use of a separate control. As an aid to performing transition at the right
time, the load meter (an indicator that informs the engineer on how much current is
being drawn by the traction motors) was calibrated to indicate at which points
forward or backward transition should take place. Automatic transition was
subsequently developed to produce better operating efficiency, and to protect the
main generator and traction motors from overloading due to improper transition.

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The hybrid diesel locomotive is an incredible display of power and
ingenuity. It combines some great mechanical technology, including a huge, 12-
cylinder, two-stroke diesel engine, with some heavy duty electric motors and
generators, throwing in a little bit of computer technology for good measure.

This combination of diesel engine and electric generators and motors makes
the locomotive a hybrid vehicle. In this article, we'll start by learning why
locomotives are built this way and why they have steel wheels. Then we'll take a
look at the layout and key components.

2.6 Size Does Count

Basically, the more power you need, the bigger the engine has to be. Early
diesel engines were less than 100 horse power (hp) but today the US is building 6000
hp locomotives. For a UK locomotive of 3,300 hp (Class 58), each cylinder will
produce about 200 hp, and a modern engine can double this if the engine is

The maximum rotational speed of the engine when producing full power will
be about 1000 rpm (revolutions per minute) and the engine will idle at about 400
rpm. These relatively low speeds mean that the engine design is heavy, as opposed
to a high speed, lightweight engine. However, the UK HST (High Speed Train,
developed in the 1970s) engine has a speed of 1,500 rpm and this is regarded as high
speed in the railway diesel engine category. The slow, heavy engine used in railway
locomotives will give low maintenance requirements and an extended life.

There is a limit to the size of the engine which can be accommodated within
the railway loading gauge, so the power of a single locomotive is limited. Where
additional power is required, it has become usual to add locomotives. In the US,
where freight trains run into tens of thousands of tons weight, four locomotives at

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the head of a train are common and several additional ones in the middle or at the
end are not unusual.

2.7 Important Maintenance Instruction For Cylinder Head.

 Study the condition of cylinder head combustion chamber face, cooling

jackets and its valves thoroughly before its dismantling.
 Clean cylinder head thoroughly especially cooling jackets.
 Do RDF of cylinder head combustion face, defect any cracks.
 Check cylinder head hydraulically at 5kg/sq. cm and 8. Temp of water up to
a min of 15 minutes.
 Check the diameter of valve guide after removing its carbon deposits.
 Check the clean nozzle, cooling sleeves seat of cylinder head.
 Use liquid nitrogen for valve seat insert fitting.
 Check valve seat inserts for cracks by RDF (After grinding).
 Before final assembly check all valve seat inserts as well as of nozzle cooling
 Compare seat should be lapped thoroughly and it should be 1/16” thick all

2.8 Cylinder Head

Fig. 2.4 Cylinder Head

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2.9 To V or not to V

Diesel engines can be designed with the cylinders "in-line", "double banked"
or in a "V". The double banked engine has two rows of cylinders in line. Most
diesel locomotives now have V form engines. This means that the cylinders are split
into two sets, with half forming one side of the V. A V8 engine has 4 cylinders set
at an angle forming one side of the V with the other set of four forming the other
side. The crankshaft, providing the drive, is at the base of the V. The V12 was a
popular design used in the UK. In the US, V16 is usual for freight locomotives and
there are some designs with V20 engines.

2.10 Tractive Effort, Pull and Power

Before going too much further, we need to understand the definitions of

tractive effort, drawbar pull and power. The definition of tractive effort (TE) is
simply the force exerted at the wheel rim of the locomotive and is usually expressed
in pounds (lbs) or kilo Newtons (KN). By the time the tractive effort is transmitted
to the coupling between the locomotive and the train, the drawbar pull, as it is called
will have reduced because of the friction of the mechanical parts of the drive and
some wind resistance.

Power is expressed as horsepower (hp) or kilo Watts (kW) and is actually a

rate of doing work. A unit of horsepower is defined as the work involved by a horse
lifting 33,000 lbs one foot in one minute. In the metric system it is calculated as the
power (Watts) needed when one Newton of force is moved one metre in one second.
The formula is P = (F*d)/t where P is power, F is force, d is distance and t is
time. One horsepower equals 746 Watts.

The relationship between power and drawbar pull is that a low speed and a
high drawbar pull can produce the same power as high speed and low drawbar pull.

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If you need to increase higher tractive effort and high speed, you need to increase
the power. To get the variations needed by a locomotive to operate on the railway,
you need to have a suitable means of transmission between the diesel engine and the

One thing worth remembering is that the power produced by the diesel engine
is not all available for traction. In a 2,580 hp diesel electric locomotive, some 450
hp is lost to on-board equipment like blowers, radiator fans, air compressors and
"hotel power" for the train.

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WDM-2 Diesel Locomotive

The first few prototype WDM-2s were imported. After Diesel Locomotive
Works (DLW) completed construction of its factory in Varanasi, production of the
locomotives began in India. The first 12 locos were built using kits imported from
ALCO in the United States. After that DLW started manufacturing the WDM-2
locomotives from their own components. Since then over 2,800 locomotives have
been manufactured and the WDM-2 has become the most popular locomotive in

However, even before the arrival of WDM-2 another type of diesel locomotive
was imported from ALCO beginning in 1957. This locomotive was classified as

Later a number of modifications were made and a few subclasses were

created. This includes WDM-2A, WDM-2B and WDM-3A (formerly WDM-2C).

The WDM-2 is the diesel workhorse of the Indian Railways, being very
reliable and rugged.

The class WDM-2 is Indian Railways' workhorse diesel locomotive. The first
units were imported fully built from the American Locomotive Company (Alco) in
1962. Since 1964, it has been manufactured in India by the Diesel Locomotive
Works (DLW), Varanasi. The model name stands for broad gauge (W), diesel (D),
mixed traffic (M) engine. The WDM-2 is the most common diesel locomotive of
Indian Railways.

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The WDM-2A is a variant of the original WDM-2. These units have been
retro-fitted with air brakes, in addition to the original vacuum brakes. The WDM-
2B is a more recent locomotive, built with air brakes as original equipment. The
WDM-2 locos have a maximum speed of 120 km/h (75 mph), restricted to 100 km/h
(62 mph) when run long hood forward. The gear ratio is 65:18.

Types of Diesel locomotives:

WDM2 BG Main Line Locomotive 2600HP

WDM3 BG Main Line Locomotive 3100HP

WDM6 BG Main Line Locomotive 1350HP

WDM7 BG Main Line Locomotive 2150HP

WDG4 BG Main Line Goods Locomotive 4000HP

WDP4 BG Main Line Passenger Locomotive 4000HP

WDS6 BG Shunting Locomotive 1350HP

WDP1 BG Inter City Express Locomotive 2300HP

WDP2 BG High HP Passenger Locomotive 3100HP

WDG3A BG High Goods Locomotive 3100HP

WDG3C BG High HP Goods Locomotive 3300HP

YDM4 MG Main Line Locomotive 1350HP

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3.1 Technical specifications

Builders Alco, DLW

Engine Alco 251-B, 16 cylinder, 2,600 hp (2,430 hp site rating) with

Alco 710/720/?? Turbo supercharged engine. 1,000 rpm max,
400 rpm idle; 228 mm x 266 mm bore/stroke; compression ratio
12.5:1. Direct fuel injection, centrifugal pump cooling system
(2,457 l/min at 1,000 rpm), fan driven by eddy current clutch
(86 hp at 1,000 rpm).

Governor GE 17MG8 / Woodward’s 8574-650.

Transmission Electric, with BHEL TG 10931 AZ generator (1,000 rpm, 770

V, 4,520 amps).

Traction GE752 (original Alco models) (405 hp), BHEL 4906 BZ (AZ?)
motors (435 hp) and (newer) 4907 AZ (with roller bearings)

Axle load 18.8 tones, total weight 112.8 t.

Bogies Alco design cast frame trimount (Co-Co) bogies

Starting TE 30.4 t, at adhesion 27%.

Length over 15,862 mm.

buffer beams

Distance 10,516 mm.

between bogies

Table 3.1 Technical Specifications

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The above requirement, in the year 1987, led to the creation of test beds at
Engine Development Directorate of RDSO at Lucknow having state of the art
facilities for developmental testing of all the variants of diesel engines being used
by Indian Railways. It included the computer based test facility for both data logging
and control of engines.

The above facilities comparable to the best facilities in the world were created
to meet the following objectives:

 Development of technology for improving existing Rail Traction Diesel

Engines for
1. Better Fuel Efficiency
2. Higher Reliability
3. Increased Availability

 Development of technology for increasing power output of existing Diesel


 Develop capability for designing new Rail Traction Diesel Engines for
meeting future needs of Indian Railways.

 To provide effective R&D backup to Railways and Production units to

1. Maintain Quality
2. Facilitate Indigenization

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3.2 Broad Gauge Main Line Freight Locomotive WDG 3A

Fig. 3.1 WDG 3A Locomotive

3.2.1 Technical Information

Diesel Electric main line, heavy duty goods service locomotive, with 16 cylinder
ALCO engine and AC/DC traction with microprocessor controls.

Wheel Arrangement Co-Co

Track Gauge 1676 mm

Weight 123 t

Length over Buffers 19132 mm

Wheel Diameter 1092 mm

Gear Ratio 18 : 74

Min radius of Curvature 117 m

Maximum Speed 105 Kmph

Diesel Engine Type : 251 B,16 Cyl.- V

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HP 3100

Brake IRAB-1

Loco Air, Dynamic

Train Air

Fuel Tank Capacity 6000 litres

Table 3.2 Technical Specifications of WDG 3A Locomotive

3.3 Broad Gauge Main Line Mixed Service LOCO WDM 3D

Fig. 3.2 WDM 3D Locomotive

3.3.1 Technical Information

Diesel Electric Locomotive with microprocessor control suitable for main line
mixed Service train operation.

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Wheel Arrangement Co-Co

Track Gauge 1676 mm

Weight 117 t

Max. Axle Load 19.5 t

Length over Buffer 18650 mm

Wheel Diameter 1092 mm

Gear Ratio 18 : 65

Maximum Speed 120 Kmph

Diesel Engine Type: 251 B-16 Cyl. ‘V’ type

HP 3300 HP (standard UIC condition)

Transmission Electric AC / DC

Brake IRAB-1 system

Loco Air, Dynamic, Hand

Train Air

Fuel Tank Capacity 5000 litres

Table 3.3 Technical Specifications of WDM 3D Locomotive

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3.4 Broad Gauge Shunting Locomotive WDS 6AD

Fig. 3.3 WDS 6AD Locomotive

3.4.1Technical Information

A heavy duty shunting Diesel Electric Locomotive for main line and branch
line train operation. This locomotive is very popular with Steel Plants and Port

Wheel Arrangement Co-Co

Track Gauge 1676 mm

Weight 113 t

Length over Buffer 17370 mm

Wheel Diameter 1092 mm

Gear Ratio 74 : 18

Maximum Speed 50 Kmph

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Diesel Engine Type : 251 D-6 Cyl. in-line

HP 1350 / 1120 HP (std.)

Transmission Electric AC / DC

Brake IRAB-1

Loco Air

Train Air

Fuel Tank Capacity 5000 litres

Table 3.4 Technical Specifications of WDS 6AD Locomotive

3.5 Engine Test Bed Facilities

The test bed facilities in RDSO are equipped with four Test Cells. These Test
Cells house four (16 cylinders GMEMD, 16 cylinders ALCO, 12 cylinders ALCO,
6 cylinders ALCO) types of DLW manufactured Engines. Each test cell has its own
microprocessor controlled data acquisition and control systems and Video Display
Unit (VDU) for pressure, temperature and other parameters. Various transducers
relay the information from the test engines to the microprocessor based test
commander for further processing with the help of sophisticated software. Each test
cell has an instrumentation catering to 60 to 120 pressures / temperature transducers
along with sophisticated equipment’s like gravimetric fuel balance for measurement
of fuel consumption and the equipment for measurement of air flow.

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Fig. 3.4 Test Bed

3.6 Fuel Consumption on 8th Notch

Since the fuel consumption at 8th notch is highest and also since Locomotives
run at this notch for longer duration as compared to other notches, fuel consumption
at this notch is one of the important fuel efficiency index. This is measured in terms
of gm / bhp - hr.

3.7 Fuel Consumption Over Duty Cycle

An Engine runs in the field at different notch as per requirement of speed /

load of the locomotive. The notch wise percentage running of locomotive over duty
cycle for passenger and freight operations of Indian Railways locomotives is as

Table 3.5 Fuel Consumption Over Duty Cycle

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3.8 Speed at different Notch position

Notch Speed (RPM)

1 400
2 450
3 550
4 650
5 750
6 850
7 915
8 1000
Table 3.6 Speed at Different Notch Positions

3.9 Driving a Locomotive

You don't just hop in the cab, turn the key and drive away in a diesel
locomotive. Starting a train is a little more complicated than starting your car.

The engineer climbs an 8-foot (2.4-m) ladder and enters a corridor behind the cab.
He or she engages a knife switch (like the ones in old Frankenstein movies) that
connects the batteries to the starter circuit. Then the engineer flips about a hundred
switches on a circuit-breaker panel, providing power to everything from the lights
to the fuel pump.

Next, the engineer walks down a corridor into the engine room. He turns and
holds a switch there, which primes the fuel system, making sure that all of the air is
out of the system. He then turns the switch the other way and the starter motor
engages. The engine cranks over and starts running.

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Next, he goes up to the cab to monitor the gauges and set the brakes once the
compressor has pressurized the brake system. He can then head to the back of the
train to release the hand brake.

Finally he can head back up to the cab and take over control from there. Once
he has permission from the conductor of the train to move, he engages the bell, which
rings continuously, and sounds the air horns twice (indicating forward motion).

The throttle control has eight positions, plus an idle position. Each of the
throttle positions is called a "notch." Notch 1 is the slowest speed, and notch 8 is the
highest speed. To get the train moving, the engineer releases the brakes and puts the
throttle into notch 1.

In this General Motors EMD 710 series engine, putting the throttle into notch
1 engages a set of contactors (giant electrical relays). These contactors hook the main
generator to the traction motors. Each notch engages a different combination of
contactors, producing a different voltage. Some combinations of contactors put
certain parts of the generator winding into a series configuration that results in a
higher voltage. Others put certain parts in parallel, resulting in a lower voltage. The
traction motors produce more power at higher voltages.

As the contactors engage, the computerized engine controls adjust the fuel
injectors to start producing more engine power.

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Main Parts of an Engine

4.1 Main Alternator

The diesel engine drives the main alternator which provides the power to
move the train. The alternator generates AC electricity which is used to provide
power for the traction motors mounted on the trucks (bogies). In older locomotives,
the alternator was a DC machine, called a generator. It produced direct current
which was used to provide power for DC traction motors. Many of these machines
are still in regular use. The next development was the replacement of the generator
by the alternator but still using DC traction motors. The AC output is rectified to
give the DC required for the motors.

4.2 Auxiliary Alternator

Locomotives used to operate passenger trains are equipped with an auxiliary

alternator. This provides AC power for lighting, heating, air conditioning, dining
facilities etc. on the train. The output is transmitted along the train through an
auxiliary power line. In the US, it is known as "head end power" or "hotel power".
In the UK, air conditioned passenger coaches get what is called electric train supply
(ETS) from the auxiliary alternator.

4.3 Motor Blower

The diesel engine also drives a motor blower. As its name suggests, the motor
blower provides air which is blown over the traction motors to keep them cool during
periods of heavy work. The blower is mounted inside the locomotive body but the
motors are on the trucks, so the blower output is connected to each of the motors

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through flexible ducting. The blower output also cools the alternators. Some
designs have separate blowers for the group of motors on each truck and others for
the alternators. Whatever the arrangement, a modern locomotive has a complex air
management system which monitors the temperature of the various rotating
machines in the locomotive and adjusts the flow of air accordingly.

4.4 Air Intakes

The air for cooling the locomotive's motors is drawn in from outside the
locomotive. It has to be filtered to remove dust and other impurities and its flow
regulated by temperature, both inside and outside the locomotive. The air
management system has to take account of the wide range of temperatures from the
possible +40° C of summer to the possible -40° C of winter.

4.5 Rectifiers/Inverters

The output from the main alternator is AC but it can be used in a locomotive
with either DC or AC traction motors. DC motors were the traditional type used for
many years but, in the last 10 years, AC motors have become standard for new
locomotives. They are cheaper to build and cost less to maintain and, with electronic
management can be very finely controlled. To see more on the difference between
DC and AC traction technology try the Electronic Power Page on this site.

To convert the AC output from the main alternator to DC, rectifiers are
required. If the motors are DC, the output from the rectifiers is used directly. If the
motors are AC, the DC output from the rectifiers is converted to 3-phase AC for the
traction motors.

In the US, there are some variations in how the inverters are configured. GM
EMD relies on one inverter per truck, while GE uses one inverter per axle - both
systems have their merits. EMD's system links the axles within each truck in

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parallel, ensuring wheel slip control is maximized among the axles equally. Parallel
control also means even wheel wear even between axles. However, if one inverter
(i.e. one truck) fails then the unit is only able to produce 50 per cent of its tractive
effort. One inverter per axle is more complicated, but the GE view is that individual
axle control can provide the best tractive effort. If an inverter fails, the tractive effort
for that axle is lost, but full tractive effort is still available through the other five
inverters. By controlling each axle individually, keeping wheel diameters closely
matched for optimum performance is no longer necessary.

4.6 Electronic Controls:

Almost every part of the modern locomotive's equipment has some form of
electronic control. These are usually collected in a control cubicle near the cab for
easy access.

The controls will usually include a maintenance management system of some

sort which can be used to download data to a portable or hand-held computer.

Fig. 4.1 Controls, indicators and the radio

4.7 Control Stand

This is the principal man-machine interface, known as a control desk in the

UK or control stand in the US. The common US type of stand is positioned at an
angle on the left side of the driving position and, it is said, is much preferred by

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drivers to the modern desk type of control layout usual in Europe and now being
offered on some locomotives in the US.

4.8 Batteries

Just like an automobile, the diesel engine needs a battery to start it and to
provide electrical power for lights and controls when the engine is switched off and
the alternator is not running.

The locomotive operates on a nominal 64-volt electrical system. The locomotive has
eight 8-volt batteries; each weighing over 300 pounds (136 kg). These batteries
provide the power needed to start the engine (it has a huge starter motor), as well as
to run the electronics in the locomotive. Once the main engine is running, an
alternator supplies power to the electronics and the batteries.

4.9 Cab

Most US diesel locomotives have only one cab but the practice in Europe is
two cabs. US freight locos are also designed with narrow engine compartments and
walkways along either side. This gives a reasonable forward view if the locomotive
is working "hood forwards". US passenger locos, on the other hand have full width
bodies and more streamlined ends but still usually with one cab. In Europe, it is
difficult to tell the difference between a freight and passenger locomotive because
the designs are almost all wide bodied and their use is often mixed. The cab of the
locomotive rides on its own suspension system, which helps isolate the engineer
from bumps. The seats have a suspension system as well.

4.10 Traction Motor

Since the diesel-electric locomotive uses electric transmission, traction

motors are provided on the axles to give the final drive. These motors were

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traditionally DC but the development of modern power and control electronics has
led to the introduction of 3-phase AC motors. There are between four and six motors
on most diesel-electric locomotives. A modern AC motor with air blowing can
provide up to 1,000 hp.

Propulsion: The traction motors provide propulsion power to the wheels. There is
one on each axle. Each motor drives a small gear, which meshes with a larger gear
on the axle shaft. This provides the gear reduction that allows the motor to drive the
train at speeds of up to 110 mph.

Fig. 4.2 Traction Motor

Each motor weighs 6,000 pounds (2,722 kg) and can draw up to 1,170 amps of
electrical current.

4.11 Fuel Tank

A diesel locomotive has to carry its own fuel around with it and there has to
be enough for a reasonable length of trip. The fuel tank is normally under the loco
frame and will have a capacity of say 1,000 imperial gallons (UK Class 59, 3,000
hp) or 5,000 US gallons in a General Electric AC4400CW 4,400 hp locomotive. The
new AC6000s have 5,500 gallon tanks. In addition to fuel, the locomotive will carry
around, typically about 300 US gallons of cooling water and 250 gallons of

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lubricating oil for the diesel engine. Air reservoirs are also required for the train
braking and some other systems on the locomotive. These are often mounted next
to the fuel tank under the floor of the locomotive.

This huge tank in the underbelly of the locomotive holds 2,200 gallons (8,328
L) of diesel fuel. The fuel tank is compartmentalized, so if any compartment is
damaged or starts to leak, pumps can remove the fuel from that compartment.

4.12 Governor

Once a diesel engine is running, the engine speed is monitored and controlled
through a governor. The governor ensures that the engine speed stays high enough
to idle at the right speed and that the engine speed will not rise too high when full
power is demanded. The governor is a simple mechanical device which first
appeared on steam engines. It operates on a diesel engine as shown in the diagram

The governor consists of a rotating shaft, which is driven by the diesel

engine. A pair of flyweights is linked to the shaft and they rotate as it rotates. The
centrifugal force caused by the rotation causes the weights to be thrown outwards as
the speed of the shaft rises. If the speed falls the weights move inwards. The
flyweights are linked to a collar fitted around the shaft by a pair of arms. As the
weights move out, so the collar rises on the shaft. If the weights move inwards, the
collar moves down the shaft. The movement of the collar is used to operate the fuel
rack lever controlling the amount of fuel supplied to the engine by the injectors.

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Fig. 4.3 Principle of Governor

4.12.1 Function and types of governors

The purpose of a governor is to control the speed of an engine. If an engine is

loaded beyond its rated capacity, it will slow down or may even stop. Governors act
through the fuel injection system to control the amount of fuel delivered to the
cylinders. The quantity of fuel delivered, in turn, governs the power developed.

The two types of governors, each of which serves a distinctly different purpose,
are : over speed governor and regulating governor. The over speed type is used
on most marine engines where the speed of the engine is variable. By necessity, the
marine engine requires flexibility in speed due to the maneuvering of the ship. This
type of governor is installed as a safety measure and comes into action when the
engine approaches dangerous over speed. This condition could occur before the
operator had time to bring the engine under control by other means. The over speed
trip functions only if the regulating governor fails. This governor controls all
abnormal speed surges.

Overspeed governors are of the centrifugal type; that is, the action of the
governor depends upon the centrifugal force created as the governor weights
revolve. Centrifugal force is the force that tends to move a body away from the axis

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about which it is revolved. This force is transmitted to the fuel injection system by
means of levers connected to the governor collar and a linkage system. In some types
of over speed governors the action merely cuts off the fuel until the engine has
slowed to a point of safety and then allows the resumption of normal operation. The
other type trips a fuel cutout mechanism and affects a complete stopping of the
engine. The F-M engines employ an F-M design over speed governor and the GM
engines use Woodward over speed governors.

For this discussion governors will be classified as either hydraulic or

mechanical. The mechanical type embodies the principle of centrifugal force similar
to the over speed type, while the hydraulic type employs a centrifugally actuated
pilot valve to regulate the flow of a hydraulic medium under pressure. The
mechanical governor is more applicable to the small engine field not requiring
extremely close regulation while the hydraulic type finds favor with the larger
installations demanding very close regulation. The regulating governor is much
more sensitive to slight speed fluctuations than is the overspeed governor. Its duty
is to control the speed within very narrow limits when an engine is operating under
varying loads. It takes the place of the operator's manual control of the throttle. When
the load on the engine increases, and before the engine's speed has appreciably
dropped, it permits an increase of fuel to the cylinders, thus maintaining the engine
speed at the set rate. To perform this function, the governor must be sensitive to the
slightest variation in speed. The Woodward hydraulic governor of the regulating
type is widely used in the United States Navy & Railway Engines.

4.12.2 Description and operation

The type of regulating governor used on all submarine main engines is the
Woodward SI hydraulic type governor. On F-M engines, it is driven from the lower
crankshaft, and on GM engines, from one of the camshafts. The purpose of the

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governor is to regulate the amount of fuel supplied to the cylinders so that a
predetermined engine speed will be maintained despite variations in load. Figure 10-
2 is a schematic diagram of the governor. The principal parts of the governor are a
gear pump and accumulators which serve to keep a constant oil pressure on the
system at all times; a pilot valve plunger, pilot valve bushing, and flyweights which
control the amount of oil going to the power assembly; a speed adjusting spring
whose tension governs the speed setting of the governor; the power element,
consisting of the power spring, power piston, and power cylinder; and the
compensating assembly which consists of the actuating compensating plunger, the
receiving compensating plunger, the compensating spring, and two compensation
needle valves. The pilot valve plunger is constructed with a land which serves to
open or close the port in the pilot valve bushing leading to the power cylinder.

In this governor the flyweights are linked hydraulically to the fuel control
cylinder. The downward pressure of the power spring is balanced by the hydraulic
lock on the lower side of the power piston. The amount of oil below the power piston
is regulated by the pilot valve plunger controlled by the flyweights.

Fig. 4.4 Woodward regulating governor installed

When the engine is running at the speed set on the governor, the land on the
pilot valve plunger covers the regulating port in the bushing. The plunger is held in

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this position by the flyweights. However, if the engine load decreases, the engine
speeds up and the additional centrifugal force moves the flyweights outward, raising
the pilot valve plunger. This opens the regulating port of the bushing, and trapped
oil from the power cylinder is then allowed to flow through the pilot valve cylinder
into a drainage passage to the oil sump. As the trapped oil drains to the oil sump, the
power spring forces the piston down, actuating the linkage to the fuel system
controls, and the supply of fuel to the engine is diminished. As the engine speed
returns to the set rate, the flyweights resume their original position and the, pilot
valve plunger again covers the regulating port.

Fig. 4.5 Schematic diagram of Woodward regulating governor

If the load increases, the engine slows down, and the flyweights move inward.
This lowers the pilot valve plunger, allowing pressure oil to flow through the pilot
valve chamber to the power cylinder. This oil supplied by a pump is under a pressure
sufficient to overcome the pressure of the power spring. The power piston moves
upward, actuating the linkage to increase the amount of fuel injected into the engine

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cylinders. Once again, as the speed returns to the set rate, the flyweights resume their
central position. The gear pump that supplies the high-pressure oil is driven from the
governor drive shaft and takes suction from the governor oil sump. A spring-loaded
accumulator maintains a constant pressure of oil and allows excess oil to return to
the sump.

To prevent overcorrection in the regulating governor a compensating

mechanism is used. This acts on the pilot valve bushing so as to anticipate the pilot
valve movement and close the regulating port slightly before the centrifugal flyballs
would normally direct the pilot valve to cover the port. A compensating plunger on
the power piston shaft moves in a cylinder that is also filled with oil. When the
engine speed increases and the power piston moves downward, the actuating
compensating plunger is also carried down, drawing oil into its cylinder. This creates
a suction above the receiving compensating plunger which is part of the pilot valve
bushing. The bushing moves upward, closing the port to the power piston. Thus the
power piston is stopped, allowing no time for overcorrection. As the flyweights and
pilot valve return to their central position, oil flowing through a needle valve allows
the compensating spring to return to its central position. To keep the port closed, the
bushing and plunger must return to normal position at exactly the same speed.
Therefore, the needle valve must be adjusted so that the oil passes through at the
required rate for the particular engine.

When the engine speed drops below the set rate, the actuating compensating
plunger moves upward with the power piston. This increases the pressure above the
actuating compensating plunger and consequently above the receiving compensating
piston which therefore moves down, carrying with it the pilot valve bushing. As
before, the lower bushing port is closed. The excess oil in the compensating system

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is now forced out through the needle valve as the compensating spring returns the
bushing to its central position.

The governing speed of the engine is set by changing the tension of the speed
adjusting spring. The pressure of this spring determines the engine speed necessary
for the flyweights to maintain their central position. Oil allowed to leak past the
various plungers for lubricating purposes is drained into the governing oil sump.

In actual operation, the events described above occur almost simultaneously.

4.12.3 Regulating governor sub-assemblies:-

The governor consists of five principal subassemblies as follows:

a. Drive adapter: - The drive adapter assembly serves as a mounting base for
the governor. The upper flange of the casting is bored out at the center to form
a bearing surface for the hub of the pump drive gear and for the upper end of
the drive shaft.

b. Power case assembly: - This assembly includes the governor oil pump, oil
pump check valves, oil pressure accumulators, and compensating needle

The oil pump drive gear turns the rotating sleeve to which it is attached.
The pump idler gear is carried on a stud and rotates in a bored recess in the
power case. These two gears and their housing constitute the governor oil
pump. On opposite sides of the central bore in the power case, and parallel to
it, are two long oil passages leading from the bottom of the power case to the
top of the accumulator bores. Check valve seats are arranged at the top and

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bottom of each chamber. Both check valves have openings leading from the
space between the valves to the oil pump. In this way the pump is arranged
for rotation in either direction, pulling oil through the lower check valve on
one side and forcing it through the upper check valve on the opposite side.

There are two oil pressure accumulators. Their function is to regulate

the operating oil pressure and insure a continuous supply of oil in the event
that the requirements of the power cylinder should temporarily exceed the
capacity of the oil pump. There is no adjustment for oil pressure, as this
pressure is determined by the size of the springs in the accumulators. The two
compensating needle valves control the size of the openings in the two small
tapered ports in the passage that connects the area above the actuating
compensating plunger in the Servo motor and the space above the receiving
compensating plunger in the pilot valve bushing of the rotating sleeve

Fig. 4.6 Governor-sections through adapter, power, case, power cylinder and
rotating sleeve assembly.

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c. Power cylinder assembly: - The power cylinder assembly consists of the
cylinder, power piston, piston rod, power spring, and the actuating
compensating plunger. The power piston is single acting. Any oil pressure
acting on the lower side forces the piston up against the power spring, thereby
increasing the fuel flow. If no oil pressure is present, the power spring acting
on the upper side forces the piston down to decrease the fuel flow.

The area underneath the power piston is connected to the pilot valve
regulating ports. An oil drain is provided in the space above the power piston
to permit any oil that may leak by the piston to drain into the governor case
oil sump. No piston rings are used in the closely fitting piston. A shallow,
helical groove permits equal oil pressure on all sides of the piston, thus
preventing wear and binding.

An adjustable load limit stop screw is provided in the power cylinder.

This screw prevents the power piston from traveling beyond the
predetermined load limit. The screw can be adjusted by removing the cap nut
on top of the power cylinder, loosening the lock nut, and turning the screw up
or down with a screwdriver.

d. Speed control column: - The basic speed control column assembly

includes the speeder plug screw, speed adjusting spring, rack shaft, rack shaft
gear, and the speed adjustment knob with gear train. The gear train consists
of the dial shaft gear, dial shaft pinion, and the pinion shaft gear and pinion.
Movement of the gear train changes the compression of the speed adjusting
spring. The amount of compression determines the speed at which the flyballs

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will be vertical. Hence, the compression determines the engine speed. The
speeder plug screw allows the adjustment of the governor speed setting to
match the actual speed of the engine.

e. Rotating sleeve assembly: - The principal parts of the rotating sleeve

assembly (Figure 10-13) are: the pump drive gear, pilot valve bushing, pilot
valve plunger, ballhead, and flyballs. The central bore in the power case forms
a bearing for the entire rotating sleeve. The port grooves in the sleeve align
with the ports in the power case (Figure 10-10). Since these grooves extend
completely around the diameter of the rotating sleeve, the results are the same
as if the sleeve were stationary and the ports were permanently in line with
those in the case. From top to bottom the ports are as follows: accumulator
pressure to pilot valve, regulating pressure to power cylinder, drain from the
lower end of the pilot plunger, compensating pressure from the power piston
to the receiving compensating plunger on the pilot valve bushing, and drain
from the lower side of the receiving compensating plunger.


a. Speed adjustment: - The speed setting of the governor is changed by

increasing or decreasing the compression of the speed adjusting spring which
opposes the centrifugal force of the flyballs. Increasing the spring
compression will make it more difficult for the flyballs to move outward;
consequently a higher flyball (and engine) speed must be attained to move the
flyballs outward and thereby reduce the fuel supply.

Conversely, decreasing the compression of the speed adjusting spring

will permit the flyballs to move outward when they, and the engine, are

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running at a lower speed. Thus, decreasing the spring compression decreases
the speed at which the engine will run.

Speed adjustments may be made manually at the governor, or

electrically from the governor control cabinet in the maneuvering room as

1. Manual adjustment:- The manual adjustment is made by means of

the speed control knob located on the front of the regulating governor.
This knob is connected through a gear train to the rack shaft which in
turn is- geared to a rack on the speed adjusting plug. The knob also
actuates a pointer that travels over a dial graduated to show engine
speeds corresponding to deflection of the speed adjusting spring.

2. Electrical adjustment:- For electrical control, a Selsyn receiving

motor is also geared to the rack shaft. This receiving motor operates
in parallel with a Selsyn transmitter generator in the governor control
cabinet mounted on the main control cubicle instrument panel in the
maneuvering room. When the speed setting is changed at the
transmitter generator, the receiving motor in the governor moves to
establish the same setting in the governor.

b. Compensating needle valve adjustment:- This adjustment is made with

the engine running from 200 rpm to 300 rpm as set by the speed adjustment
knob or by remote control.

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Either of the two needle valves may be used for adjustment. The one not used
must be turned in against its seat. When performing the adjustment, the more
accessible valve is opened a full turn or more and the engine is allowed to
surge for approximately 30 seconds to eliminate trapped air. Then the valve
is closed until surging is just eliminated.

The needle valve will usually be open about one-fourth of a turn for best
performance. However, the adjustment depends on the characteristics of the
engine. The needle valve should be kept open as far as possible to prevent
sluggishness. Once the valve has been adjusted correctly for the engine, it
should not be necessary to change the adjustment except for a permanent
temperature change affecting the viscosity of the oil.

4.12.5 Air Compressor

The air compressor is required to provide a constant supply of compressed air

for the locomotive and train brakes. In the US, it is standard practice to drive the
compressor off the diesel engine drive shaft. In the UK, the compressor is usually
electrically driven and can therefore be mounted anywhere. The Class 60
compressor is under the frame, whereas the Class 37 has the compressors in the nose.

4.12.6 Gear Box

The radiator and its cooling fan is often located in the roof of the locomotive.
Drive to the fan is therefore through a gearbox to change the direction of the drive

4.12.7 Fuel Injection

Ignition is a diesel engine is achieved by compressing air inside a cylinder

until it gets very hot (say 400° C, almost 800° F) and then injecting a fine spray of

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fuel oil to cause a miniature explosion. The explosion forces down the piston in the
cylinder and this turns the crankshaft. To get the fine spray needed for successful
ignition the fuel has to be pumped into the cylinder at high pressure. The fuel pump
is operated by a cam driven off the engine. The fuel is pumped into an injector,
which gives the fine spray of fuel required in the cylinder for combustion.

Fig. 4.7 Fuel injection pump Fig. 4.8 FIP cut section

The original fuel injection pumps used on ALCO Engines had plunger
diameter of 15 mm. The plunger diameter of the fuel injection pump was increased
from 15 mm to 17 mm. This modification led to sharper fuel injection i.e. injection
at higher-pressure. The modification resulted in increase of peak fuel line pressure
from 750 to 850 bars and, thus, improvement in the fuel efficiency.

The estimated fuel and lube oil economy with this modification is approx.
1.5% and 4% respectively.

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4.12.8 FIP Testing

 Ensure the level of servo calibration. Oil is above the low mark in storage tank
of test stand.
 Heat the oil to 100° F to 120° F.
 Mount the m/c nozzle according to FIP type to be used on m/c.
 Mount the overhauled FIP on cam housing & tighten. The FIP rack should be
against the spring loaded plunger.
 Screw the fuel inlet union.
 Connect the high pressure tube b/w FIP discharge & calibrating nozzle.
 Keep the control rack in full fuel oil position & insert horse shoe space according
to FIP type to be tested b/w the rack positioning tool & FIP face.
 Reset the counter to zero.
 Operate the calibrating m/c & set the oil pressure 25-30 psi.
 Measure the oil delivery in beaker for 300 strokes. Do this process five times &
check the average of last three measurement of oil delivery.
 If specified delivery is not achieved adjust the rack by rotating rack position tool
in the required direction to get the specified delivery & when it is found within
specified limit, stop the m/c.
 Adjust the pointer of full fuel position to proper mm reading. Remove the horse
shoe space & ensure rack length is at idle fuel length i.e. at 9 mm & record the
full fuel delivery in calibration data nozzle.

4.12.9 Injector Assembly Sequence

1. Nozzle holder body.

2. Compensating washer.
3. Spring.

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4. Spindle with guide bush.
5. Intermediate disc.
6. Nozzle.
7. Nozzle cap nut. Maintenance Instruction of Injector While Re-Conditioning

 Nozzle value lift 0.024˝ max.

 Testing pressure
 Min. 3100 Psi-260 kg/cm
 Max. 4100 Psi-290 kg/cm
 Spring pattern should be uniform.
 Nozzle should give healthy chartering sound.
 Seat tightness test, there should be no dribbling. Tool, Gauges, Torque Wrenches Used In FIP Section

 Torque Wrench – 100 to 400 ft. lbs.

 Torque Wrench – 450 to 750 ft. lbs.
 Socket – 1 (⅜)˝ & 2((⅜)˝
 Box Spanner 36 mm & 70 mm.
 Reamer 23/32 HSS.
 Centering Sleeve for Injector Nozzle.
 True Running Tool for Injection.
 Pin Vice Kit.
 Dial Gauge.
 Temp. Gauge 0 to 110° C.
 Pressure Gauge 0 to 100 psi.

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 Pressure Gauge 0 to 8960 psi.
 Nose Plier.

Clean all the components once again using clean HSD oil & assemble them wet.

 Place the injector nozzle holder body in the fixture with nozzle & upward.
 Position the spring seat & spring in the body.
 Keep spindle with guide bush & intermediate disc on spring.
 Place assemble nozzle over the intermediate disc & screw the nozzle cap nut &
torque to 105 ft. lbs.

4.13 Fuel Control

In an automobile engine, the power is controlled by the amount of fuel/air mixture

applied to the cylinder. The mixture is mixed outside the cylinder and then applied
by a throttle valve. In a diesel engine the amount of air applied to the cylinder is
constant so power is regulated by varying the fuel input. The fine spray of fuel
injected into each cylinder has to be regulated to achieve the amount of power
required. Regulation is achieved by varying the fuel sent by the fuel pumps to the

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Fig. 4.9 Fuel System

The amount of fuel being applied to the cylinders is varied by altering the
effective delivery rate of the piston in the injector pumps. Each injector has its own
pump, operated by an engine-driven cam, and the pumps are aligned in a row so that
they can all be adjusted together. The adjustment is done by a toothed rack (called
the "fuel rack") acting on a toothed section of the pump mechanism. As the fuel rack
moves, so the toothed section of the pump rotates and provides a drive to move the
pump piston round inside the pump. The fuel rack can be moved either by the driver
operating the power controller in the cab or by the governor. If the driver asks for
more power, the control rod moves the fuel rack to set the pump pistons to allow
more fuel to the injectors. The engine will increase power and the governor will
monitor engine speed to ensure it does not go above the predetermined limit. The
limits are fixed by springs limiting the weight movement.

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Fig. 4.10 Fuel Supply system

4.14 Radiators

They are used for cooling internal combustion engines, chiefly in automobiles
but also in piston-engined aircraft, railway locomotives, motorcycles, stationary
generating plant or any similar use of such an engine.

They operate by passing a liquid coolant through the engine block, where it is
heated, then through the radiator itself where it loses this heat to the atmosphere.
This coolant is usually water-based, but may also be oil. It's usual for the coolant
flow to be pumped, also for a fan to blow air through the radiator.

In railway with a liquid-cooled internal combustion engine a radiator is

connected to channels running through the engine and cylinder head, through which
a liquid (coolant) is pumped. This liquid may be water (in climates where water is
unlikely to freeze), but is more commonly a mixture of water and antifreeze in

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proportions appropriate to the climate. Antifreeze itself is usually ethylene glycol or
propylene glycol (with a small amount of corrosion inhibitor).

The radiator transfers the heat from the fluid inside to the air outside, thereby
cooling the engine. Radiators are also often used to cool automatic transmissions, air
conditioners, and sometimes to cool engine oil. Radiators are typically mounted in a
position where they receive airflow from the forward movement of the vehicle, such
as behind a front grill. Where engines are mid- or rear-mounted, it is common to
mount the radiator behind a front grill to achieve sufficient airflow, even though this
requires long coolant pipes. Alternatively, the radiator may draw air from the flow
over the top of the vehicle or from a side-mounted grill. For long vehicles, such as
buses, side airflow is most common for engine and transmission cooling and top
airflow most common for air conditioner cooling.

4.14.1 Radiator Construction

Railway radiators are constructed of a pair of header tanks, linked by a core

with many narrow passageways, thus a high surface area relative to its volume. This
core is usually made of stacked layers of metal sheet, pressed to form channels and
soldered or brazed together. For many years radiators were made from brass or
copper cores soldered to brass headers. Modern radiators save money and weight by
using plastic headers and may use aluminum cores. This construction is less easily
repaired than traditional materials.

An earlier construction method was the honeycomb radiator. Round tubes

were swaged into hexagons at their ends, then stacked together and soldered. As they
only touched at their ends, this formed what became in effect a solid water tank with
many air tubes through it.

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Fig. 4.11 Honeycomb Radiator Tubes

Temperature Control

4.14.2 Water Flow Control

The engine temperature is primarily controlled by a wax-pellet type of

thermostat, a valve which opens once the engine has reached its optimum operating

Fig. 4.12 Radiator Thermostat

When the engine is cold the thermostat is closed, with a small bypass flow so
that the thermostat experiences changes to the coolant temperature as the engine
warms up. Coolant is directed by the thermostat to the inlet of the circulating pump

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and is returned directly to the engine, bypassing the radiator. Directing water to
circulate only through the engine allows the temperature to reach optimum operating
temperature as quickly as possible whilst avoiding localized "hot spots". Once the
coolant reaches the thermostat's activation temperature it opens, allowing water to
flow through the radiator to prevent the temperature rising higher.

Once at optimum temperature, the thermostat controls the flow of coolant to

the radiator so that the engine continues to operate at optimum temperature. Under
peak load conditions, such as laboring slowly up a steep hill whilst heavily laden on
a hot day, the thermostat will be approaching fully open because the engine will be
producing near to maximum power while the velocity of air flow across the radiator
is low. (The velocity of air flow across the radiator has a major effect on its ability
to dissipate heat.) Conversely, when cruising fast downhill on a motorway on a cold
night on a light throttle, the thermostat will be nearly closed because the engine is
producing little power, and the radiator is able to dissipate much more heat than then
engine is producing. Allowing too much flow of coolant to the radiator would result
in the engine being over cooled and operating at lower than optimum temperature.
A side effect of this would be that the passenger compartment heater would not be
able to put out enough heat to keep the passengers warm.

The thermostat is therefore constantly moving throughout its range,

responding to changes in vehicle operating load, speed and external temperature, to
keep the engine at its optimum operating temperature.

4.14.3 Airflow Control

Other factors influence the temperature of the engine including radiator size
and the type of radiator fan. The size of the radiator (and thus its cooling capacity)
is chosen such that it can keep the engine at the design temperature under the most

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extreme conditions a vehicle is likely to encounter (such as climbing a mountain
whilst fully loaded on a hot day).

Airflow speed through a radiator is a major influence on the heat it loses.

Vehicle speed affects this, in rough proportion to the engine effort, thus giving crude
self-regulatory feedback. Where an additional cooling fan is driven by the engine,
this also tracks engine speed similarly.

4.14.4 Coolant

Before World War II, radiator coolant was usually plain water. Antifreeze was
used solely to control freezing, and this was often only done in cold weather.

Development in high-performance aircraft engines required improved

coolants with higher boiling points, leading to the adoption of glycol or water-glycol
mixtures. These led to the adoption of glycols for their antifreeze properties too.

Since the development of aluminum or mixed-metal engines, corrosion

inhibition has become even more important than antifreeze and in all regions and
seasons too.

Because the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines increases with

internal temperature the coolant is kept at higher-than-atmospheric pressure to
increase its boiling point. A calibrated pressure-relief valve is usually incorporated
in the radiator's fill cap. This pressure varies between models, but is typically 9 psi
(0.6 bar) - 15 psi (1.0 bar).

4.14.5 Boiling or Overheating

On this type system, if the coolant in the overflow container gets too low, fluid
transfer to overflow will cause an increased loss by vaporizing the engine coolant.

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Severe engine damage can be caused by overheating, by overloading or
system defect, when the coolant is evaporated to a level below the water pump. This
can happen without warning because, at that point, the sending units are not exposed
to the coolant to indicate the excessive temperature.

To protect the unwary, the cap often contains a mechanism that attempts to
relieve the internal pressure before the cap can be fully opened. Some scalding of
one's hands can easily occur in this event. Opening a hot radiator drops the system
pressure immediately and may cause a sudden ebullition of super-heated coolant
which can cause severe burns (see geyser).

4.14.6 Radiator Thrust

An aircraft radiator comprises a duct wherein heat is added. As a result, this is

effectively a jet engine. High-performance piston aircraft with well-designed low-
drag radiators (notably the P-51 Mustang) derived a significant portion of their thrust
from this effect. At one point, there were even plans to equip the Spitfire with a
ramjet, by injecting fuel into this duct after the radiator and igniting it. Although
ramjets normally require a supersonic airspeed, this light-up speed can be reduced
where heat is being added, such as in a radiator duct.

4.14.7 Steam Cooling

Pressurized cooling systems operate by adding heat to the coolant fluid,

causing it to rise in temperature in inverse proportion to its specific heat capacity.
With the need to keep the final temperature below boiling point, this limits the
amount of heat that a given mass-flow of coolant can dissipate.

Attempts were made with aero-engines of the 1930s, notably the Rolls-Royce
Goshawk, to exceed this limit by allowing the coolant to boil. This absorbs an
amount of heat equivalent to the specific heat of vaporization, which for water is

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more than five times the energy required to heat the same quantity of water from
0°C to 100°C. Obviously this allows the necessary cooling effect with far less
coolant requiring to be circulated.

The practical difficulty was the need to provide condensers rather than radiators.
Cooling was now needed not just for hot dense liquid coolant, but for low-density
steam. This required a condenser far larger and with higher drag than a radiator. For
aircraft, especially high-speed aircraft, these were soon realized to be unworkable
and so steam cooling was abandoned.

Work instruction Radiator Fan Assembly Stripping & Cleaning

 Remove the radiator fan assembly from the loco and place on the sand.
 Remove the radiator fan from bearing housing.
 Clean bearing housing externally with diesel oil and place it on work bench.
 Dismantle the components in the following sequence:
o Universal end hub.
o Bearing housing covers.
o Shaft & bearing using hydraulic press.
 Open bearing seal plate.
 Clean the bearing with HSD oil and water and dry air.
 Pack the bearing with servogen 3 grease and seal.
 Press bearing to shaft by hydraulic press.
 Apply both bearing covers duly ensuring for free rotation of shaft.
 Fit hub at universal end.
 Fix the bearing housing in the fixture.
 Set the fan end key to fan and fan shaft.
 Fix the fan to the shaft and tighten the nut and secure the split pin.

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Cooling System

Like an automobile engine, the diesel engine needs to work at an optimum
temperature for best efficiency. When it starts, it is too cold and, when working, it
must not be allowed to get too hot. To keep the temperature stable, a cooling system
is provided. This consists of a water-based coolant circulating around the engine
block, the coolant being kept cool by passing it through a radiator.

The coolant is pumped round the cylinder block and the radiator by an
electrically or belt driven pump. The temperature is monitored by a thermostat and
this regulates the speed of the (electric or hydraulic) radiator fan motor to adjust the
cooling rate. When starting the coolant isn't circulated at all. After all, you want the
temperature to rise as fast as possible when starting on a cold morning and this will
not happen if you a blowing cold air into your radiator. Some radiators are provided
with shutters to help regulate the temperature in cold conditions.

Fig. 5.1 Piping System

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If the fan is driven by a belt or mechanical link, it is driven through a fluid
coupling to ensure that no damage is caused by sudden changes in engine speed. The
fan works the same way as in an automobile, the air blown by the fan being used to
cool the water in the radiator. Some engines have fans with an electrically or
hydrostatically driven motor. A hydraulic motor uses oil under pressure which has
to be contained in a special reservoir and pumped to the motor. It has the advantage
of providing an in-built fluid coupling.

A problem with engine cooling is cold weather. Water freezes at 0° C or 32°

F and frozen cooling water will quickly split a pipe or engine block due to the
expansion of the water as it freezes. Some systems are "self-draining" when the
engine is stopped and most in Europe are designed to use a mixture of anti-freeze,
with Glycol and some form of rust inhibitor. In the US, engines do not normally
contain anti-freeze, although the new GM EMD "H" engines are designed to use
it. Problems with leaks and seals and the expense of putting 100 gallons (378.5
litres) of coolant into a 3,000hp engine, means that engine in the US have
traditionally operated without it. In cold weather, the engine is left running or the
locomotive is kept warm by putting it into a heated building or by plugging in a
shore supply. Another reason for keeping diesel engines running is that the constant
heating and cooling caused by shutdowns and restarts, causes stresses in the block
and pipes and tends to produce leaks. Water up to 1210lts used.

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Shown below are the percentages of useful work and various losses obtained from
the combustion of a fuel oil in a diesel cylinder:

To useful work (brake thermal efficiency) 30-35 percent

To exhaust gases 30-35 percent

To cooling water and friction 30-35 percent

Radiation, lube oil, and so forth 0- 5 percent

There are three practical reasons for cooling an engine:

1. To maintain lubricating oil film on pistons, cylinder walls, and other

moving parts: - This oil film must be maintained to insure adequate
lubrication. The formation of an oil film depends in large degree on the
viscosity of the oil. If the engine cooling system did not keep the engine
temperature at a value that would insure the formation of an oil film,
insufficient lubrication and consequent excessive engine wear would result. If
the engine is kept too cool, condensation takes places in the lube oil and forms
acids and sludge.

2. To avoid too great a variation in the dimensions of the engine parts: -

Great differences between operating temperatures at varying loads cause
excessive changes in the dimensions of the moving parts. These excessive
changes also occur when there are large differences between the cold and
operating temperatures of the parts. These changes in dimensions result in a
variation of clearances between the moving parts. Under normal operating

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conditions these clearances are very small and any variation in dimension of
the moving parts may cause insufficient clearances and subsequent inadequate
lubrication, increased friction, and possible seizure.

3. To retain the strength of the metals used: - High temperatures change the
strength and physical properties of the various ferrous metals used in an
engine. For example, if a cylinder head is subjected to high temperatures
without being cooled, the tensile strength of the metal is reduced, resulting in
possible fracture. This high temperature also causes excessive expansion of
the metal which may result in shearing of the cylinder bolts.

Cylinder heads, cylinder jackets, cylinder liners, exhaust headers, valves, and
exhaust elbows usually are cooled by water. Pistons may be cooled either by water
or oil. In present fleet type submarine installations, the pistons are cooled by
lubricating oil which is in turn cooled by engine cooling water. It is important to
keep all parts of the engine at as nearly the same temperature as possible. This can
be accomplished to some extent by engine design. For instance, the water jacket
should cover the entire length of the piston stroke to avoid possible unequal
expansion of various sections of the cylinder and cylinder liner.

It requires time to conduct heat through any substance, therefore the thicker
the metal, the slower the conduction. This is one of the reasons the size of cylinders
in diesel engines is limited, because the larger the cylinder, the thicker the material
necessary for liners and cylinder heads in order to withstand the pressures of
combustion. Thicker metals cause the inside surfaces to run hotter, because the heat
is not conducted so rapidly to the cooling water.

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5.1 Water pump:

Fig. 5.2 Water cooling system

5.2 Inspection and maintenance:

 Examine impeller for wear & score marks.

 Examine bearing and see that there are no damage balls or chattered races.
 Ensure while pressing, pressure should be applied only against the inner race of
 Lubricating ball bearing with a light grease before final assembly.
 Examine visually the impeller and remove any slight burs or Feathers.
 Check seal plate for erosion and cavitation damages.
 Check the run out of shaft and don’t permit more than 2 thou.
 The torqueing of the impeller nut should be done at 125lbs.
 Use only stainless steel split pin.
 Check the locking properly of the lock nut.

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Like an automobile engine, a diesel engine needs lubrication. In an
arrangement similar to the engine cooling system, lubricating oil is distributed
around the engine to the cylinders, crankshaft and other moving parts. The oil gets
heated by its passage around the engine and has to be kept cool, so it is passed
through a radiator during its journey. The radiator is sometimes designed as a heat
exchanger, where the oil passes through pipes encased in a water tank which is
connected to the engine cooling system.

The oil has to be filtered to remove impurities and it has to be monitored for
low pressure. If oil pressure falls to a level which could cause the engine to seize
up, a "low oil pressure switch" will shut down the engine. There is also a high
pressure relief valve, to drain off excess oil back to the sump.

Fig. 6.1 Lube oil system

6.1 Lubricating Oil: WDM2 – 910 lts WDM3 – 1110 lts

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A turbocharger, or turbo, is a gas compressor used for forced-induction of
an internal combustion engine. Like a supercharger, the purpose of a turbocharger is
to increase the density of air entering the engine to create more power. However, a
turbocharger differs in that the compressor is powered by a turbine driven by the
engine's own exhaust gases.

Fig. 7.1 Air foil bearing-supported turbocharger

7.1 Nomenclature

Early manufacturers of turbochargers referred to them as

"turbosuperchargers". A supercharger is an air compressor used for forced induction
of an engine. Logically then, adding a turbine to turn the supercharger would yield
a "turbosupercharger". However, the term was soon shortened to "turbocharger".
This is now a source of confusion, as the term "turbosupercharged" is sometimes
used to refer to an engine that uses both a crankshaft-driven supercharger and an

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exhaust-driven turbocharger. Some companies such as Teledyne Continental Motors
still use the term turbosupercharger in its original sense.

7.2 Working Principle

A turbocharger is a small radial fan pump driven by the energy of the exhaust
gases of an engine. A turbocharger consists of a turbine and a compressor on a shared
shaft. The turbine converts heat to rotational force, which is in turn used to drive the
compressor. The compressor draws in ambient air and pumps it in to the intake
manifold at increased pressure, resulting in a greater mass of air entering the
cylinders on each intake stroke.

The objective of a turbocharger is the same as a supercharger; to improve the

engine's volumetric efficiency by solving one of its cardinal limitations. A naturally
aspirated automobile engine uses only the downward stroke of a piston to create an
area of low pressure in order to draw air into the cylinder through the intake valves.
Because the pressure in the atmosphere is no more than 1 atm (approx 14.7 psi),
there ultimately will be a limit to the pressure difference across the intake valves and
thus the amount of airflow entering the combustion chamber. Because the
turbocharger increases the pressure at the point where air is entering the cylinder, a
greater mass of air (oxygen) will be forced in as the inlet manifold pressure increases.
The additional oxygen makes it possible to add more fuel, increasing the power and
torque output of the engine.

Because the pressure in the cylinder must not go too high to avoid detonation
and physical damage, the intake pressure must be controlled by controlling the
rotational speed of the turbocharger. The control function is performed by a

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wastegate, which routes some of the exhaust flow away from the exhaust turbine.
This controls shaft speed and regulates air pressure in the intake manifold.

Fig. 7.2 Principle of turbocharger

7.3 History

The turbocharger was invented by Swiss engineer Alfred Büchi. His patent
for a turbocharger was applied for use in 1905. Diesel ships and locomotives with
turbochargers began appearing in the 1920s.

7.4 Aviation

During the First World War French engineer Auguste Rateau fitted turbo
chargers to Renault engines powering various French fighters with some success.

In 1918, General Electric engineer Sanford Moss attached a turbo to a V12

Liberty aircraft engine. The engine was tested at Pikes Peak in Colorado at
14,000 feet (4,300 m) to demonstrate that it could eliminate the power losses usually
experienced in internal combustion engines as a result of reduced air pressure and
density at high altitude.

Turbochargers were first used in production aircraft engines in the 1930s

before World War II. The primary purpose behind most aircraft-based applications
was to increase the altitude at which the airplane could fly, by compensating for the

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lower atmospheric pressure present at high altitude. Aircraft such as the P-38
Lightning, B-17 Flying Fortress, and P-47 Thunderbolt all used turbochargers to
increase high altitude engine power.

7.5 Design and Installation

7.5.1 Components:

Fig. 7.3 On the left, the brass oil drain connection. On the right are the braided oil
supply line and water coolant line connections.

Fig. 7.4 Compressor impeller side with the cover removed.

Fig. 7.5 Turbine side housing removed.

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Fig. 7.6 A wastegate installed next to the turbocharger.

The turbocharger has four main components. The turbine (almost always a
radial turbine) and impeller/compressor wheels are each contained within their own
folded conical housing on opposite sides of the third component, the center
housing/hub rotating assembly (CHRA).

The housings fitted around the compressor impeller and turbine collect and
direct the gas flow through the wheels as they spin. The size and shape can dictate
some performance characteristics of the overall turbocharger. Often the same basic
turbocharger assembly will be available from the manufacturer with multiple
housing choices for the turbine and sometimes the compressor cover as well. This
allows the designer of the engine system to tailor the compromises between
performance, response, and efficiency to application or preference. Twin-scroll
designs have two valve-operated exhaust gas inlets, a smaller sharper angled one for
quick response and a larger less angled one for peak performance.

The turbine and impeller wheel sizes also dictate the amount of air or exhaust
that can be flowed through the system, and the relative efficiency at which they
operate. Generally, the larger the turbine wheel and compressor wheel, the larger the
flow capacity. Measurements and shapes can vary, as well as curvature and number

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of blades on the wheels. Variable geometry turbochargers are further developments
of these ideas.

The center hub rotating assembly (CHRA) houses the shaft which connects
the compressor impeller and turbine. It also must contain a bearing system to
suspend the shaft, allowing it to rotate at very high speed with minimal friction. For
instance, in automotive applications the CHRA typically uses a thrust bearing or ball
bearing lubricated by a constant supply of pressurized engine oil. The CHRA may
also be considered "water cooled" by having an entry and exit point for engine
coolant to be cycled. Water cooled models allow engine coolant to be used to keep
the lubricating oil cooler, avoiding possible oil coking from the extreme heat found
in the turbine. The development of air-foil bearings has removed this risk.

In the automotive world, boost refers to the increase in pressure that is

generated by the turbocharger in the intake manifold that exceeds normal
atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure is approximately 14.5 psi or 1.0 bar,
and anything above this level is considered to be boost. The level of boost may be
shown on a pressure gauge, usually in bar, psi or possibly kPa. This is representative
of the extra air pressure that is achieved over what would be achieved without the
forced induction. Manifold pressure should not be confused with the volume of air
that a turbo can flow.

In contrast, the instruments on aircraft engines measure absolute pressure in

inches of mercury. Absolute pressure is the amount of pressure above a total vacuum.
The ICAO standard atmospheric pressure is 29.92 inches (760 mm) of mercury at
sea level. Most modern aviation turbochargers are not designed to increase manifold
pressures above this level, as aircraft engines are commonly air-cooled and excessive
pressures increase the risk of overheating, pre-ignition, and detonation. Instead, the

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turbo is only designed to hold a pressure in the intake manifold equal to sea-level
pressure as the altitude increases and air pressure drops. This is called turbo-

Boost pressure is limited to keep the entire engine system, including the turbo,
inside its thermal and mechanical design operating range. The speed and thus the
output pressure of the turbo is controlled by the wastegate, a bypass which shunts
the gases from the cylinders around the turbine directly to the exhaust pipe.

The maximum possible boost depends on the fuel's octane rating and the
inherent tendency of any particular engine towards detonation. Premium gasoline or
racing gasoline can be used to prevent detonation within reasonable limits. Ethanol,
methanol, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and diesel fuels allow higher boost than
gasoline, because of these fuels' combustion characteristics.

To obtain more power from higher boost levels and maintain reliability, many
engine components have to be replaced or upgraded such as the fuel pump, fuel
injectors, pistons, valves, head-gasket, and head bolts.

7.5.2 Wastegate

By spinning at a relatively high speed, the compressor turbine draws in a large

volume of air and forces it into the engine. As the turbocharger's output flow volume
exceeds the engine's volumetric flow, air pressure in the intake system begins to
build. The speed at which the assembly spins is proportional to the pressure of the
compressed air and total mass of air flow being moved. Since a turbo can spin to
RPMs far beyond what is needed, or of what it is safely capable of, the speed must
be controlled. A wastegate is the most common mechanical speed control system,
and is often further augmented by an electronic or manual boost controller. The main

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function of a wastegate is to allow some of the exhaust to bypass the turbine when
the set intake pressure is achieved. Passenger cars have wastegates that are integral
to the turbocharger.

7.5.3 Anti-Surge/Dump/Blow off Valves:

Turbocharged engines operating at wide open throttle and high rpm require a
large volume of air to flow between the turbo and the inlet of the engine. When the
throttle is closed compressed air will flow to the throttle valve without an exit (i.e.
the air has nowhere to go).

This causes a surge which can raise the pressure of the air to a level which can
damage the engine. If the pressure rises high enough, a compressor stall will occur,
where the stored pressurized air decompresses backwards across the impeller and
out the inlet. The reverse flow back across the turbocharger causes the turbine shaft
to reduce in speed quicker than it would naturally, possibly damaging the
turbocharger. In order to prevent this from happening, a valve is fitted between the
turbo and inlet which vents off the excess air pressure. These are known as an anti-
surge, bypass, blow-off valve (BOV) or dump valve. It is basically a pressure relief
valve, and is normally operated by the excess pressure in the intake manifold.

The primary use of this valve is to maintain the turbo spinning at a high speed.
The air is usually recycled back into the turbo inlet but can also be vented to the
atmosphere. Recycling back into the turbocharger inlet is required on an engine that
uses a mass-airflow fuel injection system, because dumping the excessive air
overboard downstream of the mass airflow sensor will cause an excessively rich fuel
mixture. A dump valve will also shorten the time needed to re-spool the turbo after
sudden engine deceleration.

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7.5.4 Charge cooling:

Compressing air in the turbocharger increases its temperature, which can

cause a number of problems. Excessive charge air temperature can lead to
detonation, which is extremely destructive to engines. When a turbocharger is
installed on an engine, it is common practice to fit the engine with an intercooler, a
type of heat exchanger which gives up heat energy in the charge to the ambient air.
In cases where an intercooler is not a desirable solution, it is common practice to
introduce extra fuel into the charge for the sole purpose of cooling. The extra fuel is
not burned. Instead, it absorbs and carries away heat when it changes phase from
liquid to vapor. The evaporated fuel holds this heat until it is released in the exhaust
stream. This thermodynamic property allows manufacturers to achieve good power
output by using extra fuel at the expense of economy and emissions. Diesels are
particularly suitable for turbocharging for several reasons:

 Turbocharging can dramatically improve an engine's specific power and power-

to-weight ratio, performance characteristics which are normally poor in non-
turbocharged diesel engines.
 Diesel engines are optimized to operate within a relatively narrow rpm range,
reducing problems with turbo lag and compressor stall caused by sudden
accelerations and decelerations.
 Diesel engines are not prone to detonation because diesel fuel requires much
higher pressures to detonate than gasoline does. Because of this, diesel engines
can use much higher boost pressures than spark ignition engines, limited only by
the engine's ability to withstand that pressure.
The turbocharger's small size and low weight have production and marketing
advantage to vehicle manufacturers. By providing naturally-aspirated and
turbocharged versions of one engine, the manufacturer can offer two different power

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outputs with only a fraction of the development and production costs of designing
and installing a different engine. The compact natures of a turbocharger mean that
bodywork and engine compartment layout changes to accommodate the more
powerful engine are not needed or minimal. Parts commonality between the two
versions of the same engine reduces production and servicing costs.

Today, turbochargers are most commonly used on gasoline engines in high-

performance automobiles and diesel engines in transportation and other industrial
equipment. Small cars in particular benefit from this technology, as there is often
little room to fit a large engine. Volvo, Saab, and Subaru have produced
turbocharged cars for many years, the turbo Porsche 944's acceleration performance
was very similar to that of the larger-engined non-turbo Porsche 928, and Chrysler
Corporation built numerous turbocharged cars in the 1980s and 1990s.

7.5.5 Sand Box:

Locomotives always carry sand to assist adhesion in bad rail conditions. Sand
is not often provided on multiple unit trains because the adhesion requirements are
lower and there are normally more driven axles.

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The trucks also provide the suspension for the locomotive. The weight of the
locomotive rests on a big, round bearing, which allows the trucks to pivot so the train
can make a turn. Below the pivot is a huge leaf spring that rests on a platform. The
platform is suspended by four, giant metal links, which connect to the truck
assembly. These links allow the locomotive to swing from side to side.

Fig. 8.1 Suspension System

The weight of the locomotive rests on the leaf springs, which compress when
it passes over a bump. This isolates the body of the locomotive from the bump. The
links allow the trucks to move from side to side with fluctuations in the track. The
track is not perfectly straight, and at high speeds, the small variations in the track
would make for a rough ride if the trucks could not swing laterally. The system also
keeps the amount of weight on each rail relatively equal, reducing wear on the tracks
and wheels.

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8.1 Wheels

Ever wonder why trains have steel wheels, rather than tires like a car? It's to
reduce rolling friction. When your car is driving on the freeway, something like 25
percent of the engine's power is being used to push the tires down the road. Tires
bend and deform a lot as they roll, which uses a lot of energy. The amount of energy
used by the tires is proportional to the weight that is on them. Since a car is relatively
light, this amount of energy is acceptable (you can buy low rolling-resistance tires
for your car if you want to save a little gas).

Since a train weighs thousands of times more than a car, the rolling resistance
is a huge factor in determining how much force it takes to pull the train. The steel
wheels on the train ride on a tiny contact patch -- the contact area between each
wheel and the track is about the size of a dime.

By using steel wheels on a steel track, the amount of deformation is

minimized, which reduces the rolling resistance. In fact, a train is about the most
efficient way to move heavy goods. The downside of using steel wheels is that they
don't have much traction. In the next section, we'll discuss the interesting solution
to this problem.

8.2 Traction:

Traction when going around turns is not an issue because train wheels have
flanges that keep them on the track. But traction when braking and accelerating is
an issue.

This locomotive can generate 64,000 pounds of thrust. But in order for it to
use this thrust effectively, the eight wheels on the locomotive have to be able to

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apply this thrust to the track without slipping. The locomotive uses a neat trick to
increase the traction.

In front of each wheel is a nozzle that uses compressed air to spray sand,
which is stored in two tanks on the locomotive. The sand dramatically increases the
traction of the drive wheels. The train has an electronic traction-control system that
automatically starts the sand sprayers when the wheels slip or when the engineer
makes an emergency stop. The system can also reduce the power of any traction
motor whose wheels are slipping.

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Like an automobile, a diesel locomotive cannot start itself directly from a

stand. It will not develop maximum power at idling speed, so it needs some form of
transmission system to multiply torque when starting. It will also be necessary to
vary the power applied according to the train weight or the line gradient. There are
three methods of doing this: mechanical, hydraulic or electric. Most diesel
locomotives use electric transmission and are called "diesel-electric"
locomotives. Mechanical and hydraulic transmissions are still used but are more
common on multiple unit trains or lighter locomotives.

9.1 Mechanical Transmission

A diesel-mechanical locomotive is the simplest type of diesel locomotive. As

the name suggests, a mechanical transmission on a diesel locomotive consists a
direct mechanical link between the diesel engine and the wheels. In the example
below, the diesel engine is in the 350-500 hp range and the transmission is similar
to that of an automobile with a four speed gearbox. Most of the parts are similar to
the diesel-electric locomotive but there are some variations in design mentioned

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Fig. 9.1 diesel mechanical locomotive

9.2 Gearbox

This does the same job as that on an automobile. It varies the gear ratio
between the engine and the road wheels so that the appropriate level of power can
be applied to the wheels. Gear change is manual. There is no need for a separate
clutch because the functions of a clutch are already provided in the fluid coupling.

9.3 Final Drive

The diesel-mechanical locomotive uses a final drive similar to that of a steam

engine. The wheels are coupled to each other to provide more adhesion. The output
from the 4-speed gearbox is coupled to a final drive and reversing gearbox which is
provided with a transverse drive shaft and balance weights. This is connected to the
driving wheels by connecting rods.

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9.4 Hydraulic Transmission

Hydraulic transmission works on the same principal as the fluid coupling but
it allows a wider range of "slip" between the engine and wheels. It is known as a
"torque converter". When the train speed has increased sufficiently to match the
engine speed, the fluid is drained out of the torque converter so that the engine is
virtually coupled directly to the locomotive wheels. It is virtually direct because the
coupling is usually a fluid coupling, to give some "slip". Higher speed locomotives
use two or three torque converters in a sequence similar to gear changing in a
mechanical transmission and some have used a combination of torque converters
and gears.

Some designs of diesel-hydraulic locomotives had two diesel engines and two
transmission systems, one for each bogie. The design was poplar in Germany (the
V200 series of locomotives, for example) in the 1950s and was imported into parts
of the UK in the 1960s. However, it did not work well in heavy or express
locomotive designs and has largely been replaced by diesel-electric transmission.

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Dynamic braking

A common option on Diesel-electric locomotives is dynamic (rheostat)


Dynamic braking takes advantage of the fact that the traction motor armatures
are always rotating when the locomotive is in motion and that a motor can be made
to act as a generator by separately exciting the field winding. When dynamic braking
is utilized, the traction control circuits are configured as follows:

 The field winding of each traction motor is connected across the main
 The armature of each traction motor is connected across a forced-air cooled
resistance grid (the dynamic braking grid) in the roof of the locomotive's hood.
 The prime mover RPM is increased and the main generator field is excited,
causing a corresponding excitation of the traction motor fields.

Fig. 10.1 Air Brake System

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The aggregate effect of the above is to cause each traction motor to generate
electric power and dissipate it as heat in the dynamic braking grid. Forced air-cooling
is provided by a fan that is connected across the grid. Consequently, the fan is
powered by the output of the traction motors and will tend to run faster and produce
more airflow as more energy is applied to the grid.

Ultimately, the source of the energy dissipated in the dynamic braking grid is
the motion of the locomotive as imparted to the traction motor armatures. Therefore,
the traction motors impose drag and the locomotive acts as a brake. As speed
decreases, the braking effect decays and usually becomes ineffective below
approximately 16 km/h (10 mph), depending on the gear ratio between the traction
motors and axles.

Dynamic braking is particularly beneficial when operating in mountainous

regions, where there is always the danger of a runaway due to overheated friction
brakes during descent (see also comments in the air brake article regarding loss of
braking due to improper train handling). In such cases, dynamic brakes are usually
applied in conjunction with the air brakes, the combined effect being referred to as
blended braking. The use of blended braking can also assist in keeping the slack in
a long train stretched as it crests a grade, helping to prevent a "run-in," an abrupt
bunching of train slack that can cause a derailment. Blended braking is also
commonly used with commuter trains to reduce wear and tear on the mechanical
brakes that is a natural result of the numerous stops such trains typically make during
a run.

 Regenerative braking.
 No gear shifting.
 No backlash and breaking of couplings during shifting.

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 Constant availability of maximum diesel generator power.
 Easy addition of multiple power units.
 Less maintenance with modern ac generators and motors without
 More weight.
 Less efficient in fuel use.
 Needs high tech electronics with use of ac generators and motors.

10.1 BRAKE: A traditional clasp brake: the brake shoe (brown) bears on the surface
(tyre) of the wheel (red), and is operated by the levers (grey) on the left

Fig. 10.2 Brake

Brakes are used on the vehicles of railway trains to slow them, or to keep them
standing when parked. While the principle is familiar from road vehicle usage,
operational features are more complex because of the need to control trains, i.e.
multiple vehicles running together, and to be effective on vehicles left without a
prime mover.

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10.2 Early days:

In the earliest days of railways, braking technology was primitive. The first
trains had brakes operative on the locomotive tender and on vehicles in the train,
where “porters” or, in the United States brakemen, traveling for the purpose on those
vehicles operated the brakes. Some railways fitted a special deep-noted brake whistle
to locomotives to indicate to the porters the necessity to apply the brakes. All the
brakes at this stage of development were applied by operation of a screw and linkage
to brake blocks applied to wheel treads, and these brakes could be used when
vehicles were parked. In the earliest times, the porters travelled in crude shelters
outside the vehicles, but “assistant guards” who travelled inside passenger vehicles,
and who had access to a brake wheel at their posts supplanted them.

The braking effort achievable was limited, and an early development was the
application of a steam brake to locomotives, where boiler pressure could be applied
to brake blocks on the locomotive wheels.

As train speeds increased, it became essential to provide some more powerful

braking system capable of instant application and release by the train driver,
described as a continuous brake because it would be effective continuously along
the length of the train.

However there was no clear technical solution to the problem, because of the
necessity of achieving a reasonably uniform rate of braking effort throughout a train,
and because of the necessity to add and remove vehicles from the train at frequent
points on the journey. (At these dates, unit trains were a rarity).

The chief types of solution were:

 The chain brake, such as the Heberlein brake, in which a chain was connected
continuously along the train.

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When pulled tight it activated a friction clutch that used the rotation of the wheels to
tighten a brake system at that point; this system has severe limitations in length of
train capable of being handled, and of achieving good adjustment.

 The simple vacuum system. An ejector on the locomotive created a vacuum in a

continuous pipe along the train, and the vacuum operated brake cylinders on
every vehicle. This system was very cheap and effective, but it had the major
weakness that it became inoperative if the train became divided or if the train
pipe was ruptured.
 The automatic vacuum brake. This system was similar to the simple vacuum
system, except that the creation of vacuum in the train pipe exhausted vacuum
reservoirs on every vehicle and released the brakes. If the driver applied the
brake, his driver's brake valve admitted atmospheric air to the train pipe, and this
atmospheric pressure applied the brakes against the vacuum in the vacuum
reservoirs. Being an automatic brake, this system applies braking effort if the
train becomes divided or if the train pipe is ruptured. Its disadvantage is that the
large vacuum reservoirs were required on every vehicle, and their bulk and the
rather complex mechanisms were seen as objectionable.

Fig. 10.3 Rotair Valve Westinghouse Air Brake Company

 The Westinghouse air brake system. In this system, air reservoirs are provided
on every vehicle and the locomotive charges the train pipe with a positive air

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pressure, which releases the vehicle brakes and charges the air reservoirs on the
vehicles. If the driver applies the brakes, his brake valve releases air from the
train pipe, and triple valves at each vehicle detect the pressure loss and admit air
from the air reservoirs to brake cylinders, applying the brakes. The Westinghouse
system uses smaller air reservoirs and brake cylinders than the corresponding
vacuum equipment, because a moderately high air pressure can be used.
However, an air compressor is required to generate the compressed air and in the
earlier days of railways, this required a large reciprocating steam air compressor,
and this was regarded by many engineers as highly undesirable.

10.3 Later British practice:

In British practice, only passenger trains were fitted with continuous brakes
until about 1930, and goods and mineral trains ran at slower speed, and relied on the
brake force from the locomotive and tender, and the brake van – a heavy vehicle
provided at the rear of the train and occupied by a guard.

Goods and mineral vehicles were provided with hand brakes, by which the
brakes could be applied by a hand lever operated by staff on the ground. These hand
brakes were used where necessary when vehicles were parked, but also when these
trains needed to descend a steep gradient; the train then stopped before descending,
and the guard walked forward to pin down the handles of sufficient brakes to give
adequate braking effort. Early goods vehicles had brake handles on one side only,
and random alignment of the vehicles gave the guard sufficient braking, but from
about 1930 so-called "either-side" brake handles were provided. These trains, not
fitted with continuous brakes were described as "unfitted" trains and they survived
in British practice until about 1985. However from about 1930 semi-fitted trains
were introduced, in which some goods vehicles were fitted with continuous brakes,

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and a proportion of such vehicles marshalled next to the locomotive gave sufficient
brake power to run at somewhat higher speeds than unfitted trains.

In the early days of diesel locomotives, a purpose-built brake tender was

attached to the locomotive to increase braking effort when hauling unfitted trains.
The brake tender was low, so that the driver could still see the line and signals ahead
if the brake tender was propelled (pushed) ahead of the locomotive, which was often
the case.

10.4 Continuous brakes:

As train loads, gradients and speeds increased, braking became a problem. In

the late 19th century, significantly better continuous brakes started to appear. The
earliest type of continuous brake was the chain brake which used a chain, running
the length of the train, to operate brakes on all vehicles simultaneously.

The chain brake was soon superseded by air operated or vacuum operated
brakes. These brakes used hoses connecting all the wagons of a train, so the driver
could apply or release the brakes with a single valve in the locomotive.

These continuous brakes can be simple or automatic, the essential difference

being what happens should the train break in two. With simple brakes, pressure is
needed to apply the brakes, and all braking power is lost if the continuous hose is
broken for any reason. Simple non-automatic brakes are thus useless when things
really go wrong, as is shown with the Armagh rail disaster.

Automatic brakes on the other hand use the air or vacuum pressure to hold the
brakes off against a reservoir carried on each vehicle, which applies the brakes if
pressure/vacuum is lost in the train pipe. Automatic brakes are thus largely "fail

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safe", though faulty closure of hose taps can lead to accidents such as the Gare de
Lyon accident.

The standard Westinghouse Air Brake has the additional enhancement of a

triple valve, and local reservoirs on each wagon that enable the brakes to be applied
fully with only a slight reduction in air pressure, reducing the time that it takes to
release the brakes as not all pressure is voided to the atmosphere.

Non-automatic brakes still have a role on engines and first few wagons, as
they can be used to control the whole train without having to apply the automatic

10.5 Types of Brakes

10.5.1 Air versus vacuum brakes:

In the early part of the 20th century, many British railways employed vacuum
brakes rather than the air brakes used in America and much of the rest of the world.
The main advantage of vacuum was that the vacuum can be created by a steam
ejector with no moving parts (and which could be powered by the steam of a steam
locomotive), whereas an air brake system requires a noisy and complicated

However, air brakes can be made much more effective than vacuum brakes
for a given size of brake cylinder. An air brake compressor is usually capable of
generating a pressure of 90 psi (620 kPa) vs only 15 psi (100 kPa) for vacuum. With
a vacuum system, the maximum pressure differential is atmospheric pressure
(14.7 psi or 101 kPa at sea level, less at altitude). Therefore, an air brake system can
use a much smaller brake cylinder than a vacuum system to generate the same
braking force. This advantage of air brakes increases at high altitude, e.g. Peru and

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Switzerland where today vacuum brakes are used by secondary railways. The much
higher effectiveness of air brakes and the demise of the steam locomotive have seen
the air brake become ubiquitous; however, vacuum braking is still in use in India, in
Argentina and in South Africa, but this will be declining in near future.

10.5.2 Air brake enhancements:

One enhancement of the automatic air brake is to have a second air hose (the
main reservoir or main line) along the train to recharge the air reservoirs on each
wagon. This air pressure can also be used to operate loading and unloading doors on
wheat wagons and coal and ballast wagons. On passenger coaches, the main
reservoir pipe is also used to supply air to operate doors and air suspension.

Air Brake System: Most air brake equipped vehicles on the road today are
using a dual air brake system. The system has been developed to accommodate a
mechanically secured parking brake that can be applied in the event of service brake
failure. It also accommodates the need for a modulated braking system should either
one of the two systems fail. It is actually two brake systems in one, with more
reservoir capacity resulting in a much safer system. At first glance, the dual system
might seem complicated, but if you understand the basic air brake system described
so far, and if the dual system is separated into basic functions, it becomes quite

As its name suggests, the dual system is two systems or circuits in one. There
are different ways of separating the two parts of the system. On a two–axle vehicle,
one circuit operates the rear axle and the other circuit operates the front axle. If one
circuit has a failure, the other circuit is isolated and will continue to operate.

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Fig. 10.4 Compressor

In the illustration, air is pumped by the compressor (1) to the supply/wet

reservoir (5) (blue), which is protected from over pressurization by a safety valve
(4). Pressurized air moves from the supply/wet reservoir to the primary/dry reservoir
(8) (green) and the secondary/dry reservoir (10) (red) through one–way check valves
(7). At this point, the dual circuits start.

Air from the primary/dry reservoir is directed to the foot valve (31). Air is
also directed from the secondary/dry reservoir to the foot valve. The foot valve is
similar to the one described earlier in the basic air brake system, but is divided into

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two sections (two foot valves in one). One section of this dual foot valve controls
the primary circuit and the other controls the secondary circuit. When a brake
application is made, air is drawn from the primary reservoir through the foot valve
and is passed on to the rear brake chambers. At the same time, air is also drawn from
the secondary reservoir, passes through the foot valve and is passed on to the front
brake chambers. If there is air loss in either circuit, the other will continue to operate
independently. Unless air is lost in both circuits, the vehicle will continue to have
braking ability. The primary and secondary circuits are equipped with low air
pressure warning devices, which are triggered by the low air pressure indicator
switch (9) and reservoir air pressure gauges (29) located on the dash of the vehicle.

10.5.3 Electro pneumatic brakes:

A higher performing EP brake has a train pipe delivering air to all the
reservoirs on the train, with the brakes controlled electrically with a 3-wire control
circuit. This can give seven levels of braking, from mild to severe, and allows the
driver greater control over the level of braking used, which greatly increases
passenger comfort. It also allows for faster brake application, as the electrical control
signal is propagated effectively instantly to all vehicles in the train, whereas the
change in air pressure which activates the brakes in a conventional system can take
several seconds or tens of seconds to propagate fully to the rear of the train. This
system is not however used on freight trains due to cost.

The system adopted on the Southern Region of British Railways in 1950 is

more fully described at Electro-pneumatic brake system on British railway trains

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10.5.4 Electronically controlled pneumatic brakes:

Electronically controlled pneumatic brakes (ECP) are a development of the

late 20th Century to deal with very long and heavy freight trains, and are a
development of the EP brake with even higher level of control. In addition,
information about the operation of the brakes on each wagon can be returned to the
driver's control panel.

With ECP, a power and control line is installed from wagon to wagon from
the front of the train to the rear. Electrical control signals are propagated effectively
instantaneously, as opposed to changes in air pressure which propagate at a rather
slow speed limited in practice by the resistance to air flow of the pipe work, so that
the brakes on all wagons can be applied simultaneously rather than from front to
rear. This prevents wagons at the rear "shoving" wagons at the front, and results in
reduced stopping distance and less equipment wear.

There are two brands of ECP brakes under development, one by New York
Air Brake and the other by Wabtec. A single standard is desirable, and it is intended
that the two types be interchangeable.

10.5.5 Brake Control:

The brake control varies the air pressure in the brake cylinders to apply
pressure to the brake shoes. At the same time, it blends in the dynamic braking, using
the motors to slow the train down as well.

The engineer also has a host of other controls and indicator lights.

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Fig. 10.5 The brake and throttle controls

A computerized readout displays data from sensors all over the locomotive. It
can provide the engineer or mechanics with information that can help diagnose
problems. For instance, if the pressure in the fuel lines is getting too high, this may
mean that a fuel filter is clogged.

Fig. 10.6 This computerized display can show the status of systems all over the

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10.5.6 Reversibility:

Brake connections between wagons may be simplified if wagons always point

the same way, such as in Tasmania. An exception would be made for locomotives
which are often turned on turntables or triangles.

On the new Fortescue railway opened in 2008, wagons are operated in sets,
although their direction changes at the balloon loop at the port. The ECP connections
are on one side only and are unidirectional

10.5.7 Vacuum brake:

The vacuum brake is a braking system used on trains. It was first introduced
in the mid-1860s and a variant, the automatic vacuum brake system became almost
universal in British train equipment, and in those countries influenced by British

It enjoyed a brief period of adoption in the USA, primarily on narrow gauge


Its limitations caused it to be progressively superseded by compressed air

systems, in the United Kingdom from the 1970's.

The vacuum brake system is now obsolescent; it is not in large-scale use

anywhere in the world, supplanted in the main by air brakes.

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10.5.8 How the automatic vacuum brake works:

Fig. 10.7 Vacuum brake cylinder in running position: the vacuum is the same
above and below the piston

Fig. 10.8 Air at atmospheric pressure from the train pipe is admitted below the
piston, which is forced up

In its simplest form, the automatic vacuum brake consists of a continuous pipe
-- the train pipe -- running throughout the length of the train. In normal running a
partial vacuum is maintained in the train pipe, and the brakes are released. When air
is admitted to the train pipe, the air pressure acts against pistons in cylinders in each
vehicle. A vacuum is sustained on the other face of the pistons, so that a net force is
applied. A mechanical linkage transmits this force to brake shoes which act by
friction on the treads of the wheels.

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The fittings to achieve this are therefore:

 A train pipe: a steel pipe running the length of each vehicle, with flexible vacuum
hoses at each end of the vehicles, and coupled between adjacent vehicles; at the
end of the train, the final hose is seated on an air-tight plug;
 An ejector on the locomotive, to create vacuum in the train pipe;
 controls for the driver to bring the ejector into action, and to admit air to the train
pipe; these may be separate controls or a combined brake valve;
 A brake cylinder on each vehicle containing a piston, connected by rigging to the
brake shoes on the vehicle; and
 A vacuum (pressure) gauge on the locomotive to indicate to the driver the degree
of vacuum in the train pipe.

The brake cylinder is contained in a larger housing - this gives a reserve of

vacuum as the piston operates. The cylinder rocks slightly in operation to maintain
alignment with the brake rigging cranks, so it is supported in trunnion bearings, and
the vacuum pipe connection to it is flexible. The piston in the brake cylinder has a
flexible piston ring that allows air to pass from the upper part of the cylinder to the
lower part if necessary.

When the vehicles have been at rest, so that the brake is not charged, the brake
pistons will have dropped to their lower position in the absence of a pressure
differential (as air will have leaked slowly into the upper part of the cylinder,
destroying the vacuum).

When a locomotive is coupled to the vehicles, the driver moves his brake
control to the "release" position and air is exhausted from the train pipe, creating a
partial vacuum. Air in the upper part of the brake cylinders is also exhausted from
the train pipe, through the ball valve.

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If the driver now moves his control to the "brake" position, air is admitted to
the train pipe. According to the driver's manipulation of the control, some or all of
the vacuum will be destroyed in the process. The ball valve closes and there is a
higher air pressure under the brake pistons than above it, and the pressure differential
forces the piston upwards, applying the brakes. The driver can control the severity
of the braking effort by admitting more or less air to the train pipe.

Practical considerations:

The automatic vacuum brake as described represented a very considerable

technical advance in train braking. In practice steam locomotives had two ejectors,
a small ejector for running purposes (to exhaust air that had leaked into the train
pipe) and a large ejector to release brake applications. Later Great Western Railway
practice was to use a vacuum pump instead of the small ejector.

Graduable brake valve (right) and the small (upper) and large ejector cocks
from a GWR locomotive

The driver's brake valve was usually combined with the steam brake control
on the locomotive.

The ejectors on steam locomotives are set to create a certain degree of vacuum
in the train pipe; in British practice a full release is 21 inches of mercury (533.4
Torr). An absolute vacuum is about 30 inches of mercury (760 Torr), depending on
atmospheric conditions; the Great Western Railway adopted 25 inches of mercury
(635 Torr) as its standard degree of vacuum.

Release valves are provided on the brake cylinders; when operated, usually
by manually pulling a cord near the cylinder, air is admitted to the upper part of the
brake cylinder on that vehicle. This is necessary to release the brake on a vehicle

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that has been uncoupled from a train and now requires to be moved without having
a brake connection to another locomotive, for example if it is to be steam ejector

In the United Kingdom the pre-nationalization railway companies

standardized around systems operating on 21 inches of vacuum, with the exception
of the Great Western Railway, which used 25 inches. This could cause problems on
long distance cross-country services when a GWR locomotive was replaced with
another company's engine, as the new engine's large ejector would sometimes not be
able to fully release the brakes on the train. In this case the release valves on each
vehicle in the train would have to be released by hand. This time consuming process
was not infrequently seen at large GWR stations such as Paddington and Bristol
Temple Meads.

The provision of a train pipe running throughout the train enabled the
automatic vacuum brake to be operated in emergency from any position in the train.
Every guard's compartment had a brake valve, and the passenger communication
apparatus (usually called "the communication cord" in lay terminology) also
admitted air into the train pipe at the end of coaches so equipped. This is called
pulling the tail.

When a locomotive is first coupled to a train, or if a vehicle is detached or

added, a brake continuity test is carried out, to ensure that the brake pipes are
connected throughout the entire length of the train.

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The progress represented by the automatic vacuum brake nonetheless carried

some limitations; chief among these were:

 The practical limit on the degree of vacuum attainable means that a very large
brake piston and cylinder are required to generate the force necessary on the
brake blocks; when a proportion of the British ordinary wagon fleet was fitted
with vacuum brakes in the 1950's, the physical dimensions of the brake cylinder
prevented the wagons from operating in some private sidings that had tight
 For the same reason, on a very long train, a considerable volume of air has to be
admitted to the train pipe to make a full brake application, and a considerable
volume has to be exhausted to release the brake (if for example a signal at danger
is suddenly lowered and the driver requires to resume speed); while the air is
traveling along the train pipe, the brake pistons at the head of the train have
responded to the brake application or release, but those at the tail will respond
much later, leading to undesirable longitudinal forces in the train. In extreme
cases this has led to breaking couplings and causing the train to divide.
 The existence of vacuum in the train pipe can cause debris to be sucked in. An
accident took place near Ilford in the 1950's, due to inadequate braking effort in
the train. A rolled newspaper was discovered in the train pipe, effectively
isolating the rear part of the train from the driver's control. The blockage should
have been detected if a proper brake continuity test had been carried out before
the train started its journey.
A development introduced in the 1950's was the direct admission valve,
fitted to every brake cylinder. These valves responded to a rise in train pipe pressure

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as the brake was applied, and admitted atmospheric air directly to the underside of
the brake cylinder.

American and continental European practice had long favored compressed air
brake systems, the leading pattern being a proprietary Westinghouse system. This
has a number of advantages, including smaller brake cylinders (because a higher air
pressure could be used) and a somewhat more responsive braking effort. However
the system requires an air pump. On steam engines this was usually a reciprocating
steam pump, and it was quite bulky. Its distinctive shape and the characteristic
puffing sound when the brake is released (as the train pipe has to be recharged with
air) make steam locomotives fitted with the Westinghouse brake unmistakable, for
example in old films.

In the UK, the Great Eastern Railway, the North Eastern Railway, the London
Brighton and South Coast Railway and the Caledonian Railway adopted the
Westinghouse system. It was also standard on the Isle of Wight rail system.
Inevitably this led to compatibility problems in exchanging traffic with other lines.
It was possible to provide through pipes for the braking system not fitted to any
particular vehicle so that it could run in a train using the "other" system, allowing
through control of the fitted vehicles behind it, but of course with no braking effort
of its own.

10.6 Dual brakes:

Vehicles can be fitted with dual brakes, vacuum and air, provided that there
is room to fit the duplicated equipment. It is much easier to fit one kind of brake with
a pipe for continuity of the other. Train crew need to take note that the wrong-fitted
wagons do not contribute to the braking effort and make allowances on downgrades

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to suit. Many of the earlier classes of diesel locomotive used on British Railways
were fitted with dual systems to enable full usage of BR's rolling stock inherited
from the private companies which had different systems depending on which
company the stock originated from.

Fig. 10.9 Dual Brake System

When spring brakes are added to a dual air brake system, the same type of
dash control valve discussed previously is used. Blended air is used to supply the
spring parking brake control valve (27). Blended air is air taken from the primary
and secondary circuits through a two–way check valve (26). With this piping
arrangement the vehicle can have a failure in either circuit without the spring brakes
applying automatically. If air is lost in both circuits, the spring brakes will apply.

Air brakes need a tap to seal the hose at the ends of the train. If these taps are
incorrectly closed, a loss of brake force may occur, leading to a dangerous runaway.
With vacuum brakes, the end of the hose can be plugged into a stopper which seals
the hose by suction. It is much harder to block the hose pipe compared to air brakes.

10.6.1 Twin pipe:

Vacuum brakes can be operated in a twin pipe mode to speed up applications

and release.

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Braking is provided by a mechanism that is similar to a car drum brake. An air-
powered piston pushes a pad against the outer surface of the train wheel.

Fig. 10.10 The brakes are similar to drum brakes on a car.

In conjunction with the mechanical brakes, the locomotive has dynamic

braking. In this mode, each of the four traction motors acts like a generator, using
the wheels of the train to apply torque to the motors and generate electrical current.
The torque that the wheels apply to turn the motors slows the train down (instead of
the motors turning the wheels, the wheels turn the motors). The current generated
(up to 760 amps) is routed into a giant resistive mesh that turns that current into heat.
A cooling fan sucks air through the mesh and blows it out the top of the locomotive
-- effectively the world's most powerful hair dryer.

On the rear truck there is also a hand brake -- yes, even trains need hand
brakes. Since the brakes are air powered, they can only function while the
compressor is running. If the train has been shut down for a while, there will be no
air pressure to keep the brakes engaged. Without a hand brake and the failsafe of an
air pressure reservoir, even a slight slope would be enough to get the train rolling
because of its immense weight and the very low rolling friction between the wheels
and the track.

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The hand brake is a crank that pulls a chain. It takes many turns of the crank
to tighten the chain. The chain pulls the piston out to apply the brakes.

10.7 Vacuum brakes in 2007:

Today's largest operators of trains equipped with vacuum brakes are the
Railways of India and Spoornet (South Africa), however there are also trains with
air brakes and dual brakes in use. Other African railways are believed to continue to
use the vacuum brake. Other operators of vacuum brakes are narrow gauge railways
in Central Europe, largest of them is Ferrovia Retica.

Vacuum brakes have been entirely superseded on the National Rail system in
the UK, although they are still in use on most heritage railways. They are also to be
found on a number (though increasingly fewer) main line vintage specials.

C & E has developed the automatic vacuum brake and designed it in its
simplest form; the automatic vacuum brake consists of a continuous pipe -- the train
pipe -- running throughout the length of the train.

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Engine Control
11.1 Engine Control Development:

So far we have seen a simple example of diesel engine control but the systems
used by most locomotives in service today are more sophisticated. To begin with,
the drivers control was combined with the governor and hydraulic control was
introduced. One type of governor uses oil to control the fuel racks hydraulically and
another uses the fuel oil pumped by a gear pump driven by the engine. Some
governors are also linked to the turbo charging system to ensure that fuel does not
increase before enough turbocharged air is available. In the most modern systems,
the governor is electronic and is part of a complete engine management system.

11.2 Power Control:

The diesel engine in a diesel-electric locomotive provides the drive for the
main alternator which, in turn, provides the power required for the traction
motors. We can see from this therefore, that the power required from the diesel
engine is related to the power required by the motors. So, if we want more power
from the motors, we must get more current from the alternator so the engine needs
to run faster to generate it. Therefore, to get the optimum performance from the
locomotive, we must link the control of the diesel engine to the power demands
being made on the alternator.

In the days of generators, a complex electro-mechanical system was

developed to achieve the feedback required to regulate engine speed according to
generator demand. The core of the system was a load regulator, basically a variable

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resistor which was used to very the excitation of the generator so that its output
matched engine speed. The control sequence (simplified) was as follows:

1. Driver moves the power controller to the full power position

2. An air operated piston actuated by the controller moves a lever, which closes a
switch to supply a low voltage to the load regulator motor.
3. The load regulator motor moves the variable resistor to increase the main
generator field strength and therefore its output.
4. The load on the engine increases so its speed falls and the governor detects the
reduced speed.
5. The governor weights drop and cause the fuel rack servo system to actuate.
6. The fuel rack moves to increase the fuel supplied to the injectors and therefore
the power from the engine.
7. The lever (mentioned in 2 above) is used to reduce the pressure of the governor
8. When the engine has responded to the new control and governor settings, it and
the generator will be producing more power.

On locomotives with an alternator, the load regulation is done

electronically. Engine speed is measured like modern speedometers, by counting
the frequency of the gear teeth driven by the engine, in this case, the starter motor
gearwheel. Electrical control of the fuel injection is another improvement now
adopted for modern engines. Overheating can be controlled by electronic
monitoring of coolant temperature and regulating the engine power accordingly. Oil
pressure can be monitored and used to regulate the engine power in a similar way.

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Truck Frame or Bogie

A bogie (pronounced /bogie/) is a wheeled wagon or trolley. In mechanics

terms, a bogie is a chassis or framework carrying wheels, attached to a vehicle. It
can be fixed in place, as on a cargo truck, mounted on a swivel, as on a railway
carriage or locomotive, or sprung as in the suspension of a caterpillar tracked vehicle.

Archbar type truck with journal bearings as used on some steam locomotive tenders.

Fig. 12.1 bogie function

Bettendorf-style freight car truck displayed at the Illinois Railway Museum.

This one uses journal bearings.

A bogie in the UK, or a wheel truck, or simply truck in the USA and Canada
as well as Mexico, is a structure underneath a train to which axles (and, hence,
wheels) are attached through bearings.

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Bogies serve a number of purposes:

 To support the rail vehicle body.

 To run stably on both straight and curved track.
 To ensure ride comfort by absorbing vibration, and minimizing centrifugal forces
when the train runs on curves at high speed
 To minimize generation of track irregularities and rail abrasion

Usually two bogies are fitted to each carriage, wagon or locomotive, one at
each end. An alternate configuration often is used in articulated vehicles, which
places the bogies under the connection between the carriages or wagons.

Most bogies have two axles as it is the simplest design, but some cars designed
for extremely heavy loads have been built with up to five axles per bogie. Heavy-
duty cars may have more than two bogies using span bolsters to equalize the load
and connect the bogies to the cars.

Usually the train floor is at a level above the bogies, but the floor of the car
may be lower between bogies, such as for a double decker train to increase interior
space while staying within height restrictions, or in easy-access, stepless-entry low-
floor trains.

Key components of a bogie include:

 The bogie frame itself.

 Suspension to absorb shocks between the bogie frame and the rail vehicle body.
Common types are coil springs, or rubber airbags.
 At least one wheelset composed of an axle with a bearings and wheel at each end.
 Axle box suspension to absorb shocks between the axle bearings and the bogie
frame. The axle box suspension usually consists of a spring between the bogie

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frame and axle bearings to permit up and down movement, and sliders to prevent
lateral movement. A more modern design uses solid rubber springs.
 Brake equipment. Two main types are used: brake shoes that are pressed against
the tread of the wheel, and disc brakes and pads.
 In powered vehicles, some form of transmission, usually an electrically powered
traction motors or a hydraulically powered torque converter.
The connection of the bogie with the rail vehicle allows a certain degree of
rotational movement around a vertical axis pivot (bolster), with side bearers
preventing excessive movement. More modern bolster less bogie designs omit these
features, instead taking advantage of the sideways movement of the suspension to
permit rotational movement.

12.1 Types of Bogie

12.1.1 BR1 bogie:

The British Railways Mark 1 coach brought into production in 1950 utilized
the BR1 bogie, which was rated to run at 90 mph (145 km/h). The wheels were cast
as a one-piece item in a pair with their axle. The simple design involved the bogie
resting on four leaf springs (one spring per wheel) which in turn were connected to
the axles. The leaf springs were designed to absorb any movement or resonance and
to have a damping effect to benefit ride quality.

Each spring was connected to the outermost edge of the axle by means of a
roller bearing contained in oil filled axle box. The oil in these boxes had to be topped
up at regular maintenance times to avoid the bearing running hot and from seizing.

There was also a heavy-duty version designated BR2.

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12.1.2 Commonwealth bogie:

Fig. 12.2 Commonwealth bogie as used on BR Mark 1 and CIE Park Royals.

The SKF or Timken manufactured Commonwealth bogie was introduced in

the late 1950s for all BR Mark 1 vehicles. The bogie was a heavy cast steel design
weighing 6.75 ton with fitted sealed roller bearings on the axle ends, avoiding the
need to maintain axle box oil levels.

The leaf springs were replaced with coil type springs (one per wheel) running
vertically rather than horizontally. The advanced design gave a superior ride quality
to the BR1, being rated for 100 miles per hour (160 km/h).

The side frame of the bogie was usually of bar construction, with simple horn
guides attached, allowing the axle boxes vertical movements between them. The axle
boxes had a cast steel equalizer beam or bar resting on them. The bar had two steel
coil springs placed on it and the bogie frame rested on the springs. The effect was to
allow the bar to act as a compensating lever between the two axles and to use both
springs to soften shocks from either axle. The bogie had a conventional bolster
suspension with swing links carrying a spring plank.

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12.1.3 B4 bogie:

B4 bogie as used on BR Mark 2 and Irish Cravens.

The B4 bogie was introduced in 1963. It was a fabricated steel design as

versus cast iron and was hence 1.55 tons lighter than the Commonwealth, weighing
in at 5.2 tons. It also had a speed rating of 100 miles per hour (160 km/h).

Axle/spring connection was again with fitted roller bearings. However, now two coil
springs rather than one were fitted per wheel.

Only a very small amount of Mark 1 stock was fitted with the B4 bogie from
new, it being used on the Mark 1 only to replace worn out BR1 bogies. The British
Rail Mark 2 coach however carried the B4 bogies from new. A heavier duty version,
the B5, was standard on Southern Region Mk1 based EMUs from the 1960s
onwards. Some Mark 1 catering cars had mixed bogies—a B5 under the kitchen end,
and a B4 under the seating end. Some of the B4 fitted Mark 2s, as well as many B4
fitted Mark 1 BGs were allowed to run at 110 miles per hour (180 km/h) with extra
maintenance, particularly of the wheel profile, and more frequent exams.

12.1.4 BT10 Bogie

BT10 High speed bogie as used on MK3.

The BT10 bogie was introduced on the British Rail Mark 3 coach in the 1970s.
Each wheel is separately connected to the bogie by a swing-arm axle.

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12.2 There is dual suspension

 Primary suspension via a coil spring and damper mounted on each axle.
 Secondary suspension via two air springs mounted on the pivot plank. This is
connected to the bogie by pendulum links. A constant coach height is maintained
by air valves.
Most diesel locomotives and electric locomotives are carried on bogies (UK)
or trucks (US). Trucks used in the USA include AAR type A switcher truck,
Bloomberg B, HT-C truck and Flexi coil.

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Project title: - To study about turbo supercharger of locomotive

 A turbosupercharger, or turbo, is a gas compressor that is used for forced-
induction of an internal combustion engine. It increases the density of air
entering the engine to create more power.
 A turbosupercharger has the compressor powered by a turbine, driven by the
engine's own exhaust gases. The turbine and compressor are mounted on a
shared shaft. The turbine converts exhaust heat and pressure to rotational
force, which is in turn used to drive the compressor. The compressor draws in
ambient air and pumps it in to the intake manifold at increased pressure,
resulting in a greater mass of air entering the cylinders on each intake stroke.
 Turbosupercharging dramatically improves the engine's specific power,
power-to-weight ratio and performance characteristics which are normally
poor in non-turbosupercharged diesel engines.

Turbos Used in Diesel Locomotive

In diesel locomotives, different turbos are used for different engines on the
basis of their horsepower and make. Still, their general function remains the same
i.e. to provide compressed air to the engine by employing the energy of exhaust
gases. The exhaust manifold is connected to the inlet of the turbocharger. The
exhaust gases enter the gas inlet casing where they are directed towards the nozzle
ring. The function of the nozzle ring is to guide the exhaust gases and reduce shock
on the turbine blades. The exhaust gases impinge on the turbine blades and cause the
turbine to rotate on their way out to the atmosphere through the chimney.

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The rotating turbine causes the impeller of the compressor to rotate along with
it since they are mounted on the same shaft. The compressor starts sucking air
through the air inlet casing and compresses it due to the centrifugal action of the
impeller. After leaving the impeller, the air gets compressed further in the diffuser
vanes. From here the compressed air is passed into the blower casing, which guides
the air to an after cooler. The function of the after cooler is to cool the compressed
air and consequently reduce its specific volume. The pressure of this compressed air
is in the range of 1.2-1.8 kg/cm2, and this is known as BOOSTER AIR PRESSURE
(BAP). This compressed air is then introduced into the air gallery, which is
connected to the intake valves of all the cylinders.

Turbosuperchargers from the following manufacturers are used in diesel


Comparison of Different Turbo Makes

The specifications of the turbos used in diesel locomotives are as follows:

1. ALCO-2600

Power Rating: 2600 HP

Cooling System: Water Cooled
Rundown Time: 80-190 seconds

2. ABB-2300

Power Rating: 2300 HP

Cooling System: Water Cooled
Rundown Time: 60-120 seconds

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3. ABB-2600

Power Rating: 2600 HP

Cooling System: Water Cooled
Rundown Time: 60-120 seconds

4. ABB-3100

Power Rating: 3100 HP

Cooling System: Water Cooled
Rundown Time: 60-120 seconds

5. ABB-TPR 61

Power Rating: 3300 HP

Cooling System: Air Cooled
Rundown Time: 60-120 seconds

6. NAPIER-2300

Power Rating: 2300 HP

Cooling System: Water Cooled
Rundown Time: 20-60 seconds

7. NAPIER-2600

Power Rating: 2600 HP

Cooling System: Water Cooled
Rundown Time: 20-60 seconds

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8. NAPIER-3100

Power Rating: 3100 HP

Cooling System: Water Cooled
Rundown Time: 20-60 seconds


Power Rating: 3100 HP

Cooling System: Water Cooled


Power Rating: 3100 HP

Cooling System: Water Cooled
*Has two outlets for air in the blower casing and hence uses two


Power Rating: 3100 HP

Cooling System: Air Cooled


Power Rating: 4000 HP

Cooling System: Air Cooled

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Fig. 13.1 Alco Front View

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Fig. 13.2 Alco Top View

Fig.13.3 Alco Assembly

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Fig. 13.4 Ge (Double Discharge) Front View

Fig. 13.5 Ge (Double Discharge) Top View

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Fig. 13.6 Ge (Double Discharge) Bottom View

Fig. 13.7 Ge (Double Discharge) Assembly

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Turbo Operating Difficulties:
Operating difficulties can be prevented providing the daily turbocharger
operating data is measured and regular maintenance and inspection routines are
adhered to.
To assist in identifying causes of performance deterioration, the following
table has been formed:
Operating Difficulties Probable Cause Remedial Measures
Engine starts running but the Foreign matter/debris caught Provide cleaning and
turbocharger does not. between the turbine blade eliminate the cause for the
tips and the shroud ring. ingress of the foreign matter.
Blade tips rubbing the
shroud ring.
Inspect and replace with new

Bearing Disorder

Turbocharger experiences Fouling of turbine nozzle, Cleaning of the turbine side

surging during operating. blades. of turbocharger as required.

Refer to Engine Builders

Engine Cylinder unbalance. Instruction Manual.

Note: Rapid Changes of the

engine load, particularly
during shut-down can cause
turbocharger surging.

Exhaust gas temperature Fouling or damage to turbine Cleaning the turbine side of
higher than normal. nozzle or turbine blades. the turbocharger or
component replacement.

Lack of air e.g.: dirty air Clean as required.

Investigate cause.
Exhaust back pressure too
high. Clean and adjust as Makers

Instruction Manual.

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Charge air cooler dirty,
cooling water temperature
too high.

Engine fault in fuel injection

Charge air (boost) pressure Pressure gauge faulty or Rectify.
lower than normal. connection to it is leaking.

Gas leakage at engine See Engine Builders

exhaust manifold. Instruction Manual.

Dirty Air filter, causing Clean air as required.

pressure drop.

Dirty turbocharger. Cleaning of complete

turbocharger required.

Turbine blades or nozzle ring Inspect and replace as

damage. necessary.

Charge air pressure (boost) Pressure gauge reading Rectify.

higher than normal. incorrectly.

Nozzle ring clogged with Clean as required.

carbon deposits.

Engine Overload, engine Consult Engine Builders

output higher than expected. Instruction Manual.

Fault in engine fuel injection Consult Engine Builders

system. Instruction Manual.

Turbocharger Vibration Severe unbalance of rotor Rebalance the rotor

due to dirt or damaged assembly.
turbine blades.

Bent rotor shaft. Inspect and replace as


Defective bearings. Inspect and replace as


Table 13.1 Identifying causes of performance deterioration

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Turbo Overhauling
The overhauling and servicing of a turbosupercharger is broadly divided into
five parts which are:

 Dismantling of the turbo

 Cleaning of the turbo

 Inspection of different parts

 Repair and rotor balancing

 Assembly of the turbo

Dismantling of The Turbo:

Dismantling of a turbo requires trained personnel and special tools (allen
keys, spanners, suspension yoke, support, etc.). It is a complicated process and
should be done very carefully after referring to the manufacturer’s instruction

Cleaning of The Turbo:

Cleaning work includes regular visual checks and the cleaning of parts to
ensure the correct functioning of the turbo.

Outline of cleaning work

Deposits often form on the nozzle ring and the turbine blades. Impaired
efficiency and performance of the engine are the result.
Thick and irregular deposits can also result in an un-permissible unbalance of the

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Cleaning of the cooling water passage of gas outlet casing:
Commercial HCL of 5% concentration is used for cleaning and defurring.
An inhibitor is added to reduce the corrosion of cast iron.
Neutralisation with 5% NaOH (alkaline) solution follows the acid wash.
Fresh water is used foe flushing/rinsing.
All casing gaskets are replaced.

Gas inlet casing:

Deposits are cleaned with soft wire brush and with either diesel/kerosene +
20% mineral oil solution (80/20 solution).

Bearing Casing:
Cleaning of the sealing air ducts:
The carbon deposits are dissolved and cleaning is done with the help of
flexible wire for ensuring free passage.
Compressed air is used to check that the sealing air ducts in the bearing casing
are unobstructed / unchoked.

Oil Passages:
It is cleaned with 80% kerosene/diesel + 20% mineral oil solution (i.e. 80/20

Air Outlet Casing:

The deposits are cleaned with soft wire brush and 80/20 solution.

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Rotor Parts:
The turbine blades can be cleaned by glass bead blasting. The seating areas
for compressor wheel set, thrust bearing and floating bushes (Bearing compressor
side + Turbine side) are protected by means of rubber sleeve. The cleaning of the
compressor wheel set is carried out with 80/20 solution and therefore with cloth
(piece of cloth).
Rotating parts are thoroughly cleaned uniformly as uneven residual deposits
lead to unbalance.

Bearing Parts:
All bearing parts, bearing covers are cleaned in 80/20 solution and with
malmal (piece of cloth). Special care is taken to clean the carbon deposits from the
“O” ring grooves and the oil supply/oil drain lines.

Inspection of The Turbo:

After dismantling and cleaning of the turbo, it is inspected for any faults. All
the clearances and blade conditions are checked and a note of all the repair work
needed is made.

Repair and Balancing Of Rotor:

Various parts of the turbo are repaired as necessary. The rotor is examined
carefully and any distorted turbine blade is ground with a grinder so that it is smooth
again. The rotor is then checked if it is unbalanced and is balanced on a Rotor
Balancing Machine if needed. In the course of manufacture, following parts are
balanced individually:

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o Shaft
o Sets of compressor wheel
o While the engine is running, many reasons may cause unbalance to the rotor:
o Mechanical damages on the rotor, i.e. foreign bodies.
o Uneven deposits of layer of dirt/carbon.
o Abrasion on the compressor or the turbine caused by hard particles in the
intake air or in the exhaust gas.

Balancing must be done when:

 Rotating components feature mechanical damages.
 After reblading of turbine.
 After repairs on the inducer or compressor wheel.
 After replacing the inducer or compressor wheel.
 Balancing is not required when:
 A new bladed shaft is assembled into the turbocharger.
 If, due to a change of specification, the set of wheels has to be changed for a
new one.

Fig. 13.8 Abro Rotor Balancing Machine

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Fig. 13.9 Ge Rotor On Balancing Machine

Turbo Rundown Time

The Turbo Rundown Time (TRD) of a turbo is the total time taken by the
turbo to come to a standstill, measured from the instant the crankshaft of the engine
stops. This time should be within a certain limit prescribed by the manufacturer. If
not so, it indicates a fault in the turbo. The rundown times of different turbos have
been mentioned earlier.

Turbo Rundown Test (for WDM-3A Loco)

This test is to be conducted if the Booster (Turbocharger in WDM-2 pidgin) is

not developing proper pressure during a run.

1. Secure the loco: Keep the A9 (Train Brake lever) in released condition; keep
the SA9 (Loco brake lever) in an applied condition; switch off the GF
(Generator Field); keep the reverser in neutral condition; and put the ECS
(Engine control switch) in the run mode.
2. Ensure that the water temperature is higher than 49 degrees Celsius.

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3. The driver should climb on top of the hood and sight the turbine of the
turbocharger through the chimney.
4. The assistant should raise the engine to 4th notch rpm and allow the engine to
stabilize in speed.
5. The assistant should now shut the engine down by operating the MUSD
(Multiple Unit Shut Down) breaker on the control stand.
6. As the engine begins to stop turning, the assistant must quickly get down and
come to the hood door to the Expressor.
7. He must give a signal to the driver as to the instant the huge engine stops
rotating by looking at the crankshaft of the engine coupled to the expressor.
8. The driver must count the number of seconds the exhaust turbine takes to
come to a stop, from the instant the engine has come to a standstill.
9. If the turbine (which revolves at 18,000 to 19,000 rpm) takes more than 90
seconds then it is a good turbocharger, any reduction in the period of spinning
down is an indication of a faulty turbo.

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Safety and Precautions
 Keeping in view the fact that the Railways will have to lift more originating
traffic during the coming years, there is a growing emphasis on strengthening of
infrastructure on the Railways. This is a continuous process and the investments
made and strategies adopted in the past have vindicated this by way of
reduction in the number of consequential train accidents over the years.

 In one of the major recommendations, Railway Safety Review Committee had

recommended that the Central Government should provide a one-time grant to
the Railways to wipe out arrears in renewal of over-aged assets within a fixed
time frame. In order to implement this recommendation, Central Government
has set up a non-lapsable “Special Railway Safety Fund” of Rs.17,000 crore to
wipe out arrears in renewal of over-aged assets of track, bridges, signaling gears
and rolling stock, etc. within a fixed time frame of 6 years. It also includes
certain safety enhancement measures such as track circuiting of maximum
number of stations, aids necessary for improving safety of rolling stock, up-
gradation of training facilities including training aids in training institutions,
simulators for locomotive drivers, development of computer based training
modules, etc.

 Flasher lights have been installed on all diesel locomotives to give indication to
drivers of train approaching from the opposite direction on double line sections
in case of mishap for prevention of future accident. All main line locomotives
have been provided with auto flasher lights, which start blinking and brakes
apply automatically whenever there is any discontinuity in the brake pipe due to
train parting or any other reason.

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On the whole, this internship was a useful experience. I have gained new
knowledge, skills and met many new people. I achieved several of my learning goals,
however for some the conditions did not permit. I got insight into professional

Here the main aim is to effectively utilize the non-renewable energy such as
petrol and diesel. Complete combustion of the fuels can be achieved. Power output
can be increased. Wind energy can be used for air compression. We conclude that
the power as well as the efficiency is increasing 10 to 15 % and pollution can also
decrease. From the observation we can conclude that when the full throttle valve is
open at that time the engine speed is 4000 rpm and by this the turbocharger generate
1.60 bar pressurized air. Generally, the naturally aspirated engine takes atmospheric
pressurized air to the carburetor for air fuel mixture but we can add the high density
air for the combustion so as the result the power and the complete combustion take
place so efficiency is increasing.

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Future Scope of Turbo Chargers
 Obtaining manufacturing costs through the use injection molding and
comparing this to the cost of the current casting solution of aluminum 356.

 FEA Modeling burst containment, thermal stresses, and more complex

geometries comparing the data found to experimental data obtained from
prototype testing.

2. I.C Engines, Colin, R. Ferguson C. John Wiley & Sons, 1986
3. I C Engines, Shyam K Agarwal, New Age Publications,2006
4. Automobile Engineering by R.B. Gupta
5. Automobile engineering, R. K. Rajput, Laxmi Publication
6. I C Engines, V. Ganeshan

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