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They dined and danced on the luxury ship. Germany also had warned travelers not to sail in the war area. It carried 1. 1915. .American Studies L Mrs. He believed that outsiders should not interfere in another country’s affairs. including 128 Americans. Strief Name__________________ Introduction Germany and Britain were at war the day the passenger ship Lusitania left New York. Europe’s war was now America’s war too. died. Everyone aboard. This was the right of all people to choose their form of government.200 people bound for England. Wilson’s Foreign Policy President Wilson believed in self-determination. On May 7. President Wilson protested. a German torpedo sank it off the coast of Ireland. Germany said the ship carried arms.
Britain declared war on Germany. In 1917 a revolution in Russia overthrew the czar. or Allies. Soon all of Europe was at war. Neither side could make much progress. Austria-Hungary. The Central Powers rapidly pushed back the unprepared Russian army on the Eastern Front. In 1914 many countries were squabbling over control of territories. the Allies moved forward only 7 miles. Both sides developed new weapons to try to break the deadlock. The Eastern Front or battle line was in Russia and Germany. The leader was Vladimir I. France. Lenin made peace with Germany. Soldiers on the Western Front spent most of their time in trenches. cold. Who killed Austria-Hungary’s ruler Archduke Ferdinand? Why? . Many European countries formed alliances. the ruler of Austria-Hungary. What was self-determination? Origins of World War I Austria-Hungary ruled a large part of the Balkans in southeastern Europe. Rushing foot soldiers were no match for machine guns. and Russia. They were also called Allied Powers. as allies rushed to each other’s aid. Germany’s strong army and navy also worried neighboring countries. This action started World War I. The Germans could then focus on the British and French on the Western Front. Lenin took his place. Tanks rolled over barbed wire and trenches. At battle’s end. Germany troops stormed through Belgium to attack France. Opposing them were the Central Powers-Germany. and disease.1. Britain lost 60. These alliances could turn an incident into a war. soldiers fought mud. or unions. Britain supported Belgium’s neutrality. The Triple Entente was Britain. The Western Front was in Belgium and France. 1914. and the Ottoman Empire. At first airplanes served mainly to watch the enemy on the ground. The Germans first used poison gas that suffocated enemy soldiers. Many ethnic groups there struggled for independence. 1. or decision not to take sides. or fight between enemy aircraft. The French and Germans lost hundreds of thousands in the Battle of Verdun. A Serbian who supported Balkan independence killed Archduke Ferdinand. More people died in World War I than in any earlier war. Members promised to help each other in case of war. This invention led to the dogfight. As a result of the invasion of Belgium. On July 28. The French and Germans were deadlocked on the Western Front in 1914. In the trenches. Flamethrowers shot burning fuel. The fighting on the Eastern Front ended. For this price. the deaths numbered over 1 million. The assassination of the Archduke led the Central Powers to strike back. for security. or leader or Russia. Only barbed wire and about 30 yards of dirt lay between enemy trenches. rats. Gas masks became necessary equipment. Italy entered the war in 1915 on the side of the Allies.000 in one day in the Battle of the Somme. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Then Germany designed a machine gun timed to shoot between the plane’s propeller blades. The Allies’ only hope was for the United States to enter the war.
Who belonged to the Allied Powers? 4. What happened to the neutral country of Belgium? 7. secretly carried arms. What happened on July 28. 1914? 6.2. Still. He also wanted to help create a peace that would keep war from ever happening again. Wilson knew. Wilson won reelection in 1916. most preferred to stay out of the killing overseas. had recently emigrated. The Germans developed a new weapon. Why did European countries form alliances? 3. a passenger ship. He felt a moral commitment to the Allies. The Germans knew that the Lusitania. Many voted for him because he kept them out of the war. Wilson felt that ships of a neutral country should be able to travel freely. . Many Americans. the submarine. The warned the United States that they might attack the ship.What is a dogfight? 11. Who belonged to the Central Powers? 5. Where was the Eastern Front? 8. What were some new weapons used? 10. They felt ties to their home countries. These boats could surprise ships that were bringing supplies to Britain. however. however. that the country was getting closer to war. Where was the Western Front? 9. or U-boat. though. Feelings leaned toward the Allies. The sinking of the Lusitania enraged Americans against Germany. Publicly the United States did not take sides.When and why did the fighting on the Eastern front end? Struggle for Neutrality Woodrow Wilson wanted to keep the United States out of the war. Still. or moved away. from countries in Europe to settle in the United States.
Wilson raised taxes and organized the sale of liberty bonds. More than 600 African Americans graduated from officer training school. Americans at home had to conserve. A drawing determined who actually went into the military. What were some events that lead the United States to finally join the war? Mobilization Mobilization is preparation for war by citizens and businesses as well as the military. movies. 1917. Young men from all classes and ethnic groups would fight side by side. Men 21 to 30 had to register for the draft. Whose side did American choose (even though they never publicly picked a side)? 2. A British official got a copy of this telegram and told the United States. To raise money for the war. did not give them high rank. Samuel Gompers. Why did many people vote for Wilson in the election of 1916? 4. head of the American Federation of Labor. The United States declared war on April 2. They felt that it would help bring equality. Big business joined with government to coordinate the purchase of war supplies. Everyone had to support the war effort. The Germans sank one American supply ship after another. so that crops could be shipped overseas. Later the draft ages became 18 to 45. How did the military bring equality for some. The government appealed to patriotism to sell Liberty Bonds. and labor behind the war effort. Another event was Germany’s announcement that it would attack any country’s ships in the war zone. Women and children ran the farms while men fought.Several events led the United States to enter the war. They were segregated. How did Americans mobilize for the war? 2. also called the draft. or required military service. Whites commanded African Americans troops. African Americans found more acceptances among white French troops than at home. helped get . The military did not bring equality for African Americans. 1. The government used propaganda to get citizens. and posters used emotion and peer pressure to gather support for the war. but not for others? Propaganda Propaganda is a form of information designed to mold public opinion. however. speeches. The huge need for war supplies increased profits for businesses of all sizes. What was the Lusitania and why is it important? 3. The troops needed food. The military. Slogans urged women not to waste food. Labor unions were divided over whether or not to support the war. One was a German offer to give Mexico part of the United States if Mexico fought with Germany. Many progressives agreed with the draft. They would then learn to live together as brothers. 1. Business did their part for the war effort. business. Flyers. He started conscription.
F. Groups formed to protect the rights of antiwar protesters. The turning point of the war was at the Second Battle of the Marne in July. had courage but lacked training. Some Americans spoke out against the laws that limited free speech.4 million of them took part in active combat. More than 1 million Americans took part. What were the roles of women and children? 3. Gompers believed he could win better pay and conditions for his union members. The last major battle took place between the Meuse River and Argonne Forrest in September 1918. After that. Americans had fought just over a year.labor behind the war effort. The government passed laws to unite everyone behind the war effort. ending World War I. the Allies advanced steadily. The Espionage Act and the Sedition Amendment outlawed any act that hindered the war effort. 1. They arrived in France in June 1917. Beginning in March 1918. What was the American Expeditionary Force? 3. Socialist were jailed for speaking against the war. Germany surrendered on November 11. American troops helped stop the German push. What were two laws passed that united everyone behind the war effort? 5. They American Expeditionary Force (A. Loyalty Leagues encouraged Americans to report anyone who might be “disloyal. More than 2 million American soldiers went to France. By cooperating with the government. 1. Why did Samuel Gompers want to cooperate with the Government? 4.) filled the gap left by the huge losses the Allies had suffered. The Doughboys. Pershing commanded the first American troops in Europe. When did the war end? . the Germans began a series of attacks on the Western Front. Nearly 1. 1918. These laws limited the right to speak against the war. Some American soldiers thought of the “Great War” as an adventure. They did not suffer nearly as much as the Europeans who had battled much longer. Who were doughboys? 2. What were some forms of propaganda used to get people behind the war effort? 2.” This atmosphere led to harassment. Most arrived in July 1918. as the foot soldiers were called. Others saw the death and destruction. What was the Civil Liberties Union? Fighting Over There General John J. They were not prepared for war. The Civil Liberties Union helped people who were abused for their belief that was is wrong.E. German Americans were subject to hate crimes.